AGAR, THOMAS, b. Kilkenny Co., Ire.; d. at the age of 35. He came to Canada with his parents in 1849, and set. at Smith's Falls. He was foreman on the Kingston and Ottawa R.R. when it was building. He belonged to the Eng. Church, and in politics was a strong conservative. Issue: Mrs. Matthew Warren, Man.; Mrs. Robert Howie, N.S.; Charles and three children d. in infancy. Charles was b. in Smith's Falls in 1855. In 1875 he came to Maryborough Tp. and rented 100 acres, the east half of lot 3, con. 10, from the Rev. Robert Godfrey of Toronto. He cleared it and has put all of the improvements on it. He raises first class horses, securing many prizes at local fairs, and also makes a specialty of fancy poultry of various breeds, with which he is very successful at fairs. He has a local reputation as horse trainer and breaker. Mr. Agar lives on a rented place, but in 1902 bought 100 acres, the east half lot 5, con. 11, which his son works. He has been School Trustee for the last four years, also Trustee of Bethesda Meth. church. In politics he is a strong Conservative. He m. Ann Warren of Wallace Tp. Issue: Charles, John, William M., Benjamin, Margaret J., school teacher at Keldon, Dufferin Co.; Johanna, at home; Martha. Three older children d. in infancy. Charles works the 100 acres, east half lot 3, con. 9, belonging to his father. He m. Maude Salter of Wallace Tp. Issue: Charles, Eugene. AITCHISON, ANDREW (d.). The late Andrew Aitchison was b. in Berwickshire, Scot., and d. in 1894, at the age of 64. He came to Canada in 1850, settling first in Guelph Tp. and in 1858 removed to Pilkington. He was a Presbyterian and a Liberal in politics. He m. Elizabeth Ann Bathgate, who is living at the age of 75. Issue: Andrew, William, m. Ann Fasken, set. Lambton Mills, Ont.; Ebenezer, m. Sophia Bye, set. Pilkington; Peter, m. Jane Bye, set. Elora; Mrs. Robert Faskin, set. Pilkington; Simon, m. Margaret Maitland, set. Pilkington; Mrs. Thos. Bye, set. Pilkington, and John, on the old homestead, lot 7, con. 4. Andrew Aitchison owns 100 acres on lot 1, con. 1, Pilkington, and 10 acres on the Broken Front Lot opposite. He carries on mixed farming, with pedigreed Durham and Jersey cattle, and feeds stock for export. He is a prosperous farmer, and like his father, respected for his integrity. He is a Presbyterian, and in politics a Liberial. He has been Tax Collector of Lower Pilkington, for 3 years, and School Trustee for 3 years. He m. Nancy Larter, who d. at the age of 42. Issue: Andrew, Jr., m. Margaret Ross, set. in Elora; Elizabeth, Henry, William, and Albert in Dakota, James and Mabel. AITCHESON, WILLIAM, SR., (d.). B. Berickshire, Scot., 1802, d. 1894, age 92. He m. Isabella Miller, and came to Canada with the family in 1852. He brought considernble money with him, and paid œ260 for his farm, lots 8 and 9, con. 4. D., Guelph Tp. His issue: Mrs. Wm. Quarry, Andrew, William, Jr., Ebenezer, Alexander, and Mrs. Matthew Willing. Mr. Aitcheson was a member of the Pres. church, of which he was an Elder in Scotland, and was a sterling citizen. In politics he was a Liberal. Andrew m. Annie Perie, and set. near Listowel. William, Jr., b. Scot. 1839, was thirteen years old when the family came to Canada. He m. Margaret Bathgate, and owns the old homestead, (100 acres), con. 4, Guelph Tp., where he resides. Issue: Mrs. David McCrae, Mrs. Michael Coffee, Margaret H., Mrs. John Elliott, William, (d. young), Jamesinia, (d), William 3rd., Simon P., and Andrew. Of this branch: William, 3rd. m. Lizzie Laird, and is Dom. Exp. Agent at Sault Ste. Marie. Simon P. m. Bella Henderson, set. Hespeler. Andrew unmarried and manages the home farm. William Aitcheson, Jr., is a member of the Presbyterian church, and takes an active interest in church matters, and in politics he is a Liberal. As a citizen, he is held in high esteem. AITKINSON, GEORGE, was b. Yorkshire, Eng., 1844. He was raised and educated in Eng., and was a farmer in company with his brother Thomas, raising large numbers of sheep. The latter remained in Eng. and is still managing the sheep farm. George Aitkinson came to Canada in 1883, and set. in West Garafraxa on a farm of 162 acres, lot 16, con. 1. He is a member of the English church and a Conservative. He m. Sarah Hannah in Eng., who d. 1899. Issue: Mrs. William Campbell, Nichol; Mrs. George Tilly, set. in West Garafraxa; John, Thomas, Robert, (d. 6), and Mrs. James Hamilton of West Garafraxa; all b. in Eng. John came to Canada with his parents at the age of 12, and was practically raised in West Garafraxa, and moved to Eramosa in 1903, purchasing 200 acres, lot 32, con. 3, where he now resides. He m. Mary dau. of William Dermott. Issue: George W., Elizabeth M., Nicholas H., and John G. Thomas, m. Charlotte Stewart, and worked the old homestead in West Garafraxa. Issue: Stewart. ALEXANDER, DAVID, was b. Aberdeen, Scot., 1842. He came to Canada in 1867, worked in Fergus as a blacksmith, then being attracted by the cheap lands in Luther, he decided to examine them, and in 1869, bought the right to the present homestead of 100 acres, east half of lot 8, con. 12, which has ever since been in the name, he had to follow the blazed paths, and drove the first waggon on concession 12. He built his shanty and kept bachelor's hall for two years, and in 1871, he m. Barbara Birss. From this small beginning, Mr. Alexander has raised his large family and educated them, and now owns 300 acres of the best land in the township. He has been on the School Board for years; in the Council two years, and Tax Collector for some years. He is also President and Director of the cheese factory at Conn; and is a Presbyterian and a Liberal. Issue: Mrs. John Arris, Luther; David, Mrs. Alex. McFarland, East Luther; George F., Forbes, and Ruth at home. David, Jr. is on the homestead and carries on mixed farming. He m. Nellie Grieves in 1904. Issue: Robert Melville. George F. lives on lot 7, con. 12, West Luther, where he carries on mixed farming. He m. Nellie Dunn in 1903. ALEXANDER, JAMES, was b. lot 14, con. 8, West Garafraxa, in 1864. He is the youngest son of William Alexander, and Matilda Black, and owns the fine old homestead of 175 acres, on lots 14, and 15, con. 8, of West Garafraxa, which was originally taken up and owned by his father, who is living retired in Fergus. Mr. William Alexander with his brother David, from Scot. were among the first settlers in West Garafraxa, coming first to lot 18, con. 6. Their homestead is one of the finest to be found in the township, and with its brick residence and fine grounds, large windmill, and spacious bank barns, has few equals. James Alexander, the subject of this sketch, is with the exception of his father, the only representative of the family in the township. His sister is Mrs. Louis Sargent, of Fergus. Mr. Alexander has been a School Trustee and Trustee of St. John's church. In 1893 he m. Elizabeth, dau. of the late John H. Broadfoot, an old resident, of Nichol. Issue:. Helen and William J. ALEXANDER, ROBERT, was b. Tyrone, Ire., in 1838. He came to Canada in 1853 and worked for farmers in York Co. until he had saved some money. Unfortunately, he lost all his first wages speculating, however, he was plucky, and, again went to work with a vim, until he had saved some more. Then hearing of the cheap lands in Luther, he decided to try his fortune once more, and this time was more fortunate. In 1859 he purchased his present homestead of 200 acres, lot 11, con. 14, where he has since resided, and which no one has ever held but himself. He experienced all the hardships in connection with pioneer life, having to contend with the frosts of early days, and to walk to Mt. Forest, and carry his provisions home on his back. On one occasion he walked from Toronto to Luther, carrying 53 pounds of provisions. He has acquired all of his property by his own efforts, and was never sued in his life, or in court. He has now retired from active labor, and has the respect of the entire community. He is a Presbyterian and a Liberal. In 1863, he m. Elizabeth Jackson, who d. 1882, age 40. Issue: Mrs. Henry Wagner, Proton; Elizabeth, at home; Mrs. Alexander Adams, Toronto; Thomas, on the homestead, Robert J., at home, and William J., Mono Tp. ALLAN, ABSALOM SHADE, (Sheriff). The subject of this sketch is a son of the late Alexander Allan, b. Aberdeen, Scot., 1797; d. Preston, Oat., 1855. He m. Ann Davidson in 1824, who d. in 1878. He was educated at Marischal Col.; called to the bar, and practised law in Aberdeen. In 1843 he came to Canada and set. near Preston, Ont. He was the first Supt. of Schools for the Wellington District, and held the position until 1853. He was also the first Village Clerk of Preston. Absalom Shade Allan, b, Preston, Ont., 1843, was named for his uncle, Absalom Shade, the founder of Galt. He was educated at the High School, Elora, and Normal School, Toronto, In 1868 he became a general merchant at Clifford, and carried on business there for many years. He was the first Reeve of Clifford, in 1874, and at intervals held the office of Reeve for nine years. He was a Warden of Wellington Co. in 1884-5; was appointed a Magistrate in 1876, and also held the office of Notary Public and Commissioner. He was elected M.P.P. in 1886 for Wellington Co., re-elected in 1890, and defeated in 1894. He was appointed Sheriff of Wellington Co., in 1901. Mr. Allan had been educated as an accountant and had had several years practical experience in this line. He introduced the bill in the Ontario Legislature that led up to the appointment of a Provincial Auditor. In 1893 he moved the address in reply to the speech from the Throne in the new Parliament buildings, which had just been opened. He m. Kate, second dau. of Capt. Bullock of Minto. Mr. Allan is a Liberal in politics, and in religious matters is a Presbyterian, having been Elder of the Church and Superintendent of the Sabbath School for years. ALLAN, David ALLAN, David ALLAN FAMILY, The ALLAN, John F. ALLENDORF, Peter AMOS FAMILY, The ANDERSON, James ANDERSON, John ANDERSON, Matthew ANDERSON. Thomas Sr. ALLARDICE, Thomas Curzon ANDERSON, Isaac ANDRICH, E. C., and BRO. Mr. E. C. Andrich, of this firm, was b. in Galt in 1871, and set. in Salem in 1903. He is a member of the English church, and an independent in politics. He held the office of Path Master for some years. In 1901 he m. Sarah Coulthurst. William E. Andrich, the other member of the firm, m. Catherine Mee, of Hespeler. Issue: Laurence and Leslie. Edward C., and Wm. E. Aldrich are sons of Martin Aldrich, of Galt, who was b. in Germany, and came to Galt when nine years old. He m. Rachael Roos, b. in Preston, who is still living. E. C. Andrich and Brother own and conduct the Salem Brewery, the product