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Philadelphia Merchants Agree to
Accept the Old Continental Money.

                                                Philadelphia, October 1, 1777.
    Total stop being put to the currency of the continental resolve, and commonwealth money, by the arrival of the British forces in this city, and few of the inhabitants, especially of the poorer sort, having any gold, or silver, they unanimously expressed a desire to receive and pass the old legal paper money. In consequence of which, a number of subscription papers were handed about town and almost universally signed, and the old money is now generally current. The form of the subscription is as follows:
    "We the subscribers, being sensible of the many inconveniencies which arise from a difference being made between the value of legal paper money, heretofore current in the city of Philadelphia, and gold and silver, do agree, that such legal paper money aforesaid, as has been emitted by acts of assembly, and has received the royal sanction, shall be received by us in all our dealings, and deemed to be of equal value with gold and silver, at the following customary rates, viz.
    English guineas, weighing five penny weight six grains, at thirty-five shillings each.
    French guineas, weighing five pennyweight five grains, at thirty-four shillings each.
    Moidores, weighing six pennyweight eighteen grains, at forty-five shillings each.
    Half Johannes, weighing nine pennyweight, at sixty shillings each.
    Half Johannes, weighing nine pennyweight four grains, at sixty-one shillings each.
    French milled pistoles, weighing four pennyweight four grains, at twenty-seven shillings each.
    Spanish pistoles, weighing four pennyweight six grains, at twenty-eight shillings each.
    Spanish silver dollars, weighing seventeen pennyweight six grains, at seven shillings and sixpence each.
    And English shillings, heretofore current at one shilling and sixpence, WE now agree to receive at one shilling and eight pence each, being the same proportion in value as English guineas at thirty-five shillings.
    And we further engage to each other and to the public, that we will not ask or receive, in our dealings, for any commodity whatever, a greater sum in the said legal paper money than in gold or silver."
    Coppers, at fifteen to a shilling, were also intended to have been inserted in the list of money, but were overlooked.
    Joseph Galloway, William Fisher, Jeremiah Warder, Joseph Fox, John Head, James and Drinker, Abel James, John Reynell, Samuel Shoemaker, Abraham Mason, John Bringhurst, James Stuart, James Bringhurst, Benjamin Titly, Peter Howard, Joshua Fisher and sons, John Stamper, James Craig, Matthews and Gibson, Thomas Canby, Jonathan Wainright, Nehemiah Allen, Charles Stedman, Roger Flahavan, Robert Shewell, jun., John Spence, John McIvers, Jonathan Evans, jun., Thomas Thomson, Clement Plumsted, Alexander Frader, John Muller, Davenport Marot, John Dugan, Thomas Franklin, Luke Morris, Israel Morris, J. Musgrave, Thomas Moore, Joseph Russell, Daniel Offly, Robert Bayly, John Cammeron, Henry Peterson, Andrew McGlone, Richard Truman, James Der-Kinderin, William Lawrence, William Prichett, David Lapsley, Morris Truman, Daniel Bowen, William Eckart, Presly Blackiston, Jacob Bell, Coleman Fisher, William Fisher, jun., John Field, Caleb Cresson, John Evans, Sellwood Griffin, John Fox, Moses Cox, William Taylor, Samuel Richards, Daniel Fisher, Benjamin Humphreys, James Haney, John Onions, John David, Samuel Read, Thomas Stapler, Daniel Smith, city tavern, William Morrell, John and Chamless Hart, Samuel Kirk, John Kirk, Samuel Covell, John Hales, Hastings Stackhouse, William Price, Philippus Flick, Aaron Musgrave, jun., Thomas Lake, Dominick Joyce, John Lynch, John Sibbald, Joseph Stamper, Edward Middleton, Isaac Garrigues, William Rigden, George Connelly, John B. Burchell, Samuel Rhoads, Jonathan Evans, Peter Reeve, Henry Lisle, Benjamin Towne, John