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THE EMIGRANT'S DIRECTORY AND GUIDE TO OBTAIN LANDS AND EFFECT A SETTLEMENT IN THE CANADAS. by FRANCIS A. EVANS, ESQ. late agent for the Eastern Townships to the Legislature of Lower Canada. WILLIAM CURRY, JUN. AND CO., DUBLIN SIMPKIN AND MARSHALL, LONDON and OLIVER AND BOYD, EDINBURGH. 1833.
ADVERTISEMENT.
Having now for eighteen years been a resident of British America, and having in consequence of my official appointment as Agent to the Eastern Townships of Lower Canada, frequently visited various parts of the new settlements, I have been enabled to obtain, from personal observation, a larger share of information respecting them than most persons, from time to time I have taken notes on my several journeys, with the intention of publishing an extensive work on the state of the Canadas (and which I had partly completed for the press,) but I considered that at present it might be more useful to persons disposed to emigrate, to publish a small work, giving such information as might be absolutely necessary to direct them to a suitable settlement according to their inclinations, occupations, or habits; and to this determination I was strongly led, by observing the vast increase of Emigrants that arrived at Quebec last season, and who, generally speaking, had very little correct information respecting the British provinces, and were, in every sense of the word, "Strangers in a Strange Land," and therefore liable to be imposed on by interested persons, who cared little for their future prosperity. At a very late period of the last season, a work somewhat similar to this, entitled "Hints to Emigrants," appeared at Quebec, brought out by some emigrants who had then arrived. It is published in the name of "Martin Doyle," and though evidently not written from personal observation, yet it contains considerable information; however, as its object appears to me to be directed in favour of Upper Canada exclusively, I have felt it my duty at once to transmit this work to my native country, in order that it might be published immediately, so that an opportunity should be given to the public of forming a correct opinion, of the present state of British America, and of the great advantages which it presents to the industrious. I shall merely add, that this work has been submitted to persons in authority here, and it is now offered to the public, with their sanction and approbation. It has been extracted from my papers with perhaps too much haste, but the persons for whose use it is principally intended, will not, I am persuaded, greatly fault the style or composition, provided they find it what it professes to be, namely, a "Directory AND GUIDE to obtain Lands and effect a Settlement in the CANADAS." FRANCIS A. EVANS Quebec 1832.
PREFACE
The Publishers feel considerable regret in having to state that the Writer of the first part of this Work has, since they received the manuscript, fallen a victim to cholera at Quebec. He had devoted a considerable portion of time and labour in procuring authentic information in the Canadas, and had prepared an extensive Work respecting the present state of the British possessions in America, which he intended to submit to the public. In the spring of the last year, Mr. Evans extracted the following pages from his larger Work, and transmitted them to a gentleman in this city, with the intention of having them published immediately, but very shortly after they had been received several new publication on the Canadas issued from the press, in consequence of which it was thought advisable to delay the printing of this Work for a short time, particularly as the season for emigration had nearly closed, and therefore the necessity for the information (which the publishers feel is to be found in this small treatise) was not a pressing nature. They have carefully examined the several new publications on the subject of emigration, many of which they freely and candidly admit possess much valuable information, and are written with the most anxious desire not to mislead the public; but they feel it their duty not to withhold any thing within their power which they conscientiously believe contains much really useful matter, and which is not to be found in similar publications. Mr. Evans emigrated to America in the year 1813, and shortly after procured a grant of land near Drummondville, in Lower Canada; from time to time, he visited various parts of the Canadas, and particularly within the last eight years, as about the year 1824 he was appointed Agent to the Eastern Townships in Lower Canada, and this office obliged him to become intimately acquainted with the atual state of that extensive district, in order that he might be qualified to communicate fully with the Authorities at Quebec, as at that period these townships had no Representatives in the House of Assembly (they afterwards obtained them in the year 1829). The official duties of Township Agent obliged Mr. Evans to visit Quebec frequently, and when there, to become acquainted, from the most authentic sources, with the state of the entire province, for the purpose of enabling him to procure for the particular district with the interests of which he had been entrusted, equal advantages with those parts then enjoying the privelege of being Represented In the Provincial Parliament. It is presumed Mr. Evan's conduct gave general satisfaction to the inhabitants of these Townships, as he was repeatedly re-elected by them to fill the same situation, and therefore the publishers feel no hesitation in submitting and recommending "The emigrants Guide" to the public, as a work containing within a very small compass more real, useful and practical information than is to be found in any other of a similar nature of double the extent. Some persons may consider these observations too strong, but TIME, which is the true test of most things, will determine how far they are accurate. Mr. Evans having felt considerable anxiety respecting his friends in Ireland in consequence of accounts having reached him of the breaking out of the cholera in Dublin, wrote from Quebec in the month of June last, at which time he was in the enjoyment of perfect health, but before his letters reached their destination, he was laid in the grave, and that within nine hours from the period of the attack. If Mr. Evans had lived, it is probable he would have transmitted additional matter which would have been annexed to, or embodied in this work, as he had been writen to on the subject, but his premature death put an end to such expectations; however, some hopes are entertained that all his valuable papers on British America will be forwarded to Ireland during the spring for publication. The publishers, desirous that the "Emigrants' Guide" should be as perfect as possible (and not having, for the reasons mentioned, procured the expected communication from Mr. Evans,) have, in the Appendix, given such further information respecting the Canadas as they conceive may not be altogether unacceptable to the Emigrant, and upon which Mr. Evans has not fully written, it may, in the spirited language of the "Backwoodsman," be called a chaper of "Odds and Ends," and has been extracted from the latest and most authentic publications on British America, Emigration, &c. The Importance of the British settlements in North America as connected with the trade of the United Kingdoms, may be estimated from the fact ascertained by the Custom-house returns, that every man, woman and child in these colonies, on an average makes use of forty dollars worth of British goods annually; whereas, if the thousands who have emigrated from these countries remained at home, they would not, on an average, consume one-third of that amount; therefore, upon this ground alone, emigration is of considerable advantage to the mother country, and we most cordially approve of the motto from Napoleon, prefixed to the "Backwoodsman," viz. "Ships, Colonies, and Commerce." Dublin, 10th March, 1833.
