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SOUTH DAKOTA ALBUM


The HEINRICHS and ROLOFFS
in
America

Descendants of Friedrich Robert Heinrich
and
Carl Albert Roloff
1883 - Present
 

GERGOLLA and ZULEWSKY FAMILIES



ARRIVAL   *   DAKOTAS   *   CHICAGO   *   HEINRICH   *   ZULEWSKY   *   ROLOFF   *   GERGOLLA   *   RESEARCH    *    LINKS


HEINRICH FAMILY PHOTO GALLERY


S.S.Australia
The ARRIVAL  of the HEINRICH and ROLOFF families in Chicago seems to have been part of a well-considered plan. The Roloffs' ship, the Polaria, arrived on April 4, 1883, in New York, where the immigrants were probably "processed" at the Castle Garden facility . They had traveled with more than a dozen others from the East Prussian village of Osterwein, Kreis (county)Osterode. from manifest of S.S.Polaria Carl Roloff and his wife Augusta (nee BAER) were accompanied by their daughter Theresa, 19; Augusta, 9; their son Hermann, 8; and their oldest daughter Bertha, 24, with her husband John ZULEWSKY.

Also listed in the manifest is nineteen-year old "Franz" HEINRICH, whom I believe to be our great-grandfather "Fritz", Friedrich Robert HEINRICH, Jr.

The Roloffs' daughter Emilia and her future husband Gottfried GERGOLLA also arrived in the U.S., aboard the Verona from Hamburg, arriving in New York in April,1882. Then in May of 1883, Gottfried's parents, Osterwein natives Daniel and Gottliebe GERGOLLA arrived with younger son Adolph and also Fritz HEINRICH's mother, Louise HARDT HEINRICH. They had voyaged on the S.S. Australia. Like most immigrants headed that direction, they and the Roloffs probably made their way by train to Chicago.

Why Chicago? It is believed that a relative of Fritz Heinrich on his mother's side, a member of the HARDT family, had emigrated some years earlier, establishing a beachhead for our Prussian ancestors. Grandma Bertha HEINRICH ZIEMER KELM recalled that in the early 1900's their wealthier HARDT relations lived on the South Side. There were other HARDTS who attended St. Stephen's Evangelical Lutheran Church. But apparently these families didn't socialize much, and the exact relationship is unclear.

The ROLOFFS had their own advance man, however. As early as December,1880, elder son Albert ROLOFF had arrived in the U.S. through the port of Philadelphia. He must have been a welcome sight if he met the family in Chicago after their journey. He no doubt made some of the arrangements for the family, having scouted out locations for the purchase of farmland in the Dakota Territory, which was now available for settlement. The father Carl Roloff was no farmer; it was claimed that he had owned a brickyard and general store in Elbing, East Prussia; nevertheless, the shopkeeper was about to lead his family west to become an American "sodbuster". Perhaps they were counting on the knowledge of their in-law Daniel Gergolla, who seems to have come from a long line of peasant farmers in Osterwein.


The DAKOTA TERRITORY was being promoted vigorously 1883 Howell Promotion by the railroads, by real estate speculators, and by immigrants who had seen the country for themselves. Albert Roloff in Chicago may have heard from an acquaintance about settlement in the Dakotas, or perhaps he responded to some of the newspaper advertising. By 1881 a railroad line had been laid into the territory as far as the city of Pierre on the Missouri River; the Chicago & Northwestern Railroad had begun taking immigrants to Redfield in the James River Valley. Albert probably scouted out the property available in the Dakotas personally, finding a number of fruitful-looking adjoining tracts in Township 116 North, Range 68 West, which would later be named Park Township, Hand County. By April 18th, 1883, Albert had appeared before the court clerk in Beadle County, Dakota Territory, to file his "first papers" for naturalization, and had begun the lengthy paperwork process of buying property with a "Pre-emption Claim". On the same date of his Naturalization petition (April 18, 1883), Albert officially took up residence on his 160-acre claim and began the hard work of building a house and barn and digging a well. By November of the following year, Albert could claim to have broken 40 acres of virgin prairie, cultivating 35 for wheat, oats, corn, and potatoes. At that time, proving his development of the land, he paid $200 dollars , or $1.25 per acre.