Mifflin, Carpenter Wharton, Nicholas Wain, Samuel Murdoch, Robert Lewis, Aaron Musgrave, Joseph Allen, Isaac Oakman, Thomas Willing, Benjamin Chew, jun., Thomas Middleton, John Wall, James Mitchel, Sweetman, Shortall and Mullins, Thomas Badge, Richard Barret, Patrick Byrne, Bryan Ohara, James Humphreys, jun., Robert Loosely, James Dickenson, George Harrison, Archibald McGall, John Brown, Daniel Drinker, John James, Æneas Urquhart, Francis Worley, Robert Tyre, John Paplay, Charles Osborn, Samuel Lewis, Joseph Marriott, Thomas Eddy, and for Charles Eddy, William Redwood, Samuel Coats, Patrick Hogan, John Haughton, Robert Maffet, Benjamin Scull, Joseph Bringhurst, Enoch Story, John Priest, Jaspar Carpenter, Thomas Hopkins, James Cresson, John Fullerton, Edward Hanlon, Joseph Price, John Pinkerton, John Nicholson, Alexander Tod, Charles Wharton, Philip Mosser, John Palmer, A. Morris, William Wharton, James Taylor, Thomas and Isaac Wharton, Abraham Jones, William Shute, Robert Fulton, James McCutchon, Andrew Hayward, Francis Bell, Abraham Mason, Henry Oiler, James Durant, Robert Craft, Alexander Smith, James Gottier, George Butler, Isaac Vannoss, George Guest, Jesse Williams, Richard Price, T. Bond, Samuel Howel, Mark Freeman, Samuel Powel, John Cummings, Joseph Paschal, Henry Drinker, jun., Joseph Master, James Butland, Samuel Scotten, Thomas Pryor, Samuel Kerr, William Jones, Robert Aitken, Joseph Turner, Ashton Humphreys, Samuel Jeffreys, Benjamin Evans, Patrick Rice, Eli Canby, Richard Wells, Joseph Stansbury, George Mifflin, James Humphreys, Joseph Morris, William Carter, Joseph Thomas, Joseph Hillborn, John Todd, Benedict Dorley, Thomas Shoemaker, Samuel Garrigues, Robert Erwin, John Mattin, John Tomson, John Allen, Jacob Shoemaker, Jacob Cooper, John Reedle, Philip Marot, Daniel Benezer, Joseph Wirth, Solomon Marache, John Glover, John McFadden, Isaac Morris, Aquila Jones, John Facy, Abraham Thomas, William Funney, Thomas Morris, Lewis Weis, William Ruibel, Adam Melcher, George Kehmle, Joshua Howell, Henry Wynkoop, Jacob Unce, Peter Kurtz, Cuthbert Landers, Henry Funk, Henry Krutz, Jacob Baker, Jacob Kehmle, Alexander Kidd, Anthony Yeldall, John Fritz, John Green, Joel Zane, Richard Brooks, John Gardner, John Fisher, John Hirst, Anthony Steimer, Henry Junckin, Charles West, Philip Weisman, johannes Weisman, jacob Swab, Christopher Hansman, Alexander Greenwied, Frederick Mous, Frederick Mous, jun., Christopher Baker, Townsend and john White, Ludwig Prahl, Christian Risser, john Williams, Adam Stricker, joseph Pfeiffer, Conrad Heiter, john Stillwaggon, Robert Tomkins, Samuel Jones, Thomas Saltar, james Parsons, William Brown, Philip Heyl, William Carter, joseph Yerks, Stephen Massfield, Christopher Pechin, William Niles, Pattison Hartshorne, Charles Mifflin, Robert Waln, johannes Franks, William Berknart, james Naglee, Isaac Cathrall, Archibald Gardner, Aaron Musgrave, George Napper, Daniel Trotter, John Sullivan, Benjamin Oldden, John Gillingham, Wilhelm Herman, James Fisher, Peter Gallagher, George Fitler, William Austin, George James, William Whitepaine, Daniel Rees, Thomas Mullan, Joseph Richardson, William Norton, jun., Will Cowper, Samuel Noble, Luke Keating, Curtis Clay, jacob Renno, Moses Bartram, Jonathan Shoemaker, Benjamin Say, William Norton, john Hood, David Copelend, Joseph Palmer, George Marcklay, John Whiteall, John Fifs, David Richardson, Jacob Greshens, George Griffitts, Bow, Brooke, Conrad Gerhard, Isaac Coats, James Coffac, John Parrack, Jacob Schuman, Jos. Norris, James Tull, James Wood, Jacob Ummenfetter, Isaac Heston, William Masters, Thomas Kintey, James Nevil, Henry Brusster, William Williams, Francis Grice, Joseph Volens, John Bament, John Patterson, Edward Stiles, James Hartley, Thomas Roker, William Savery, William Ball, Stephen Stapler, James Gorham, Dennis McReady, Philip Truckenmiller, Job Butcher, John Milner, Emanuel Josiah, James Reynolds, James Stephens, Dean Timons, Christian Rudolph, Richard Palmer, Stephen