CONTENTS
SECTION I. General description of Lower and Upper Canada Lower Canada Upper Canada Roads and distances from Quebec Roads from Three Rivers William Henry Montreal SECTION II. General directions on arriving in Canada SECTION III. Directions relating to various parts of Lower Canada favourable for settling in, with a few observations on the settlements already formed SECTION IV. Comparative view of both provinces, with some further remarks on the Upper How to ascertain the quality of lands Directions relative to the obtaining of lands-securing titles therein, with some remarks on the several kinds of title, &c. Currency, or coin current in Canada Matters to be provided on proceeding to settle Building Clearing land Fencing Sowing and planting new cleared land On making maple sugar General observations on Ashes, Salts, Timber, &c. Conclusion APPENDIX Upper Canada Eastern Section Eastern District Ottawa " Johnstown " Bathurst " Midland " Central Section Newcastle District Home " Western Section Gore District Niagara " London " Western " Cities and Towns City of the Falls Lakes and Canals New Brunswick Advice to Emigrants, by A. C. Buchanan, Esq. Government agent for Emigrants Information for Emigrants

THE EMIGRANT'S GUIDE TO CANADA SECTION I.
Lower and Upper Canada formed but the province of Quebec until the year 1791, when, by an Act of the British Parliament, it was divided into two provinces, and a similar Constitution given to each, viz:- a Governor, Executive Council, Legislative Council, and House of Assembly elected for four years, who possess similar legislative powers, within their respective provinces, as the King, Lords, and Commons of Great Britain and Ireland; however always admitting the Imperial Parliament to have the supremacy. The king appoints the governor and executive council during pleasure, and the legislative council for life; the executive council are the governors legal advisors, and are somewhat in the nature of privy council.
LOWER CANADA.
Lower Canada is bounded on the north, by Hudson Bay and Labrador territories; on the northeast, by the Gulf of St. Laurence; On the south and south-east, by the States of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and New York, and the province of New Brunswick; and on the west, by Upper Canada; being about 700 miles long from N. E. to S. W., and 300 miles wide from N. to S., comprising a surface of about 200,000 square miles. It is situated between 45 and 52 degrees of north latitude, and between 63 and 81 degrees of west longitude; the great river St. Laurence running from S.W. to N.E. through the province, into which a number of large rivers and streams run north and south, watering the country at both sides of this river, to the greatest perfection, in every settlement formed, or that can be formed, in the province. The principal rivers that fall in on the north shore of the St. Laurence, are the Saguenay, Malbay, Montmorency, St. Charles, Jacque Cartier, Portneuf, St. Anne's, Batiscan, Champlain, St. Maurice, Deloup, Ymachiche, Masquinouge, and Ottawa. Those that fall in on the south shore, are the Chandiere, Becancour, Nicolet, St. Francis, Ymaska, Richelieu or Chambly, and Chateauguay, with many of less note. A great number of these rivers are navigable for large vessels, for some distance from the St. Lawrence, but boats can proceed very far into the interior of the country. There is a short canal, of eight miles, between Montreal and Lachine, for the purpose of avoiding the rapids on the St. Laurence above the former place. Another canal leads over the rapids in the Ottawa river, to the mouth of the Rideau canal, which forms a communication between the Ottawa and Kingston, on Lake Ontario, in Upper Canada: and another canal is in progres, from Chambly to St. John, to make the Richelieu navigable from the St. Laurence to Lake Champlain. There are also several short canals and locks on the St. Laurence, above Montreal, to enable boats to surmount the rapids when proceeding to Upper Canada. There are roads on both banks of the St. Laurence, and also on the banks of the other principal rivers. The lands or farms are laid out in lots about three times as long as they are wide, the ends of which are generally towards the roads or rivers :- there are also roads across each range of the lots or farms, as far as settlements reach on each side of the rivers. With these there are a few leading roads to and from the principal parts of the country, namely:- the Ristigouche road, from the St. Laurence to the Bay of Chaleur; the Timisconata road, from the St. Laurence to New Brunswick, &c.; the Kennebec road, from Quebec to the State of Maine; the Craigs road, from Quebec to the eastern townships and State of Vermont, &c.; the St. Gregoire road, from Three Rivers to the said townships; and the Ymaska mountain and Shefford road, from Montreal to the said townships. There are also roads from Montreal to Upper Canada, and up the Ottawa river to Hull; with many other cross roads from one settlement to another, and which are too numerous to insert here in detail, as they lead to all parts of the province. Lower Canada is at present divided into five law districts, (somewhat similar to what are called circuits in Great Britain and Ireland,) viz.:- Quebec, Montreal, Three Rivers, Gaspe, and St. Francis; in each of which courts of justice are held for the administration of the laws. These districts are subdivided into forty counties, viz.:- Gaspe, Bonaventure, Rimouski, Kamouraska, Lislet, Bellchase, Dorchester, Beance, Megantic, Lotbiniere, Nicolet, Ymaska, Drummond, Sherbrooke, Stanstead, Missiskoui, Shefford, Richelieu in which is the borough of William Henry, St. Hyacinthe, Rouville, Vercheres, Chambly, Laprairie, L'acaidie, Beauharnois, Vaudreuil, Ottawa, Lake of the Two Mountains, Terrebonne, Lachenaie, L'assumption, Montreal and city, Berthier, St. Maurice in which is the town of Three Rivers, Champlain, Portneuf, Quebec and city, Montmorency, Saguanay, and Orleans. The chief