Carl Roloff, meanwhile, assembled the rest of his family in Chicago. His first papers for naturalization were filed there on May 21, 1883. Daughters Theresa Marie and Bertha ZULEWSKY would be staying in the city while the rest of the clan headed west. June 7, 1883 Carl claimed settlement on his new land in the Dakota Territory. He filed a plat of survey in October of that year for his own 160 acres, the northwest quarter of Section 24 in Park Township . In addition to Albert, who had led the way with his purchase of the first quarter-section, the pioneering Prussians now included Carl and his wife Augusta; Herman, who was 9; and daughter Augusta, 10. Family holdings in Dakota Territory They were joined nearby by daughter Emelia with her husband Gottfried GERGOLLA - they each made pre-emption claims on quarter-sections; and then Gottfried's parents Daniel and Gottliebe Gergolla arrived with son Adolph. The Gergollas' daughter - the presumably widowed - nineteen-year old Wilhelmine SCHUSTER, had also made the journey with her four-year old son Albert. Wilhelmine ("Minnie") had apparently met a fellow traveler, an Englishman named John Archer, on the ship from Europe, and they were eventually married. John Archer purchased two quarter-sections and Minnie one. Altogether the interrelated families had claimed nine quarter-sections totaling 1,440 acres.

SD sod houseTheir lives on this new frontier were difficult, to say the least. The promise of the verdant landscape they settled was soon broken by seven successive years of drought, punctuated by the century's worst blizzard. When in 1885 the 60-year old Carl Roloff offered proof that he had broken and cultivated 70 acres of land, we should remember that it was only done after great toil and hardship, with a small hand-held plow pulled by horses or oxen through the native prairie. Their frame house was 14 by 18 feet; the stable of sod and wood was 18 by 22 feet; the hand-dug well was 25 feet deep. The crops of wheat, oats, corn and flax were sown, harvested, and threshed by hand.

In spite of the hardships, the families grew. Emilia and Gottfried Gergolla had three children born in the territory: Paul in 1886, Emma in 1887, and Edith in 1889. Minnie Archer, who already had her son Albert Schuster, gave John Archer five children: Fred, Victoria, Anna, William, and John. Albert Roloff married Amelia, and two sons were born: Otto in 1888, followed by Walter.

After a few years, the Roloffs' daughter Augusta must have left the farm and returned to Chicago, to marry William ZENKE there and raise two children. Young Adolph Gergolla, Daniel's son, also went out on his own, in 1888 or '89, eventually farming in Wisconsin with a large family of his own. Sometime after the 1885 Dakota Territorial Census, the Roloffs' youngest son Herman died. The Archers also lost their daughter Victoria in that period; she was burid in the new Howell Cemetery. As vital records were not kept in the territory at the time, family tradition alone remembers these young ones.

The lifestyles of these families can only be surmised. No doubt the Prussian traditions were upheld, with German spoken St. Michael's Lutheran Church, Hand County, SD regularly by the immigrants at home. Some of their closest neighbors also bore German names, and perhaps there were some fond relationships established. But there may not have been much social life for these farmers so distant from town. The closest and the most likely market and source of provisions was probably Redfield, in Spink County about twenty miles to the east, a direct railroad link to Chicago. The same year our ancestors arrived in the area, the town of Howell was surveyed and platted, in hopes of a new railroad line's progress. About six blocks of frame structures were built and may have provided another destination for the Germans only six miles or so to the south. But the railroad track was never built, and Howell languished merely as a stop for the mail coach. A German Lutheran minister moved to the area also in 1883, holding services in his home until St. Michael's Lutheran Church was built in 1887. Perhaps the Roloffs and Gergollas attended.

Mostly, though, one imagines the tough daily life of the frontier farmer to be dictated by the seasons, the crops, the animals, and most definitely the weather. Between 1883 and 1891 crops failed across the area due to unprecedented drought. Prairie fires were a constant danger and a common occurrence all around the county. Then in January of 1888, a raging blizzard swept down from Canada with blinding, freezing snows that killed over 200 people throughout the region and resulted in the loss of millions of dollars worth of livestock and property. Most of the staunch Dakota farmers held on year after year, but for some the toll became too great. For the Roloffs the worst blow seems to have come in 1890, when their father Carl Roloff died at the age of 65. He was said to have died in nearby Redfield, but Carl Roloff's grave may never be found. Soon after, the widowed Augusta returned to Chicago along with Albert and his wife and sons. Emelia and Gottfried Gergolla and their children had already done so left. Minnie and John Archer stayed on, raising their family and farming in South Dakota until John's death in 1912.