of which is known as "Celebrated Salem Lager Beer," and is of first class quality, resembling the best American production, and is used extensively in the county and elsewhere. They are first class business men, and up-to-date in every respect. ANTHONY, WILLIAM, was b. Yorkshire, Eng., and d. in 1903, age 89. He came to Canada in 1850, with the sum of $100.00, and was six weeks crossing. He worked for a the in Chingacousy, and in 1854 he m. Jane Connors, and rented a farm near Scarboro'. In 1861 he came to Maryborough Tp., walking most of the way in from Drayton, and bought 100 acres, the east half of lot 2, con. 11, paying $600.00 for it, and clearing all of it himself. He was a member of the English church, and a Conservative, and never sought or held office. His aged wife is living, age 89. Issue: Elizabeth, (d. 15) ; Samuel, St. Thomas; Mrs. Robert Hamilton, Maryborough, and John. John, b. in Scarboro', in 1861, was about one year old when he came to Maryborough with his parents. He has always lived on the homestead, where he has a first class farm and good improvements. He carries on mixed farming, and is a Methodist and a Conservative. He m. Letitia Warren. Issue: William, Warren, Luela and Irene. ARGO, ADAM LIND., with James Argo, his brother, came to Canada about 1836 from Aberdeenshire, Scot., and set. on a farm near Winterborne, Woolwich Tp., farming together for about 3 years. Adam L. sold his share of the farm and went to Bridgeport, where he managed a milling and merchandise business for some years, having been in the mercantile business with his father in Tarves, Scot. After about three years at Bridgeport, he went to Preston, where he was a partner with Joseph Erb in a milling and merchandise business. He then went to Eden Mills in Wellington County, where he bought out Cribb's grist and sawmill and 250 acres of land. He built a new mill and ran the merchandise business and farm in connection with it. In 1852 he sold out to Henry Hortop, Sr., the present proprietor of the mill, and went to Fergus, where he rented the Fergus flour and oatmeal mill, and carried on a general merchandise business for five years. He then purchased the McCann estate of 550 acres, pine, saw and woollen mill, five miles from Milton. He built a new sawmill and carried on farming at Fergus. After disposing of this property he bought the Stratford flour mills, which he ran for about ten years, when he retired to Fergus and lived until his death in 1886, aged 77. He was a member of the first Council of Fergus, continuing in office for a number of years. In politics he was a strong Reformer. In religion he was a U. P. in Scot., and while at Eden Mills attended Dr. Torrance's church in Guelph. In Fergus he had first attended the Knox church, Elora, and later, at the the of the union, went to Melville church in which he was an Elder. He was also an Elder in Dr. McPherson's Church, Stratford. He m. in Scot. Christina Duthie, of Aberdeenshire, who d. in Fergus in 1888. Surviving issue: James, Fergus; and John, Binscarth, Man. James, b. Winterborne, was with his father until he went to Stratford, after which he continued the merchandise business in the Argo block, Fergus, until 1901 when he sold out. He was a member of the School Board for twenty years; Reeve of Fergus four years, and Councillor for six years, and as Reeve he served in the County Council. In politics he is a Reformer. He has been on the board of management of Melville church for years. He retired from active business in 1901, and lives in Fergus, at his residence, known as "Alargue." He m. Jane Henderson, of Dundas. Issue: Mrs. J. J. Craig, Fergus; and Mary, at home. ARKELL, THOMAS (d.). This respected pioneer of Puslinch Tp. was a native of Berkshire, Eng. In Oct., 1830, with his first cousin, John Arkell, and F. W. Stone, he left England and spent the winter in New York, coming with them to Puslinch in May, 1831. These three mien picked out the tract of land now known as Farnham Plains, and of this Thomas took 600 acres. He afterwards sold 300 acres, but the remaining 300, being part of lots 7, 8, 9, 10, con. 9, he lived on until his death. He was reared on a farm in Idstone, Berkshire, and, having a thorough knowledge of agriculture, he made a very successful farmer. In live stock he was a prominent breeder of Cotswold sheep and Shorthorn cattle. He was a member of the English Church; a Conservative in politics; a consistent and hard worker, devoting his time zealously to his business affairs and never seeking to hold office of any kind. He, however, was Magistrate for over thirty years, and always dealt justice in an unbiased manner. He d. in 1875 at the age of 73 years. He m. Isabelle Hume. Issue: William and Mary, deceased; Robert and Adam d. in infancy; Mrs. Henry Iles, Guelph; Peter, farmer at Teeswater, Bruce Co.; John and Thomas, who are both farmers at Arkell; Mrs. Blair Falconbridge, now living in Hamilton; and Henry. Henry Arkell has a continental reputation as a breeder and importer of Oxforddown sheep, being, moreover, the first to introduce these sheep into America, and has always taken a strong interest in agricultural matters, being President of the Puslinch Agricultural Society for two years, and a Director for seventeen years. He also has been Director of the Guelph Central Exhibition and the Fat Stock Show, holding each position for several years. His reputation as a sheep breeder has not bein without recognition, for he was for ten years a Director of the Am. Oxforddown Association, and was for some years Vice-President. His success as breeder and exhibitor has not been confined to Ontario, as his flock, in 1893, at Chicago Exposition, won prizes amounting to $500; and, in 1904, at St. Louis, won thirty four prizes, including three sweepstakes, with twenty-eight sheep. Besides the sheep Mr. Arkell has always bred extensively Shorthorn cattle, but latterly, however, he has added to these a small herd of Jerseys. Mr. Arkell owns and operates the old homestead, consisting of 300 acres, and known as "Farnham Farm." In religion he is a Presbyterian, and in politics a Conservative. He m. Jessie Macfarlane, in 1877, who d. in 1905. Issue: Thomas Reginald, who is attending O. A. C., and preparing himself to sustain the reputation built by his father as one of the most successful stock raisers on the continent. ARGO, JAMES, b. Aberdeenshire, Scot., 1806, and came to Canada in 1834, settling first in Woolwich. In 1841 he came to Eramosa and purchased the present homestead. He m. Ann McDonald in 1839, and they had the following issue: Ruth, Ester, Mrs. John Keith, Margaret, Mrs. James Auld, Barbara, Mrs. Thomas Ronaldson, Rev. James, Pres. minister, and William, now on the homestead. The late James Argo was a man of unflinching determination and force of character. He came to Canada when twenty-eight years of age, and started life without capital, but he had what was better, a wonderful capacity for hard work, and an unbounded faith in the future. By his own efforts he carved a home out of the wilderness and became one of the leading men in the section, bringing up and educating his family, who now compose the very best of citizenship in the localities where they have settled. He passed away in 1894, and is buried in Eden Mills Cemetery. William succeeded to the old homestead. He m. Mary Priscilla Hager; they have three children: Anna Lynn, Ruth and Norman Ross. He is an elder of the Presbyterian church, and has been six years in the Township Council, and for two years Deputy Reeve. He has in his possession the first carriage brought into the Township of Eramosa. Mr. Argo occupies a respected place in the township, where he has spent his life from infancy. ARMISHAW, THOMAS S. While the subject of this sketch is not an old pioneer, he has lived in Wellington Co. since 1870, and by his marriage in 1875 to Margaret J. Hood, dau. of the late Thomas Hood, becanme identified with one of the most prominent pioneer families in the county. The Armishaw family were farmers in England. The subject of our sketch is a son of Thomas Armishaw, Sr., a successful farmer, and was b. in Staffordshire, Eng., in 1850. He came to Canada when twenty years of age, settling first in Puslinch. After his marriage he rented "Elderslie," where he has since resided, from Mr. Hood, for ten years, when he purchased it. He is one of the substantial farmers and respected citizens of Guelph Tp. Issue: Annie, Bertram, Fanny, Roy H., George, William, Elizabeth and Constance. ARMSTRONG FAMILY, THE. The founders of this branch in Canada were George, Sr., William, Sr., and Thomas, Sr., who were b. in Roxburghshire, Scot., and emigrated from there to Ovid, N.Y., in 1819. In 1822, William, Sr., and Thomas, Sr., came to Eramosa, and were followed by George, Sr., in 1824. They set. on the second line of Eramosa, and were among the very first settlers on the line. George, Sr., b. 1788, d. 1865, m. Jane Smith. Issue: John S., William S., Thomas S., Mrs. John Armstrong, George S., Mrs. John Peters, James S., Peter S., Jane and Andrew S. Of this branch. John S. m. Mary Scott, and set. in Eramnosa, and in 1856 built the Armstrong Mills in Guelph Tp. Tais mill is today first class in all of its appointments, and is now owned by his nephews, Thomas and Edward Armstrong. It stands as a monument to the memory of one of the most notable men in that section. The dam and mill were built under conditions that would have discouraged any man not possessing an iron will. Washed out by freshets, and on the verge of financial ruin, he was aided by a wife of more than ordinary ability, and completed his task, and made the project not only a boon to that section of the country, but a success. Issue: Mrs. John Ironside, Toronto; George, Jr., Robert, Mrs. David Rea, Eramosa; William, Frederick, Thomas, Mrs. John Farrow, Adam A., Mrs. Charles Hindes, Toronto; and Albert A. Of his family. George, Jr., m. first Jane Wood, and set. in Eramosa. Issue: Mrs. Chas. Armstrong, Toronto; Mrs. D. M. Henderson, Acton. His second wife was Elizabeth Beattie. Issue: Frederick, Simon J., and Herbert S. He owns the original Thomas Armstrong farm, of 177 acres, lot 23, con. 1, which he bought of Thomas Armstrong in 1864, and has since lived here. He carries on mixed farming, making a specialty of thoroughbred cattle and Clydesdales, and is one of the most progressive citizens of Eramosa. Robert m. Ellen Smith, and set. N.W.; William went to Wisconsin; Frederick m. first Elizabeth Sloan. Issue: Winifred. Second wife, Christina Bain. He is a veterinary surgeon at Fergus. Thomas m. Nellie Stark and set. Cal. Adam m. Jennie Thompson, of Detroit, and set. in Fergus. Albert A. set. in Minn. William S., b. 1819, and d. 1893, m. Lucy