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A Warner Family Narrative.

A WARNER FAMILY NARRATIVE

  

by

Hayward Dare Warner

1971

Dedicated to the memory of those who
planted the Tree of Liberty in America.

FOREWORD

    It has been my purpose in writing this narrative to bring to my grandchildren and the great-grandchildren who are beginning to arrive, not just a list of their ancestors but how they were linked with events that were happening in England and in the history of our nation. It will follow our direct line from the William Warner who first came from England in 1658 and settled, in 1678, on the west bank of the Schuylkill River on land in future years to become part of the City of Philadelphia. It was four years before the advent of William Penn.

    One source of facts has been the excellent chart of the family prepared about 1930 by Jacob L. Warner of Wilmington, Delaware, at that time a Senior Engineer and head of the Realty Division of the DuPont Company. This chart comprises three lines of the family sired by three sons of William Warner the Pioneer. In addition to our Pennsylvania branch there was a different Warner family that settled in New England in colonial days and a third in Virginia about 1628 by Colonel Augustine Warner, Sr., of Warner Hall at Gloucester. His son, Colonel Augustine, Jr., had a daughter, Mildred, who warned Laurence Washington. She was the grandmother of George Washington. The connection of these families in England of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries is not clear or has not been researched as far as I know, although they all seem to have come from Gloucestershire or that section of England.

    A second source of information was Jordan's Colonial and Revolutionary Families of Pennsylvania and Other Historical Records, consulted in the genealogical department of the Denver Public Library.

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    A third source was a helpful correspondence with Mr. Robert C. Winthrop of Haverford, Pennsylvania whose wife was a descendant of Anthony Warner. And most directly from my father, Jeremiah Dare Warner, who was very interested in compiling family history, some of which was used in Jacob Warner's chart. He had personal contact, as a young man of 21, in 1868, with his Great Aunt Hannah Warner Gooding, then 93 years of age, the daughter of our Revolutionary ancestor, Anthony Warner. As a girl of nine years, Hannah had been presented to General Washington at her father's home near Haverford, Pennsylvania, at the close of the war. Family history also came from father's aunt, Miss Evaline Warner, the granddaughter of Anthony, who visited with us when I was a boy. Aunt Evaline had a clear and retentive memory and was one of the brightest, most humorous old ladies I have ever met. She never married and lived for a time with her Aunt Hannah Warner Gooding near Wheeling, West Virginia, and later with her brothers and sisters in Zanesville, Ohio, where was our family home for many years. She kept in touch during her lifetime with the family around Philadelphia. It was from Anthony Warner's daughter Hannah and granddaughter Evaline that my father received some prized items that had been in Anthony's home.

    Since in the narrative I have digressed at times from the direct line to give the story of one of the related members of the family, I have identified those in the direct line with a Roman numeral before their name, as I. William Warner, II. Isaac Warner, etc.

    I wish to acknowledge the assistance of my granddaughter, Mrs. Cynthia Snow, in preparing this narrative for publication.

    Some of Anthony Warner's descendants from his son Isaac remained in the east on some of the land carved from the ancient forest by the pioneer William Warner and his sons, while ours, from Anthony's oldest son Zebulon, took part in the great but gradual migration westward through Ohio and Kentucky that was eventually to help clear the forests, tame the prairies, and build the cities into a great nation.

Denver, Colorado, 1971                                              Hayward Dare Warner

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                               Page.
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      v

In Old England . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      1

Beginnings in America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      7

The Sons of William the Pioneer . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     14

The Oldest Club in America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     19

The Revolutionary War Years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     25

Migration Westward Begins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      35

Early Settlement in Ohio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      39

The Civil War Years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     46

The Great Industrial Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     49

The Family At Haverford . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      59

Epilogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     69

  

The Church of St. Peter and St. Paul in Blockley, England.

The Church of St. Peter and St. Paul in Blockley, England.

    The Church of St. Peter and St. Paul in Blockley, England, in Gloucestershire, where Warner family records began in 1273 A.D. These records along with the family records from other old churches have now been taken to a safer place for preservation.

IN OLD ENGLAND

    Where the Cotswold Hills slip down into the beautiful Vale of Evesham in Worcestershire, one is in the very heart of pastoral England. It is lovely country watered by the Avon and the Severn, placidly flowing, shining rivers. Near here, across the border in Gloucestershire lies the ancient parish and village of Blockley with its old, old Church of St. Peter and St. Paul. Here were the homes and farms of the Warner family, and in this church are the records of their baptisms and deaths going back to Richard le Warner in 1273 A.D., and in the churchyard many Warner graves. A mile or so from Blockley in one direction is the village of Draycott, where there was a Warner farm and orchard and a few miles in another is the old wool town of Chipping Campden, where the Warners were prominent, with its arcaded Market Hall, ancient almshouse, great fourteenth century house of William Greville, and a fine church, all built of the honey-colored Cotswold stone. The famous long-wool Cotswold sheep were raised on the farms in this section, their antecedents being the ancient sheep of Britain crossed with the large, sturdy merino sheep of Spain brought in by Eleanor of Castile, the wife of Edward I of England who reigned from 1272 to 1307. The wool merchants were prosperous, as they exported to the master weavers of the cities of Flanders. Within fifteen miles of Blockley is Stratford-upon-Avon in Warwickshire, the home of William Shakespeare, the poet and dramatist of the ages. This section of England is often called Shakespeare Country and is indeed historic.

    The Church of St. Peter and St. Paul was first established as a monastery in 825 A.D. by the Bishop of Worcester upon a grant from Burred, King of Mercia. This grant was confirmed over 200 years later by Charter of King Edgar (according to the Warner chart) in 1086 A.D. However, Edgar (the Aetheling), the last of the Anglo-

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Saxon kings, was not king at this time but was still living by the favor of William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, who invaded England in 1066. As William I of England it took him twenty years to subdue the tough Anglo-Saxons so Edgar may have issued the charter.

    The Norman invasion made great changes in England. William ruled with a ruthless hand, expropriating the lands of the old Anglo-Saxon upper class and setting up Norman families their place. The old churches were eventually torn down and larger ones and finer of Norman architecture in stone were built by masons brought from Normandy. We have no date when the Church of St. Peter and St. Paul was built upon the site of the old monastery, but there is a tradition that a great number of human skulls were unearthed in the building of it. At least it was there when the family records began in 1273 with Richard le Warner.

The Name of Warner

    It is uncertain whether the family is a survival of Anglo-Saxon stock or replacement of Norman. The continual use in the family of such Christian names as Richard, John and William might indicate Norman descent. One of the French nobles who came with William the Conqueror was the Duc de Varenne (Duke of Warenne) from whom could have come the family of Warner. At the time of the Norman invasion, surnames were not yet in use, but in the two centuries following, because of the increase of population, it became necessary for men to take more of a designation than their given names. This was done by adding as a surname their place of abode, as Richard Campden, or their occupation, as John Carpenter, or some personal characteristic, as Short or Long, and William's son became Williamson, etc.

    In 1086, twenty years after the invasion, William I caused the great Domesday Book to be made, listing the names of all landholders in the kingdom and the amount of land each held. Probably it was for the king's benefit in taxing, but it has been a great help to the genealogists of later days in tracing family origins.

    In this Domesday Book, according to Bardsley's Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames, we find the baptismal name Warnerus or

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Warnerius (Norman French form) that could later have become an English surname of Warner. Another genealogist says that there is a reference in the Domesday Book to the "Manors of Warner." Bardsley thinks that it is an occupational name. The king had an official as keeper of his vast deer preserve and also one as keeper of the king's warren for rabbits, partridges, pheasants, etc. So warren became warner in some cases. About 200 years after the Norman invasion when Edward I was king, in 1273, he ordered "The Hundred Rolls" to be taken, a census similar to the Domesday Book; in that is a reference to Richard le Warner (Richard the Warner). This then is the first official record of our branch of the family in the Church of St. Peter and St. Paul. Since the records here run for the next four hundred years until the time of Oliver Cromwell, they must have been a sturdy race, probably good old Anglo-Saxon. Would that we knew more of what they did. It is easy to imagine that they raised the Cotswold sheep on their farms and floated the bales of fine wool down the Avon River into the Severn to the town of Bristol. There, perhaps, Mr. Blanket of Bristol wove some of it into the good pieces of cloth for covering that bear his name to this day and some of it went into the ships that came from the seven seas to get it for the glory of England and the rise of civilization in Europe.

William Warner in England

    William Warner of Blockley was born in 1627 and lived to the ripe old age of 79 when he died in America in 1706. As a young man he took part in the stirring events of the Puritan Revolution as a captain in the cavalry bodyguard of Oliver Cromwell. A brief look at events in England in the seventeenth century will help to understand the reason for the emigration of the Warner family and many other good families to America in that period. It was the century of revolution because there were two separate yet interlocked struggles going on. One was between royalty and parliament for power; the other between the Church of England and the Puritans, Baptists, Quakers, and others for freedom of conscience and worship and freedom from taxation to support the State Church.

    At the beginning of the century James I was on the throne (1603 to 1625) followed by Charles I (1625-1649). They both had the ob-

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session of absolute monarchy. James I preached that kings ruled by divine right, and his political writers argued that subjects' property was at the king's disposal. In 1610 Parliament told King James "that levying impositions and taxes without the consent of Parliament could lead to the utter ruin of your subjects' right of property, of their lands, and goods, and was henceforth declared illegal."

    The religious struggle came about when the Reformation on the continent in the sixteenth century spread to England, and the common people began to have the Bible in print, could read and study it, and hear it preached. Great scholars published a translation of the Bible into English in 1611 by the authorization of King James I that was so outstanding that it is used to the present day with only minor changes in the American revision. Power corrupts, and this is true as well when religion and government are combined in a State Church, whether Catholic or Protestant. With Archbishop William Laud under Charles I, the country saw two men of imperious temper who were determined there should be no deviation from their rule in Church and State. And there was bitter persecution of the nonconformists. This finally resulted in civil war with Parliamentary armies taking the field under Cromwell and other generals in a struggle to depose the king. Cromwell was not only a great general but a man of high principle and broad mind. This is illustrated by the following incident quoted by Ashley in The Greatness of Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell remonstrated with General Crawford who had laid a complaint against Lieutenant Colonel Henry Warner and Lieutenant William Packer who were Baptists, because they had failed to take the Covenant (Presbyterian). "Suppose Warner was a Baptist," Cromwell wrote to Crawford, "shall that render him incapable to serve the public? Sir, the State, in choosing men to serve them, takes no notice of their opinions, if they be willing faithfully to serve them, that satisfies."

    The Baptists were strong supporters of the fight for freedom, for one of their cardinal principles was that of adult baptism, which meant that each individual, when he reached the age of discretion, decided for himself what church he would belong to. So logically he could not be compelled to support the State Church. Furthermore, they would sign no creed for the New Testament was their basis of belief and rule of conduct. There is no record that

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Captain William Warner was a Baptist, but he may have been. John Bunyan, who also served under Cromwell was one and later under the restoration of Charles II served a 12-year sentence in Bedford jail for preaching the faith. The local jailor must have been lenient, for it was here that he wrote his most famous book, Pilgrim's Progress. He was the son of a travelling tinker and had only a local school education, but he was a great reader and student of the Bible with its incomparable English. In his book, The Century of Revolution, Christopher Hill says, "In literature too this age is transitional. Its greatest figures are Milton and Bunyan, who transmitted to posterity much that was noble in defeated Puritanism. Bunyan, with his vivid characterization, his psychological insights and his perfect ear for spoken prose, links the pamphlet literature of the forties with the novels of Defoe."

    The armies of Parliament prevailed over those of the King and in 1645 Parliament tried and executed Laud and in 1649, Charles I. The House of Lords was abolished and for a few years England was a republic. The son of Charles I was installed on the throne of Scotland and attempted with the help of a Scottish army to invade England but was defeated by Cromwell at Dunbar and Worcester. At the battle of Dunbar, William Warner was wounded in the arm. In the Tate Gallery in London there is a large painting of Cromwell and his troops after Dunbar. In a lower corner of the picture is a soldier with a wounded arm standing by his horse. As only one officer is said to have been wounded at Dunbar, this is thought to represent Captain William Warner. In 1653 Oliver Cromwell, after refusing an offer of the kingship, was named Lord Protector of England and ruled with a firm hand until his death in 1658. During the period of army control and the rule of Cromwell there was tolerance for the independent sects which increased greatly increased in number.

    After the death of the Lord Protector there was no one of his character, wisdom and determination to carry on, though his son, Richard, succeeded him for a short time. The royal party and the peers took advantage of the confusion of interests to load the House of Commons with members partial to them, and in 1660 Parliament again placed the Stuart line on the throne in the person of Charles II. He was soon to show his animus by ordering a savage desecration of the body of Oliver Cromwell and beginning a persecution of dissenters from the State Church. Both Charles II (1660

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to 1685) and, after his death, his brother James II (1685 to 1688) were imbued with the idea of the divine right of kings and acted accordingly but were not able to bring it off. They conspired secretly with Louis XIV of France to bring back Catholic power to England and accepted subsidies from him to that end. That, however was the end of the Stuart line, for Parliament then deposed James II and offered the throne to William of Orange and Mary, his wife. A limited monarchy was set up and a Toleration Act passed which from that time allowed dissenters from the State Church to worship as they pleased.

    During the reign of the Stuarts and Cromwell, the Penn family came into prominence and later in America were to have some influence on the Warner family. The head of the family was Admiral William Penn of the British Navy. He must have been a man of wealth and a royalist because he made a large loan of 16,000 pounds to Charles II at a time when the navy was being built up. After the father's death this loan paid a big dividend to the son William who had been converted to the Quaker faith as a young man. In settlement of the loan, William Penn asked and received from the king a grant of the immense tract of land in America that came to be called Pennsylvania and where many of the Quaker faith went to be free of persecution and to get a new start in life. These events of the seventeenth century brought on the emigration to America of people of the type that produced the great minds that were to give to the world the Declaration of Independence, that immortal proclamation of free men, and the Constitution of the United States which implements it.

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BEGINNINGS IN AMERICA

    The Warner records in the old church of St. Peter and St. Paul have been inspected in recent times (as late as 1960) by members of the family who have been in England, but never copied in full. Jacob Warner in 1926 started his chart for the American descendants with Richard Warner, born at Blockley in 1550. His son was John Warner, born in 1582 who had eleven children, with only one of whom is the American line concerned. When John was 76 years of age his son William brought him to America along with his own family. So William Warner the Pioneer became the progenitor of a large and influential family that was to have much to do with the beginnings of a nation. He married Ann Dyde (or Dide), and they had four sons and four daughters.

    William Warner is supposed to have left England in 1658 to escape the wrath of the king, Charles II, and to make a home in a new land where there would be freedom of conscience and of worship. They landed first in New England which had been settled by Puritans (Pilgrims) nearly forty years earlier. It is not known where they landed or why they left after a few years and came to the settlements in what is now New Jersey. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was a theocracy when first established--to have civil rights one had to belong to the church. It was almost as intolerant a condition as they had left England to escape. This was the reason Roger Williams left the colony in 1634 to found a Baptist Church and a colony in Rhode Island. This may also have been the reason for William Warner with his family and father leaving. It is known, however, that in the autumn of 1675 they arrived in the ship "Griffen" and settled at Gloucester, on the east side of the Delaware River in New Jersey, where there was entire religious freedom and where there were English, Dutch, and Swedish people already settled.