CLICK HERE for a SOUTH DAKOTA Photo Album!


In CHICAGO,   meanwhile, the rest of the family was also adapting to American life. Theresa Roloff had stayed in the city, it isn't known where or with whom. At last, though, the relationship with Friedrich ("Fritz") Robert Heinrich, Jr.Fritz Heinrich was consummated when the two were married on November 15, 1885. They lived at 45th and Wentworth on the South Side, which was at that time a suburban neighborhood on the edge of Canaryville in the unincorporated Town of Lake. The first of the Heinrich children born in Chicago was our Grandma Bertha Louise, in September 1886. Lydia was born in 1888, Ella in 1889; then came Harry in 1890, and finally Richard in 1894. Theresa Roloff Heinrich, age 20Fritz seems to have been successful as a bricklayer, sometimes working on his own and sometimes for other contractors. Masonry was a booming business in those years of rebuilding after Chicago's Great Fire of 1871. The Town of Lake, including the Englewood junction of three railroad routes, had joined the City of Chicago in 1889. Our German forebears and their numerous Irish neighbors found affordable places to live, with transportation available to jobs in the inner city.

The family moved several times in the 1890's, to homes at 4865 and then 4901 S. Atlantic (which was later 5th Avenue and eventually Wells Street - blocks which would eventually be razed for construction of the Dan Ryan Expressway.) They attended St. Peter's Evangelical Lutheran Church at 39th and Dearborn, where Fritz and Theresa were married and where the children were christened. In addition to raising her family, Theresa aspired toward medical training. According to Grandma Bertha, Fritz prevailed upon his wife to confine her practice to female patients only. Thus her degree from the German Medical School in 1897 qualified Theresa as a doctor of obstetrics and specialist in the diseases of women and children. Thereafter she would be known throughout the neighborhood for her healing abilities and skills as a midwife.

Theresa's older sister Bertha Roloff ZULEWSKY and her husband John had also settled in the neighborhood. But tragedy struck before the young couple could even begin to raise a family. Bertha died at the age of 26 in 1885 and was buried in Oak Woods Cemetery. The Heinrichs continued their close relationship with John Zulewsky, though, even after he remarried and had three daughters with his new wife. In fact, John and his brother August Zulewsky were sponsors at the christenings of several of the Heinrich children (Bertha and Harry). Fritz Heinrich may have at some time worked with John Zulewsky, who was also a masonry contractor.

Fritz's mother Louise HEINRICH was living somewhere in the neighborhood at this time as well. The widow had emigrated shortly after Fritz and the Roloffs at the age of 61, but her home in Chicago has not been identified. We know that she continued in the Catholic faith, attending St. Anne's Catholic Church at 55th and Wentworth (later St. Charles Lwanga, and eventually closed by the diocese.) In 1889 Louise bought a single burial plot at St. Mary Catholic Cemetery in Evergreen Park, Illinois, signing her name Louisa ZULEWSKY. Yet no documentation of her marriage has been found. It might be conjectured that Louise had married an older relative, possibly the father, of John and August Zulewsky. However, evidence of Louise in general has not been abundant. According to Grandma Bertha, her "Little Grandma" died in 1908, and she is presumably buried at St. Mary, but there is no marker and the cemetery has no record of her or any Zulewsky. Auntie Braun (Augusta Roloff)

Augusta, the youngest Roloff daughter, had returned to Chicago from the family's Dakota Territory farm, possibly about 1887. That is when the nineteen-year old married William ZENKE, another bricklayer. They had two children, Bertha and William, Jr. , and lived for many years at 6336 S. May Street. Upon William Zenke's death in 1902, Augusta married William BRAUN. She would be known to the children of the next generation as Auntie Braun.

Even before the death of her father Carl Roloff in South Dakota, Emilia Gergolla and her family had came back to the city. Gottfried worked as a hod carrier while they lived on 45th Street, and obtained his citizenship in 1890, but he died in 1893 at thirty-five years of age (he is buried at Oak Woods Cemetery); Emilia remarried two years later to George F. SEEGERS (June 15, 1895). They had a son, George, Jr., born Feb. 25, 1900, and lived on May Street, at 6634 South. The younger cousins called Emilia Auntie Seegers.

When the widowed Augusta Baer Roloff also left South Dakota, she lived with Emilia and the Gergolla - Seegers family until she died in December, 1903.