Peters in 1854. Issue: Mrs. David B. Scott, George P., Sarah J. (d.), Annie U., Mrs. William Bichan, Mrs. George A. Whitelaw, James B., Charlotte Z., Lucy E., William J., and Janet M. He was very successful in life, and a large farmer, leaving his family in nice circumstances at his demise. He was one of the founders of the Congregational church at Speedside, in which he took a very active interest; and, as a citizen, was held in a high place in the community. Thomas S. was also a promoter of the Speedside church and a first class citizen. He m. first Charlotte Benham; and, second, Rebecca Boyce. The only members of the late Thomas S. Armstrong family left in Wellington Co. are Mrs. John Laycock, of West Garafraxa, and Thomas and Edward who own time Armstrong Mills in Guelph Tp. They also own the farm of 110 acres surrounding the mill, and are prosperous and influential men. George S. Armstrong was the fist male child born in Eramosa Tp. Luther G. Armstrong is a son of George S. Armstrong, and was b. in Nichol Tp., 1858, and owns and occupies 100 acres, west half lot 5, con. 7, West Garafraxa, where he carries on mixed farming. He has erected a fine bank barn 60 x 74 feet, and is a leading agriculturist. He is a Congregationalist and a Liberal, and is a Trustee in the local school. He m. Margaret Bayne, dau. of a West Garafraxa settler. Issue: Mrs. P. C. Mills, set. Kenora; Elizabeth, accidentally drowned in the Winnipeg River, Sept., 1902; Julia, set. Toronto, and Ida, set. Fergus. James S., b. Eramosa, 1829; d. 1903, and was buried in the Johnson cemetery., Eramosa, He m. Margaret Rea, who is still living. He was a very progressive farmer of Eramosa, where he passed his long and useful life. Issue: Enoch, in N.W.; Lewis, who succeeded to the Eramosa homestead of 225 acres, where he carries on mixed farming, making a specialty of high grades and thoroughbred cattle; Charles; Robert; Katie, (d.); Maggie, in Fergus with her mother and Mary. Mary, m. Colonel Daniel Brown, and is living in California. Peter S. set. Nebraska. Andrew S. m. Jessie Burns, and set. in Fergus. Issue: George and Nellie (d.). Nellie m. Maj. John Beaty, of Toronto. William Sr. m. Margaret Wilson; set. Eramosa. Issue: John W. and Mrs. James Logrin. Of this branch, John W. m. Bessie Logrin. Issue: Mrs. David Smith, William, Jr., Mrs. D. K. McDonald, Mrs. F. Collins, Frank, and May. Thos, Sr., m. first Fannie Carpenter. Second wife, Martha Loghrin. Third wife, Isabella Strachan. Issue: John C., and Mrs. Robert Dodds. William A. Armstrong is a son of John Armstrong, and a grandson of George, Sr. He m. Jean Dryden, and owns and farms 130 acres, lot 19, con. 2, Eramosa. Issue: Jean F., John F., and Agnes I. ARMSTRONG, JAMES E., b. Grenville Co., 1841. Mr. Armstrong lived at home until he was grown up and then went to Bruce Co., where he started for himself, buying a farm partly cleared, which he improved and sold at an advance. He then moved to Arthur Tp. and purchased 66 1/2 acres just outside the corporation of Mount Forest, also a park lot adjoining. There were no buildings on it at that time, but Mr. Armstrong has cleared the land and put up modern buildings, making it a valuable property, which has more than doubled in value since he took it. He educated his family and made a good home for them, and has been very successful, and is held in the highest esteem. Mr. Armstrong has been trustee of the Meth. church for some years and is a Liberal in politics. In 1870 he m. Elizabeth Gilroy. Issue: Mrs. Marshall Wright, Arthur Tp.; William E., Mount Forest, and J. Ernest and Eva at home. ARMSTRONG, DR. JAMES MITCHELL, is a son of the late James Armstrong who was b. at Inniskillen, Ire., May 29, 1812, and came to Canada in 1831, set. in East Whitby. Dr. Armstrong was b. in East Whitby, Jan. 27, 1860, and is a graduate of the Collegiate Institute, St. Mary's. After completing his course there, he taught school for two and one-half years in Howick, and then attended the Normal School at Ottawa, after which he was again engaged in teaching for two years in Howick. He was then in the drug business, Queen Street East, in Toronto, for two years, after which he took his medical course at Toronto University, graduating therefrom in class of 1893. He then set. in Walton, where he practised his profession for ten years. Dr. Armstrong then went to London, Eng., and took a course of six months in the hospitals of that city; also a course in Dublin and in New York. In 1902 he came to Harriston, where he has continued the practice of his profession. In 1889 he m. Miss Alicia Cooper. Issue: Wilber T., Amy Helena, Balfour Cooper, and Marjorie S. ARMSTRONG, THOMAS. Thomas Armstrong was b. in the south of Ireland in 1800, and emigrated to Canada and set. in Simcoe County in 1816. He m. Jane Way about 1830, also a native of Ireland, who d. at the age of 70. When that part of Wellington County then called "Queen's Bush" came into the market in 1841, he purchased 500 acres of Peel Tp. He d. at the age of 42, leaving six sons and three daughters. Thomas N. Armstrong, his second son, who was willed 150 acres of the above mentioned property in the Tp. of Peel, lot 2, con. 12, set. on iy about 1858, and cleared the forest, and encountered the early trials and struggles of pioneer life. In 1860 he m. Mary Hyland, also of Simcoe Co., who is still living, at the age of 70. He d. in 1893, at the age of 60, leaving two children, Silas B. and Malissa. He was a successful farmer, temperate in his habits, a Methodist and a Conservative. Silas B. succeeded to the homestead known as "Spring Brook Farm" in 1886. He was m. in 1887, to Emma M. Noecker, dau. of L. A. Noecker, grain merchant, of Drayton. Issue: Percy M., Alva M., Harold A., Ivan S., Elgin T., Welland F., and Gladys E., all of whom are at home. He is an extensive farmer, and makes a specialty of saddle and harness horses. He also feeds extensively grade cattle for the British market. He is a Methodist in religion and a Conservative in politics. Malissa m. William K. Armstrong, of the same name, but not a relative, who lives in Michigan. Malissa d. in 1903. ARMSTRONG, WILLIAM (d.), was b. Co. Fermanagh, Ire., 1821, d. 1891, age 70. He came to Canada in 1844, at 23 years of age, and did work for farmers in Vaughan Tp. for some years. Then, with a yoke of oxen and an axe, he started for Queen's Bush, where he located on 150 acres, lot 4, con. 1, Maryborough, about 1851 or 1852, before the land was in the market. This farm he cleared. He was a Conservative in politics, and one of the most active men of the township in the cause of his party. In 1848 he m. Nancy Downey, who d. in 1883, age 76. Issue: Mrs. James Everett, Millbank; Mrs. George Westgate (d.) and William H. William H. was b. in 1858, and has always lived on lot 4, con. 1, his fathers homestead, which he owns. He is a dealer in cattle. He has always been an active worker in the Conservative interests, and was one of the first men in the township to advocate an Independent Conservative line of thought. He has, for years, been a Trustee of Union S. S. No. 10. In religion he is a Methodist. In 1890 he m. Marion Douglas, of Scot. Issue: William E., Clarence D. (d. inf.), Thomas H., Myrtle M., Hazel P., Mary E., and Clarence D. ARNOLD, ROBERT (d.), b. Co. Fermanagh, Ire., 1832, d. 1888, age 56. He came to Canada with his parents in 1836, and set. in Halton Co. in 1861 he came to Maryborough, and took up the present homestead of 150 acres, lot 18, con. 17, which he cleared, and where his large family were raised and educated. He was a Methodist and a Conservative. In 1862 he m. Ruth Rouse, who survives and lives on the homestead. Issue: George W., and Mrs. Henry Small, Arthur Tp,; James, N.W.T.; John, Maryborough; Mrs. Arch. McIntyre, Minto; Isabella, at home; Robert, Minto; Alexander, Arthur Tp.; Mrs. Hawley, Peel Tp.; Della and Alfred E., at home. George W. owns lot 27, con. 7, in Arthur Tp. He has acquired his property by his own exertions, and carries on mixed farming, going into horses extensively. He is a highly respected citizen, a Methodist and a Conservative. In 1890 he m. Helen Mills, who d. in 1897. Issue: Helen, William H. (d. 12), and George E. ARNOTT, HENRY, was b. Scot., 1852, and d. 1886, age 34. He came to Luther with his parents, and set. on the present homestead of 100 acres, lot 10, con. 13, which he cleared. He was a Presbyterian and an Independent. In 1878 he m. Mary Herriot. Issue: William, James, Mrs. Wilmor Nickson, Luther; and Ida at home. His two sons, William and James, are operating the farm, and carry on mixed farming, and are successful. ART, HENRY. b, Maryborough, 1862. He is the second son of time late Thomas Art, Maryborough Tp. He came to Arthur in 1885 and purchased the presemmt homestead of 103 acres, lot 24, con. 12, which was partly cleared. It is now in the highest state of cultivation, with modern buildings and improved appliances. Mr. Art carries on mixed farming, and is very successful. He takes an active interest in church work, and has been Superintendent of the Sunday School of the Methodist church for sonme years. In politics he is a Conservative. In 1887 he m. Jennie E., the only dau. of the late Thomas Hayes, of Minto Tp. Her mother is still living at the age of 76. There are the following children: Thomas H., Jennie E., Florence M., Carrie L., and Dolly F. ATKINSON, JOHN, JR. Was the third son of John Atkinson, who was one of the pioneers of Nassagaweya Tp. He was b. in Yorkshire, Eng., and came to Canada with his parents, and lived all his life in Nassa. Tp. Of his family, David was the only one to come to Puslinch Tp. He bought the Beattie Farm, lot 14, front con. X, 100 acres, and lived there until his death. He m. Elizabeth Evans. Issue: Henry George, Ernest, Norman, and two girls. Mrs. Atkinson runs the farm with the assistance of her sons. Mrs. Atkinson is a grand-dau. of the late Benjamin Evans, who was b. in Oxfordshire, Eng., and came to Canada in 1833. Benj. Evans was a soldier in the British Army, and d. at Quebec, shortly after arrival. He m. Elizabeth Blackwood in England, who, with five children, survived him. James, one of the sons, was five years old when he came to Canada, and was raised in Halton Co., and m. Elizabeth Stewart. Issue: Mrs. David Atkinson, Puslinch, George, Mrs. James Nicol, John, Thomas. ATKINSON, WILLIAM (d.). This pioneer head of the Atkinson family in Canada was b. in Yorkshire. Eng., and lived there until 1832. He had m. Jane Hogg in Eng., and their family were born there, and all came to Canada and set. in Guelph Tp. on the above date. He died at the age of 75 years, while his wife d. in 1892 at the ripe old age of 93. The late William Atkinson was the possessor