cities and towns are, the cities of Quebec and Montreal, each containing nearly 30,000 inhabitants; the town of Three Rivers, containing about 3,000, and the borough of William Henry, about 2,000 inhabitants. The counties, cities, towns, and boroughs, return eighty four members to serve in the assembly of the province, who are elected by freeholders having a freehold of forty shillings or more, yearly value. The civil laws of Lower Canada are of French origin, with the laws and ordinances of the provincial parliament, but the English criminal law is established in the province. Courts of king's bench sit in the several districts of Quebec, Montreal, and Three Rivers; the two first holding four terms each, and the last three terms in every year; each term continues for twenty days. Inferior terms are frequently held in the several districts, and commissioners' courts are established in many parishes, for the recovery of small debts. There are five French colleges, and many seminaries for education in this province, exclusive of elementary schools established in every settlement, all of which are well supported by the province, or by lands allocated for that purpose. At Montreal a Protestant college is in progress, and several public seminaries in the townships are well endowed. A great portion of the inhabitants profess the Roman Catholic faith, and that church is well supported in the different villages and settlements on the banks of the St. Laurence: it is under the superintendence of the Roman Catholic Bisbop of Quebec, under whom, in this province and Upper Canada, are several other bishops, and a considerable number of inferior clergy, who are generally respectable, and are well provided for by a small tithe of one twenty-fifth of the grain raised by their own peoples besides lands and other emoluments. The Church of England ranks next in point of numbers, and is governed by the Lord Bishop of Quebec whose diocese includes Upper Canada. In this province there is one archdeacon, and about thirty inferior clergy, having that number of churches, or perhaps more, to attend. This church is supported by parliamentary and Church Missionary aid, exclusive of a large quantity of land, which in a few years will increase in value, and produce a large fund: nearly 10,000 acres of land in each English township, have been reserved for that purpose. At present the inhabitants of this province are only required to provide churches, and keep them in repair. The members of the Scotch Presbyterian Church have about six ministers, and the Wesleyan Methodists about ten ministers, both of whom are supported by their own congregations, and by societies in the United Kingdoms. These are the principal religious bodies in Lower Canada, and are the only ones recognised by law for keeping registers of births, deaths, and marriages. There are a few members of various other sects, but none, it is believed, who support regular ministers. In the townships and country parts, where there are no regular ministers, some religiously disposed men are in the habit of holding weekly meetings with the people for religious worship. The taxes and duties are very moderate; a small duty of 2« per cent is paid on all goods imported, and a duty of 5 per cent on all liquors. Retailers of liquors, tavern-keepers, and hawkers and pedars, pay an annual licence. These, with fines and forfeitures, and the sale of crown lands, constitute the revenue of the Canadas. There are three incorporated banks in this province; one in Quebec, one in Montreal, and one in Stanstead, possessing capital of about £750,000; the Montreal bank has a brand of that establishment in Quebec. The trade of the province, which of course incudes the imports of Upper Canada, gives employment to about 1,200 sail of vessels, anually, having about 12,000 men on board, and tonnage of at least 300,000 ton, if not more. The face of the Country, for about twenty miles back on each side of the St. Laurence, is level: on the north, the settlements do not extend to any very considerable distance, except up the Ottawa river. To the south at the level tract on the south bank of the St Laurence, the country rises into gentle swells of land, or hills, but not broken; and the tract in that direction generally known as the Eastern Townships, cannot be exceeded in fertility in any part of British America. These townships are situated on both sides of the river St. Francis, and extend southward to latitude 45ř, the boundary line between Lower Canada and the United States. An immense quantity of land remains still to be occupied in that province, as the country distant from the St. Laurence is rather thinly inhabited. The population of Lower Canada is now estimated at about 650,000 souls; eight-tenths of the inhabitants being of French extraction, and two-tenths of British birth or descent; being little more than three persons to every square mile, including the populations of the cities, towns, and villages. The lands bordering the St. Laurence, and near it, were laid out in seigniories by the French government but are not of equal extent, some being very extensive, and others small, somewhat like townlands in England and Ireland. The townahipo were laid out under the British government, and contain, on an average, about ten square miles, or 60,000 acres each; and these again, are subdivided into lots of 200 acres, every seventh lot being reserved for the Protestant clergy, and called clergy reserves: an addition of ten acres is given to each lot for roads. The township lots are 103 rods or perches wide, by 300 rods in length, which is the same in Upper Canada also. The lots in the Seigniories are laid out by the arpent, or French acre, which is equal to about four-fifths of an English acre; the lot is usually three arpents wide by thirty arpents long. In another part of this work, the reader will find a more particular description of those parts of Lower Canada most suitable to the emigrant, with a minute account of the roads and distances.