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    During the first half of the seventeenth century the coastal country from Maine to the Carolinas had been granted by the English sovereigns, who claimed it by right of discovery, as chartered colonies of England for settlement and trade. The Dutch had begun to occupy New York, and Henry Hudson, in their employ, had sailed up Delaware Bay and River and established a few forts and settlements there about 1623. The Swedes took over control of these in 1638, started farms along the river and a form of government. The Dutch came back in 1655 but lost all their new world settlements when England defeated the Netherlands in a war. The Swedes stayed on their farms under the English, but they were not numerous.

    The great interior of the continent to the west of the Schuylkill River was practically unoccupied and unnamed except as the hunting ground of the Delaware Indians and other tribes. It was covered with magnificent trees of elm, oak, chestnut, walnut, pine and cedar. It had no coastline but an outlet to the sea through Delaware Bay. This was the vast territory of over 40,000 square miles granted on January 5, 1681, by Charter of Charles II to William Penn, as sole Proprietor. This was a different form of charter than that of some other colonies and gave Penn the authority of a feudal lord with the power to appoint a governor when not in residence himself. But about four years before Penn came over and even before he had applied for his charter it must have looked like the promised land to William Warner and his sons from their temporary settlement at Gloucester, New Jersey, across the Delaware River from the future site of Philadelphia. Because of the settlements already along the Delaware they looked farther west and were probably the first settlers to the west of the Schuylkill River.

    The following information on their lives is from Jordan's Colonial and Revolutionary Families of Philadelphia, from History of Philadelphia by Scharf and Westcott (1884) and from Jacob Warner's chart of the Warner family in 1930.

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I. William Warner the Pioneer (1627-1706)

    William Warner was baptized July 8, 1627 in the church of St. Peter and St. Paul at Blockley, England. The Jacob Warner chart says that he died at his estate near Philadelphia, that he had named Blockley on March 10, 1727, but that was an error as his will was proved in Philadelphia on October 18, 1706 in Will Book C, page 51. His wife was Ann Dyde. Their children were as follows:

1. John, born 1649; died 1717
2. Mary, no birth record; married James Kite
3. William, born 1653; died 1714
4. Esther, no record
5. Hannah, no record
6. Anne, no record; married James Thomas
7. Robert, no record; returned to England about 1700 as his father gave him property he still owned in Draycott
8. Isaac, born 1662; died April 10, 1727; married Anne Craven
    In the year 1678 William Warner the Pioneer was age 51, said to have been 6 feet 2 inches in height and was probably a man of energy and initiative to have held the position he did under Cromwell. In that year, he and William Orian and a number of others decided to take up land to the west of the Schuylkill River. This stream enters the Delaware from the northwest, and it was on the high land in the fork of these rivers that Penn later laid out his city of Philadelphia. The settlers made a large purchase of land directly from the Indians which was a custom at the time in the English and Swedish but not in the Spanish colonies. The price paid for the land was 335 Swedish guilders, evidently advanced by Warner and Orian. This is known because on June 14, 1681 there was an appeal in the Court at Upland on the Delaware River, by these two men, to force collection of their shares from the others. The supposition is that some of the original subscribers did not pay their proportion and that William Warner and his son John took up those shares and later bought Orian's share; they named the estate Blockley after their former home England. As far as is known, they were the first white settlers in all the vast territory to the west of the Schuylkill River. A patent for the land was confirmed to William Warner by Penn's Commissioners of Property on

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May 19, 1702, it being shown that he had settled on a tract of land on the Schuylkill before the grant of the province to Penn. The patent was for a reputed 300 acres subject to resurvey. But there could have been additional purchases from Penn if the statement is correct in the Warner chart that he had 4,000 acres. It was, perhaps, only an Indian trail that ran through their property, that next became a wagon road, then the great Lancaster turnpike in 1795 leading to the West and when the railroads came, the main line of the Pennsylvania Railroad followed its course.

    It was no light task on which William and two of his four sons embarked in 1678 as they began to carve homes from the primeval forest. The son William, Jr., stayed in New Jersey and acquired property there, and son Robert returned to England. The age of one of those trees is known. That was the famous treaty elm under which Penn met the Indian chiefs and which, according to Watson's Annals--"was blown over on March 3, 1810. It was widespread but not lofty, its main branch 150 feet in length, its trunk girth 24 feet, its age from the rings 283 years." Of the sons at this time John was 29, William 25 and Isaac 16. There was timber for their homes, the forest was alive with game, the river with fish and no king or archbishop to say them yea or nay. William the Pioneer's house was not far from the river. Family tradition is that he would row out in his boat, with his guns, to a large rock where he fished and shot ducks--his large dog accompanying him and recovering the birds. This place became known as Warner's rock. His property, in present day Philadelphia, would be north of Girard Avenue in the Fairmount Park area but the rock is no longer visible because of a dam there. In 1679 and 1680 he was under-sheriff of the County of Upland.

    On July 1, 1681, William Markham, a cousin of William Penn, arrived at Upland as Deputy Governor for Penn who was still busy with the details of founding of the colony, making out a "Frame of Government" with the advice of such famous Englishmen as Algernon Sidney and John Locke; and advertising for colonists. Markham established the capital of the Province of Pennsylvania at Upland, the name being later changed to Chester. He proceeded to appoint a Council of Nine to assist in administering its affairs, one of these being William Warner. The oath of office was taken by them on August 3, 1681. A facsimile of the oath with signatures attach-

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ed is to be found in the History of Philadelphia by Scharf and Westcott (1884). His descendants can hardly be proud of the handwriting in William Warner's signature, but then he was a man of action all his life and probably not highly educated. In Vol. I of this history is a list of the first subscribers for lots in Philadelphia, among whom are the names of Thomas Hayward and Edmund Warner. (This Edmund Warner of London had helped finance Thomas Fenwick in his early proprietorship in New Jersey.) Markham also reorganized the Upland Court into the Chester Court and appointed new justices, one of whom was William Warner. He was later a member of the Provincial Assembly of 1683 of which Thomas Wynne was Speaker.

A New Form of Government

    William Penn arrived in the province in the little ship "Welcome" on October 28, 1682 to take charge of the government. It had been a sad voyage, for of the 100 who embarked, thirty-one died of smallpox and were buried at sea, many of them friends of Penn. From its very beginning, Pennsylvania had religious liberty, a council appointed by the governor, and an assembly elected by the people to make the laws. There was trial by jury and a penal system designed to reform, not merely to punish. It was a constitution far ahead of its time, and Penn ruled fairly, even though as feudal lord he owned all the land. This he sold to settlers from time to time or in tracts to large groups, such as the Welsh Quaker Barony of 40,000 acres, reserving a small quit-rent to be paid to him and his heirs forever. Some lands were sold for a price in addition to the quit-rent and other for the quit-rent alone. Neither the selling price nor the quit-rent was very large, but the quit-rents, in the future, became a source of irritation and contention between the settlers and the proprietors and were hard to collect.

    S. G. Fisher in his book, Pennsylvania: Colony and Commonwealth (1896) has this to say about the province: "Pennsylvania was not only the greatest proprietary province in point of size, but it was also the most successful one. The proprietorships in Maine, New Hampshire and the Carolinas were utter failures. Maryland was only partially successful; it was never very remunerative, and the

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king deprived the Baltimores of their control of it for over twenty years. But William Penn was deprived of his province by William III for only about two years, and except for that short time he and his sons held their province down to the American Revolution of 1776, a period of 94 years.

    "The creation by one man of such a huge, prosperous, and powerful empire, and its possession by himself and his children as a feudal barony for such a length of time, has, we believe, no parallel in the history of the world. Kings have possessed themselves of such domains, but never before a private citizen, who scorned all titles.

    "When we consider the education and surroundings of Penn, his romantic youth, his learning and accomplishments, his extraordinary position of religious enthusiast and courtier, and that he established his great province on the most liberal and advanced principles of his time--principles, indeed, which the rest of the world has only recently adopted--we can understand why Pennsylvania became the wonder and talk of all Europe, as a most remarkable experiment by a most interesting man and why Voltaire would never to the end of his life give up the thought that it was an ideal spot for human existence, and the refuge for all lovers of liberty as well as philosophers."

    Penn followed the custom of the time and paid the Indians for land as he needed it, a great purchase by his heirs in 1754 in the western part of the province being for seven million acres for the sum of 750 pounds. Not much it seems but it was trackless and wild, and the Indians were satisfied. But Penn did more than that when he arrived. He went among them seeking their friendship, entertained them, and called the chiefs to a conference on the banks of the Delaware where a solemn treaty of friendship was made and never broken as far as the Quakers were concerned, which is more than could be said of some other colonies. Colonists were flocking in--a large contingent of German Protestant sects of Mennonites, and Moravians who settled a little to the west, keeping their own language and customs. They were later called the Pennsylvania Dutch. Farther to the west the Scotch-Irish moved in by themselves. But the large Welsh Quaker Tract was close in just to the north of the Warner family holdings with intermarriage beginning

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between the two groups. The Quakers held the reins of government of the colony almost to the time of the Revolution although soon outnumbered by other colonists. This was unusual for them as a sect, both before and after this tine because of their very peaceful principles and reluctance to accept official positions. They did not believe in taking an oath in court or in bearing arms and were very strict on forms of recreation. But they were good and honorable business men, many became wealthy and loved good living after Penn's example. Penn had built a luxurious country home a few miles north of Philadelphia on the Delaware River that he called "Pennsbury." He had expected to make his permanent home there but, in fact, had only two periods of residence, 1682 to 1684 and 1699 to 1701. His presence in England was necessary to protect his interests before the crown and in the courts from Lord Baltimore who was claiming a large part of Pennsylvania as part of his grant of Maryland. He died in England July 30, 1718, and his wife and sons carried on the proprietorship until it was voided when England lost the colony in the Revolution.

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THE SONS OF WILLIAM THE PIONEER

    John Warner, eldest son of William the Pioneer, was born in England in 1649 and died on his estate on the Schuylkill April 12, 1717. He married Anne Campden whose surname suggests that her family was of Chipping Campden near Blockley in England where some of the Warners were well known.

    It should be stated here that there seems to be an error in the family chart where a brother of William the Pioneer named John is shown as coming to America shortly after his brother and settling nearby. Jordan's history does not show this John at all and in fact assigns the children shown for him to William's son John. It seems probable that William's brother John did not leave England since there is a Thomas Warner, a retired Post-Office official, now living near Blockley, England, who claims that he is descended from John, the brother of William. Thomas Warner was visited in 1960 by Robert C. Winthrop (see foreword) and stated that his ancestor John was a famous clock-maker. He made the first pendulum clock in the Church at Chipping Campden. His descendants were clock-makers for several generations and grandfather clocks with their name on the face are prized.

    Another brother of William the Pioneer was Edward who did not come to America but is on record in its charter as Trustee of the Friends (Quaker) Church at Back Campden. In connection with the family in England there is in existence the elaborate documents of a lawsuit during the reign of King George III in which a John Warner regained possession of property taken away from him in Chipping Campden.

    To return now to events in this country with William's son John: He had a large estate of his own on the Schuylkill adjoining his

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father's on the north, since he had bought William Orian's place which lay between them. One of his daughters, Mary, married Jacob Heston of the German colony in Bucks County and their son Colonel Edward Warner Heston, was an officer in the War of Independence. John was a member of the Provincial Assembly for the years 1713, 1714, and 1715. His home was a large log house in which he lived in the style of a gentleman of landed estate and raised a large family of five sons and five daughters. This log house continued in possession of the family until 1799, when it was torn down by his grandson, Colonel Heston. The massive timbers were still so good that Colonel Heston used them in the construction of his own house the following year, and they were still in fair condition when this building was demolished in 1901. John died in 1717 at age 68 and willed the larger part of his estate to his sons William and Isaac.

    William Warner, Jr., the second son of William the Pioneer was born in England in 1653 and died here in 1714. He did not join his father and brothers in their settlement in Pennsylvania but remained in New Jersey. He married Christina Schute, daughter of Lieutenant Swen Schute who had been one of the first Swedish immigrants. Lieutenant Schute was commander of one of their forts on the Delaware River about 1644 and in 1653 was granted, by Queen Christina of Sweden, lands on the west bank of the Delaware extending to the Schuylkill River. By this marriage was joined the blood of the first settlers from England and Sweden in the New World. It is not the purpose of this narrative to follow the descendants of John or William, Jr., since we descend from the youngest son, Isaac, but it will note a few interesting things about some of William, Jr.'s descendants. A granddaughter named Elisabeth Warner married at age 16, Philip Syng, Jr.; they had eighteen children, only five of the daughters surviving. Philip Syng, Jr., lived for 86 years in Philadelphia and was a prominent and useful man in the colony. He was a friend and associate of Benjamin Franklin. He was a famous silversmith who made the silver inkstand still on exhibit, used by the signers of the Declaration of Independence. With Franklin he was a member of the Junto and the American Philosophical Society, inventing a machine used in their experiments with electricity. They were organizers of the first Masonic Lodge in America, of which Syng was Grand Junior Warden. He was also interested in the library, college and hospital and

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served as Commissioner of the colony and Treasurer of Philadelphia. His grave is at Christ Church of which he had been a vestryman.

    A grandson of William, Jr., Joseph Warner, born in 1742, was one of the founders of the Bank of Delaware. He and his sons, John and William, operated a line of boats between Wilmington, Delaware and Philadelphia and had a trading business along the coast and with the West Indies. Some of this family settled around Wilmington. In 1794, other descendants of William, Jr., organized The Warner Company of Philadelphia that is operating today as a large firm dealing in sand, gravel and other construction materials. At some time in the past they had acquired the deserted land where William Penn's "Pennsbury Manor" once stood. On October 23, 1932, the 250th anniversary of Penn's arrival in America, Charles Warner of the Warner Company presented to the State of Pennsylvania and the Historical Society, a deed to this tract of land on the river north of Philadelphia as a permanent memorial site to the Quaker statesman and benefactor of mankind.

II. Isaac Warner, the 1st (1662-1727)

    Isaac was the youngest son of William the Pioneer and the ancestor in our line. He was supposedly born in America and was only 16 when his father and older brother John carved out their estates from the primeval forest. He probably lived with his father and inherited Blockley with the proviso that it go to his eldest son. To his estate of Blockley he added by purchase 50 acres from his brother John, 100 acres from his cousin, James Kite, Jr., 25 acres from John Powell, and 67 acres from Philip Howell. On October 30, 1692, at age 30, he married Anne Craven whose father had come from Limerick, Ireland, and received a grant of 1,000 acres from William Penn. As they were married at the Philadelphia Quaker Meeting they were both of that persuasion. Their children were as follows:

1. William (Baron), born 1693; died September, 1766; more of him later
2. John, no record, married Mary Hart; their son George Gray Warner admitted to Colony in Schuylkill May 1, 1754
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3. Isaac (2nd), born 1700; died November 13, 1757; married Elizabeth Lewis; more of him later
4. Mary, no record; married Thomas Wynne, 1722
5. Esther, no record; married first, Benjamin Humphries, 1726; married second, Richard George, 1740
6. Hannah, no record
7. Anne, no record; married Jonathan Wynne, 1730
    The daughters, Mary and Anne, married grandsons of Dr. Thomas Wynne, the physician of William Penn. There is no further record of the life of Isaac (1st). He probably lived a quiet Quaker life attending to the improvement of Blockley and his other property. He died April 10, 1727; his will was proved in Philadelphia May 6, 1727 as Will No. 46, Book E, page 42. His wife Anne (Craven) survived him by 27 years; her will, dated January 23, 1746-47, was proved October 17, 1754 as Will No. 134, Book K, page 206.