of 300 acres of land. He was a progressive man and very successful, and was one of the pioneers in thoroughbred cattle in the township. In politics he was a Conservative, and was a member of the Church of England. Issue: William, Jr.; John, George, Mrs. Richard Howes (d.), Mrs. William Elgie, Mark, Mrs. John Hudson (d.), Joseph, Mrs. John Lillie, and Mrs. Jas. Lillie (d.). Of this family: Wm. Jr.. m. Christina Faskin, and served in U. S. Civil War. He is d. and his family went to the U. S. John, b. in Eng., 1824, m. first Miss Card. Issue: Mrs. William Galbraith. Second wife, Hannah Flewelling. Issue: Mrs. L. Spence, Mrs. William Watson, John H. (d. young), William A., James W., Mrs. Alexander Maud, Mrs. Albert Roberts, and Mrs. John Williams. John Atkinson was in his younger days a man of great personal activity. He owned 200 acres of land, which he cleared and improved, being one of the first settlers in his locality in Guelph Tp., and here, with his son, he is spending the sunset of his long and useful life, respected by all who know him. Of his branch of the family: William A. m. Maggie McNeil and owns the old homestead of 200 acres, Issue: Muriel, Hazel, Lawrence and Lionel. James W. owns and farms 100 acres adjoining the home farm. He m. Martha McNeil. All of the family belong to the Church of England and are Conservatives. George, b. Eng. 1826, d. 1894. He was six years old when he came with his parents to Canada, and was, therefore, raised in Guelph Tp. He m. in 1856, Ciceiley Elgie, who still survives him. Issue: Mrs. Charles Blyth, George (d. unm.), William, John H. and Charles J. The late George Atkinson, whose portrait appears on another page of this work, was in many respects a notable man. He started life with practically nothing, purchasing his large farm from his father, and here kept "Bachelor's Hall," in an old log house until he was married. He cleared this farm and became one of the mnost successful men in the neighborhood. At the time of his death, his land in Guelph and Luther, aggregated 630 acres. He was a natural money maker, very progressive as well as very popular. He is said to have owned the first binder in Guelph Tp. He was known as "King of Marden." Of his family: William m. Agnes Cunningham (d.). He owns 150 acres, lots 13 and 14, con. 4, and lot 14, con. 15, where he resides. John H. m. Mary Nesbitt, and owns and farms 100 acres near homestead. Issue: Hester E., Charles J. m. Elizabeth Murdock, and owns and lives on the old George Atkinson homestead, containing 185 acres, and 50 acres across the road. Issue: Florence M., and George. The Atkinson family are among the most substantial in Guelph Tp. AUGER, SAMUEL. The late Samuel Auger, of Pilkington, was b. in Cornwall, Eng., and d. in 1880 at the age of 66. In the old country he was a millwright. Wishing to better his condition in life, he resolved to emigrate to Canada, and after an eventful voyage and undergoing the terrors of a shipwreck, he finally landed safely at Quebec and from there came to Pilkington, where he set. on lot 16, con. 10. He was a good and pious man, and successful as a farmer. He was Steward and Supt. of the Sabbath School in the Methodist church, and was a Liberal in politics. He was a Magistrate for a number of years. He m. Ann Amy, who d. in 1886 aged 67. Issue: Richard, m. Elizabeth Gooding, set. in Michigan; Thomas m. Sarah Ann Hill, set. in the N.W.; Samuel, m. Ellen Allan, set. in Michigan; Rebecca (d.); William Henry (d.); Mrs. Henry Mighton (d.); Moses; and Aaron m. Margaret Mighton, set. in Winnipeg. Moses owns the homestead of 100 acres, where he carries on mixed farming, dairying, and the feeding of cattle for export. He is a successful farmer, a Methodist in religion, and a Liberal in politics. He holds the office of School Trustee. His first wife was Matilda Mighton. Issue: Milford L. m. Mary Stickney (d.), set. in Pilkington; Charles, professor of languages in the U.S., and Ada, at home. His second wife was Ann Gross. Issue: Viola W., Bera, Orley, and Harry I. AUSTIN, CHARLES, b. Co. Tyrone, Ire., 1830, where he was raised and educated. In 1853 he came to Canada, and to Guelph Tp. His cash capital at this time was nil, and he at once found employment with a farmer. He was industrious and frugal, and after employment of this kind for a time he saved sufficient to enable him to rent a farm and start on his own account. In 1806, he purchased his present farm at Mosborough, and has lived there ever since, although he is now practically retired. He m. Matilda Hamilton, dau. of Alexander Hamilton. She d. in 1903, age 70 years. They had the following issue: Mrs. Samuel Beck, William, Mary A., Margaret, Alexander, Charles, Jr., Rev. James, Marjorie and Robert. William m. Isabella Newstead. Issue: Charles A. and Mary E. He has the Mosborough farm. Charles, Jr., m. Margaret Aiken. Issue: Matilda. Rev. James m. Linda Clemens, set. Wisconsin; Robert, m. Alice Townley, set. Preston. The family are Presbyterians, and Charles Austin in politics is a strong Conservative. He is a well read man, and up-to-date on the current topics of the day. BAILEY, ALFRED, b. New York State, 1851. He was the youngest son of time late George Bailey, a Yorkshire man who left his native country for the United States about 1849. He had m. Maria Corker, of Sheffield, and on the voyage over, which took seven weeks, three of their children died. He set. in New York State, but his British tendencies would not permit him to remain, so he migrated about 1852 to Nichol Tp. in County Wellington, and about 1854 to West Garafraxa, where he set. on lot 7, con. 7, and lived there until his death in 1862. His widow survived him 13 years, and the old homestead is now owned by Mrs. Martha Bailey. Alfred Bailey, the subject of this sketch, was about four years old when his father came to Canada. He remembers well the year of scarcity following the close of the Russian war. As a young man, and for some years after his marriage, he followed the occupation of framing, and has erected a large number of the fine barns to be seen in the Township of West Garafraxa, some built as far back as 1875, and others as recently as 1903. Mr. Bailey purchased in 1884 the homestead of 100 acres, lot 27, con. 6. In 1901 he purchased an additional 100 acres, and recently has purchased and given to his son Ferrier 100 acres immediately opposite. All of this land is in a high state of cultivation, and the best methods of agriculture, notably tiling and draining, have been applied. The whole proparty is valued and assessed higher than any in the township, and is considered one of its best farms. For the past four years, 1902 to 1906, Mr. Bailey has represented the township in the Council which has so well served the interests of the ratepayers that the members have been elected by acclamation for the past three years. In politics Mr. Bailey has always been a consistent Conservative, and has invariably supported the platform of that party. In religion he is a Methodist. William Bailey, a brother, b. in Eng., set, in Kenilworth, Arthur Tp., is the oldest of the family. He m. Jane Dulmage. The other members of the Bailey family were: George, Charles, Benjamin, Joseph and Annie. Mr. Alfred Bailey in 1877 m. Martha Ferrier (d.). Issue: Ferrier, Mrs. James Cardy, W. Garafraxa; Mrs. Walter Carlow, Luther; Elizabeth, Mary and Charles E. In 1882 he m. Jane Wheeler, his second wife. Issue: Alfred and George. BAIRD, JAMES (d.), was b. Ayrshire, Scot., 1814. He was raised and educated in Scot., and m. Mary Ann Jackson, of Yorkshire, Eng. They emigrated to Canada in 1850, settling in Oxford Co., and ten years later came to Minto, purchasing 100 acres, lot 30, con. 3, where they set., making a small clearing and erecting a log house. He cleared this farm, and upon it they raised their family. The late James Baird became one of the best known and respected men in the community. He died in 1884, age 71 years. His widow survives him in her eighty-seventh year. Issue: John, who became a successful pioneer in Dakota, now in N.W.T., a large ranch owner; James, Jr., d.; Mrs. Rev. A. K. Caswell d.; William, N. Dakota, a large ranch owner; and Jackson. Jackson owns the old Minto homestead, on which he has built a handsome brick residence, and has good barns and out-buildings. The farm is in a high state of cultivation. He is an up-to-date farmer and progressive citizen, and makes a specialty of dairying and fitting Durham grade cattle for the market. He m. Katie Ferguson. Issue: James N. The Baird family are much respected. BALLINS, FRANCIS, b. Co. Armagh, Ire., 1834, where he was raised and went to school. In 1836 he came to Canada and settled in Cartwright Township. In 1862 he came up to Minto and purchased 100 acres, lot 27, con. 8, where he settled. While the township at that time had been settled some years, everything was in a crude state; Harriston was a small pioneer village; the clearings in the township were small, and the woodman's axe everywhere heard. Mr. Ballins set to work and cleared his farm, and has since made it his home, and is a respected citizen of the community. He m. Isabella Brant, d. His daughter Mary Jane keeps house for him. His only son Arch. F. now owns and farms the homestead, and lives with his family in a modern brick house containing up-to-date improvements. He m. Sarah Henry. Issue: Myrtle, Lola, Edna, Georgina and Hazel. He is a strong Conservative, and while he has never held municipal office, takes a healthy interest in affairs. The Ballins family have always held a high place in the community. BAMBRIDGE, FRANCIS (d.), was b. Co. Cavan, Ire., 1798, and came to Canada in 1818. He lived in Toronto when it was known as "Muddy Little York," and was a pioneer in Cartwright Tp., Durham Co. In 1864 he came with his family to Harriston, where he lived two years, when he purchased lot 22, con. 11, Minto, and moved there. He and his sons, Richmond and Abram, put up a log house and cleared this farm. Francis Bambridge occupied a leading position in Cartwright, where he was respected for his sterling worth and good citizenship, and although advanced in years when he came to Minto, his activity had not abated, and he took a healthy interest in everything for the general benefit of the community. He assisted in building the first Church of England erected in Harriston. Francis Bambridge d. on the Minto farm in 1879, aged 81 years. Of his family: Hannah m. William Taylor; Elizabeth m. Wm. Fallis; and Richmond m. Maria Chambers, are in Manitoba. Francis W. L. was a school teacher, and d. unm., age 21 years. Abram owns lot 23, con. 6, Minto, and resides there. His farm is an excellent one and in a first class state of cultivation. BARBER, MATTHEW (d.), b. Co. Connaught, Ire., 1817; d. 1889. He came to Canada in 1834, and set. on lot 19, con. 4, Eramosa. The father and grandfather of Mr. Barber were also named Matthew, but the grandfather had an elder son named James, who inherited the estate in Ireland. Mr. Barber was one of the very first settlers of Eramosa, where he came out without money, but by his own industry accumulated a fine property. He was very much respected, and took an active interest in and was a zealous worker in the church. It is said that he was the first to start prayer meetings in Chingacousy, Eramosa and Arthur Tps. He attended the stone church on the 4th line, Eramosa, and was largely instrunmental in having it built. In 1884 Mr. Barber retired to Guelph and resided on Garth Street until his death. The Barber homestead is now owned by his daughters, Mrs. William H. Burgess, and Miss Esther Barber. In 1842 Mr. Barber m. Esther Patterson, who d. in 1874, age 54. Issue: Mrs. Wm. Cunningham (d.); James; Mrs. William Duncan, set. in Fergus; Matthew, who m. Mary Meyers and set. in Guelph; John, Mary A., Mrs. Henry Forrester, Mrs. Wm. H. Burgess, and Esther. The latter resides on Garth Street, Guelph. BARCLAY, ALEXANDER (d.), b. Aberdeen, Scot., 1790; d. in Guelph Tp., 1851. He received a liberal education in Scot. and afterwards was a large farmer, besides following the business of cattle dealer on a large scale. He m. Jane Harper in Aberdeen, who was b. in 1805, and d. in 1880. They came to Canada with considerable means in 1829, when he purchased and set. on 100 acres of land, lot 3, con. 9C., Guelph Tp., and later made additional purchases here and elsewhere, leaving at the time of his death 600 acres of land. He employed others to clear his farms under his superintendence. He was a man of strong individuality and great personal activity, and was looked upon as a leading man in the community. Issue: Mrs. James Milne, Mrs. Robert Shortreed, Mrs. James Cooper, Alexander, Jr., David, James, John M., Mrs. Charles Gerrow and William. Alexander, Jr., m. Eliza Elgie, set. Grey Co. David m. Elizabeth Brown, set. in Eramosa, where he is a large landowner. Issue: Mrs. K. Brown, Mrs. E. Patterson, Mrs. John Sloan. Mrs. John Grady, May, Nellie, David Jr., and Delmore. James m. Ellen Stewart. Issue: James, David and Samuel. He set. Fresno, Cal. and has been very successful as a fruit rancher. John M. m. Jane Hamilton. He was b. and brought up on the Guelph farm. He was general agent for L. D. Sawyer & Co., ten years, and later for John Haggard, Brampton, five years. He resided at Owen Sound for some years, owning the Stage Line between O. S. and Collingwood, O. S. and Wiarton, O. S. and South Hampton and O. S. and Meaford, which he ran successfully. He had bought 140 acres, lot 2. con. 8C., Guelph Tp., in 1868, which he rented until 1879, when he sold his other interests and moved there, where he has since resided. He carries on mixed farming, making a specialty of Lincolnshire sheep, in which he took six first prizes, one second prize and a diploma, at the Guelph Central Exhibition, 1904, and in 1905 exhibited fifteen sheep and took fourteen prizes. He also breeds Shorthorn Durhan cattle, Yorkshire pigs, carriage and general purpose horses, the best in their class. Issue: Alexander, Nelson, William, Roy, at home; and Mrs. Joseph Smeltzer. Of this branch, Alexander m. Ida Burns, owns and lives on his 320 acres in Man. Issue: Florence and James. Nelson m. Rebecca Boys, and resides in Guelph. Issue: Mabel F., William, set. near Saskatoon, where he owns 320 acres, and has been very successful. BARCLAY, JAMES, the subject of this sketch was a son of John Barclay, and was b. in Forfarshire, Scot. in 1837, and was there raised and educated. In 1866 he came to Canada and stopped a year in Dundas, when he came to Guelph Tp. He came to Canada without means, but he was a young man, full of ambition and with a determination to succeed. He found employment with farmers at the moderate wages then paid, and saved his money until he had accumulated sufficient to rent a farm, stock it, and start in business for himself. That he succeeded goes without saying; and is fully evidenced by his splendid property in Puslinch, consisting of 150 acres on con. 6, which is as good in buildings and cultivation as can be found anywhere, and has all been obtained by his own efforts. He lived twelve years in Guelph Tp. and has been in Puslinch since 1879. He m. Harriet Ann Key. Issue: Barbara, trained nurse in Providence, R.I.; Mary, David, m. Rabena Scott and is employed at the gas works, Guelph; William and John, who own 640 acres in the N. W. and reside there. Jean, private sect.; James, on the home farm; Jessie, trained nurse; Margaret, a stenographer; Gilbert, on home farm, and Harriet, school teacher. BARKER, WILLIAM, while not one of the early pioneers in Wellington Co., he has resided within its borders for twenty-five years. He was b. in Yorkshire, Eng. in 1845, and in 1870 came to Canada, settling in Peel Co. where he remained eleven years. In 1881 he came to Puslinch and in 1895 he bought his present farm of 122 acres, Guelph Tp., where he has since resided. He is a very thorough farmer, and while his farm is a good one, he has cleared a portion of the lower land, introducing a system of drainage, which has rendered it very productive. In politics Mr. Barker is a Liberal. He m. Jemima Brown. Issue: John T., carpenter in Toronto; George R., carpenter in Hamilton; Francis E., who assists on the home farm; Sarah M. A., and Victoria J. BARKWELL, ROBERT, late of Peel; was b. in Devonshire, Eng., 1804, and d. in 1881, age 77. He came to Canada in 1840, settling first in Waterloo. Mr. Barkwell was seven weeks on the voyage across the ocean, and when he reached Waterloo Co. he was $5 in debt, and went to work for fifty cents per day. The hours were long, extending into the night, and the prospect seemed very discouraging. In 1841 he came to Peel and purchased the right to lot 13, con. 8. The first cow that he bought cost $16. His land, with the exception of seven acres, was all bush. He cleared forty acres the first year. By his industry and good management he became prosperous. He was a Methodist, and a Liberal, and was an influential and highly respected citizen. He m. Martha Longman, who d. in 1899, aged 84. Issue: Mrs. Elsly, (d.); John, Mrs. Clayton, (d.); Mrs. Pinder, (d.); Mrs. C. Close, (d.); Mrs. Craig, (d.), and Mrs. Brown, con. 10, Peel. John Barkwell worked at honme until the age of 27, staying with his father until he was out of debt. He then purchased 100 acres, lot 10, con. 8, of Peel, where his father and himself farmed together until it was paid for. He is a prosperous and highly respected citizen. In 1852, he m. Mary Chose, (d.). Issue: William Henry, lives on the old homestead; Robert, in St. Thomas; John, in Chicago; Edgar and Mark, in B.C.; Seymour and Herbert, in the U.S. In 1878 he m. his second wife, Lizzie Dean. Issue: Albert, in the North-West; Walter, Laura and Lottie. BARNET, ALEXANDER, (d.), the subject of this sketch, who was one of the pioneers of Fergus, was b. March 14, 1824, in Kilspindie, Scot. He left the Carse of Gowrie, Perthshire, and sailed Dec. 26, 1837, from Liverpool with James Webster, bound for the then wilds of Fergus, Canada, where they arrived Feb. 10, 1838. Their passage from Liverpool to New York was in the sailing vessel Pennsylvania, and they were forty days in making the passage, which was then considered a very short voyage. Mr. Barnet was accompanied by James Webster, the two Harveys and Capt. Dalton. They travelled by rail from New York to Albany, and aside from about 20 miles of rail before reaching Rochester, they travelled in sleighs. As the Niagara River was frozen, they crossed it on the ice near Black Rock. From there to Hamilton, which was then a small hamlet containing but one street, and a few houses, they continued their journey by sleighs, and so on to Fergus in the same manner, making the trip from New York to the latter place in two weeks. Fergus at this time contained but one store, one church and log school house, and a few scattered houses of the same character. The country was covered with heavy timber, and but few clearings had been made. Young Barnet entered the employ of the late James Webster in which employment he continued until April, 1850, at which time he m. Ann, dau. of time late James Davidson, one of the earliest pioneers. They immediately moved to lot 16, con. 3, West Garafraxa, then a wilderness, and hewed a home for themselves. Mr. Barnet cleared this farm and the property is now one of the finest in the township. Here he lived until 1883, when he retired to Fergus and lived there until his death in 1904. His only son, William, succeeded to the farm and still resides there. He was survived by his wife, four daughters and one son. As will be seen, Mr. Barnet started in Canada as a poor boy, and by his own energy and force of character, assisted by a wortlmy help mate, he became a man of property and influence in the community, raising and educating his family. His descendants now compose the best of citizenship in the localities where they have set. Mr. Barnet was a Presbyterian, and always took an active interest in church matters. In politics he was a staunch Liberal. He was a man of strict integrity and bore the respect and confidence of the whole community of which he was for so many years a leading and respected member. Mr. Barnet's daughters are: Mrs. John Ewen of Nichol, Mrs. James M. Nairn of Winterbourne, Mrs. T. N. Wansbrough of Fergus, and Mrs. W. A. Richardson of Norwood. William owns and resides on the homestead, lot 16, con. 3, and is one of the most respected men in the township, and his farm of 197 acres is one of the finest. He is a Presbyterian and a Liberal. In 1885 he m. Margaret, dau. of Mr. John Templin, one of the most prominent business men of Fergus. There are two children: Wilfrid A., attending the O. A. C. at Guelph, and Ivan T., at home. BARRACK, JAMES, b. Aberdeen, Scot., 1847. He is the son of William Barrack and Margaret Chapman his wife. He was the only member of his family to come to Canada in 1872 and lived in Ancaster for three years. He then moved to East Garafraxa, and in 1886, set. in West Garafraxa. He afterwards went to Nichol, and lived for some years, returning to West Garafraxa to the farm, lot 3, con. 4, which he has purchased and now occupies. He carries on mixed farming and raises all kinds of stock for market. He has a fine property of 125 acres, with a bank barn, and is rated by the neighbours as one of the prosperous farmers of the district. He is a Presbyterian and a Liberal. He m. Susana Mill. BATHGATE, PETER (d.), b. Roxburghshire, Scot, 