UPPER CANADA.
This province lies west and south-west of Lower Canada, and is separated from the United States, by Lake in the Woods, lakes Superior, Huron, St. Claire, Erie, and Ontario, and by the river St. Laurence from lake Ontario to its entry into Lower Canada. It is bounded on the north, by Hudson Bay territory; and west and north-west, by the British Indian territories, being about 550 miles in breadth, from north to south, and about 1100 miles in length, from east to west. It has between 45 and 53 degrees north latitude, and between 73 and 97 degrees west longitude. This fine province is altogether inland, but stands unrivalled as to its possessing the best inland navigation in the world, having several thousand miles of lake, or fresh water shore, and also numerous rivers flowing from various parts of the country into these lakes. The princial rivers are, the Ottawa, (for a great part of its course to near its junction with the St. Laurence, separating this province from Lower Canada,) the Rideau, the Trent, the Humber, the Welland, the Ouse, the Thames, the Maitland, and the Severn, with many others of minor importance. Upper Canada is generally a level country, and the rives have much dead or smooth water for boat or sloop navigation, even more so than Lower Canada. The St. Laurence is navigable from Prescot upwards, to lake Ontario, for the lake vessels; but from Prescot down to Montreal, a distance of about 120 miles, the navigation is interrupted by rapids in several places, being however, navigable for boats: considerable improvements have been made in several parts, by short canals and locks, for the purpose of avoiding the worst of the rapids or falls. Good roads pass through all the settled districts, exclusive of the main or leading ones along the banks of the lakes and riven: these reads generally run more inland than in Lower Canada, and are placed under the inspection of the authorities. (See "Roads and Distances.") The Welland canal, lately opened, connects lakes Ontario and Erie, and enables vessels to pass from one lake to the other, and thus surmount the great falls of Niagara, which are the most surprising works of nature, and of which it would be impossible to convey an adequate idea: the awe and dread crested by the fall of such an immense body of water over a precipice of 137 feet, cannot be conceived, much less described. The Rideau canal (now nearly complete,) passes from the lower, or northeast end of lake Ontario to Bytown, on the Ottawa river, and from ten to sixty miles distant on the north of the St. Laurence, opening a fine healthy tract of Country, well situated for settlements. This canal, when finished, will enable steam boats, (having been made sufficiently large) to go from Montreal to all the upper lakes, thus opening the most extensive line of inland navigtion in the world. Of the great lakes from which this country derives so great a facility of inland navigation, lake Hrnon is 246 miles in 1enth, and 220 in breadth, being about 1,000 miles in circumference: this lake receives the waters of lakes Superior and Michagan, the latter of which does not fall much short of the Huron, in extent, and the former is 1,500 miles in circumference. The contents of these stupendous sheets of fresh water, to expand whose surfaces a variety of source contribute, are again received, through the River St. Clair, into lake St. Clair, from whence they pass, through the Detroit river, into the other great lake (Erie) and after rushing with inconceivable impetuosity down the great falls of Niagara, already noticed, they fall into lake Ontario, thence continuing their course through the river St. Laurence, until they at length, themselves, contribute to swell the waves of the Atlantic. The chief town in Upper Canada is Kingston, about 200 miles southwest of Montreal, near the outlet of lake Ontario, and at the head of the Rideau canal. It contains about 6,000 inhabitants, and has got a navy yard for the lakes. The next is York, which is the seat of government for the province: it is about 170 miles west of Kingston, situated on a covvenient harbour of lake Ontario, and has got a population of about 3,000. There are many rising villages scatteed throughout the province, to many of which reference will be seen in the "Account of Roads and Distances." This Province is divided into eleven Law Districts, consisting of twenty-six Counties, and subdivided into 266 Townships, each of which is about ten miles square; but vast tracts remain yet unsurveyed.-1. The Eastern District, includes the Counties of Glengarry, Stormont, and Dundas. 2. The Ottawa District, the Counties of Prescot and Russell. 3. The Bathurst District, the Counties of Carleton and Lanark. 4. The Johnstown District, the Counties of Grenville and Leeds. 5. The Midland District, the Counties of Frontenac, Lenox and Addington, Hastings, and Prince Edward's. 6. The Newcastle District, the Counties of Northumberland and Durham. 7. The Home District, the East and West Riding of York and Simcoe. 8. The Gore District, the Counties of Waltown and Wentworth. 9. The Niagara District, the Counties of Lincoln and Haldimand. 10. The London District, the Counties of Norfolk, Oxford, and Middlesex. 