    The provisions of these two wills, as quoted by Jordan in his Colonial Families, seems to solve the mystery of who built the old three-story stone building still standing in 1969 in Haverford. Isaac (1st) bequeathed the 67 acres he bought of Philip Howell to his wife Anne and after her death to his son Isaac (2nd). (The Howell lands were in the Haverford district; see History of Delaware County.) The eldest son, William (Baron) was to have Blockley intact by decree of his grandfather. But Anne, the spunky Irish lass from Limerick, was determined that Isaac (2nd), perhaps her favorite son, should have something worthwhile. In her will is this provision--"to her son Isaac Warner, twenty shillings and the stone house she had built at a great charge of trouble, on the land that was to go to him, at her death, by her husband's will."

    This house she had had built "at a great charge of trouble," perhaps in 1729, after her husband's death and later enlarged, is no doubt the large, three-story, plastered stone building still standing (1969) in Haverford at 357 West Lancaster Avenue. It was so well built that after 240 years it was still in use for offices though not owned by the family in later years.

    Isaac, we believe, went there to live on his marriage in 1731 to Elizabeth Lewis and raised their family of eight there. It is historic because Anthony, one of the eight, used it as a shoe factory for the Revolutionary Army.

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    Another provision of the will of Isaac (1st) reveals that slavery existed in the early days of the colony: "to his son, William, a negro boy Caffe and a negro man Fortune; to his son John, a negro boy Sambo; to his son Isaac, a negro boy Primus; to his daughter Esther, a negro girl Hagar; to his daughter Hannah a negro girl Zilpha." But the Quakers began to have qualms about keeping slaves, and it was soon abolished among them.

    We leave the direct line of this narrative now for a look at what happened in the lives of William (Baron), eldest son of Isaac (1st) and William's son Isaac (Colonel) that concerned our nation's history.

    William Warner (Baron) was born in 1693 and died in September 1766. The name of his wife does not appear in any of the sources consulted, but they had seven children, the eldest being named Isaac (Colonel) which seems to have been as common as John and William in the family at that time. (The Isaacs in direct line have been designated in this narrative by 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th; those not in direct line by other titles.) On January 17, 1758, eight years before his death, William (Baron) and his wife conveyed to their son Isaac (Colonel) by deed of gift, the estate of Blockley. From William the Pioneer on through his great grandson, they seem to have had the desire to keep Blockley a unit, but the eventual growth of Philadelphia beyond the Schuylkill River destroyed their hope.

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THE OLDEST CLUB IN AMERICA

    In May of 1732, on the estate of William Warner (Baron), there was organized a fishing and recreation club that is without doubt the oldest club in America, because it is still in existence, and the most exclusive, because its membership is now limited to forty and they must already be members of the distinguished "Philadelphia Club." An article in the August 1883 issue of the old Century magazine gives the early history of the club. It had the form of a separate colony with a governor, secretary of state and other officials and was named "Colony in Schuylkill"--each member being called a citizen. They were granted the use of an acre of ground facing the river by William Warner where they built their "Court House," a wooden building 15 by 40 feet with a huge fireplace. For this favor he was called the "Baron" and a "lord of the soil" was formally presented each June, as rental, three sun perch on a pewter platter that had been given to the colony by the heirs of William Penn and which carried the coat of arms of the Penn family. Elaborate dinners are a feature of the club, each citizen wearing the official costume of a large white apron and straw sailor hat from China, being responsible for one of the courses. Their famous "fish house punch" is made in an immense bowl by a secret recipe into which is lowered a 50 pound cake of ice at the proper point.

    In 1782 the name was changed to "State in Schuylkill," and the Court House became a Castle. A declaration of independence and fourteen enactments were made that do not recognize the sovereignty of the United States, but this has never seemed to bother the national administration. Early governors were Thomas Stritch for 34 years and Samuel Morris for 46 years. Prominent guests entertained at the Castle in early days were George Washington in 1787 and General Lafayette in 1825. In 1822 the erection of a dam at Fairmount so interfered with the fishing that a new location was

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secured five miles down the river at Rambo Rock below Gray's Ferry. The Castle was floated there and put up on the new domain after ninety years at the original site. There have been other changes over the years, and the club now meets near Bristol on the Delaware above Philadelphia, according to an August 17, 1967, article in the Main Line Chronicle of Ardmore, Pennsylvania.

    Isaac Warner (Colonel), for whom there is no birth record, died September 20, 1794. He married Lydia Coulton in 1757, and they had eight children. As the oldest son of his father William, he inherited Blockley and so became the second Baron of the Colony in Schuylkill. He enlisted in 1776 and became Colonel of the seventh battalion of the Philadelphia County Militia. Being of the Quaker faith he was "read out of meeting" for bearing arms but must have been restored after the war since he is buried in the cemetery of the Merion Meeting. There were other members of Colony in Schuylkill who served in the war. Its governor Samuel Morris was Captain of the Philadelphia Light Horse, a crack cavalry corps that served with distinction in the Jersey campaigns, participated in the battles of Princeton and Trenton, was Washington's bodyguard and was with him at Valley Forge.

    One of Isaac Warner's daughters, Tacy, married Algernon Roberts of the Welsh Barony and from that line in the years of the following century came George B. Roberts, President of the Pennsylvania Railroad, and son Percival Roberts, head of the American Bridge Company and a director of United States Steel in 1900.     The following anecdote of Colonel Isaac Warner's service in the Revolution was part of some Warner history published in the Germantown, Independent Gazette of December 11, 1914. It was found among the papers of Warner Merrick. When Warner Mifflin visited General Washington on a mission of peace, while the general was camped at what is now Camp Hill, near Fort Washington, skirting the Whitemarsh Valley, and a little later, at Valley Forge, the following conversation is alleged to have taken place:

    General Washington said, "Mr. Mifflin, how do you come by the name of Warner?"

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    Warner Mifflin replied, "The Mifflin and Warner families settled in eastern Pennsylvania before the advent there of William Penn. Their farms were separated only by the Schuylkill River. These families intermarried and my name was my mother's maiden name of Warner."

    General Washington said, "We have here in our camp Colonel Isaac Warner, acting as commissary general. He may be a relative of yours and your cousin, General Mifflin. We will have him come up to headquarters and learn what he can tell us."

    Warner Mifflin asked, "General Washington, why are you so interested in the Warner family?"

    General Washington said, "I am a Warner through my grandmother who was Mildred Warner. She was daughter of Colonel Augustine Warner, of Warner Hall, Gloucester, Virginia. Colonel Warner was formerly a colonel in the King's army. He emigrated from Gloucestershire, England, to his settlement, which he named Gloucester, Virginia." (Colonel Augustine Warner was the first president of the Virginia Assembly.)

    When Colonel Isaac Warner, the commissary general aforementioned, appeared, General Washington asked him the same question, to which he replied, "The earliest ancestor of whom I have any knowledge was Captain William Warner, who had been a captain in Cromwell's army. He had originally settled on the Delaware River at Gloucester, New Jersey, before the advent of the Quakers there and later he moved into Pennsylvania."

    Colonel Warner then said, "General Washington, if you are enough interested in this subject to pursue it further, there is another officer here, whose name is Seth Warner, in a Connecticut regiment, one of the Green Mountain Boys."

    General Washington sent for him to come to headquarters remarking, "I suspect that we are all descended from common stock that at one time had its seat in Gloucestershire, England."

    When Major Seth Warner appeared, in reply to General Washington's question, he said that he had a very imperfect knowledge of

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his ancestry. There was a tradition in the family to the effect that they had originally moved from Gloucestershire, England to Gloucester, Massachusetts, and thence to the Connecticut valley."

    This peace mission of Warner Mifflin's is mentioned in Isaac Sharpless' book, Quakers in the Revolution, Vol. 2, page 171. He was a leader of a committee of five neutral Quakers of Philadelphia trying to get General Howe and General Washington together to end the war. "An interesting sequel to this visit is related. When Washington was President, one of the committee, Warner Mifflin, called upon him. (Probably while the government was in Philadelphia.) The President remembered him, and adverted to their former interview. Mr. Mifflin," he said, "will you now please tell me on what principle you were opposed to the Revolution?" "Yes, Friend Washington; upon the principle that I would be opposed to a change in the present government. All that was ever secured by revolution is not an adequate compensation for the poor mangled soldiers and for the loss of life and limb."

    "I honor your sentiments," replied the President, "for there is more in them then mankind has generally considered."

    Colonel Isaac Warner was acting commissary general during the terrible winter encampment at Valley Forge, and it was a thankless job. After two years as commissary general, Joseph Trumbull, a great patriot, had worked himself into ill health and resigned and the successor who had been appointed was seldom seen at camp, as Washington reported to Congress. Soldiers were detailed to live in the countryside and bring the forage to central points whence wagons brought it to camp, but it was slim picking. When General Howe had first occupied Philadelphia, his foraging parties had quite covered the country within a few miles. Also the British were paying in gold to the farmers who would bring food into the city, for there were many who were either neutral to the cause or Tory sympathizers who did so. The currency issued by the Continental Congress had very little value as there was no financial backing for it. So the army went hungry, had no clothing or uniforms to replace their rags and no shoes when those they had wore out. It was only the incomparable personality of Washington and their belief that he was doing all he could for them that held together the small army of true patriot soldiers huddled around their fires that winter at Valley Forge.

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III. Isaac Warner, 2nd (1700-1757)

    Here we return to the direct line from William the Pioneer to Anthony, the Revolutionary soldier in our descent. This second Isaac was the son of Isaac (1st), the grandson of William, the Pioneer and the brother of William (Baron). He married Elizabeth Lewis, daughter of Abraham Lewis of Darby, Chester County on October 2, 1731. He married Jane Corsen after the death of his first wife. The Warner chart does not state which one was the mother of his eight children, but it is presumed that it was Elizabeth Lewis because in the will of Anthony Lewis of Upper Darby, dated June 21, 1799, he left a bequest to "Rachel Warner, widow of nephew Anthony Warner." Anthony was the seventh child. The children were as follows:

1. Hannah, born 1732; married John Robert
2. William, born 1734; no record
3. Mary, born 1736; no record
4. Abraham, born 1738; no record
5. Isaac (3rd), born 1740; died 1812
6. Jacob, born 1742; died 1814
7. Anthony, born 1744; died 1798
8. Ann, born 1747; no record
    Isaac was evidently a Quaker as he was buried at the Friends Meeting house at Haverford, Pennsylvania. His will, dated November 13, 1757, was proved in Philadelphia December 3, 1757, as Will No. 21, Book L, page 31. His sons Isaac and Jacob were also buried at the Haverford Meeting graveyard. It is believed that Anthony is also buried there, but the supposed grave has no marker. Except for Anthony, the family chart records only that Hannah the oldest child married John Robert. Since the estate of Blockley went to his eldest brother William (Baron), Isaac was left land at Haverford by his father and mother upon which had been built the three story stone house mentioned previously.

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357 West Lancaster Avenue, Haverford, Pa.

357 West Lancaster Avenue, Haverford, Pa.

    The old, plastered stone building at 357 West Lancaster Avenue, Haverford, Pennsylvania, where shoes were made for the barefoot army of General Washington. In the 1800's, a Warner store was on the first floor, an apartment on the second, and a shoe factory on the third. Originally, it was only the three window-wide front section, later enlarged for offices, but it was demolished in 1970 to make way for a new office building.

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THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR YEARS

IV. Anthony Warner (1744-1798)

    Anthony Warner was born in Haverford and as a young man acquired a home and farm two miles to the west at what is now Rosemont on the great Lancaster road. At age 22 he married Rachel Evans of Gwynedd, probably on May 8, 1772. She was the daughter of Peter Evans descended from Owen Evans, one of the four Evans brothers who came from Weiss and bought land from William Penn.*

    After coming to America, the Evans brothers became Quakers, and Rachel was one. Since Anthony, her husband, was not one at the time, she was "read out of meeting." Following in the quaint record as copied from the Original Minute Book of the Radnor monthly meeting at Friends Central Bureau in Philadelphia: "The Monthly Meeting held at Radnor Meeting House the 9th of the 12th Mo. 1773. . . . The following Testimony against the Misconduct of Rachel Warner was brought according to Order. Whereas Rachel Warner, having a Birthright among the People called Quakers, but she not keeping to the Rules amongst them and conducting opposite thereto,
___________________

    *Rowland E. Evans of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, prepared a family chart showing the origin of the Evans family. It traces the descent of the four Evans brothers of Gwynedd, Pennsylvania, back to Mervyn Vrych, Kind of Man, who was killed in battle with the King of Mercia, A.D. 843. Mervyn married Essylt, daughter and sole heiress of Conan Tyndaethwy, King of Wales (who died 818 or 820). Both Mervyn and Essylt traced their descent from Lludd, King of Britain, brother of Caswallon, the chief who resisted the invasion of Caesar, before the Christian era.

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did Accomplish her Marriage by the Assistance of a Priest Contrary to the Rules amongst Friends. This Meeting for the Clearing of Truth Testified against such Misconduct, and Disown said Rachel Warner to be a member of our Society; Until she comes to a Sight and Sense of her Misconduct and makes the Meeting Satisfaction, which is our Sincere desire."

    Rachel acknowledged her Misconduct and was probably restored to membership later, but there is no record that she ever repented her misconduct. She was born January 21, 1751, and died of the cholera at Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The date of her death is not known, but it must have been later than August 18, 1806 because on that date the will of Anthony Lewis was proved, and in his will is a bequest to "Rachel Warner, widow of nephew Anthony Warner." Rachel was the administratrix of her husband's will, affirmed September 29, 1798. The appraisal of their personal property, amounting to 160 pounds, 3 shillings and 6 pence, is in the Montgomery County Administration papers, Township of Lower Merion, 1798, #17199. Unfortunately the burial place of Rachel is unknown. It is probably at Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The supposed grave of Anthony in the old Quaker cemetery at Haverford was pointed out to this writer in 1941 by Jacob Warner, but there is no marker on the grave. The grave is near one of an Isaac Warner, probably Anthony's father, who was buried there. That has a very rough stone like a large piece of slate.