1828, where he was raised and educated. In 1852 he came to Canada, and purchased his farm on con. 1, Eramosa, later adding to the same until at his death he had 200 acres. In 1858 he m. Elizabeth Shortreed. She was b. in 1836 and now resides in Guelph City. The late Peter Bathgate had one of the best improved farms on the town line, where he carried on mixed farming, making a specialty of breeding thoroughbred Shorthorns, owning one of time best herds in the district and becoming a well-known man in this line. He was a very successful man, and highly respected. He took an active interest in church matters, becoming mgr. of the first Pres. ch. of Eramosa for y;ea;rs. He passed away in 1900. Issue: Mrs. David Larter, Mrs. Mark Hudson, Mrs. Lee Funcheon, Mrs. Daniel Hewitson, Mrs. George Hastings, William, Mrs. Walter Swanton, John J., Mrs. Geo. Clark, and Minnie. William (unm.), owns and farms 192 acres, lot 9, con. 1, Eramosa. John J. m. Effie A. Bolton, dau. of John Bolton and works the old homestead farm, lots 16 and 17 Con. 1, Eramosa. He carries on mixed farming, and continues his father's thoroughbred herd. The family are members of the Pres. church, and in politics, Liberals. BATHO, JOSEPH (d.), was b. in Eng. Dec. 27, 1839; d. Apr. 13, 1905. He came to Canada in 1857 and set. in Arthur on the farm of 75 acres, lot 19, W. O. S. R. He was a Baptist and a Liberal, a quiet and unassuming man, and held in the highest esteem in the community, by all who knew him. He held the office of Polling clerk for years, and was also a School Trustee, and took an active interest in church affairs. He m. Mary A. Hayward, who d. 1893, age 54. Issue: Alfred, Hattie, George R., Herbert J., Jessie F., Reuben H., Stephen, and Edith. Alfred in the harness-making business, lives in Rochester, N. Y.; George R., is editor of the North-West Farmer in Winnipeg, Herbert J., farmer in Man.; Stephen, is in the west also. Reuben, who now owns and resides on the homestead, carries on mixed farming and is a flour, feed and grain dealer in Kenilworth. He is a member of the Baptist church and Superintendent of the Sunday School, and an active church worker. He is quite a young man and has a bright future before him. BEAL, WILLIAM, (d.). The late William Beal, was b. in Norfolkshire, Eng. and came to Canada in 1840, set. in Pilkington on lot 7, con. 3, and cleared 200 acres of bush. He had little money, but by his energy and determination succeeded in acquiring a valuable property. He was a member of the English Church, and held all of its lay offices. In political matters he was a Liberal. For many years he was a surveyor in the township of Pilkington. Mr. Beal was a man of sterling character, and highly respected by the community. His death was in 1897, at the age of 72. He m. Eliza Blinco who d. in 1888, age 65. Issue: John, (d.) ; Elizabeth, Annie, Mary, Catherine, Phoebe, Emily, George, Thomas, and Henry J. Elizabeth m. Nicholas Garling, (d.), and later Charles Orton, and lives in Montreal; Annie m. Chas. Demmans and set. in Elora. Issue; Phoebe, Matilda, Maude, Minnie, William, and Ernest. Mary, (d.), m. Levi Lasby of Pilkington. Issue: Emily, John, James, Minnie, William, and Percy. Catherine m. Peter Walker, and set. in Man. Issue: Emily, David, George, (d.), and William, Phoebe, (d.) m. Robert Henry Cook, and set. in Elora. Issue: Melissa, Jennie, Margaret, Henrietta, Matilda and Ida. Emily m. Theodon Winfield of Pihkington. George set. in Peel where he bought 100 acres on lot 2, con. 13, known as "Riverview." He carries on mixed farming and dairying, and feeds cattle for export. Mr. Beal is a Methodist, and politically a Liberal. He m. Martha Jane Winfield in 1887. Issue: Louise, Myrtle, May, Cecil, Irene and Ivan. Thomas lives on the old homestead in Pilkington, where he carries on mixed farming, and feeds cattle of high grade for export. Mr. Beal is a School Trustee, a Methodist in religion, and a Conservative in politics. He m. Mary Howard. Issue: William Roy, Emily Pearl, Russell, Howard, Violet Blanche, Thomas Lavell, and Lilla May, all at home. Henry J., m. Margaret Allan, and set. in Peel on lot 3, con. 14. Issue: Muriel, Laura, Gertrude, Lloyd, and Gretta. BEATTIE, JOHN (d.), J. P., Fergus, Ont., was b. in Aberdeenshire, Scot. on Apr. 22, 1821, and d. in Fergus in 1897. He was a son of William and Elizabeth (McDonald) Beattie, his parents being both natives of Aberdeenshire. William Beattie pursued the calling of a farmer, and emigrated to Canada in 1839, settling in the township of Nichol, Wellington Co., taking up a farm there, and continuing upon the same until his death in 1862. John Beattie received a common school education in Scot. and came to Canada with his parents in 1839. He remained for awhile with his father upon the farm, but afterwards took up land for himself which he continued to farm until 1867, in which year he was appointed agent of the Royal Canadian Bank, at Fergus, this position he held until the suspension of that institution in 1870. He shortly afterwards opened an office for himself as private banker, which he continued to the time of his death. He was Lieutenant in the old Canadian Militia at the time Sir Edmund W. Head was Governor. In 1851 Mr. Beattie was elected to the Township Council, Nichol, and continued to sit in that body until 1860 when he was elected Reeve of the township. This office he held in 1867, when he resigned. In 1871 he was appointed Clerk of the Co. of Wellington, and this office he held to the time of his death. Mr. Beattie was among one of the first J. P.'s appointed in the county. He was sec-treas. of the Nichol Mutual Fire Ins. Co. from 1860 to 1897, and was a member of the Mercer Lodge, No. 347, Freemasons of Fergus, and treasurer of the same. In politics he was a Conservative, and a member of the Conservative Association of Wellington. In religion he was a steadfast Presbyterian. Mr. Beattie m. in 1850, Janet, dau. of Thomas Wilson, a farmer of the township of Garafraxa, Wellington Co., and a native of Lanarkshire, Scot. Of his family surviving is Mrs. Alex. Mills, Mrs. Hugh Black, Mrs. William Murray, John T., James, George, Mrs. Robert Phillips, Charles M., Frederick, Thomson. James Beattie, County Clerk, was born on the Beattie homestead known as "Maple Grove" in the township of Nichol, and was educated at the Public School in said township and at the village of Fergus Public and High Schools. In 1881 he entered his father's office as clerk, and acted as Assistant Secretary-Treasurer of the Nichol Mutual Fire Insurance Company. In 1883 he commenced attending the Sessions of the Wellington County Council as assistant County Clerk and continued until the death of his father, in April, 1897, at which date he was appointed County Clerk and also Secretary-Treasurer of the Nichol Mutual Fire Insurance Company. He is a Commissioner for taking affidavits in the High Court of Justice for the county and transacts a general conveyancing, loan, financial, investment and insurance business in Fergus. He is also Inspector of the Wellington House of Industry and Refuge and acts as treasurer for said institution. In 1889 he entered the 30th Regiment, Wellington Rifles as 2nd Lieutenant of No. 3 Company, Fergus, and was promoted to the offices of 1st Lieutenant and Captain. He holds a Second Class Grade A Certificate from the Royal School of Infantry at London, and was a zealous, active, efficient and popular officer in said Regiment, but owing to pressure of business he retired in 1904 as Captain. He is a Past Master of Mercer Lodge No. 347 A. F. & A. M., and a member of the Sons of Scotland, and acted as Secretary for both Societies for a number of years. He has always taken an active interest in athletic sports and played with the Thistle Lacrosse team and Fergus Curling Club, and for many years acted as secretary of the Lacrosse Club. In religion he is a Presbyterian and a member of the Board of Managers of Melville Church, Fergus. In 1892 Mr. Beattie married Helen S. daughter of Robert Stewart, Lumber Merchant, Guelph, and he and his family reside at "Hyldene" their residence in Fergus. BEAVER, PETER (d.), was b. in Alsace, Germany. He was a shoemaker by trade, and emigrated to Penn. U.S., and then came to the vicinity of Toronto, where he farmed for about five years, and in 1832 came to Puslinch Tp. and bought 300 acres, front lots 25, 26 and 27, con. 8. Not a tree was cut on the land when he bought it. He d. about 80 years of age, and his sons, who were grown up, cleared the farms. He was a Lutheran and a Liberal. Issue: Peter, Jr.; Philip, Nicholas, and Mrs. Moatz, Huron Co. Peter received lot 25. None of his family are left in the country. Philip was about 21 years of age when he came to Puslinch Tp., with his parents. He took lot 26, and cleared about 40 acres of it. He was a great horseman and probably had the first team of horses in the section, which he brought with him from near Toronto. He was killed in 1846 from a kick from a horse. He m. Christina Prescottdore. Issue: Mrs. Andrew Trimbler, Ailsa Craig; Philip, Hay Tp. Huron Co.; Peter 3rd., and Christian, near Crediton, Huron Co. Peter Jr. was 2 years old when his father was killed. At 22 he succeeded to half of the homestead, and later, in about 1870, the other half, and finished clearing it. He has handled imported horses for over 20 years and had one of the first imported Clydesdale horses in the township. He has won numerous prizes with his horses. In religion he is an Evangelist, and a Reformer in politics. Although asked several times, he has always refused office of any kind. He m. Mary Holtzman. Issue: William, tailoring in Embro; Crystal, tailor in Mich.; Mrs. Jacob Shultz, Mich.; Wesley, in Winnipeg; Mrs. Sheely, Mich.; Lydia, in Mich.; Peter, in Mich.; Norman, in N. W. T.; Nelson, with his brother in Embro learning tailoring; Emma, at home, and Edmon at home. Nicholas, b. in Germany 1806; d. 1880 at 74 years, came with his parents to Puslinch Tp. in 1832. He received 100 acres, lot 27, front con. 8. After his brother Philip was killed in 1846, he farmed lot 26, until his nephews were of age. He cleared his farm, and also owned a farm in Steven Tp., Huron Co. He was a Lutheran and a Liberal. He m. Charlotte Yantz. Issue: Mrs. Wm. Schneider, Clifford, Mrs. Gottlieb Morelock, Steven Tp.; Mrs. Martin, Steven Tp.; Mrs. Chas. Martin, and Louisa, Hamilton; Nicholas. in Steven Tp., and Henry. Henry succeeded to the homestead at his father's death, and has since lived there. He carries on mixed farming, and keeps good horses. He is an Evangelical and an Independent Liberal. He m. Mary, dau. of John Winer, Brock rd. Issue: William, in Man.; Emma. Guelph; John N., at home; Lottie, at