11. The Western District, the counties of Kent and Essex. Through all these districts or circuits, assizes are held by the judges, as in Great Britain and Ireland. The British statutes both civil and criminal, as far as applicable with the acts passed by the provincial legislature, form the law of the province. The Constitution is similar to that of Lower Canada, and consists in like manner of a Governor, Executive Coancil, Legislative Council, and House of Assembly. The House of Assembly is elected for four years by persons possessing freeholds of the clear yearly value of forty shillings and upwards. The present population of this province may be estimated at about 250,000, but is rapidly increasing by enigration from the United Kingdoms, as well as from other countries, and also by the numerous births consequent upon the location of married persons, and who are generally in the prime of life. Education is well supported, and making considerable progress in the country; there is a College in York, and besides the district and other academies, there are, in the different settlements, elementary schools. There are the remains of many Indian tribes here, but they do not altogether exceed 15,000. They are a rambling, unsettled people, and pay little attention to agriculture: some experiments have been tried by the formation of settlements for them, and so far they have answered the expectation of the persons who benevolently lent their countenance and aid to the undertaking. It is hoped that in a short time the remainder of these tribes may be induced to follow the example thus set them, and become what they are capable of being- an industrious, orderly, and sober people. There are two archdeacons, and about thirty other clergymen of the church of England settled in various parts of the province, and are yearly increasing under the superintendence of the present excellant Lord Bishop of Quebec, the Honourable and Right Reverend Doctor Stewart. This church is supported by Parliamentary aid, the British Church Missionary Society, and the seventh of the lands of the province, which at present yields a very small income, but will, in time, be very valuable; the inhabitants only provide churches and keep them in repair. Methodists, Presbyterians, Roman Catholics, Baptists, Mennonites, and other sects, have considerable congregations, but the Methodists, and Presbyterians are considered to be the most numerous. A number of churches and meeting houses have been erected in various parts of the country, and add much to the beauty of the landscape; and to the well disposed it is a cause of much thankfulness that temples have been erected in the forests for the worship of the Most High, where they can bow the knee at His alter, and supplicate a blessing upon thi exertions in a new country, far removed from the homes of their fathers; so that now such emigrants as have been accustomed to to make religion a consideration of the first importance, need not be disheartened by an apprehension that they are about to sacrifice to the prospect of an improvement in their temporal condition, the whole of the religious advantages, with which the inhabitants of Great Britain and Ireland enjoy the privilege of being abundantly supplied in the lands of their nativity. The chief trade of this province is with Lower Canada, and the United State of America, but principally with the former. The climate is somewhat more moderate or mild in winter than in the Lower Province, but in the vicinity of the lakes and swamps (which are numerous) fever and ague very much afflict the inhabitants, epecially in the south western part of the province. Moose, and several other sorts of deer, are numerous; and to the north-west; especially in the extensive plains north-west of lake Superior, buffaloes are very easily met with. Brown bears, wolves, foxes, &c. are common, but not dangerous: these, with deer, and a variety of other animals, are to be found in the lower province. Rattle-snakes abound in Upper Canada but are easily avoided; they are not found in any other part of the British provinces. The Canada Company have large tracts of land in several townships, which they offer for sale at reasonable prices. Land may be purchased at various rates, from three shillings to ten shillings per acre, according to quality and situation, the value being considered nearly the same in all parts of the province, except in the immediate neighbourhood of towns, or places having some other peculiar advantage: the foregoing prices apply only to woodland in its original state. Land partly cleared, with houses erected on the farms, can be had, but at a much higher rate of purchase, and is suited to persons possessing some capital. Laboar is higher in this than in the lower province; the usual hire for farm labourers is from 8 to 12 dollars per month, with board. The districts of this province lying between Lower Canada or the Ottawa River and Kingston, are the most healthy, and through these the Rideau Canal passes. The tract north of lake Ontario and Niagara is next in point of healthiness, but is further inland; and the western tract, though more fruitful, is least healthy. In all parts of the country lands can be procured from the Government, by purchase, as in Lower Canada, from the Upper Canada Land Company, and from private individual in the different townships; and the only difficulty the settler feels, is that of having so many lots or farms to select from, that he is at a loss to determine or decide upon which to take. The settler can proceed from Montreal, either up the St. Lawrence, or by the Ottawa river and Rideau Canal, to Upper Canada; the line between the provinces being about 50 or 60 miles above Montreal: and on the route he can make such inquiries and observations as may be useful to enable him to form a correct judgment of the most suitable place to settle in, according to his means and circumstances. He will perceive little difference in point of climate or soil, between Kingston and Montreal, to affect the interests of the farmer. From the following enumeration of roads and distances from Quebec, Montreal, Three Rivers, and William Henry, to various parts of both provinces, and to other places, an idea can be formed of the route to any section of the country to which the emigrant may wish to proceed: the distances are setdown according to the latest calculations, and will be found correct.
ROADS AND DISTANCES FROM QUEBEC.