    Following are the children of Anthony and Rachel Warner:

1. Zebulon (V), born 1773; died 1821; great grandfather of this writer
2. Mary (twin of Zebulon), born 1773; died 1863; married Mr. Hesson, had a large mansion on the pike at Bryn Mawr
3. Hannah, born 1775; died ?, married John Gooding, lived at Elm Grove, near Wheeling, West Virginia
4. Levi, born 1777; died ?, lived at Chillicothe, Ohio, where he built a Quaker Meeting House
5. Isaac (4th), born July 24, 1780; died January 3, 1864; married Jane Latch on December 1, 1808; his descendants stayed on Warner lands at Haverford
6. Peter, born 1783; died ?, married Miss Gosnay of Wheeling, West Virginia, and lived in Martins Ferry and Manchester, Ohio
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7. Lewis, born 1786; died ?, lived at Haverford
8. Susan, born 1788; died ?, married Daniel Perrine. One of their sons Penrose Perrine, was an author and editor-in-chief of the Philadelphia Bulletin and used the pen name of "Penn."
9. Jacob, born 1791; died ?, buried at Oakmont cemetery, Haverford
10. Eliza, born 1794; died ?, married Mr. Mosier, lived at Shepardstown, Virginia (now West Virginia), on the Potomac above Harper's Ferry.
    The Lancaster road* was the great artery of transportation and at this time, flowing westward from Philadelphia, ever westward as the tide of migration increased. At their home facing the road, Anthony and Rachel were aware of the news from riders going by and heard the rumbling of the coming storm of war that was to engulf the colonies. On July 4, 1776, they had only been married four years, had a comfortable home and good farm, the twins Zebulon and Mary and baby Hannah, a year old. It was a time of solemn discussion. Their friends and relatives were of the sect that abhorred war. And yet their families, only a few generations back, had come to a new land to escape tyranny and to gain religious freedom. They made the hard decision that their duty lay with those who were to try to protect those freedoms. Some of Anthony's relatives made the same decision. His cousins, Isaac Warner, Algernon Roberts and Richard Thomas, was "read out of Quaker Meeting," at "The Monthly Meeting held at Merion Meeting House the 10th of ye 5th mo. 1776." Even Rachel's father, Peter Evans, and Anthony's grandfather, Abraham Lewis, enlisted. Abraham Lewis, possibly 70 years old, was one of the first to enlist and one to suffer the most. He became a first lieutenant of riflemen in the Fourth Pennsylvania Regulars, was injured, taken prisoner, and treated horribly in the notorious British prisons. Two of Washing-
___________________

    *The early roads in the colonies became deep in mud in bad weather. This road, probably, became the first long turnpike in America with a good macadam construction. It was opened in 1795 at a cost of $465,000.00 to the state and ran from Philadelphia to Lancaster, Pennsylvania.

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ton's most trusted generals, Nathaniel Green of Rhode Island and Thomas Mifflin of Philadelphia had also dropped their Quaker principles to serve.

    When the war moved into Pennsylvania in 1777, it was decided between them that Anthony would enlist as a private in the militia and the brave Rachel would try to run the farm with the help of an old man. The date of his enlistment was in 1777, but he does not show in the Pennsylvania archives till the years 1780-1782 a member, 6th class, of the Chester County Militia. The early muster rolls of the militia were not carefully kept or preserved. (The family history of these Revolutionary years we have because this writer's father, then a young man of 21, in 1868, had personal contacts with Anthony's daughter, Hannah Warner Gooding, and grand-daughter Evaline Warner, as stated in the Foreword.)

    In September 1777 Washington and his army tried unsuccessfully, at the battle of Brandywine, to prevent the British army under General Howe from taking Philadelphia. Private Anthony Warner was with the army at the battle of Germantown in October when the British were driven back behind their defenses around Philadelphia. Howe was penned in from getting supplies by water, as Forts Mercer and Mifflin on the Delaware River below the city were still in the hands of the Continental Army. So the British began to send out foraging parties in the countryside to bring in food and fuel. One of the farms they visited was that of Anthony and Rachel. Rachel, looking out the window one day, saw a squad of British soldiers in charge of an officer approaching. She was terrified for the safety of her home, children and livestock. The officer told her that he understood her husband was in the Continental Army, and she would have to take the consequences. The soldiers began eating everything in sight--even the candles and the bread baking in the oven--and gathering food, clothing, and bedding to take away. Just then a neighbor, John Roberts, appeared. He was a British sympathizer but wanted to help a neighbor he liked. He said to the officer, "You were misinformed about her husband being in the army," and pointing to a feeble old man working in the garden remarked, "That is her husband." The Captain replied, "I can scarcely believe that so young a woman would marry so old a man." Roberts then said, "It is because so many men have gone to war that a woman who does not want to marry a rebel has not much choice." The officer rather

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reluctantly ordered his soldiers to return the household goods; the crops and livestock were saved, and there was no personal harm to Rachel and the children. But it was a narrow escape.

    This John Roberts, although he had helped a neighbor in distress, was very bitter in his resentment at the war for independence. He was accused of pointing out to the British foraging parties the farm households that were loyal to the American cause. He had a flour mill at Ardmore, Pennsylvania, and was also accused of putting ground glass in flour sold to the troops at Valley Forge. If true, that would have been the ultimate agony to impose on men who were suffering so much already for their country. This was probably a false accusation as he had been a wealthy and respected Quaker and his friends did not believe it. But feelings ran high; he had apparently collaborated with the British; he was tried, sentenced and hung.

Valley Forge

    On December 19, 1777, Washington with his army came into the high, bleak ground that had been picked for a winter encampment. It was to go down in history as a place called Valley Forge. Its only advantages were easy defense if Howe should attack and plenty of trees from which the soldiers would build log huts and get their firewood. It was to be the severest winter in many years. The soldiers came here weary, cold, hungry, almost naked, without good blankets and good shoes. Many had rags around their feet, yet left blood stains on the hard, frozen ground when they marched. Anthony Warner was with them although his home was only a few miles away. His cousin, Colonel Isaac Warner, mentioned previously, was there, acting as commissary general. In connection with the food shortage, there is the story of another Warner (we do not have his connection) who contracted to make bread for the army. A detachment of General Howe's army was guided to his place of business by some of the Tory neighbors, who were incensed at his supplying the Rebel army with bread. His good wife concealed him in an empty cask and piled other empty casks around it. In searching for him, the soldiers knocked in the heads of some casks, and finding them empty, proposed to set fire to the place and roast him out. His terrified wife was about ready to reveal his hiding place when there

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was a commotion caused by the approach of Captain McLane's American cavalry troop and the British and their Tory guides fled. The fact that he had a small trunkful of Continental money at the end of the war is evidence that he continued to supply Washington's army with bread.

    About this time foraging parties of the British almost ceased. Howe had taken the Delaware forts by bombardment from ship and shore and that opened a way for supplies by boat. But there was a better reason--they were being scourged by two troops of hard riding cavalry, both with bold and brilliant leaders. One was a small band under the spectacular Captain Alan McLane, who rode a magnificent horse he had named Saladin. The other, led by young Henry Lee (Light Horse Harry), a part of Bland's Virginia cavalry, was based at Scott's farm six miles from Valley forge. The British sent out a detachment to capture Captain Lee. He and his men were warned in time, barricaded the lower floor of the house and took to the windows of the upper floor with their guns. After several of the attackers were killed the detachment withdrew. His troop, known as "Lee's Legion," became famous during the war for its daring exploits. In later years he became governor of Virginia and father of the great Confederate general, Robert E. Lee.

    We do not know from whom came the suggestion of a plan to solve the urgent need for shoes for the army at Valley forge, but it is probable that Colonel Isaac Warner brought it to General Washington. He knew that there was available in Haverford a large three-story stone building not far from his cousin Anthony's home. This was the place where Anthony had been born and raised. Washington accepted the plan, commissioned Anthony a captain, that he might have authority, with instructions to start a shoe factory for the army. This must have been a sort of battlefield commission, for he continued to be carried on the militia rolls as a private. Anthony, glad to be back with his family to live, took on the job of recruiting a work force as soon as possible. There shoemakers among the German settlers and non-fighting Quakers who could be hired and many soldiers on furlough, or militia who had served short-term enlistments who were used. How it was financed, there is no record as far as we know. The Warner family, at least, gave use of the building and may have given more. General Washington may have used some of his own money at the start (he is said to

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have spent a large part of his fortune in the war, refusing a salary for his own service). The Congress had been inefficient and dilatory in providing the needs of the army.

    We do not believe that Anthony continued in the shoe business after the war as he continued to run his farm. However, the family still living in Haverford, have records showing that Lewis Warner, a grandson (1812-1872), had a shoe business in the building beginning in 1836 and that shoes were made there for the Union Army during the Civil War when 20 men were employed. At one time there was a Warner store on the first floor, living quarters on the second and a shoe factory on the third. The building was still standing in 1969 in use for offices at 357 West Lancaster Avenue in Haverford. The present owners we have been informed, are to tear it down and erect a new building in its place. It seems sad that where so much of history has passed by the door of this old building, it cannot be preserved as an historical landmark.

Washington's Visit to Anthony Warner

    When the war had finally dragged to an end and the last of the British troops had evacuated New York City, Washington had an affectionate farewell dinner there at Fraunces' Tavern with the officers who had so faithfully served with him. Then the urgent call of the beloved Mount Vernon that had seen so little of him for eight long years was irresistible and he started south. But he did not forget Captain Anthony Warner and sent word that when he passed through Philadelphia he would ride out to call on him at his home. This caused considerable excitement in the farm home near Haverford. Great preparations were made and the children dressed up to be presented. The twins, Zebulon (the writer's great-grandfather) and Mary were eleven; Hannah was nine; Levi seven and Isaac four. Following is a quotation from the account of the meeting by the writer's father as it was related to him in 1868 by his Great Aunt Hannah: When Rachel and the children were presented, Washington said, "I esteem it a great privilege to make the acquaintance of another one of our colonial mothers who with their children about them, courageously held the home fort when surrounded by British sympathizers and in constant danger of raids by British soldiers, and I shall be interested in hearing the details

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of the unfriendly visit of enemy troops to your home. I am pleased also to know personally each of your children, for I love girls and boys and always try to make them happy. Hannah, come and sit on my knee while I talk to father and mother about some things that happened during the war. With your hair so nicely curled and wearing a new silk dress, even though you have a rather large nose, I think you are a very pretty little girl. We had a very dear girl in our home. If you had known her, I am sure you would have liked her. Martha was her name but we called her Patsy. She had her pet cats and dogs and a Shetland pony but was sick very much of the time and when death took her from us, it brought the deepest grief to our hearts and I am sure you feel sorry for us." Hannah liked what he said and laughed at the reference to her nose. She never forgot it as long as she lived, and she lived to be a very old woman. She laughed again at 93 when she told the story to my father.

    Anthony lived only a few years after the war and died in 1798 at age 54. The brave and capable Rachel survived him and was offered a pension by the government but refused it, saying that she had ample means of her own. In her declining years she lived at the Red Lion Inn at Ardmore, Pennsylvania.

Children of Anthony and Rachel Warner

    Of the ten children of Anthony and Rachel, five remained in the general vicinity of their birthplace. Mary (#2), the oldest daughter, married a man named Hesson who had large land holdings at Bryn Mawr and built a fine home on the turnpike where Mary lived to be 90 and was known in her later years as Aunt Hesson. Isaac (#5), as a carpenter built a good home on a corner at what later became College Lane and Lancaster Avenue in Haverford. Lewis (#7) also remained in Haverford. Susan (#8), married into the Perrine family. Jacob (#9) is buried at Oakmont cemetery near Haverford. One of his daughters married R. S. Reed, a Philadelphia real estate broker. The other five children moved away and eventually three became part of the pioneers who helped to build what was to become the great state of Ohio. Zebulon (#1), the oldest, and Hannah (#3), at some time following the end of the war, went to live with an aunt and uncle at Shepardstown, Virginia and were brought

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up and educated by them. This aunt was their mother's sister, Hannah Evans, who had married Dr. Wyncoop. Why Anthony and Rachel gave up the care of their two older children to the Wyncoops is not known, but there was a suggestion in a old letter that Anthony's health had been impaired in his service in the war and his family was large. Levi (#4), and Peter (#6), when young men, went to join their brother Zebulon on his trek to Ohio. Eliza (#10), the youngest, also went to Shepardstown under the care of Dr. and Mrs. Wyncoop after her father's death in 1798. There, in due time, the two sisters married, Hannah to John Gooding and Eliza to Mr. Mosier (first name unknown). There too, Zebulon found his good wife Mary Fulton. Shepardstown, Virginia (now West Virginia) is only 20 miles south of the Pennsylvania border, but approximately 125 miles westward from Haverford, Pennsylvania. It is on the upper reaches of the Potomac River well above the site of Washington, the new capital city of the nation that was to be moved there in 1800. It is probable that the Wyncoops were Quakers and that the children were brought up in that faith.

V. Zebulon Warner (1773-1821)

    Zebulon married Mary Fulton in 1793 at Travellers Rest, near Shepardstown. Mary Fulton was an orphan from Northumberland County, Pennsylvania (born 1774; died December 24, 1845, in Zanesville, Ohio), who had been adopted by an uncle, John Marks, living at Shepardstown. Her father while a soldier in the Revolutionary Army under Washington died of quinsy in camp on the day of the battle of Brandywine. Her mother, having heard of the sickness of her husband, started from their home at Shamokin, Pennsylvania, on horseback without saddle or bridle, only a rope round his neck, and her young son accompanying her through the unfriendly forest. Reaching the Shamokin River they found the stream swollen from recent rains, and it could not be forded, and there being no bridge on which to cross, with the heroism often displayed by the determined pioneer women, she urged the horse forward, compelling him to swim the stream, she on the horse's back and her boy holding to the horse's tail. They succeeded in reaching the camp safely and were with her husband until his death September 11, 1777.

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    Following are the children of Zebulon and Mary Fulton Warner:

1. Maria, born October 13, 1794 at Alexandria, Virginia; married Dr. James Hughes; died August 16, 1877 at Zanesville, Ohio
2. Wyncoop, born 1795 at Shepardstown, Virginia; married Minerva Boone; died April 16, 1836, Portsmouth, Ohio
3. James S., born August 28, 1797 near Winchester, Virginia; married Jane Dare; died April 20, 1879, at Zanesville, Ohio
4. Eliza, born 1800 at St. Clairsville, Ohio; spinster; died 1883 at Zanesville, Ohio
5. Evaline, born September 1815 at St. Clairsville, Ohio; spinster; died November 1, 1897 at Baltimore, Maryland; buried at Zanesville, Ohio
    The record does not show what Zebulon and Mary did in the years after their marriage in 1793 until they started on the westward trek to Ohio in 1798 or 1799, but the places of birth of their first three children from Shepardstown to Alexandria to Winchester show that they moved about in the great Potomac River valley, and his future activities stamp him as a man of action and initiative and a leader.

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MIGRATION WESTWARD BEGINS

    Westward migration had begun before Zebulon and Mary started their trek. In fact, one of the first to glimpse the possibilities of the magnificent country beyond the Appalachian Mountains was the young surveyor of the Colony of Virginia, George Washington. As a leader of the Virginia troops under General Braddock in the expedition against the French and Indians at Fort Pitt, he had seen it firsthand and was a leader in the formation of the Ohio Company with the idea of settlement of the new lands.

    Daniel Boone had also seen the country beyond the Appalachians as a wagoner on the Braddock expedition, and when that was defeated, he cut one of the horses from the wagon and rode for his home in Yadkin, North Carolina. But he did not forget the great country he had seen. In 1767 he scouted the country to the west, was captured by Indians, but escaped. The Transylvania Company was formed and hired Boone to scout and claim land in Kentucky, and in 1775 he led a group of 20 men through the Cumberland Gap in the mountains near the juncture of Tennessee, Virginia and Kentucky to cut the "Wilderness Road" through the tall timber to the Kentucky River where he built a fort and settlement he called Boonesborough. His friend and helper in the settlement of Kentucky, and as great a scout and Indian fighter as Boone himself, was Simon Kenton.