home; Nellie, Lena, David, and Harry. BEDFORD, JAMES, b. Oxford, Eng., 1824, and came to Guelph in 1850. He was twenty-one years on the old Coffee farm in Eramosa. He was a carpenter by trade, and pursued this occupation for some time after coming to Guelph. He m. Hannah Allen, and they had the following issue: Mrs. Thomas Bennett, John, Sarah, Daniel, James. Thomas, Amelia, Mary A., (d.), Anistasia, and William. Mr. Bedford is highly respected. The family are members of the Roman Catholic Church, and in politics Mr. Bedford is a Conservative. He retired from active business to Guelph City some years ago. Of this family, John is a fruit farmer at Pt. Credit; Daniel lives in Saginaw, Mich.; James owns 320 acres in Man. William is a book-keeper in Guelph. Thomas, m. Mary J. Hockett. He owns and lives on the historic Wingfield farm of 200 acres in Puslinch, and also rents 200 acres more. He is an extensive farmer, and a large horse and cattle dealer. He has been Councillor in Puslinch since 1903. BEISEL, PETER, was b. Baden, Germany, 1824. He came to Canada and Waterloo Co. in 1847, where he has since resided, and is a prosperous and influential citizen. He m. Elizabeth Moyer. Of their children: William came to Maryborough Tp. in 1872, and has since resided here. He is the owner of 300 acres of land, which is under a high state of cultivation and is one of the most progressive farmers of Maryborough. He m. Annie Geib of Waterloo Co. Issue: Peter Jr., Mrs. D. M. Clark, Noah, William, Louis, Mrs. George F. Higgins, Angeline, Orlando, Annie, Lydia, Daniel, and Emerson. Of this branch: Peter Jr., b. Maryborough, 1872, and was raised there. He m. Jennie Richardson in 1896, and in 1899 he started a blacksmith shop at Wingfield, where he has built up a successful trade. Issue: William H., Jennie M., and Annie M. Noah m. Margaret Ott. BEITZ, MICHAEL of Pilkington, was b. in Germany, in 1828. Upon coming to Canada he set. first in St. Catharines, where he worked at his trade as a mason until he could earn some money. He then removed to Pilkington in 1864, and purchased from the Pilkington Estate, the farm on lot 7, con. 5, which he now owns, and where he is living, retired. He is a Roman Catholic, and a Conservative in his political views. He m. Theressa Howes, who is living, aged 66. Issue: Leain, set. in Harriston; John, Mary, Twille, Harry, and Frank. John is a manager of his father's farm, and is engaged in mixed farming, and feeding cattle for export; Mary, m. Edward Myers, set. in Guelph; Twille, in London, Ont.; Harry, set. in Galt; Frank, in Guelph. BELL, CHARLES, b. in Eng. 1835, d. in 1900, age 65. He came to Canada in 1857, and set. near Belmont, where he lived for about 15 years. About 1872 he came to Maryborough Tp., and with his brother bought 50 acres, pt. lot 8, con. 13; later he bought 100 acres, the west half of lot 2, con. 12, which he farmed until 1898 when he retired to Palmerston, where he d. in 1900. He never held office of any kind. He was a member of the Eng. Church until he joined the Salvation Army. In politics he was a Conservative. He m. Ann Carless. Issue: Mrs. Alex. Spiers, Wallace Tp.; Mrs. Jno. Storey, Man.; Thomas. farmer in Man.; Mrs. David Broughton, Wallace Tp.; Frederick, on the homestead, Smith, and Blanche (d. 5). Smith, bought 100 acres, the west half of lot 2, con. 11, where he engages in mixed farming. He is a Methodist in religion, and an Ind. Conservative in politics. He m. May Goodwin. No issue. Frederick, b. on the homestead, con. 12, lot 2, succeeded to it, and also rents 100 acres, west half of lot 2, con. 13. He is a good farmer, carrying on mixed farming. He has never sought municipal office, belongs to the Salvation Army, and is a Conservative. He m. Lena McLennan of Kincardine Tp. Issue: Cora, Russell, and Maud. BELL FAMILY, of Minto. Two brothers, Robert Bell and George Bell are the founders of this family. They were b. in Fermanagh Co. Ireland. and came to Canada in early manhood, settling first in Nelson Tp. In 1850 they came up with their families and set. at "Bell's Corners" (named for them), in Arthur, and in 1853 came to Minto. Robert taking up lots 12, 13, 14 and 15, con. 17, while George secured lot 12, con. 16, here they lived until their death. The late John A. Bell, son of the late Robert Bell. set. in Minto with his father, when he was fifteen years old, and owned the homestead containing 100 acres of land. He followed farming exclusively until 1888, when he embarked with his sons in the brick mfg. business, and continued in this line until his death in 1901, at the age of 63. He m. Jane Reynolds. Of this large family: Hiram, William and David, run the brick business on the homestead; John, owns a farm and brick kiln on con. 10, Minto; RobertS and Joshua own a brick yard at Paisley, while Martin is located in Manitoba. BELL, JAMES (d.), b. Ireland, 1826, d. 1901, age 75. He came to Canada and acquired 100 acres in lot 9, con. 1, of Peel, which he afterwards disposed of, and purchased the farm on lot 12, con. 3. where his son William now lives. He was a Presbyterian, and in polities an Independent. Mr. Bell was a vigorous man, highly respected, and a good citizen. He m. Mary Steenson. Issue: Mrs. Wm. Mills, set. in Luther; William, George, m. Phoebe Rogers, set. in Mornington; James, m. Minnie Rogers. and set. in Maryborough; Mrs. John McWaters (d.), set. U.S. William Bell, b. in Peel, succeeded his father on the homestead of 150 acres, lot 12, con. 3. He carries on mixed farming, and the feeding of cattle for market, and is an excellent farmer, prosperous, and up-to-date. He is a Presbyterian and an Independent. He m. Martha Farncombe of Wallace Tp., Perth Co. There are two children, Henry and Stanley. BELL, WILLIAM, probably no musical instruments are more extensively known in Canada than are the Bell Pianos and Organs. It is with the manufacture of these instruments that the gentleman whose name appears at the opening of this sketch is identified. William Bell, the founder of the Bell Organ Co., in Canada, and for many years an honored resident of Guelph, was b. in Dumfriesshire, Scot., in 1832, the son of William and Mary (Watert) Bell, natives of Scot. The former b. in 1802, d. 1898. They set. in Dundas Co., Ont., where Mrs. Bell died, Mr. Bell returning to Scot. where he d. in the year above mentioned, Their children: William, Joseph, and Robert. In 1853 William Bell, subject of this sketch, set. in Toronto, and later removed to the Southern States. In 1860 he returned to Canada and m. Isabella, dau. of the late Thomas and Nancy (Grant) Christie, early settlers in Edwardsburg, Ont., where Mr. Christie engaged extensively in milling, and where he subsequently d. He was a son of William Christie, early settler of Kempville. Mrs. Bell's mother, Nancy Grant, was a dau. of Lewis and Ann (Gernsey) Grant, early settlers of "Muddy York" (Toronto), where for many years, Mr. Grant was a P. S. L. The log cabin at the Exhibition Grounds, Toronto, in 1904, the "Grant-Fraser Cabin," is said to have been built from the logs of which Lewis Grant's house in "Muddy York," was constructed. After their marriage, Mr. Bell and Mrs. Bell set. in Minnesota, where Mr. Bell followed his trade of carpenter and contractor. In 1865 they returned to Canada and set. in Guelph, where Mr. Bell, in company with his brother Robert, established the Bell Organ Co., with which Mr. Bell has since been identified. Mr. Bell has filled a number of important business positions. He is Ex-President of the Globe Building and Loan Co.; President of the Guelph Junc. Ry., and was Vice-President of the Manufacturers Life Ins. Co., when the late Rt. Hon. Sir John A. McDonald was President. He is Ex-President of the Traders Bank of Canada, and was one of the promoters of the Guelph Junc. Ry. now owned by the city of Guelph, being chairman of the Board when the road was built, which position he still holds. Mr. Bell and James Goldie were largely instrumental in securing a grant of $47,000 from the Dominion Government. This railway is a financial success and a most valuable asset of the city. Since 1897 Mr. Bell has been retired from active business operations. Mr. and Mrs. Bell's dau. is the wife of Dr. B. Kennedy of Guelph, and one son, Wm. Bell, is a well-known business man of that city. Mr. aumd Mrs. Bell are members of the St. Andrew's Church. Mr. Bell is politically a Conservative, fraternally a Mason, and commercially the pioneer organ manufacturer of Canada. Mr. Wm. Bell's portrait appears upon another page of this work. BELL, WILLIAM J., whose portrait appears on another page, is District Manager of the well-known Federal Life Assurance Co., with office and residence in the city of Guelph. He is the only son of Mr. William Bell, the founder of the firm of W. Bell & Co., organ manufacturers. He was b. in the State of Minnesota, and was educated at the Guelph High School and also at the Galt Collegiate Institute, when the latter was under the control of Dr. Tassie. At the age of 15 years, Mr. Bell entered the office of his father, and two years later was sent to England to introduce the organs of the firm in that country. Later he returned to Guelph, but soon after again left for Europe to establish a branch of the company's business in England. He remained in London for 10 years, having a general supervision of the European business, which at that time, comprised two-thirds of the total. Mr. Bell made trips to Australia and New Zealand in 1885 and 1887, and in the latter year established an agency in Sydney, and in 1889 he visited South Africa in the firm's interests, starting a branch in Port Elizabeth under the management of his cousin, Mr. H. T. Christie. Returning to England in the latter year, he disposed of the whole interests of the firm of W. Bell & Co., to the Bell Organ and Piano Co., Ltd., for the sum of $1,050,000, agreeing to remain as Managing Director of the new company in London for a period of three years. On the completion of his contract, Mr. Bell resigned, and lived a retired life in Paris, France, until 1894, when he moved to Chicago and engaged in the patent medicine business, but in the fall of that year was induced by the Directors of his old Company to return to the general management of its affairs. This he did for one year, when he again went back to Chicago, where be renmained until 1897, when once more the Bell Organ and Piano Co., Ltd., requested him to return and to undertake the disposal of the whole of the output of their large factories, both honme and foreign. Mr. Bell assumed the duties of this responsible position and continued them until the retirement of his father from the Company, at which time he was offered and accepted his present responsible