The main and post road from Quebec to Montreal and on to Upper Canada, runs along the north bank of the St. Laurence. It has been well made, and is kept in good repair; it is also very populous, presenting an almost uninterrupted chain of farmhouses and comfortable dwellings, generally not more than, one hundred yards distant from each other; handsome villages also, and churches, are situated at distances varying from 4 to 9 miles, and present a most agreeable prospect to the traveller by land or water. The town of Three Rivers lies halfway between Quebec and Montreal, being 90 miles from each city. On this road bridges have been erected over all the rivers, except four, and these are in progress: where bridges have not been erected there are good ferry boats which convey passengers, horses, carriages, and goods across the rivers, with great care and safety, at very moderate charges. Quebec to St. Augustine 12 miles; to Point aux Tremble 24; to Cape Sante 31; to Port Neuf 35; to Dechambault 45; to St. Anne's 60; to Batiscan 66; to Champlain 75; to Three Rivers 90; to Point de Lac 99; to River du Loup 112; to Berthier 135; to Bout del Isle, the foot of Montreal Island 165; to Montreal 180 miles. From Port Neuf on this line, a road is made into the country for abont 6 miles, to a new settlement, where the emigrants are doing well. From Berthier a road leads to the townships of Rawdon, Kilkenny, and Kildare, where a large settlement has been formed by emigrants, Whose spiritual wants are attended to by a resident clergyman of the Church of England; the road extends from Berthier into the interior of the country nearly 80 miles, and from the same place there is a ferry across the St. Lawrence, to William Henry, on the south side of the river, where it is four miles wide. Various other roads lead to different parts of the country from the main road to Montreal. A road lads from Quebec to lake Beauport, N. by E. of Quebec, 18 miles distant, and passes through Charlebourg: at lake Beauport there is a large settlement by emigrants. The road to the townships of Stoneham and Tewkesbury, and to lake St. Charles, from 12 to 15 miles distant, passes also through Charlesbourg. Near lake St. Charles is also another emigrant settlement. A road leads from Quebec to Vale Cartie settlement, N. W. of that city, and passes through Loretto: this settlement was formed by emigrants, and is in a flourishing state, the nearest part being about 15 miles, and the most distant part not more than 30 miles distant from Quebec. A road leads down the north shore of the St Lawrence, through Beauport, by Montmorency Falls, St. Paul's Bay, Malbay, &c., to the end of the settlements in that direction. From Point Levi, opposite Quebec, and to which steam and team ferry boats pass and repass every hour, a road leads down the south bank of the St. Lawrence, and is the post road to New Brunswick, Halifax, the Bay Chaleur, &c. The distance from Quebec to Kamouraska is 90 miles; to the Portage 110 miles, all well settled along that distance; to Timisconata, across the Portage 146; to Frederickton, the capital of New Brunswick, down the river St. John 426; to Halifax in Nova Scotia 706 miles. The road to the Bay of Chaleur leads down the St. Laurence, from the Portage, and by the new road to Ristigouche, at the head of the bay, which is about three hundred miles distant from Quebec; a road leads from thence to Mirimichi, on the south shore of the Bay of Chaleur, distant about 70 miles. Another road leads from Ristigouche along the north shore of the Bay of Chaleur to New Carlisle 60 miles; to Percee 120, and to Gaspee 140 miles. A road leads from Quebec, by Point Levi, to the township of Frampton, south east of Quebec, being a new emigrant settlement, and about 30 miles distant. The Kenebec road also leads from Point Levi; south to St. Mary's 32 miles; to Aubert Gallion 62; to the height of land dividing Lower Canada from the State of Maine 92; to Portland 23O; and to Boston 260 miles: this is the shortest road to the States of Boston and New England. The Craigs road also leads from Point Levi to St. Nicholas 12 miles; to which place, there are also, steam and team-boats from Quebec, for passengers, carriages, and such other things as may require to be conveyed that way. From Point Levi, by St. Nicholas, to St. Giles 28 miles; to Leeds 40; to Ireland and to Inverness 54; to Richmond in Shipton 104 miles, through Halifax, Wolfstown, Chester and Tingwick townships. From Ireland, a branch called the Dudswell road leads on to the head of Connecticut river, passing through Wolfstown, Weedon, Dudswell 94 miles; through Bury, Westbury, Eaton 120 miles; and through Newport, Clifton and Hereford townships, to the Connecticut river, which is 150 miles from Quebec. There are only one or two families settled on this road between Ireland and Tingwick, a distance of 30 miles, through the woods. At Richmnd the Craigs road intersects the roads rnnning up the river St. Francis. On the Dudswell branch there are only three families settled between the townships of Ireland and Dudswell, a distance of 40 miles through the woods. From Eaton a road leads to Lennoxville, 13 miles; to Sherbrooke 17; to Hatley 28, and Stanstead 43 miles. From Point Levi a road also leads up the south bank of the St. Laurence, through many villages in the southwest bounds of the prpvince, of which the principal ones are St. Nicholas 12 miles; Lotbiniere 45, Nicolet 99; La Bay 106;: Ymaska 123; William Henry 135; Varronne 165; Boucherville 171; Longueil 180, being opposite Montreal, on the south bank of the St. Laurence; Laprairee 188 miles; Chateauguay 198, and St. Regis 230 miles, being the south west corner of the province.
Roads from Three Rivers.
From Point an Sable, or St. Gregoire, on the last mentioned road, opposite Three Rivers, the St. Gregoire road leads south to the eastern townships on the river St. Francis, at Long Point; the distance from Three Rivers to Douglas is 18 miles; to Long Point, in Kingsey township, 40 miles. From La Bay village, on the same road, and 18 miles above Three Rivers, the stage and post road to the Eastern Townships runs to the south; the distance to Campbell's Mills, on the St. Francis, from Three Rivers, is 33 miles; to Drummondville ferry 35; up the same bank to Whitney's, opposite Drummondville village 42; to Long Point, in Kingsey, 54, (where the St. Gregoire road joins this road;) to Richmond village in Shipton 60 (here the Craigs road from Quebec joins this road;) and to Brompton ferry 65 miles, where this road passes over to the south west bank of the St. Francis, and joins the road on that bank from Drummondville ferry, passing through Drummondville village, Durham, and Melbourne. To Sherbrooke, from Three Rivers, 82 miles; to Lennoxville 86 (where the road from Eaton and Dudswell joins the road as already noticed;) to Compton 96; to Charleston village, in Hatley, 101, and to Stanstead Plain village (two miles north of latitude 45, the south province line) 116 miles. From Stanstead, to Boston in the States, 20 miles; various other roads lead to Windsor in Vermont, Burlington on lake Champlain, &c. From Stanstead and Charleston, on this line, other roads lead to Montreal, Missiskoui bay, and to various other places. This road also passes, as partly noticed, through the townships of Wendover, Grantham, Simpson, Wickham, Kingsey, Dunham, Shipton, Melbourne, Windsor, Brompton, Oxford, Ascot, Compton, Hatley, Barnston, and Stanstead, and is the most important to the Eastern Townships with its several branches; on this road also mail and stage coaches pass and repass twice a week from Three Rivers, and the line is, generally speaking, well settled.