    Another bold frontiersman was Colonel Ebenezer Zane of Virginia. In 1769, on a long hunting trip, he had come out onto the high ground overlooking the beautiful Ohio River well below the site of Fort Pitt, later to become Pittsburgh, and was enchanted with the spot. He built a rough cabin and stayed that summer where Wheeling Creek came tumbling down from the hills into the Ohio. The next year he brought his family, four brothers, and several other families and founded the settlement that was later to become the city

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of Wheeling, West Virginia. In 1774, General George Rogers Clark, commandant of the Western Military Department, planned a strong fort here that was built by Colonel Zane and the settlers. As Fort Henry, named after Patrick Henry, it was the most famous fort on the frontier and with the one at Boonesborough had to resist attack by the Indians. The last battle of the Revolutionary War was an attack on Fort Henry in 1782 by a combined force of Indians and British Rangers from Detroit under command of a Captain Pratt, who were unable to take the fort and withdrew with heavy loss of life. The fight might well have had a different ending but for the great courage of Betty Zane, who was in the fort. The fort was running short of powder. There was more at the log house of the Zanes near the fort, also being defended. Every uninjured man in the fort was needed to mount the guns and put out fires caused by flaming arrows from the Indians. Betty sped to the house before the surprised attackers, but on the return, with her apron full of powder, arrows surrounded her. However, she reached the guarded gate and entered without harm. It was the turning point of the fight.

    The Indians, especially the tribes of Delawares, Shawnees, and Senecas, were enraged by the occupation of their hunting lands by the settlers who were coming in droves, floating down the Ohio River on flat boats. Where the settlers were caught defenseless, they were treated with great cruelty by the Indians, and there were reprisals by the whites. 1777 and 1778 were bloody years in the new lands just when Washington's army was in the dark days of Valley Forge. The British were furnishing arms to the Indians, and renegade white men like Simon Girty were helping the Indians. In 1783 the Peace Treaty with Great Britain made the Ohio Valley a U.S. possession as far as the Mississippi River, and in 1784 Daniel Boone had a tavern and trading post on the Ohio River at Maysville, Kentucky. In 1787 Congress enacted the Northwest Ordinance to provide for government in western areas, and in 1788 granted lands to a company of Massachusetts and Connecticut people to settle at Marietta, Ohio, where the Muskingum River comes into the Ohio. Groups from Virginia and Pennsylvania came into central Ohio.

    While the Ohio River and its tributaries had facilitated settlements in the Ohio and Kentucky country, there was no road into the interior of Ohio, so in 1796 Congress authorized Colonel Ebenezer Zane to build a road that began opposite Wheeling, ran in a

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great curve inland and south, ending at the Ohio River opposite Maysville, Kentucky. It was known as Zane's Trace. Where it crossed the Muskingum River by ferry Zanesville became a town and within a few years was second only to Cincinnati in size and importance. In 1794 the Indians were defeated in the battle of Fallen Timbers by a force under General Anthony Wayne that ended any concerted struggle by Indians to save their lands.

    In 1799, Zebulon Warner and his wife Mary Fulton, his sister Hannah Warner and her husband John Gooding decided to move from Shepardstown, Virginia and seek new homes in the Ohio country. Two of Zebulon's brothers, Levi, who was 22 and Peter, 16, came from the old home at Haverford, Pennsylvania, and joined them in the adventure. Of the way they went, there is no record, but it was probably the route taken 20 years later by the Cumberland National Road, the nation's first great government highway completed in 1818 and now known as U.S. #40 from Baltimore through Wheeling and across central Ohio. It is probable that they went by covered wagons to carry the household goods of both families; the wagons were perhaps of the famous Conestogas, built by the Pennsylvania Dutch for freighting on the rough roads of the frontier. They were heavy-wheeled and wide-tired, high-sided to keep the load from sliding out on steep grades, and with canvas stretched over bows for protection from weather. When new they were rather gay, with red running gear and the canvas painted sky blue.

    The journey, through Cumberland to Wheeling was 200 miles or more and, no doubt, the three stout men and a boy were needed to help ford the rivers and surmount the high hills. From the scant records we have, we know that when Wheeling was reached, John and Hannah Gooding decided to settle in that beautiful location while Zebulon and his family, Levi and Peter Warner crossed the river and settled first at Martin's Ferry, Ohio where they contracted to run a ferry between that place and Wheeling. The tide of migration for inland Ohio was moving that way.

    John and Hannah Warner Gooding settled at a place six miles east of Wheeling that came to be known as Elm Grove on the great highway where they built an inn, and lived the rest of their lives. They eventually built a fine home and raised a family of four. Their daughter Mary married Mr. A. T. Woods; the daughter Hettie, who died in 1816, had married Dr. John Quigley; a son was Dr. Levi

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Gooding; another son, Jacob, had a general store--all, as far we know, living and working in Elm Grove and Wheeling, West Virginia. Mrs. Woods inherited the home and there in 1868, the writer's father, Jeremiah Warner, then 21, went from Zanesville, Ohio, to visit his Great Aunt Hannah, who had sat on General George Washington's knee at her father's home near Haverford, Pennsylvania, just following the war. She had a bright, clear mind and delighted in telling the story, and my father was thrilled, in taking her hand, to realize that there were only two handclasps between himself and Washington. We do not have the date of Hannah's death.

    One of Zebulon's daughters, Miss Evaline Warner, lived with Mrs. Woods until the cousin's death, when she received lifetime use of the old home. But it was destroyed by fire. Some of his Grand Aunt Hannah's heirlooms came to my father. To this writer has come a pair of brass candlesticks that had been in the home of Hannah's father Anthony and a large, tinted, engraved copy of Gilbert Stuart's Athaneum portrait of Washington in a oval, antique wood and gilt frame from Hannah Gooding's home. In my brother's family are a large gilt-framed mirror and a cream pitcher of quaint design that were from Anthony's home.

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EARLY SETTLEMENT IN OHIO

    We do not know how long Zebulon and his brothers operated the ferry, but they had also built and operated a flour mill there. A few years later, Zebulon moved his home eight or ten miles away to St. Clairsville, Ohio, on the National Road where he built an inn; Levi moved on and settled near Chillicothe, a good town that had sprung up where Zane's Trace crossed the Scioto River and built there a Quaker Meeting House; Peter, who had married Miss Gosnay of Wheeling, moved to Manchester on the Ohio River near the terminus of Zane's Trace where he operated a flour mill that his brother Zebulon had bought. After his death, Zebulon's family lost contact with those of Levi and Peter, and we have no further record of them. It is possible that Levi became a farmer, as our record says only that he settled near Chillicothe, and if so, would be the only one of Anthony's sons to farm. Ohio had rich land with forests of oak, hickory, walnut, beech, ash and sycamore and many springs and many streams. Many Virginians settled around Chillicothe, one of whom was Colonel Thomas Worthington. He had freed his slaves, bought 5,000 acres there, and built a fine, large, two-story house of stone that was still standing in 1969.

    Ohio became a state in 1803 and in the same year President Jefferson bought from France the great tract west of the Mississippi known as the Louisiana Purchase. St. Clairsville was the county seat of Belmont County and Zebulon and Mary's inn and tavern was popular with travellers along the Cumberland National Road and with the lawyers and judge who rode the circuit on their horses from county to county with their clothing and law books in their saddlebags, to hold court at the county seats. The two youngest children of Zebulon and Mary were born here--Eliza, in 1800, and Evaline in 1815 and neither ever married. The oldest daughter, Maria, at age 17 married Dr. James Hughes in 1811, a physician of

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Bremen and later of Zanesville, Ohio.* Zebulon was an active business man. In addition to the inn and the flour mill at Manchester that he had bought for his brother Peter to operate, he was a commission merchant. The surplus grain of the farmers was being turned into flour; in the river towns there was water power for the manufacture also of lumber, leather, woolen goods, ironware, paper and meat packing. Before the day of steamboats and railroads the only cheap way to market these products was by water and they were loaded on large flat boats or keel boats roofed over for protection from the weather and the Indians, and floated down the Ohio and Mississippi to New Orleans, the boat itself being sold for the lumber in it. Zebulon bought these products and shipped them in the care of trusted men.

    In 1811 the first steamboat, the "New Orleans," appeared on the Ohio River. It was built at Pittsburgh from the plans of Robert Fulton whose steamboat, the "Clermont," was the first to operate successfully on the Hudson River in 1807. Zebulon's wife, Mary Fulton, was a relative (probably a cousin) of Robert Fulton, she being born in 1774 in Northumberland County and he in 1765 in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Zebulon's last shipment, in 1821, a valuable one in partnership with his son-in-law, Dr. James Hughes, was no doubt on a steamboat. He went along, either to go to New Orleans or as far as Manchester to see his brother, but at Portsmouth on the river he was taken sick, died and was buried there. There being no telegraph lines and very irregular mails his exact burial place was unknown to his family. It is strange that his death should follow the pattern of that of his mother Rachel, who died while away from home at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, of the cholera. Her grave is also unknown.

    Wyncoop Warner, oldest son of Zebulon and Mary Fulton Warner was born in Shepardstown, Virginia, in 1795 and died in Portsmouth, Ohio, on March 10, 1836. As a small boy he was on the trek to Ohio. While living at St. Clairsville, at the age of 17, he enlisted at Steubenville, Ohio, in the War of 1812 as Ensign in the 27th In-
___________________

    *Their granddaughter, Marie Hughes McCaslin Hixenbaugh got up a genealogy in 1928 of the Evans and Warner families from which this writer has borrowed some information.

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fantry; he was promoted to first lieutenant when only 18. In 1814 he was transferred to the 19th infantry, made a Captain and was with General Andrew Jackson at the Battle of New Orleans. He received an honorable discharge in 1815. At the close of the war he was appointed by President Madison as a Commissioner to the Sac and Fox Indians. He married Minerva Boone in Louisville, Kentucky, in 1816 or 1817, she being the daughter of Jesse Boone, and granddaughter of Daniel Boone. They went to Greenup Kentucky, on the Ohio River, to live, and their son Theodore was born there on April 18, 1818. After Monroe became President, Wyncoop resigned his job and they went to Booneville, Missouri, where Daniel Boone and some of his family had migrated in 1799. Old Daniel, who died on September 26, 1820, lived the last years of his life with Wyncoop Warner, who employed someone to take the old man hunting. For years Daniel Boone had kept a coffin he had made, under his bed, as related by old friends who had visited him. It was in this coffin that little Theodore kept his apples and nuts, according to a family tradition.

    Wyncoop and Minerva also had three daughters: Mary, born August 7, 1822; Margaret, born July 24, 1827; Russella, born March 20, 1834. Wyncoop went back on a visit to Ohio, supposedly to see his brother and sisters and find his father's grave and died at Portsmouth on April 16, 1836, the place where his father had died. There is no record of the cause of death.

    Daniel Boone lived to be 86 and was buried beside his faithful wife, Rebecca Bryan, who had been with him through a long lifetime. In 1845 the State of Kentucky had his and his wife's bodies removed to Frankfort, Kentucky, and reinterred with honors.
    Minerva Boone Warner lived until January 12, 1850 and is buried at Weston, Missouri. Their son, Theodore Warner was a pioneer merchant of Weston, interested in a line of steamboats on the Missouri River and became a partner with the famous Ben Holladay in the overland mail and passenger traffic from the Mississippi River to San Francisco, that was subsidized by the government. This great project was set up in the 1850's by John Butterfield who established over 200 stage stations, had 250 Concord Coaches, 1,800 horses, over 1,000 employees as stated in the book, The Americans by J. C. Furnas. They made the one way trip in 22 days at a

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passenger fare of $100. About the time of the Civil War, Butterfield sold out to Ben Holladay, who later sold to Wells, Fargo and Company. Theodore Warner had a large business in hemp when it was used for rope making; at one time he served in the Missouri legislature; he died February 8, 1891 at the home of a son-in-law, G. L. Andrews, in Kansas City. He had a son, Charles Warner, who lived in St. Louis.

VI. James S. Warner (1797-1879)

    James Warner was born August 25, 1797 near Winchester, Virginia; he died April 20, 1879 at Zanesville, Ohio, aged 82.

    Married, first: Mary Harral on October 10, 1825, who died September 12, 1829 at Zanesville. Their children were:

1. James Harral, born August 25, 1826; married Harrietta Etheridge, 1852 at Portsmouth, Virginia; died 1867 at Savannah, Georgia
2. Zebulon, born April 23, 1828; died July 27, 1829
    Married, second: Rebecca L. Dare, December 1831 (born May 12, 1810; died December 4, 1832, Zanesville). They had one child:
Rebecca, born November 30, 1832; married Alex Quigley; died at Columbus, Ohio
    Married, third: Jane Patterson Dare, March 29, 1841 (born September 4, 1808; died October 1, 1869, Zanesville). Their children were:
1. Mary Fulton, born February 14, 1842; a spinster, she died in New York City, May 11, 1920, age 78
2. Adaline Dare, born April 23, 1843; married P. H. Swank; died 1888, Columbus, Ohio
3. Henry Clay, born October 6, 1844; bachelor; died July 5, 1910, Zanesville, Ohio
4. George Sedgwick, born January 16, 1846; bachelor, died January 25, 1911
5. Jeremiah Dare, born April 9, 1847; married Laura Hayward;
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died February 16, 1939 at Denver, Colorado, age 91
6. Josephine Holden, born March 19, 1850; married Henry C. Huntington; died August 19, 1914 at New York City
    James Warner was 24 at the time of the death of his father, Zebulon, in 1821 on his last ill-fated merchandise venture to New Orleans. He had been associated with his father in the commission business and continued it after his father's death. In 1824 he moved to Zanesville with his mother and two younger sisters, Eliza and Evaline, his mother having sold the inn at St. Clairsville. Zanesville, Ohio, on the Muskingum River was a thriving town with over half a million dollars invested at that time in manufacturing, and it had good road and river transportation, but the outlet for its goods was only local and to New Orleans by river boat. By 1831, however, the great Ohio canal system of 1,000 miles dug by the Irish immigrants of the 1820's was in operation and connected with the Erie Canal that had been built from the Hudson River across New York and Pennsylvania to connect with the Great Lakes. Now the markets of those states and the port of New York were open to goods from Ohio shipped by cheap canal boat transportation.

    After James Warner went to Zanesville he began, in 1825, the manufacture of trunks, saddles and harness and for 54 years continued in the same location on Main Street. In the same year he married Mary Harral who only lived four years and by whom he had one son, James Harral, who lived to maturity and became a Chief Engineer in the U.S. Navy. In 1831, James Warner married Rebecca Dare, daughter of Jeremiah Dare of Zanesville, who lived only one year and left a daughter, Rebecca. After an interval of seven years he married an older sister of Rebecca, Jane Patterson Dare, in 1841. She was the mother of his six remaining children and the grandmother of this writer. In addition to being a good businessman, he was a strong supporter of the First Baptist Church of which he was a deacon for 45 years. His brother-in-law, Reverend George C. Sedgwick, who had married one of Jeremiah Dare's daughters, was minister of the church. The two sisters of James, Maria Warner Hughes and Evaline Warner also joined this church and from this time on the Quaker faith that had prevailed in much of the family since early days in America had changed to Baptist and other denominations. It was largely through the efforts of Reverend George Sedgwick, assisted by James S. Warner, that the Ohio Baptist State

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Convention and Granville College (now Denison University, a Baptist related institution) were organized. Reverend Sedgwick rode horseback over a large part of Ohio to awaken the interest in higher education that led to the college being founded in 1831 at Granville about 30 miles west of Zanesville. James had a strong constitution and was never sick until he was taken by dropsy in his 82nd year. It was said of him--"Mr. Warner had lived a remarkably even tempered, well-balanced life; without an enemy, noted for his business integrity and quiet Christian character, a friend and helper of the poor, his name will long be cherished in the memory of many whom he has befriended." From the church of which he was a member and by the help of his family there went out to Swato, China, a young man, William Ashmore, as one of the early and great Christian missionaries.