Albert Roloff, too, joined the rest of the family on the South Side. He and his wife Amelia added to their family with Erich, born in 1891, and Pauline in 1893. By 1900 they were living at 844 W. 81st Street. Later they lived on Aberdeen St., and by 1930 lived at 6332 S. Ada.

Ad for Englewood HouseThe related families now lived mostly in the Englewood neighborhood. The extension of the elevated train (the "EL") to Englewood in 1907 and the new cable car line down State Street had helped make the area around 63rd and Halsted St. a busy shopping center and comfortable middle-class community of second-generation Germans and Irish. The Heinrichs had moved into a brick two-flat built by Fritz at 6355 S. Carpenter St. Their new church, built in 1907, was St. Stephen's Evangelical Lutheran at 65th and Peoria, another of Fritz's masonry projects, according to family tradition. Albert Roloff's children and John Zulewsky's children were among the first confirmands there from our family. Many of the children also attended the Lutheran grade school. The men, like Fritz who received his citizenship papers in 1889, were now naturalized citizens; and though German was still the language spoken at home, the younger generation was born in the U.S.A. -- they were Chicagoans, South Siders, city kids growing up through tough times.

Heinrich Cousins, ca.1907
HEINRICH COUSINS, Ca. 1907. Front from left: Bertha Freier, Edith Gergolla, Lydia Heinrich, Paul Gergolla, Unidentified, Emma Gergolla, Unknown. Back Row: Unknown, Meta __?_, Ella Heinrich, Frank Ziemer, Bertha Heinrich.

Click to enlarge Map of Englewood Neighborhood




HEINRICH

Fritz and Theresa Heinrich lived comfortably in their Englewood years. There was apparently enough work for an ambitious bricklayer, and no doubt Theresa's work as a midwife helped the family out. They lived in a sturdy bungalow with decent furnishings. They were devout members of St. Stephen's. Plenty of social activity revolved around the church and school, and it was only a short walk to visit one of the aunts or cousins. Nevertheless, there was very little leisure time. Schooling was still a luxury, especially for girls. For instance Grandma Bertha left school after the 6th grade and went to work at a candy factory. Eventually Bertha, Lydia, and Ella worked as dressmakers. Harry learned the bricklayer's trade. Richard also worked for Fritz in his business, but eventually went his own way. Fritz died on Dec. 16, 1922 . Grandma always said that Theresa died of a broken heart after his loss, on May 4, 1923.

Bertha, Harold, Raymond 1920Bertha Heinrich married Frank Carl ZIEMER in 1907. They lived on Carpenter Street, first at 6341 where Harold was their first born, in 1908. Later they had built a brick bungalow in front of the frame cottage, where Harold grew up; a daughter, Marjorie died in infancy. Then Raymond, born in 1920; and Robert. Frank Ziemer was a railway inspector of rolling stock who traveled frequently, especially during the Depression years. He died in 1933, throwing the family into difficulties they were only able to overcome through hard work and much help from friends, family, and neighbors.

Harold Ziemer married Lydia SAESS in 1926. They were the parents of Shirlee (TAYLOR), Frank, Donald, Darlene (PRENDERGAST), and Harold, Jr. The family lived in the rear cottage at 6349 Carpenter Street into the 1950's. Our father Raymond H. Ziemer married Mom, Alice RADOVAN, and raised Barbara Lou (MCCAFFREY), Raymond Gene (author of this web page), and Susan Marie (BOUMA). Robert Ziemer married Isabelle CLEMONTS; their children were Jacqueline (MURPHY), Robin John, and Pamela who died in infancy.

Lydia Heinrich married William OLDENBURG. They had three daughters: Pearl (HOFFMAN), Adeline (HENNIG), and Loraine (SCHWARTZ). They lived in the Heinrich two-flat at 6355 Carpenter St. Pearl and Elmer HOFFMAN raised two daughters: Arlene (KLUGE) and Nancy. Adeline and Gus HENNIG's two daughters were Carol (KRUEGER) and Janice (VERVLIED). Loraine and Paul SCHWARTZ's family consists of Lauren, Lynn, Gail, and Paul Frederick.