ROADS FROM WILLIAM HENRY, CALLED OTHERWISE SOREL.
William Henry, on the south bank of the St. Laurence, as already mentioned, is 135 miles above Quebec, and 45 miles below Montreal; and here the steam-boats from these cities daily stop during the season, for the accommodation of passengers, and for lading and unlading goods. It has several roads leading to the interior, the principal of which are the Ymaska road leading to Drummondville (where it joins the before mentioned road from Three RIvera) distant 36 miles; here it also joins the road up the St. Francis to Sherbrook; and the road to Ymaska mountain, distant about 40 miles, passing through St. Dennis, Si. Hyacinthe, and St, Cesaire, where it joins, the road from Montreal to Shefford, Stukely, Stanstead, &c. Other roads lead from William Henry up the Richelieu river, to Chambly 45; and Dorchester, or St. John, 57 miles, at which the lake Champlain United States steam boats arrive, and again sail from it for Albany, New York, &c., by the lake, and a short canal to the Hudson river. Between lake Erie, at its eastern extremity, above the Falls of Niagara, and the Hudson river there is a direct communication by the Erie Canal, in the United States; and of this great canal many emigrants take advantage, who by way of New York wish for a more expeditious voyage to Upper Canada.
ROADS FROM MONTREAL.
From Lapraire seven miles above Montreal, on the south side of the St. Laurence (and to which there is a regular steam ferry boat from the city) a road leads to St. John, which is also the mail stage road to New York and other places. St. John, (between which, as already mentioned, and the States of New York and Vermont there is a communication kept up by steam boats,) is 18 miles from Lapraire; the distance from St. John to Albany is 150 miles, and from thence to the city of New York 165 miles. A rail-road is in progress between Lapraire and St. John, and a canal between the latter place and Chambly. A road leads from St. John, to the townships of Dunham, Farnham, Stanbridge, Sutton, Brome, and Missiskoui bay, distant from 20 to 40 miles, and from whence are various roads to the other eastern townships. Several roads also lead from Lapraire, southward, to the township of Hemmingford, Hinchinbrooke, and Godmanchester; also to Chateauguay, Caldwell's Manor, L'Acadie, and on to the Western part of the State of New York. The last mentioned townships are from 15 to 30 miles from Lapraire, and are situated between the Richelieu river and the St. Lawrence. From Longueil, opposite Montreal, on the south shore of the St. Laurence, a mail stage road leads to Stanstead, Boston, and other places; from Montreal Ferry to Langueil 2 miles; to Chambly Bason 14; to St. Cesaire 30; to Ymaska Mountains 40; to Granby 50; to Frost village in Shefford 65; to Stukeley, 75; to outlet of Magog lake, 90; to Georgeville village 100; to Stanstead Plain village 115; and from Stanstead to Boston in the United States, 200 miles. From Ymasca mountain a new road is opened through Milton, Roxton, Ely, and Melbourn, to Richmond village in Shipton, a distance of about 30 miles. From Granby, on this road, a road has been opened to Farnham, which also communicates with other places. From Shefford and Stukley roads lead to Brome, Dunham, Missiskoui Bay, ann to other parts. From the outlet of Magog, roads lead to Potton and Bolton; another road from the outlet to Sherbrooke, distant 20 miles; and one to Charlston village in Hatley, distant 15 miles, from thence roads lead to Barnston, Compton, and Eaton, besides several other places with which they communicate. The roads now enumerated are the principal ones leading from the south east bank of the river St. Laurence to the Townships and United States: large grants of public money have been lately expended on the most of them, and they are now generally in pretty good repair. A post road leads from Montreal to the north west, up the north east bank of the Ottawa to Hull, and Bytown as follows.- From Montreal to St. Martin's, 12 miles, to River du Chene 18, to St. Andrew's 45, to Grenville 60, and to Hull 124 miles. Bytown is below Hull on the south west bank of the Ottawa, and at the mouth the Rideau Canal, which leads to Kingston, and there joins Lake Ontario in Upper Canada. From this line of road others also lead to the Perth settlements in the upper province; but the Ottawa river being now navigated by steam vessels adds much to the convenience of travelling in this section. Perth is 193 miles, Richmond 122, and Bytown 113 miles from Montreal. The main post and stage road to Upper Canada from Montreal runs up the north bank of the St. Laurence to Kingston, and in the summer season while the navigation of that river is open, a stage conveys passengers to Lachine from Montreal 9 miles, where they take a steamboat which conveys them up the St. Laurence to Coteau du Lac, 36 miles; and here they take the stage again to Prescott 90 miles, at which place they meet the Lake Ontario steam boats to Kingston, York, Niagara, &c. The road passes along the bank thus:- From Montreal to Lachine 9 miles, (where there is a ferry to cross to the south west bank of the Ottawa from the Island of Montreal). From Montreal to Coteau du Lac 45 miles, to Lancaster in Upper Canada 66, to Cornwall 87, to Matilda 120, to Prescott 135, to Brockville 147, to Kingston 195, to Bath 207, to Adolphustown 223, to Hallowell 235, to Bellville 243, to Cobourg 300, to Port Hope 307, to York 367, to St. Catherine's at the mouth of the Welland Canal 451, to Niagara 463, to Queenstown 470, to Oxford 457, to London 490, to Amherstburg 612, and to Sandwich 620 miles, to Victoria 419, and to Guelph the Head Quarters of the Canada company 395 miles. Several of these places do not lie in a direct line, but are noticed for the information of the emigrant. Besides the roads that have been noticed there are several others leading to various parts of the interior; and Montreal being a central point of the Canadas, the emigrant when there can easily procure such additional information as he may conceive necessary, and can without difficulty proceed to any part of the North Americea continent which he may select.