Jeremiah Dare (January 4, 1777 - July 2, 1860)

    Jeremiah Dare, a pioneer businessman of Zanesville, was closely connected with the Warner family by the marriage of two of his daughters. He was of the Dare family of New Jersey that had come from England prior to 1682. As a young man he went to Baltimore because he heard that it was "the 'risingist' young town in America." There he went into business and met Jane of the wealthy Patterson family, and they were married in 1801. Jane was a young sister of William, the father of Betsy Patterson, the bell of Baltimore, who fascinated and was married in 1803 to Jerome Bonaparte, the youngest brother of Emperor Napoleon. But the Emperor had other ideas for Jerome and made him King of Westphalia and had the French government annul the marriage when the Pope refused to do so. However, the marriage, by Archbishop Carroll of Baltimore, was valid in the United States, and when Napoleon III reached the throne of France in 1852, he received Betsy and her son and rescinded the annulment. Their son was born in England in 1805, but when he grew up preferred America and married Susan Ann Williams; one of Betsy's grandsons, Charles Joseph Bonaparte, educated at Harvard and Harvard Law School in due time became Secretary of the Navy and later Attorney General in the Cabinet of President Theodore Roosevelt.

    This excursion into upstart royalty by her niece Betsy, bothered Jane and her husband Jeremiah Dare not at all. Their eyes turned

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to the new lands opened up in Kentucky and Ohio and about 1806 they joined a caravan of covered wagons going that way. Jane had six trunks containing their silver, linens, clothes, baby clothes, seeds, herbs, etc. They settled, for several years, at Marietta, Ohio, where Jane Patterson Dare was born on September 4, 1808. When Jane's family knew where she was, a sister rode all the way out to Marietta with Jane's fortune in gold dollars in saddlebags on each side of her horse. By that time it was a well-travelled road from Baltimore to Wheeling. (Information on the Patterson family is from a cousin of the writer who lived many years in Baltimore.)

    In 1814, Jeremiah Dare thought Zanesville looked better as a commercial center and there he built the first woolen mill in Ohio that he operated for years, and the first school house in Zanesville for which he hired teachers from the east. He eventually had 15 children, 5 of whom did not reach maturity. Jane, his first wife, died January 14, 1812, and on December 6, 1812 he married Charlotte Lyons. His daughter Jane Patterson Dare was married in 1841 to James S. Warner as previously recorded. The writer's father, Jeremiah Dare Warner had this recollection of Thanksgiving in the 1850's: "It was a joyous time when three generations sat around Grandfather Dare's table when I was a lad. A roast pig and two big turkeys with mince pies, pudding and all the delectable accessories, when we longed for a greater storage capacity. How Grandfather Dare did enjoy these annual family gatherings." He lived to the age of 83.

    It was during the lifetime of Jeremiah Dare and his son-in-law James Warner that railroads came to the nation closely following the canal period. No longer were horse drawn wagons and canal boats fast enough. The tempo of life in general and of transportation in particular had accelerated. Zanesville was on the line of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, the first commercial railroad in the United States, greatly enhancing the respective businesses of these two men is woolen and leather goods.

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THE CIVIL WAR YEARS

    For the decades of 1840 and 1850 there was a great expansion of industry, immigration and settlement of the states and territories up to and just beyond the Mississippi River and on the Pacific Coast. But the malignant cancer of slavery was growing in the life of the nation and there were bitter debates in Congress whether new states were to come into the Union as free or proslavery. Many slaves were escaping to the northern states that were antislavery, but when the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was passed it required authorities in the north to help the southern slave owners to recapture the runaways. In opposition to that the Underground Railroads were formed by sympathetic men to help spirit the slaves secretly by night across into Canada. Abraham Lincoln was elected President in 1860, and by February of 1861 seven southern states had seceded from the Union, and the war was on.

Miss Evaline Warner (1815-1897)

    Evaline Warner was born September 15, 1815 at St. Clairsville, Ohio, and died November 1, 1897. She died in Baltimore but was interred at Zanesville, Ohio. She was sister of James, daughter of Zebulon and granddaughter of Captain Anthony Warner. She is here as one of the great patriots of the family. After her father's death there when she was 9, the family home was moved to Zanesville and there she grew up. As a young woman she often visited the family connections around Haverford, Pennsylvania, and when the Civil War broke out was working there for a relative, Charles Arthur. He owned and operated the original Whitehall Hotel at Bryn Mawr, a popular suburban inn for Philadelphians where Miss Evaline managed the dining room. She was heart and soul for the conflict to eradicate slavery and preserve a union of free states. Fired by the

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noble deeds of her forefathers and the great men who founded the nation she put in all the spare time she could in volunteer work for the U.S. Sanitary Commission, a forerunner of the Red Cross. This organization took care of the medical, hospital and nursing services for the army and also helped southern soldiers left on the battlefield uncared for. The volunteer work on the home front was in helping wounded soldiers in private hospitals and in holding great "Sanitary Fairs" in the cities where money and supplies were raised for the war work.

    Some of her guests at the inn were southern people. So over the door to the dining room Miss Evaline had draped the stars and stripes and gave them to understand that anyone that would not walk under their country's flag could go elsewhere.

    She returned to Zanesville after the war. Since she lived to be 82, she gave many years of service to the Baptist Church, its missions, Sunday School and Young People's work. She gave help and encouragement to students of Denison University, one of whom in later year, became its president. Love of country and our flag was a predominant characteristic of her life.

    James Harral Warner (born August 25, 1826; died 1867), son of James S. and Mary Harral Warner, went to Cincinnati, Ohio, at age 16 to get training as a mechanic, then studied engine design and went into the United States Navy as a lifework. By 1859 he had the rank of Chief Engineer at age 33. He designed the machinery for the Steamship Minnesota, one of the navy's large ships. His home was in Portsmouth, Virginia where he married Harrietta Etheridge, a southern woman. At the outbreak of the Civil War his ship was cruising in the Mediterranean but was called home. He paced the deck for hours on the way back thinking on his problem. His wife was strongly for the South and if he remained in the U.S. Navy he might be called on to bombard his home. He decided to resign and remain out of the war and went into business in Richmond, Virginia. Toward the close of the war, when asked to become superintendent of the large iron works at Rome, Georgia, where war material was made, he could hardly refuse. When the war was over he was given a government contract to clear the obstructions that had been sunk in the bay to close the port of Charleston, South Carolina. Following that he went into the banking business at Sa-

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vannah, Georgia. Unwisely, troop of Negro soldiers had been quartered in the city and insulting remarks passed between them and a white southerner who shot a Negro soldier. In return a number of shots came from the barracks and Jesse Harral Warner get a bullet in the leg that after amputation caused his death at age 41. His children were Mary, born 1853; Alex E., born 1857, who became a lawyer; Virginia, born 1862; Charles, born 1864, who went into business near Atlanta, Georgia. We have no further record of them.

    Henry Clay Warner (born October 6, 1844; died July 5, 1910), son of James S. and Jane Patterson Dare Warner, was born in Zanesville, educated in the public schools and went into business with his father. He was a bachelor. On his father's death in 1879 he continued the business in harness and leather goods, expanding it into sporting goods as he was a sportsman and fine rifle shot. He was a big game hunter on trips to the Colorado mountains. At his death from a stroke his and his father's firm had been an uninterrupted business for 85 years.

    George Sedgwick Warner (born January 1, 1846; died January 25, 1911) was a son of James S. and Jane Patterson Dare Warner. As a boy in Zanesville he had known of the runaway slaves escaping across the river into Ohio from Kentucky, some eventually to reach Canada but some to be captured by their owners and taken back in chains to their former servitude. He was only 15 when war was declared, and for three years it was hard for him to wait until he was 18 and could enlist to answer Lincoln's call to save the Union. He enlisted February 29, 1864 in Company F of the 13th Regiment of Ohio Volunteer Cavalry commanded by General Crooks, the famous old Indian fighter. The corps commander was General Philip Sheridan of the Army of the Potomac. His enlistment as saddler was probably because he had seen some experience in his father's saddlery business. On April 7, 1865, he received a gun shot wound in the right arm while making a charge with his company near High Bridge, Virginia, which resulted in the loss of his arm by amputation just below the elbow. This was probably the last action of the Civil War as two days later, on April 9, 1865, General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Grant at Appomattox, Virginia, thus ending the war. George Warner received an invalid's pension and lived as a bachelor in Zanesville until his death at age 65.

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THE GREAT INDUSTRIAL AGE

VII. Jeremiah Dare Warner (1847-1939)

    Jeremiah Dare Warner was born in Zanesville on April 9, 1847 and died February 16, 1939 at Denver, Colorado, age 91. He married Laura Hayward of Springfield, Ohio on August 31, 1876 (born May 11, 1851; died March 29, 1926 at Denver). Their children were:

1. Hayward Dare, born October 17, 1879, married Grace McKibben at Seattle, Washington
2. Arthur Gooding, born May 20, 1881, married Grace Meixell, died March 14, 1962 at Los Angeles, California
3. Willard Brace, born January 18, 1883; died February 8, 1891 at Columbus, Ohio
4. James Herbert, born October 1, 1884, married Josephine Gladden, died January 3, 1953, San Jose, California
5. and 6. Laurence and Lois, twins, born and died December 5, 1886 at Columbus, Ohio
    Jeremiah went, during his lifetime, by the nicknames of Jerry and Jay. He was a good looking, medium sized man of even temper and good humor and in religious work had leadership qualities. He had the usual high school education of that time and by reading made himself a well-educated man. He became a member of the Baptist Church at age 14, and it resulted in a lifetime of service as a Christian layman. As a young man, influenced no doubt by his father, he went into merchandising with a store for women's wear and notions. When Jerry was 28 there was a Baptist Convention held at Zanesville and among the delegates from Springfield, Ohio, was a young woman of 24 who was entertained at his father's home. She was the beautiful Laura Hayward, whose father, A. O. Hayward, was a lumber dealer in Springfield. (The Hayward family were early

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colonial settlers in New Jersey.) When Jerry met Laura it was love at first meeting and a lifetime love story began. They were married in Springfield on August 31, 1876 and on their wedding journey went to Philadelphia to see the Centennial Exposition. While there they went out to Haverford to meet the Warner family relatives and were entertained in the home of Gardiner Latch Warner and his mother, "Aunt Jane," the widow of Isaac, one of Anthony Warner's younger sons. Sometime previous to this event Gardiner L. had been in Zanesville for a visit with the family there, for he already knew "Aunt Evaline" from her years in Haverford and vicinity.

    In the nine years following their marriage, Jeremiah and Laura Warner were active in the church, their four sons had been born and Jeremiah had conducted his business. But by 1885 the business was not doing well due to unfair competition, and he was forced to close it out and take a position as a travelling salesman in the Ohio territory for one of the New York wholesale houses with whom he had been dealing. To be near the center of the territory, he moved his family to Columbus, Ohio. He was successful in the business there and at the same time took the lead in starting a Sunday School that grew into an influential church near Ohio State University. His youngest sister Josephine was married to Henry Huntington who had a retail book and school supply business and book bindery in Sandusky, Ohio. To expand into wholesaling in 1892 Henry Huntington offered his brother-in-law, Jeremiah, the position in charge of that part of the business in northern Ohio.

    The pleasant association of the two families in Sandusky was terminated in 1901 by the severe asthmatic condition of Laura Warner and Jerry was forced to settle his family in Denver, Colorado, for Laura's recovery. Here he entered the life insurance business that he expanded later to general insurance lines and carried on until his son, Hayward, came to take over within a few months of his death, when he was nearly 92. Laura, his faithful helpmate in all his efforts had died 14 years before from pneumonia. In Denver he accomplished his last great work for his Master. In 1910 he called together eight people, including his son and enthused them with the project of starting a new Sunday School in a tent in a fast-growing section of the city. This soon became a church organization that after growth and two moves became a strong Baptist Church on one of the parkways. As a leader and a deacon his genial nature won him a host of friends.

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    Josephine Warner Huntington, the youngest child of James S. and Jane Dare Warner was born in Zanesville, Ohio, March 19, 1850, and died in New York City August 19, 1914. She married Henry C. Huntingdon April 16, 1873. Of their eight children, all born in Sandusky, Ohio, six lived to maturity. They were: Warner D., born April 19, 1874; Howard R., born August 15, 1875; Ruth M., born September 1, 1877, married Dr. Max Brodel of Johns Hopkins University; Mary E., born February 9, 1879; Helen C., born July 17, 1881, died September 12, 1888; Henry C., born March 21, 1883; Virginia D., born June 3, 1886, died October 16, 1887; Katherine M., born August 16, 1892. Josephine's older sister, Miss Mary Warner, lived with her and helped to care for the Huntingdon family. During the years 1892-1901 when Josephine's brother Jeremiah Warner was living in Sandusky, the children of similar ages in the two families were schoolmates and played together.

VIII. Hayward Dare Warner (1879-     )

    Married first: Grace Kendall McKibben, October 22, 1912 at Seattle, Washington; she was born January 5, 1881, at Swatow, China, of missionary parents, became a teacher with a degree from the University of Chicago; she died February 3, 1933 at Chehalis, Washington, from cancer. Their children:

1. Robert Collett, born August 31, 1913 at Denver, Colorado
2. Virginia Dare, born February 18, 1915, at Seattle, Washington.
3. Eleanor Kendall, born March 5, 1921, at Chehalis, Washington
    Married second: Mary Brown Braukman, April 20, 1940, at Denver, Colorado (born June 28, 1869 at Cleveland, Ohio, died February 4, 1951 at Denver).

    Married, third: Edith E. Ruettgers, May 25, 1957, at Denver (born March 14, 1896 at Brooklyn, New York).

    Hayward Warner, oldest son of Jeremiah and Laura Warner, was born on October 17, 1879 in Zanesville, Ohio, then at age 6 went with his parents to Columbus and later to Sandusky, Ohio. At the latter two places he received his grade school and high school education, then went to Denison University in the fall of 1897 for

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the first two years of college work. After a year with the Prudential Insurance Company at Sandusky, he transferred his studies to the University of Chicago where he received the B.S. degree in chemistry in 1903. He worked his way in University offices, took part in athletics on the track team and was appointed a University Marshal. His first jobs after college were in two different mining camps in the Colorado mountains and then in Denver as a chemist and assayer. When mining was at low ebb in 1914 he moved to the Pacific Northeast with his young family where they lived for 24 years at Chehalis, Washington. For the first half of those years he was office man and Assistant Superintendent of the Carnation Company's canned milk condensery, then with two other men operated a coal mine near Chehalis until 1938. For part of this time he was on the Chehalis Public Library Board. When coal reserves were low and of poor quality, he returned to Denver to take over his father's general insurance business which he conducted successfully until retirement January 1, 1967. He served as a deacon in the Baptist churches of which he was a member.

    One incident in his life while employed by the Carnation Company illustrates one phase of the industrial age. Just after World War I, rental houses in Chehalis were scarce and the one where the family lived was sold, so he rented a small place three miles from town. To get to and from his job he bought an automobile--one of those famous early open Fords that took a good right arm as a starter. There were eight acres on the place with three of them in plowed land. At that time a magazine called The Country Gentleman was being published. As a reader of this magazine he became imbued with the idea of making money on his country estate as a side-line to his regular job. So he made a contract with the Portland, Oregon Seed Company agent to grow Hubbard squash for seed on the three acres. The farmer living across the road prepared the land, put in the seed and fertilizer for each hill. The vines grew beautifully and produced a fine crop of squash.