The youngest daughter Ella was still unmarried and living at home at 6355 Carpenter St. when both parents died. She married neighbor George Strohm in 1925 . George was a World War I veteran. Their only son was Robert. He married Gloria WITKOWSKI and their son is Roderick Strohm.Carpenter Street scene

Harry Heinrich pursued the masonry trade. In 1915 he married Dorothy FREY and they had three children: Harry, Jr. in 1915; Evelyn in 1917; and Richard in 1926. Harry, Jr. married and raised a family with Virginia ALLEN in Ohio: Linda (TOLSON), Lisa (PIERCE), Lana (COCHRAN), Harry, Jr., and Jeffrey. Evelyn married Erwin "Bud" STOECKIG and their children were Marilyn, Ronald, and Christine. Richard married Carol BURCH and they have 4 children: Richard, Jr., Pamela, Cynthia, and Kenneth.

The youngest of Fritz and Theresa's children was Richard, whom we knew as "Uncle Dick." As a boy he worked for Fritz in the business, but seems to have gone off on his own fairly early. After a brief stint in the army, he worked at various jobs, and had numerous brushes with the law. He married Aura SPRAGUE about 1929, but they were separated and Aura died in 1940. Richard never did settle down again.


ZULEWSKY

Zulewsky GirlsJohn ZULEWSKY and his wife Bertha ROLOFF had emigrated with the elder ROLOFFS in 1883. After Bertha's death in 1885, he married a Swedish girl named Clara SEGER BROWN. (Actually, it appears that Clara was a widow herself, having been married to another Scandinavian named Nels August Brown. She had buried this first husband at Oak Woods in 1888, along with three infant children between 1884 - 1888.)

John Zulewsky and Clara had three daughters: Elsie, born in 1890; Clara, born in 1892; and Helen, born in 1895. They later attended St. Stephen's church where the girls were confirmed. John's masonry business was thought to be quite successful and they lived in a "nicer" home in the Hyde Park neighborhood, first on Drexel Boulevard and then on Woodlawn. (Grandma Bertha referred to the girls as her "wealthy" cousins.) In 1900 John's maiden aunt Christina, aged 83, lived with them. They took in Clara's younger sister later, as well (1920). By 1930 John had retired, and lived with his daughter Helen and her family. John died in 1933 and is buried at Oak Woods Cemetery alongside Clara (who died at 88) in the plot with her first husband and her babies.

Also at Oak Woods, in a nearby plot unmarked by any monument, are the graves of Bertha ROLOFF ZULEWSKY, the forementioned Christina Zulewsky, and a Daniel Zulewsky whose relationship is not known.

Elsie married Karl Schulz about 1913; they had a son John about 1926 and a daughter Dorothy about 1928. In 1930 they lived in an apartment at 6023 S. Woodlawn. Helen married machinist Walter Reeves and they lived with her parents on Woodlawn in 1920. We find Clara L. in the 1930 Census married to Malcolm BARR at 6359 Chappel, the mother of three children: Janet, 8, and Marilyn, 3. (To somewhat confuse the issue, Oak Woods Cemetery documents a Clara W. Zulewsky buried Feb. 10, 1909, by her husband Edward BARR. There is also an infant BARR buried in the Zulewsky-Brown plot.)

August Zulewsky, believed to be John's brother, was no relation to the Heinrichs, but seems to have been a close friend. He was sponsor to Bertha and Harry Heinrich. When he died in 1901, leaving his wife Minnie with small children, she apparently married a contractor named August SCHANK. August Zulewsky's sons John and Paul were raised as Schanks rather than Zulewskys.


Walter Roloff

ROLOFF, ZENKE/FREIER

Albert and Amelia Roloff lived on South Aberdeen Street and then at 6332 S. Ada in the 1920's. Their sons - Otto, Walter, and Erich -- were confirmed at St. Stephen's. Albert, who had pioneered, working hard to establish the families in their Dakota homesteads, died in Chicago in 1928. Amelia survived him by ten years.

The children of Augusta ROLOFF ZENKE BRAUN were William ZENKE and Bertha. Bertha married Bill FREIER, and they raised Lillian (RUDY) and Earl.


GERGOLLA

Paul Gergolla The children of Gottfried and Emilie ROLOFF GERGOLLA were born in South Dakota, but grew up in Chicago. Paul GERGOLLA married Clara HERZOG and their daughters were Dorothy (CARROLL) and Ruth (who married her cousin Adolph GERGOLLA.) A son WIlbur died in infancy. Edna GERGOLLA married the brother of her sister-in-law (confusing?), Emil HERZOG. Emma GERGOLLA married Will Braun, but she died young in 1913, and was buried in Concordia Cemetery. When their mother was widowed a second time at the death of George Seegers, Emilie (Auntie Seegers) lived with the Paul Gergolla family in Englewood.