Blunt, Henry Jones, James Robinson, Henry Spering, John Jenkins, David Franks, John Wood, Timothy Carrell, Red Byrne, Edumund McDonnell, Jos. King, Matthias Landenberger, James Ham, Jonathan Beere, Andrew Huck, Joseph Coleman, John Beck, Jacob Cline, Barnard Solomon, John Clark, John Tittermary, William Pinchon, William Hussey, Joseph Richardson, jun., Nathaniel Richardson, Joseph Saunders, Jacob Mayer, John Aitken, Richard Butler, Thomas Betag, Richard Sewell, John Howard, John Blyth, James Sparks, John Jervis, Charles Stedman, jun., Richard Wistar, James West, Alexander Wilcocks, john Bates, William Compton, joseph Warner, Stephen Cronin, Joshua Humphrey, Thomas Ireland, William Tuckey, john guest, Michael Conner, Ezra Jones, Isaac Massey, john Duncan, Robert Bafs, John Warner, George Grotz, jacob Ehrenzeller, james Watkins, Robert Stretell Jones, Benj. Shoemaker, joseph Page, Peter Millar, Samuel Burge, Caleb Emlen, Wm. Smith, Bernard Fearis, Samuel Shaw, john Parrish, P. G. Breton, john McCleish, Bernard Dorsey, Fred. Weekerly, Ludwig Karcher, Christ. Alberger, Fred. Meyer, David Uber, Thomas Masterman, Tho. Norton, john Wagnor, joseph Norther, Christopher Bhiller, jacob Frank, George Hone, john Schreiber, Michael Schreiber, Michael Bauer, john Graff, jacob Hofner, Solomon White, Samuel Davis, john Fries, Daniel Suter, Thomas Rose, Wm. Dawson, jost Ebbert, jacob Winey, Peter Pritius, Timothy Barrett, Robert Dawson, Isaac Powell, Shutliff and Shoemaker, Thomas Clifford, jun., Cornelius Barnes, L. Davis, john Wistar, Samuel Emlen, Richard Footman, Wm. Branion Hockley, Christopher Heinckall, Reuben Haines, Owen Jones, Amos Foulke, Benjamin Poultney, George Reinhold, Tobias Rudolf, jacob Barge, Benjamin Davis, Jonathan Robeson, Aaron Ashbridge, Lawrence Seckel, Peter Evans, john Evans, james Byrne, john Lukens, Andrew Allen, Tench Cox, Wm. Von Phul, R. Roberts, john Bran, Charles Wm. Nasau, Abra. Chovet, Benj. Myers, Sigmund Copia, Michael Trumsost, C. White, Martin Biske, Isaiah Bell, John Dorsey, jun., Philip Marchinson, Rich. Toplift, Israel Jacobs, Robert Wright, joseph Davies, Mathias Burch, Wiliam Peltz, john Harly, jacob Griner, jacob Lehre, joseph Solomon Kohn, Solomon Aaron, Samuel P. Moore, Abraham Mitchel, joseph Potts, Adolph Gillman, james Gregson, john C. Kunze, George Koor, William Clifton, William Standley, Isaac Greentree, George Fred. Boyer, Samuel Garrigues, jun., William Shiply, George Morrison, joseph Chrukshanks, Caleb Carmalt, Townsend Speakman, Matthew Prat, joseph Redman, Israel Hallowall, Frederick Shenekell, Peter Shreiber, Lawrence Vance, Henry Rutter, john Jackson, john Nancarrow, jun., Isaac Lort, jonah Coats, john Ackroyd, Matthias Stenlee, George Henrich, S. Fisher, John Le Telier, Benjamin Town, copper smith, Thomas Morgan, William Craig, John North, John Weaver, joseph Shewell, Michael Farmer, John Chevalier, Matthias Hanly, Stephen Bardon, William Wells, William Milnore, Benjamin Gibes, Stephen Shewell, Lewis Grant, Thomas Meredith, David Lamb, John Elmslie, Thomas Daft, John Marshall, Thomas Francis, Jos. Fawcett, John Oldden, Thomas Bennet, Robert Worrill, Isaac Parrish, William Wishart, Richard Blackham, Thomas Paschall, Benjamin Horner, George Roberts, David Shoemaker, William Wilson, Robert Parrish, Caleb Attmore, Samuel Taylor, Thomas Taylor, James Cochran, Thomas Cummings, George Heydell, Peter Henderson, Robert Appleby, James Ingles, Samuel Starr, Thomas Harrison, Stephen Phipps, Joseph Budd, Thomas Say, Francis Fenly, Michael Halling, Andrew Brand, Joseph Rakestraw, John Care, Joseph Moore, John Solter, Robert Hitchmough, Joshua Cresson, Benjamin Hooton, Seymour Hart, Roger Bowman, Nathan Cooke, Thomas Tufft, William Grinding, Moses Mordecai, Thomas Tillyer, Joseph Pritchard, Benjamin Davies, Henry Styles, Robert Correy, jun., Jonathan Dilworth, Robert Tuckniss, John Biddle, James Morton, Thomas Penrose, Alexander Bartram.
    The above subscription paper is at the Coffee house, where any person may sign it.