position with the Federal Life Assurance Co. BENHAM FAMILY, THE. The founder of this family in Canada was the late James Benham, who was b. in Surrey, London, Eng., in 1794, and d. 1879. He was in the British Ordinance Department in youth, and served on the Continent of Europe under General Trotter in the Napoleonic wars. He m. Lucy Walton in Eng. who d. in 1880, age 88. He came to Guelph in 1827 and was one of its very first settlers. He helped to clear the stumps of Wyndham Street, and farmed in Guelph Tp. a few years. In 1832 he removed to lot 10, con. 3, Eramosa, where he purchased 200 acres of land, and here lived until his death. He was a man of more than ordinary ability, and of great personal magnetism, taking a leading part in the early affairs of the township, and accumulated a large property. During the trouble of 1837-38 he took sides with Mackenzie in his struggle with the Family Compact, and was confined at Hamilton with the Parkinsons, Peters, and others. It is said that it was through his exertions that their place of confinement was saved from being blown up, and after a short time he and the others were released, and returned to their homes in Eramosa. Issue: Mrs. Thomas Hughes, Mrs. Emanuel Duffield, Mrs. Henry Sunley, Mrs. Jonathan Oakes, Mrs. Joseph Lister, Mrs. George Swanson, Alfred, and James W. Alfred. b. 1825, d. 1903, set. in Eramosa and later in Luther Tp. He m. first Fanny Lester, second wife, Hannah Nelson. Only one of his sons, James L. Benham, lives in Eramosa, while John, George, and William, live in Luther. Of these, William, b. Eranmosa 1870, succeeded to the homestead of 123 acres, lot 15, con. 5, West Luther, known as "Maple Lane Farm." and carries on mixed farming. His up-to-date house, and modern buildings, with all of the improved appliances, is one of the finest homes on the line, and he is one of the progressive young men of the township. In 1903 he m. Matilda Small of Arthur township. James W., b. in Eramosa in 1836, and raised there, where he is a large and successful farmer, succeeded to the homestead farm. He m. Hannah Parkinson. Issue: Joseph, in Erin; Charles, Henry, Mrs. W. H. Fielding, Guelph, and: Mrs. William Hortop, Everton. Mr. Benham is highly and deservedly respected by all of his acquaintances, and is noted for his sterling integrity and honesty in all business dealings. He was in the Council of Eramosa for several years, also Deputy Reeve, and is President of the Mutual Life Fire Insurance Co. of Eramosa, and a Magistrate. BENNETT, John (d.), was b. Buckinghamshire, Eng., in 1807, and d. in 1880, age 73. He came to Canada in 1858 and stopped for a time at Fergus. From there he went to Arthur, and then to Luther, where he stayed at the Curtis farm for 10 days, after which he went back to Fergus and stayed for about 18 months. He then went to the Port Hope, Clark farm, in West Luther, where he chopped and cleared for three years, but owing to the frost, his crops failed, and he went back to Guelph where he worked for two years as a laborer. He then decided to try Luther again, and going back he took up lot 2, con. 8, where he resided until his death. He was of retiring nature, and much respected by his neighbors. He was a member of the English Church and a Liberal. In 1835 he m. Fanny Garner, who d. in 1887. age 70. Issue: Thomas, Guelph; Keziah, (d.), and John. John inherited the homestead where he now resides. He carries on mixed farming, and is just building a bank barn. He has experienced all the hardships incidental to pioneer life, as he came to Luther with his father at the age of 10. He is a Liberal and a Presbyterian. In 1882 he m. Allice E. Malcolm, at Eden Mills. Issue: John M., Ethel E., Winifred, Fannie H., (d.); Kirkley, G. B., Grace Dorothy, Alice M., Robert H., and Gertrude K. BENNETT, THOMAS (d.), was a son of John Bennett, and was b. in Eng. in 1840. He came to Canada in 1861, and set. in Luther. He was a man of great personal activity. In religion, a Roman Catholic, and in polities a Conservative. He m. Elizabeth Bedford, and had a family of nine children, five boys and four girls. Of them, Thomas is a farmer in Eramosa. He m. Miss Gilfillin. BENSON, SAMUEL, was b. Co. Armagh, Ire. He came to Canada in 1849. His sons, James and William, coming in advance in 1848, and settling at Carleton Place. He had the following issue: James, Drayton, William, Mrs. William Allen, (d.), Carleton Place; Mrs. Jas. Gass, (d.), Maryborough; Mrs. Thos. Dizell, (d.), and Mrs. John Lowes, Brandon. James was b. Co. Armagh, Ire., and came to Canada about 1855, at the time of the Russian War. James and William came to Maryborough and took up lot 15, con. 15, and 200 acres in Luther. They helped to clear the farm, as their father was quite old. The family followed later in the year and the brothers worked together for some time. James was a Trustee of S.S. No. 14 for six years. He was a Presbyterian, attending Calvin Church, Rothsay; was a strong Conservative. He m. Clara Chambers. Issue: Robert Philip, Maryborough; Samuel, on the homestead, lot 15, con. 15, Maryborough; Alexander, (d.) 3; William C., Guelph; Rebecca, (d.) 4; and James A., Guelph. About 1901 James retired to Drayton. William, about 1858, purchased 100 acres, west half lot 11. con. 15, of which he cleared all but about 30 acres, and has since lived upon. He was a Trustee of S.S. No. 14, for a time, but never sought other office. He was a Presbyterian and a Conservative. He m. Mary McGee. Issue: Samuel M., Mrs. Robt. Mitchell, Maryborough: Mrs. Frank Holmes, Saskatoon; Edgerton, in Maryborough; Herbert, on the homestead, and John, Saskatoon. William Benson had not much to start with, but he raised and educated his family and has accumulated enough money to give his children a good start in life. Samuel M. was b. on the homestead. He worked at home with his brother until 1903, when he bought 90 acres, on west half of lot 11, con. 16, and in 1905 he added to it by the purchase of 50 acres, the north half of the west half of lot 12. He carries on mixed farming keeping a great deal of stock. He is a Presbyterian and a Conservative. He m. Maggie McCreary. BESSE FAMILY, THE. The founder of this family in Canada was Arthur P. Besse, who was b. in Maine, in 1810. When a young man he went to New Brunswick, near St. Andrews, and emgaged in the lumber business, and there m. Johana Hanson, who was of English parentage. Issue: John, Cynthia, (d.); George, Hannah, (d.), Reuben, Arthur P., Jr., and Truman. The late Arthur P. Besse came to Ontario with his family in 1856, and assumed the management of T. P. White's saw mill at Whitevale, and continued in this position until his death in 1876, at the age of 66 years. His wife d. in 1878, age sixty-two years. He was a man of strong personality, a member of the Baptist Church, active in church matters and highly respected. His eldest son, John, was successively a farmer in Pickering, interested in saw milling with his brother George, and a hotel keeper in Whitevale, for some years. Arthur P., Jr., owned a farm in Pickering and ran saw mills in Scarboro and Whitevale. Trueman was also in the lumber business. Reuben was a farmer in Pickering. George, b. in NB.. in 1842, came to Ontario with his parents when fourteen years old. When twenty-four years of age he, in company with his brother John, rented T. P. White's saw mill, which they ran successfully for some years. They also purchased a farm in Pickering, which they rented. In addition they owned and operated a saw mill at Goodwood for eight years. In 1890 they sold out their joint interests and George came to Maryborough Tp., and purchased 100 acres, lot 16, con. 8, where he has since resided, and carries on mixed farming. Outside of being secy-treas. of the School Board, he has never held office. In politics he is a Liberal, and while brought up in the Baptist Church, he and his family now attend the Christian Church. He m. Mary A. Sawden in 1865. Issue: Mrs. Judson Bucknam, Mrs. Wm. Fletcher, Mrs. Laughlin McLean, Reuben G., Mary, George, Jr., William F., Mrs. Wm. Ingram, and Gordon T. William R., m. Hattie Hughes, and assists in running the home farm. George, Jr., m. Annie C. Scarr, and owns 91 acres, lot 16, con. 9, where he resides. Issue: Blanche, and Floyd. The Besse family were a leading one in Pickering, and occupy a prominent and respected place in Maryborough. BINGHAM, ROBERT (d.), b. Co. Tyrone, Ire., 1815, d. 1891, age 76. He entered the constabulary at the age of fifteen, and served a term of four years. He m. in his nineteenth year, Mary A. Lowdon of the Co. of Armagh, Ire., who d. in 1892. They came to Canada about 1835, and set. in Toronto Tp. He followed rafting and stave making for some time, enduring many hardships, usually sleeping in a bed of hemlock boughs. He afterwards worked as a farm laborer, cradling, mowing and flailing grain, for which he received only one peck of wheat per day, which he had to carry on his back to Oakvilhe. He then rented farms in Trafalgar, one of which being the Tolton farm which he held during the Russian war, when wheat brought a very big price, about $4 per bushel. Here he gained a fine start, and in 1855 purchased lots 14 and 15, con. 6, Erin. This he cleared and improved, building a good stone house, in which he lived during the remaining portion of his long and useful life. Mr. Bingham was a strong Methodist, and a leading temperance man. He was a quiet, unassuming, but strong minded man, of strict integrity, whom nothing could swerve from his resolve, when he knew he was right. He was, for some time, the only Conservative in the neighborhood, having to poll his own vote in the face of threats. Mr. Wm. Taylor, Clerk of the Court, had to order the mob not to interfere with Mr. Bingham, and he was never after molested. His family consisted of twelve children, eight of whom are living, viz: Mrs. F. Forrest, Hepworth; Mrs. Wm. Dabbin, Chesley; Mrs. Robert Bennett, Acton; John, Toronto; Robert, Sault Ste. Marie; Thomas, William, and Samuel, Erin Tp. Thomas, m. Phoebe Anderson. Issue: William, Joseph, Thomas, John, Wesley, Fred, Mrs. William Delevey, and Mrs. George Keeler, Erin. He has been very successful in life, and now owns 350 acres. He is a leading member of the Disciples Church, and a strong Conservative. William, b. 1851, moved to Peel Co. and after four years sold out at a good advance, and returned to Erin. Buying Edward Tolton's homestead in 1904. This farm is one of the best in Erin, and contains fine improvements. He is a strong temperance man, of pronounced convictions; a Methodist and a Conservative. In 1880 he m. Miss Bennett. Issue: Robert L., Thomas E., Hattie B., Mary A. and Edna.
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