Adolph GERGOLLA. son of Daniel and Gottliebe, who was born in East Prussia, had left the Dakotas for a farm in Sauk County, (the area of Reedsburg), Wisconsin. He married Helene HANOUSA about 1888 and raised a large family there: Molly, Lydia, Edna, Emma, Martin, Adolph, and Gertrude. Adolph, Jr. married his cousin, Ruth, and they lived in the Chicago area raising son Paul and daughter Eileen (SARATE).


RESEARCH

A number of mysteries remain in the study of our HEINRICH, ROLOFF, and related families:

  • Who was the first Prussian relative to come over? Family tradition says it was a HARDT who had established himself on the South Side of Chicago. I'd like to find out his secret identity. 1880 Census records list a Frederick HARDT, 48, saloon keeper from Prussia, living in the Hyde Park neighborhood with his family. This is probably the guy. I may need to find his immigration records and see if he traces back to Osterwein or thereabouts in Prussia.

  • What was the story of Louise HEINRICH's second marriage? Grandma Bertha's "little Catholic Grandma" seems to have become Louise ZULEWSKY at some point, and is supposedly buried at St. Mary Cemetery under that name? But who, exactly, was her husband? When did they tie the knot? Where did they live? So far, the answers have not been found in federal census or in Catholic Church records. I may need to try city records here too.

  • Where is the grave of Carl Albert ROLOFF? Somewhere on the South Dakota Prairie? Plowed under the furrows of the farm he homesteaded? Overgrown in the churchyard of a frontier-era church? Forgotten in a Redfield cemetery? Since his death in 1890 was long before state records were kept, we may never know the circumstances of his death, let alone the location of his grave. Visiting Hand County, South Dakota in the summer of 2006, we found Howell Cemetery and the graves of young Victoria ARCHER and her grandmother Gottliebe GERGOLLA, but neither Carl Albert nor his son Hermann turned up. Nevertheless, it was quite interesting to see the landscape those early Prussians faced in the 1880's. And there are still a few leads to follow up in the quest for Carl Albert's final resting place.

  • Information is far from complete on the later generations of several families, particularly Albert ROLOFF's descendants. I'd also like to be more sure of the Augusta ROLOFF ZENKE (BRAUN) family line - the FREIERs and any other relatives. I just seem to have run out of relatives to consult. No doubt the church records of St. Stephen's would answer many questions, but I have not gotten any useful response from anyone there to date.

  • Clearly, this page is not up to date on the Wisconsin Gergolla families; and we are aware of more recent history of descendants of Wilhelmine GERGOLLA ARCHER; however, the families included here are the relatives who interacted with the HEINRICHs and have remained in contact in Chicago.


    LINKS

    Oak Woods Cemetery
    Bethania Cemetery
    Concordia Cemetery
    City of Chicago
    Chicago Historical Society
    Chicago Neighborhoods
    Bureau of Land Management Records
    South Dakota Resources


    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


  • Bergman, Donna (Hanusa). Grateful appreciation for the continuing research and field work of this Gergolla-Roloff descendant.
  • Wonderlin, Ellen (Hanusa). Thanks so much for the great photos of the Wisonsin GERGOLLA family, and for a copy of your genealogical work.
  • Gergolla, Ruth. Many thanks to Ruth for her interest and assistance over the years. We were sorry to lose her last year. Doubly related, Ruth was born a Gergolla and married one, too.
  • Heidepriem, Scott. Bring on the Pioneers: History of Hand County. Miller, SD. 1978.
  • Hoffman, Pearl; Hennig, Adeline; Schwarz, Loraine - Thanks are due to the three Oldenburg sisters for their assistance with research and their many years of devotion to the family.
  • Mayer, Harold M. and Wade, Richard C. Chicago: Growth of a Metropolis. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 1969.
  • Pacyga, Dominic A. and Skerrett, Ellen. Chicago: City of Neighborhoods. Loyola University Press, Chicago. 1986.
  • Stoeckig, Evelyn (Heinrich). Thanks for the abundant fruits of several interviews.
  • Strohm, Robert. Among other contributions, Bob provided valuable information about Theresa Heinrich's medical degree.


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