Unknown, The Pennsylvania Evening Post, Philadelphia, Pa., Saturday, 6 November, 1777, pp. 529-530, cols. 1-2.


    The above list of Philadelphia merchants includes at least one family member, Henry Wynkoop, a future business partner, Henry Junckin, and his father-in-law George Reinhold. Henry and Mary Elizabeth Reinholdt were married at the St. Michael's and Zion Church in Philadelphia on August 10th, 1775. Henry was the son of Philip Wynkoop and Margaret Covenhoven of Moreland Township, Philadelphia County and should not be confused with his cousin, Judge Henry Wynkoop of Bucks County, Pennsylvania.

    Henry's shop, and home, at the time was on Second-street, between Arch and Race streets in Philadelphia. He later joined his 2nd cousin, Benjamin Wynkoop, in investing in land in West Virginia and Kentucky. Henry passed away sometime after November 11th, 1788, in his late 30s or early 40s. I've been researching Henry for some time now and if you have anything you'd like to share with me about Henry or his wife Mary Elizabeth, please drop me a line at I'd love to hear from you.

    Incidently, you'll search this list in vain for any trace of Benjamin Wynkoop, also a merchant, (and slaveholder, one of his slaves achieved considerable fame later as the Reverand Absalom Jones of Philadelphia.) Benjamin deserted the city when it became apparent that the British would occupy it and removed, with his family, to Delaware. He returned to Philadelphia sometime in 1778, sometime after the British left the city in June.

    If you'll search the list you'll find other members or future members of the family including Robert Fulton, the Yerkes, Warners and Hallowells. A number of the merchants on this subscription list were later indicted by the Continental Congress, after the British departed, for giving aid and comfort to the enemy, and treason. It wasn't easy to conduct business in those days.


Created July 4, 2004; Revised July 4, 2004
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