    In the meantime he had invested in a dozen large Plymouth Rock chickens and three hives of bees. Everything seemed to be going well. The bees were busily working, and he was selling surplus eggs to a friend in town. But one night an unusually early hard frost came on, and he arose in the morning to view squash vines that were wilted down, exposing three acres dotted over with Hub-

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bard squash that had not quite matured the seed in them enough to be sold. They were all right for eating, but his family was not quite large enough to take care of three acres of squash, so the neighbor farmer hauled in all that the local cannery would take, and the family ate squash for a long time. So the idea of becoming a country gentleman was thoroughly defrosted and effectively squashed. In due time the family feasted on the chickens, sold the bees and planned and had built a nice house on the hillside back in town.

The Saga of Buffalo Bill

    One day in about the year 1911 an elderly gentleman walked into the assay office of Albert Sanford and Hayward Warner in Denver with ore samples from two mining claims he held in Wyoming. The name he had given to one of the claims was "Yellow Hand." This fact coupled with the unmistakable features, the white goatee and the sombrero, identified him, although well past his prime, as Colonel William F. Cody. He had a home in Wyoming but was often in Denver in his declining years and died at his daughter's home there in 1917 at age 71. His grave on Lookout Mountain near Denver and a museum of his exploits draw many tourists.

    He was born in Scott County, Iowa, in 1846 and attended country schools in Iowa and Kansas organized by his father, Isaac Cody. He began working for Russell, Majors and Waddell, making wagon trips across the plains and riding for the famed Pony Express. In the Civil War he served in the Seventh Kansas Cavalry. In 1867-1868, when the Kansas Pacific Railroad was being pushed across the great open prairies toward Denver, he hunted buffalo to feed the workmen and came to be known ever after as Buffalo Bill. The Sioux and Cheyenne tribes of Indian were still resisting the advances of the white men westward as their brother tribes in the east had failed to do in their attempts, and Buffalo Bill as Chief Scout for four years in the Fifth U.S. Cavalry under General Philip Sheridan took part in 16 fights against them. In the final and decisive one at Hat Creek, Wyoming in 1876, he and the young Cheyenne Chief Yellow Hand confronted each other suddenly in the running battle, and it was a duel to the death between them in which Buffalo Bill won.

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    He became famous over the following years as the hero of countless dime novels, was on the stage and wrote his own story. His great fame from 1883 on, however, came from the big Wild West Show that he organized with over 500 people and many horses. There were acts depicting the Pony Express, an attack on the Deadwood Stage Coach, and authentic Indian and cowboy riding and sharp shooting and with Colonel Cody himself on a great white horse as a romantic and commanding figure. It toured the country for years, was popular in England at the time of Queen Victoria's Jubilee and was at its peak in a long run in Chicago near the great World Colombian Exposition of 1893.

A Glance at the Industrial Age

    One man's lifetime has spanned all the fast-moving eras of the industrial age. It may not seem an age in years, but in those years more industrial and scientific progress has been accomplished than in centuries before. When Hayward Warner was born in 1879 the railroad era was in full swing, but coal oil lamps and gas lights were still being used; it was followed by the electrical era and suddenly the nation was ablaze with light at the touch of a switch and a voice could be heard across the country by speaking into a telephone--a dramatic change; then came the automobile era and the time required for people to go places was cut drastically; next the airplane era and man was no longer earthbound; then the atomic era when, with the power of the atom, man might do irreparable harm or untold good; now the space era with radio and television is upon us; all this in less than a century--all this unbelievable in 1879.

    Social change came rapidly also. With the opportunity, men formed great corporations to accumulate wealth and power and sometimes to use it unfairly against employees and the poor. Laws had to be passed to restrain them and protect the social structure. Employees formed unions to gain power and protect themselves. Then they, in turn, have gained great power to use to influence legislation to their own ends -- sometimes unfairly -- and have to be restrained. When this generation began, this country and much of the world was at peace but it has become a generation of wars that is taking the men and treasure of our nation. The end is not yet

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at this writing, but a member of the administration has said: "The prospect of a generation of peace has convincingly emerged." It is a tremendous age in which to live, and it brings great problems to be solved.

    Arthur Gooding Warner, second son of Jeremiah and Laura Warner, was born in Zanesville, Ohio on May 20, 1881, and died March 14, 1962, in Los Angeles, California. He married Grace Meixell on August 10, 1924 in San Diego, California; they had one child, Harry M. Warner, born July 4, 1926, died July 7, 1936. The mother died in a Chicago Hospital July 25, 1928.

    Arthur Warner had a public school and Y.M.C.A. School training and became a mechanic and draftsman. He was in the First World War, serving in France as a private first class, Company L, 23rd Engineers. His grave is in Golden Gate National Cemetery at San Bruno, California, at his request. He had been with the San Diego, California, Engineer's Office and later was a draftsman with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation until retirement.

    James Herbert Warner, fourth son of Jeremiah and Laura Warner, was born in Zanesville, Ohio, on October 1, 1884, and died in San Jose, California, January 3, 1953. He married, June 19, 1912, Josephine Gladden in Grand Junction, Colorado. They were both educated at the University of Colorado, Herbert as a civil engineer. Except for a few years with the Anaconda Copper Company; his life work was with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation as field engineer on the building of several dams in the west, but on the great Hoover Dam, he was one of the designing engineers in the Denver office of the Bureau. His retirement came during World War II, but he put in one or two years more helping the Seabees of the Navy in construction work. He died from a stroke.

    Herbert and Josephine had two children:

1. Helen Elizabeth, born September 3, 1913, in Denver, was educated at the University of Colorado and worked as a teacher and in advertising. She married, on May 3, 1945, Navy Lieutenant Lawrence E. Crane. Lawrence, born on July 11, 1913 at Spokane, Washington, served in the war in the Pacific and received the Silver Star for gallantry in the landing of troops at Tarawa. Graduated from
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the University of Oregon, he has a master's degree in business administration from New York University. Their home is now in Denver and they have two children: Beverly Ann Crane, born August 26, 1946, and Lawrence E. Crane, Jr., born April 20, 1949.
2. Louise Warner, second daughter of Herbert and Josephine, was born October 16, 1916, in Salt Lake City, Utah. She went to Colorado College and Northwestern University, preparing for special educational work, taught for a few years, but during World War II went with the Red Cross Recreational Unit overseas to help in the camps and hospitals. Following the war she took up medical secretarial work in San Jose, California.
Robert Collett Warner (1913-     )

    The son of Hayward and Grace Warner, Robert Warner was born August 31, 1913 at Denver, Colorado. He is the ninth of the family in direct line to carry the name from William Warner the Pioneer.

    Married first: Myra Spector in New York City, on February 21, 1936. She was born April 18, 1910, near Odessa, Russia. Her parents left there when the Bolsheviks came to power. She was educated in New York becoming an able lawyer. The marriage ended in divorce after 29 years. Their children:

1. Peter David, born August 15, 1942 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
2. Caroline Dare, born March 1, 1945 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; education in New York City schools and B.A. degree from Radcliffe College, 1965, followed by graduate work in anthropology.
3. Victoria Ann, born May 6, 1952, in New York City.
    Married second: Estelle Sonnenblick in New York City, June 20, 1969.

    Robert Warner was educated in the public schools of Chehalis, Washington, where his parents had moved in 1915, and he won a half scholarship by examination to the California Institute of Tech-

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nology at Pasadena where he graduated in 1935 with B.S. degree and honors, received a teaching fellowship and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees at New York University in biochemistry, with an interim during World War II for war work in government laboratories, on faculty of N.Y.U. Medical School, becoming a full professor and receiving the Great Teacher Award, 1969. On July 1, 1969, he became Head of Department of Molecular and Cell Biology of the University of California at Irvine, living in Newport Beach, California.

    Virginia Dare Warner, daughter of Hayward and Grace Warner, was born in Seattle, Washington, February 18, 1915, was educated in Chehalis, Washington, schools and at Reed College. She married Russell Victor Brodine, on October 19, 1941 in Tacoma, Washington. Russell, born September 23, 1912, in Spokane, Washington, was a member of the Seattle Symphony Orchestra; she was in free lance writing; they moved to Los Angeles during the war where he was a welder in the shipyards, was in the Los Angeles Symphony 1945-1946. He has been in the St. Louis Symphony from 1949 to the present time. Virginia is in editorial work in St. Louis, and from 1962 to 1969 was editor of Environment magazine and its predecessor, Scientist and Citizen; since 1969 she has been Consulting Editor while writing a series of books on Environmental Issues to be published by Harcourt Brace; the first, on Air Pollution, is due in 1972. Russell and Virginia have two children:

1. Cynthia Warner Brodine, born December 2, 1944, in Los Angeles, graduate of Reed College, has worked as research and editorial assistant and now as editor, married Roger Snow on November 26, 1967 in St. Louis. Roger is a medical student at the University of North Carolina.
2. Marc Russell Brodine, born August 18, 1952 in St. Louis.
    Eleanor Kendall Warner, daughter of Hayward and Grace Warner, was born in Chehalis, Washington, March 5, 1921, educated in Chehalis public schools and Cornish School of Allied Arts in Seattle, married Lin Thomas Frazier, May 23, 1941, at Seattle. He was born in Seattle October 28, 1918, worked for Union Pacific Railroad and in the shipyards, enlisted in Merchant Marine in 1942 in war work; officer's school for 3rd Engineers in 1945; returned to University of Washington for B.A. degree in 1948, M.A. in English literature and library science in 1952, worked as librarian 1952-64 at Drake,

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Michigan State and University of Washington libraries, since 1964 at Western Washington State College at Bellingham where they live. Kendall is a teacher and director of a kindergarten school. Thomas and Kendall have three children:

1. John C. Frazier, born May 9, 1943, student at University of Michigan, married August 4, 1962, to Barbara Hand at Detroit, Michigan. John and Barbara have two sons: Thomas Hand Frazier, born in Seattle, May 22, 1963 and Matthew Benoniel Frazier, born in San Francisco November 15, 1968 (the first great-grandsons of the writer).
2. Alan D. Frazier, born August 26, 1951.
3. Peter Daniel Frazier, born November 28, 1964.
X. Peter David Warner (1942-     )

    The son of Robert and Myra Warner, he was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania August 15, 1942, married October 5, 1968 to Ruth Ellen Bluestine (born December 19, 1946) at Swampscott, Massachusetts. He was educated in the New York City schools and received the B.A. degree from New York University in 1964 and M.A. degree in English literature from the University of Minnesota. He plans his lifework in literature and writing. He has had his first book accepted by McGraw-Hill in 1971. He is the only surviving male on this side of the family to carry on the Warner name.

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THE FAMILY AT HAVERFORD

    In this narrative we have brought the story of the descendants of Anthony Warner's oldest son Zebulon up to 1971 with occasional references to those who came from Isaac, a younger son. We should say something more about the latter because there have been many contacts between the two branches of the family and also because, through a quirk of the family genes there is only one male left in each branch to carry on the family name. This applies in the Haverford branch only to the families from Gardiner Latch Warner, the son of Isaac who are the only ones we can cover in this narrative. There were two other of Anthony's sons, Levi and Peter, who went with their brother Zebulon as early settlers in Ohio, but whether the genes in favor of female children operated with them we do not know.

    Isaac Warner (1780-1864) was born July 24, 1780, died January 3, 1864, age 84, buried at St. Paul's Lutheran Cemetery at Ardmore, Pennsylvania. As a Quaker, he forfeited his membership in the sect when he married "out of meeting," Jane Latch on December 1, 1808, the daughter of Jacob Latch. She was born April 10, 1790 and died May 15, 1882. In the days before the Revolutionary War, several German Lutheran families had bought land from Penn's heirs in Philadelphia and Lower Merion Township. They were the Latch (formerly Lutz), Rose, Bealart and Gardiner families that intermarried among themselves and with the Warners. They mostly kept their Lutheran church connections, and Isaac Warner was probably the last of the Quakers in his line, his descendants affiliating with the Lutheran and other churches. Many of them enlisted under General Washington, Captain Jacob Latch being especially noteworthy. With great courage and under fire, he volunteered and did cut the great rope that was used to pull the boats across the Schuylkill River that brought supplies to the British army in Philadelphia when they were threat-

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ened by the Continentals. He also became a trusted messenger, or runner as it was called, for General Washington. After the war, he was prominent in county affairs and a large land owner in Lower Merion.

    Isaac Warner was a carpenter and builder and built a fine home for his bride about 1808 with a picket fence around it. It was at what later became the corner of College Lane and West Lancaster. In 1833 the Quakers founded Haverford College and College Lane led to the campus. In later years (probably at Jane's death in 1882) the college acquired the property. (It was in this house, no doubt, that this writer's father and mother, on their wedding trip from Zanesville, Ohio the Centennial Exposition in 1876, visited Gardiner Latch Warner and his mother, "Aunt Jane," the widow of Isaac. They said, "We often smiled at the lofty bed in Aunt Jane's guest made up of a succession of three feather mattresses.") Isaac served in the War of 1812, the Black Hawk Indian War of 1832 and the Mexican War, according to the Warner chart--a rather large war commitment for a former Quaker. Isaac and Jane had eleven children, the youngest being Gardiner Latch.

    Gardiner Latch Warner (1835-1908) married Jane McConnell of Philadelphia in 1875. Jacob Warner in his chart gives only these bare yearly dates for his father's birth, marriage and death, so other details must be missing. Jane was born October 18, 1853, died April 7, 1889. As a young man he paid a visit to the family in Zanesville, Ohio, where he no doubt met Miss Evaline Warner who later became well known to the Haverford branch as she worked with Charles Arthur in running the Whitehall Hotel at Bryn Mawr during the Civil War. At that time Bryn Mawr was called Humphreysville. Gardiner did not marry until age 40 and after his father had passed away. He and his wife lived in the family home with his mother where four of their children were born--Jacob, Arthur, Rebecca and Elisabeth (who only lived to age 17). On the death of his mother in 1882 and the sale of the old home, he moved across Lancaster Avenue to the apartment on the second floor of the old three-story stone building at number 357 where for many years he ran a general store on the first floor. In this apartment their daughters, Mildred and Margaretta, were born and then a move was made about 1885 to the home at 363-365 West Lancaster, built by Lewis Warner (1812-1872), an older brother of Gardiner, where Clar-

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ence and Genevieve were born. On the third floor of 357 there had been a shoe factory run by Lewis Warner as early as 1833. Jacob Warner once told this writer that Anthony Warner had his shoe factory for Washington's barefoot army in that building.

    In the picture of the old building at 357, only the three windows wide section is the original big house. In later years it passed out of the family ownership and was enlarged for offices and apartments and was finally demolished in 1969. Among the old ledgers and day books found in 1968 by Robert Winthrop were many of Lewis Warner's for his shoe business and several of Isaac Warner's dated from 1818 to 1836 who worked as a carpenter for 87 per day. He had done work for Joshua Humphrey of Ardmore, then called Athensville. Humphrey was the man who designed the frigate "Constitution" that was built in a Boston shipyard and is known to fame as "Old Ironsides."

    Gardiner Latch Warner lived to be 73, surviving his wife by 19 years and is buried at St. Paul's cemetery at Ardmore. Robert Winthrop has said of him, "He was a fine person and I always think of him with respect and admiration."

Children of Gardiner Latch and Jane McConnell Warner
    (Listed by Roman numerals)

I. Jacob Latch Warner (1876-1952)

    Jacob Latch Warner see born at Haverford, January 11, 1876 and died at Wilmington, Delaware, November 11, 1952; he married Helen Wells of Ardmore, Pennsylvania, on December 6, 1911. His degrees from the University of Pennsylvania were B.S. in 1899 and C.E. in 1902. His life work was with the E. I. DuPont Company of Wilmington, Delaware where he became Senior Consulting Engineer and Specialist in Plant Location which required a great deal of travelling in the United States and Canada. He was an Episcopal vestryman and active in civic affairs. In addition to his other duties, he undertook the creation in the years 1926-30 of a Warner Family Chart covering the Pennsylvania branch in all its ramifications. He gathered information on his travels and through correspondence and hired a genealogist and a draftsman to help. It has been of great

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service since and will be in the future to those interested in family history. He was of short stature but big in ability and personality as were others of the Haverford family where intermarriage with the Welsh people had an effect. They were small in stature as a national characteristic.

    Jacob and Helen had one daughter, Barbara Rogers, born February 1, 1913, married to Harry Prescott Hartley in Wilmington, Delaware May 1939. They are living in Fort Lauderdale, Florida and have four children: Juliet Warner Hartley, Pamela Jane Hartley, John Jacob Hartley, and Jennifer Prescott Hartley.

II. Elizabeth G. Warner (1877-1895)

III. Arthur Warner (1879-1948)

    Arthur Warner was born at Haverford, April 11, 1879 and died there April 11, 1948; married on May 29, 1915, Martha Elizabeth Minnick of Philadelphia. She was born May 20, 1883, and died at Haverford March 23, 1969 at 86 years of age. His degrees from the University of Pennsylvania were B.S. in 1901 and M.E. in 1904. He was a mechanical engineer with the Link Belt Company of Chicago, Illinois, specializing in conveying machinery. He was the inventor of a chain conveyor. His retirement years were spent in their home in Haverford. Arthur and Martha Warner had one son, Gardiner Arthur.

    Gardiner Arthur Warner (1917-     ) was born in Chicago, Illinois November 25, 1917. During World War II was in the United States Marine Corps and while stationed at Pensacola, Florida was married on July 21, 1945 in the Navy Chapel of the Pensacola Naval Air Station to Elisabeth Anne Bodkin (born July 7, 1924 in Detroit, Michigan). He is an Insurance Broker in Ardmore, Pennsylvania, and a member of the Union League Club of Philadelphia. He is also a member, as is Robert Winthrop of Haverford, of a club founded in 1818 that still meets annually for a dinner. It is called "The Lower Merion Society for the Detection and Prosecution of Horse Thieves." There should have been chapters of that civilized society in the far west in the early days. There, when caught, horse thieves were just strung up on the nearest tree.

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    Following are the four children of Gardiner and Elisabeth Anne Warner:

1. Wendy Latch Warner, born in Philadelphia November 22, 1947, received B.A. degree from Hood College, Maryland; married September 1968, Jack Price Emmert II of Frederic, Maryland (born November 16, 1947). Their son, Jack Price Emmert III was born June 2, 1969.
2. Ellen Elisabeth Warner, born in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania May 16, 1949, attended Moore College of Art, married September 13, 1969, James Bond Reinhardt, Jr., of Bryn Mawr (born December 23, 1947). He was with the U.S. Army in Germany for three years. Their son, Winslow Bond Reinhardt, was born September 2, 1970.
3. Nacy [sic] Harkness Warner, born in Bryn Mawr December 7, 1952.
4. Gardiner Arthur Warner, Jr., born in Bryn Mawr, June 11, 1957. Gardiner Arthur Warner, Jr., is the only surviving male in this line to carry on the Warner name.
IV. Rebecca Jane Warner (1881-1969)

    Rebecca Jane was born in Haverford, August 8, 1881, and died there March 23, 1969. She married on June 27, 1912, Robert Cecil Winthrop (born May 21, 1885 in Philadelphia). He is a son of John Winthrop and Helen Currie of Melrose, Scotland. He is a builder and property manager in charge of the family apartment building at 361 West Lancaster Avenue, Haverford and was friend and advisor to his wife's two unmarried sisters, now deceased. He is a tall man of pleasing personality and as interested in Warner family history as if it were his own ancestry. He has been of great help to this writer in attempting to get together the scattered bits on the subject through a correspondence of over three years and through it to come to know a fine Christian gentleman.

    The children of Robert and Rebecca Warner Winthrop are.

1. Jean, died in infancy.
2. John Warner Winthrop, was born in Ardmore, Pennsylvania February 27, 1916; married March 14, 1942, Ethel Patrick of Baltimore (born June 12, 1914; died April 6, 1966).
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He received the degree of B.S. from the University of Virginia. In World War II served as a Navy Lieutenant on the destroyer Ingraham, receiving the Navy Commendation, is Chairman of the Board of Ogdensburg, New York Bank and active in civic affairs.
Married first: Ethel Patrick; their children: Robert Patrick Winthrop, born in New York City, August 25, 1947; Thomas Gardiner Winthrop, born in New York City, August 25, 1947; John Warner Winthrop, born in New York City, January 14, 1949; James Peppler Winthrop, born in Potsdam, New York, August 7, 1956.
Married second: Mary O'Neill Clarkson, December 14, 1968 (born December 5, 1926, Massena, New York); children: adopted wife's daughter Ann Clarkson (born June 11, 1956, Syracuse, New York).
3. Robert Cecil Winthrop, Jr., second son of Robert and Rebecca Winthrop, was born May 28, 1920, in Haverford, Pennsylvania; received A.B. degree in Government from George Washington University, cried Alice Marie Janota, July 10, 1948, who has B.S. degree from Pennsylvania State University. During the war he was American Vice Consul in Venezuela and Colombia. He is in the small tools business at Armonk, New York, with international connections. They have two children: Jan Robert Winthrop, born February 9, 1955 and Rebecca Jean Winthrop, born March 10, 1959.
V. Mildred Warner (1883-1960)

    Mildred Warner was born in Haverford, May 15, 1883 and died in Wilmington, Delaware, December 2, 1960. She married Joseph Press Staley (born March 20, 1883, died June 2, 1959). He was the son of Reverend Frederick Wampole Staley and Cordelia Freas. The children of Joseph and Mildred Warner Staley are as follows:

1. Joseph Freas Staley, Jr., born in Glassboro, New Jersey, September 13, 1906, married September 3, 1937, Lillian Meise (born August 3, 1907) of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He received the B.A. and C.E. degrees from Pennsylvania State University, was in the engineering department of
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the E. I. DuPont Company for 32 years, now retired. He is a consulting engineer, a "Fellow" of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Their home is in Canterbury Hills, Hockessin, Delaware. Joseph and Lillian have two children: (1) Stuart Warner Staley, born July 11, 1938 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; married May 25, 1963 to Mary Jean Waugh of Rochester, Minnesota, (born May 19, 1939). Stuart's degrees are B.S. from Williams College, M.A. and Ph.D. from Yale University in chemistry, his honors are Phi Beta Kappa and Sigma Xi; he is Associate Professor at the University of Maryland. Stuart and Mary have two children: Stuart Waugh Staley born October 12, 1966 and Andrew Warner Staley, born September 6, 1968, both in Washington, D.C. (2) Diana Freas Staley, second child of Joseph and Lillian, was born in Wilmington, Delaware June 25, 1943, has a B.A. degree in sociology from Russell Sage College and a B.S. in nursing from Boston University. She is a Public Health Nurse, was married to Daniel Ostrowsky and later divorced. There are two children: Dana Freas Ostrowsky, born August 19, 1965, and Kim Ashley Ostrowsky, born October 21, 1966, both in Boston, Massachusetts.
2. Elizabeth Warner Staley, daughter of Joseph and Mildred Staley, was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania March 27, 1910.
Married first: Richard Warren Heisler, May 13, 1931, divorced 1938. They had one child, Richard George Heisler, born June 24, 1935; he has the B.S. degree in 1960 from Springfield College and is a physical education teacher, married to Geraldine Hogan October 6, 1962 at Newport, Rhode Island. They have four children: Richard Warren Heisler II, born September 9, 1963; Natalie Elizabeth Heisler, born February 6, 1965; Heidi Lynn Heisler, born October 28, 1967; and Erik Desmond Heisler, born December 11, 1969, all in Newport, Rhode Island.
Married second: William Clyde Livermore, November 14, 1942; he died May 23, 1966. They had a son, William John Livermore, born in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania on January 9, 1947.
3. Richard Arthur Staley, son of Joseph and Mildred Staley, was born March 5, 1913. He married Linda Clarke of Mid-
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lothian, Virginia. He is now retired as an engineer with the E. I. DuPont Company and is safety engineer consultant for the city of Hopewell, Virginia.
4. Lois Jane Staley, daughter of Joseph and Mildred Staley, was born August 12, 1915 at Paulsboro, New Jersey, married April 16, 1955, Morgan Parlette Conrad (born March 29, 1916) of Hagerstown, Maryland. They have one son, Morgan Parlette Conrad, Jr., born at Wilmington, Delaware July 15, 1956. They live at Norristown, Pennsylvania.
5. Cordelia Ruth Staley, daughter of Joseph and Mildred Staley, was born on September 15, 1919 in Woodbury, New Jersey; married December 18, 1943, Dr. William W. Leman (born September 12, 1915) of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. She is a registered nurse. Their son, Robert Burton Leman, was born December 23, 1947, at Springfield, Pennsylvania, where they now live. Robert is a graduate of Ursinus College and is now in graduate work at Arkansas Medical Center.
6. William Warner Staley, son of Joseph and Mildred Staley, was born in Gibbstown, New Jersey, February 22, 1921; married Helen Ross March 25, 1945 in Laredo, Texas. She was born December 23, 1921 in Caldwell, New Jersey. She is an architect in Pasadena, Maryland. He received the B.M.E. degree from the University of Virginia. His work is as Fellow Engineer of the Westinghouse Electric Corporation. He is a Professional Engineer of the State of Maryland. He holds several patents of the United States, Japan and Canada in the field of packaging of microelectronic and hybrid systems. He was in the U.S. Army Air Force and received the Distinguished Flying Cross air medal with three oak leaf clusters. Their home is in Pasadena, Maryland, and their children are: (1) Joanne Staley, born January 1, 1946 in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania, married May 25, 1968, Kittridge Arthur Buritsch, (born July 9, 1944). Joanne has the B.S. degree from the University of Maryland and teaches art. They have a son, Clayton Avery Buritsch, born May 5, 1971. (2) Ross Warner Staley, born June 9, 1947 at Charlottesville, Virginia; married June 28, 1969, Nancy Lee Ann Oram, was in the Navy Submarine Service for six years and received
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the National Defense Medal. He is now with the A.T. and T. as Communications Technician in Baltimore. (3) Elizabeth Staley, born May 9, 1956, in Baltimore, Maryland. (4) Frederic Ashley Staley, born June 23, 1959, in Baltimore, Maryland. Their home is in Pasadena, Maryland.
VI. Margaretta Warner (1884-1970)

    Margaretta Warner, daughter of Gardiner and Jane Warner, was born at Haverford, November 30, 1884, and died there January 15, 1970. She never married.

VII. Clarence Gardiner Warner (1886-1958)

    Clarence Gardiner Warner was the youngest son of Gardiner and Jane Warner, born July 10, 1886, at the family home in Haverford. He had his own home there on Dreycott Lane but died at St. Petersburg, Florida, February 28, 1958. He is buried at West Laurel Hill Cemetery, Philadelphia. He married September 2, 1913, Ida Myrta Harmer, daughter of Albanus Harmer and Christiana Fried of Philadelphia. They had two children:

1. Ida Myrta Harmer Warner, born May 7, 1921, in Haverford. Married first: Frederick Arthur Foot of Cynwyd, Pennsylvania, June 20, 1941. He was killed in action aboard the "Dorchester" in the North Atlantic on February 2, 1943. They had one child, Myrta Warner Foot, born July 3, 1943 in Philadelphia, who married August 8, 1967 Raymond Slavinski; they have an adopted son Radley, born August 8, 1969. They live in Spring City, Pennsylvania.
Married second: Brown C. Hall of Albany, Georgia, on September 2, 1945. They had a daughter, Elizabeth Clarice Hall, born July 16, 1946, in Albany, Georgia, studying for a doctorate in psychology at Florida State University. They live in Spring City, Pennsylvania.
2. Clarice Gardiner Warner, born February 8, 1925 in Haverford; married April 12, 1948 at St. Petersburg, Florida, to James Peters of Narbeth, Pennsylvania. They were divorced in 1958. The children are James Warner Peters,
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born December 31, 1952, in St. Petersburg, Florida and Kenneth Edward Peters, born November 8, 1956, in Philadelphia. Their home is in Spring City, Pennsylvania.
VIII. Genevieve Louise Warner (1888-1955)

    Genevieve Warner was the youngest daughter of Gardiner and Jane Warner, born June 18, 1888 at the family home in Haverford, and died there in 1955. She never married.

    These are the descendants of Gardiner Latch Warner with their roots in Haverford, Pennsylvania but many spread out among the eastern states. Of the second generation from him there are six nephews and six nieces now living who hold an annual Warner Family Reunion.

    The western branch is much more widely scattered and a reunion except by separate families is not feasible. But we all have the responsibility to keep alive the freedom our forefathers won so that our progeny may continue to live as free people in the beneficent shade of the Tree of Liberty.

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EPILOGUE

    In the research for this narrative we found that the County of Gloucestershire in England formerly included what is now Gloucestershire and other bordering counties, roughly equivalent to the ancient Kingdom of Mercia. The capital of Mercia was at Winchcombe only ten miles from Blockley, the seat of our family since the Norman invasion and perhaps even before.

    There were two other branches of the Warner family in the records of old England--one in Essex and one in Kent. In the latter there is a record that Queen Elizabeth, in 1508, granted lands to Sir Edward Warner, Knight, in the Manor of Gettingham, County of Kent also the Manor of Baxley in the same county. Earlier than this according to the Genealogical and Family History of the State of Connecticut (Vol. II, p. 745), there was John Warner of Warner's Hall at Great Waltham, County of Essex who was granted the Manor of Pakelsham. From these families came the early settlers in New England before 1639, into Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island.

    In the Church at Great Waltham the coat of arms of the Warner family is carved in several parts of the ceiling of the south aisle. A description of the coat of arms in plain English (not Burke's lingo of heraldry) is: a shield with a gold background, a broad red band from upper left to lower right, three red roses above the band and three below, the crest above the shield--a man's head and shoulders clothed in a checkered shirt of gold and azure with a cap in silver. A plate in color of this coat of arms and crest can be found in the bound volume of American Historical Magazine of 1938 (Vol. 32, p. 761) in some public and historical libraries. The motto of the family usually shown under the shield

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is not shown on this plate. It is: "Non Nobis Tantum Noti," which translated means, "We are not born for ourselves alone."

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Non Nobis Tantum Noti.

Warner.

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Source:

Warner, Hayward Dare, A Warner Family Narrative, Denver, self-published, 1971.

Created August 24, 2004; Revised August 26, 2004
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