SECTION II. GENERAL DIRECTIONS ON ARRIVING IN CANADA.
Emigrants who have left the land of their nativity and made choice of America as their future country, have done so no doubt with a view of bettering their condition, or to avoid apprehended changes in their circumstances, to which most persons in the middle and lower classes of society are subject in the united kingdoms; and here it may not be improper to remark, that any industrious well meaning man is certain of acquiring in the Canadas a competency for himself and his family, without fear of those sudden alterations of fortune which often destroy the fruits of long and painful toil and exertion. It is desirable that such expectations should not be frustrated, or the emigrant delayed in the attaining his object by want of information respecting the country in which he is a stranger; this small work has therefore been written with the intention of furnishing such general knowledge of the most important portions of the Canadas, as will enable him to form a proper estimate of the soil, climate, produce of the country, amount of population, state of society, religion, agriculture, cities, towns and villages, roads and canals, lakes and rivers, the system of government, and of the various means of obtaining land and the title therein. It is not unusual for the emigrant on arriving in America to feel disappointed and dissatisfied, and many for a short time regret having left their native country. Every thing appears strange, especially to the warm-hearted Irishman; he cannot forget the hospitality to which he has been accustomed-strangers and interested persons are frequently to be met with -the scenery, manners, customs, and the language of a considerable portion of the inhabitants, differ from what he has been accustomed to at home, and many are watching for opportunities to take advantage of his inexperience. He is therefore for a time disposed to form an opinion unfavourable to America, without considering that he has but just landed in a strange city or seaport town, and that it was never his intention to settle in such a place. It is also probable that he may have conceived too high expectations of what was to be immediately possessed in the country-a thing which not unfrequently happens, from the numerous exaggerated and extravagant accounts that have been transmitted by ignorant and foolish persons of very little experience themselves; it is therefore necessary to caution the emigrant against suffering himself to despond, as many persons have been led astray by such expectations, as well as by the equally fallacious and more flattering statements of others who may have pointed out various distant settlements where ease and comfort are to be had. The stranger travels from place to place, and at length, when his means are exhausted, he is obliged to settle in a situation far inferior to many that he has passed by; finding, when too late, that he might have obtained good land in many advantageous situations, without spending his money and time as he has done, and which he could have avoided had he received a fair and unbiassed account of the country. To emigrants of the labouring class, I would recommend a speedy application for work, and if it cannot be had in Quebec immediately after they land, they should at once proceed into the country, to some of the nearest settlements, where they will most probably succeed without any considerable delay. Let them, however, not refuse the first fair offer of employment, as it is much better to be engaged; and in a short time they will become acquainted with the manners and customs of the people, their method of farming, &c., and, if industrious, sober, and honest, they will speedily get higher wages and certain employment. Public works are also carried on, such as canals, roads, bridges, and public buildings, in which many find employment and good wages, varying from half a dollar to three shillings per day without board. In the Townships of Upper and Lower Canada, higher wages for labour are given than in the French Canadian settlements near the St. Laurence: the inhabitants on each side of that river, all through Canada, and to the extent of five or six miles back from its north and south banks, are generally of French extraction and speak that language; for which reason, to the British labourer many difficulties present themselves that are not to be feared among his own countrymen. There are many, hewever, that can speak English, and if the emigrant can obtain employment he should not refuse it, as he may have offers in the French settlements; but it would not be adyiseable for him to seek for work among them, when the Townships, which are inhabited by British and Irish emigrants, lie so convenient, being immediately in the rear of the French Seigniories. In a short time, the labourer will be enabled to purchase a lot or farm, which is easy to be had in all parts of the Country; so that in a few years, he may, by sober honest iadustvy, expect to live comfortably, and get forward in the world. When he once becomes the proprietor of a piece of land, all his work is for his own benefit, no rent or taxes being to be paid: he has the full produce of the soil for his support; and the surplus he can send to market, when and how he pleases, as he is not in dread of the agent coming to distrain him for the rent, or the collector of the county cess, or the tithe proctor, with many others which are the daily visitors of the farner in England and Ireland. It is this that makes the Canadian farmer feel really independant;- in fact he is the lord and master of his own estate, and many that have landed in Quebec without a pound in the world, have been able to realize by this course what is here represented, and can now, from their having had themselves substantial proof of its reality, testify that it is not an imaginary picture, but one to be met in Canada every day. However, it is necessary to observe that the idler, the drunkard, or the seditious, must abandon his vicious practices and habits, and in fact become another man, before he can expect to succeed in Canada: -to such it holds out no expectations of success, and many are to be met with who, while they have left their native country, have not, however, left behind them their former vices-these were poor and wretched before they set out for Canada, and their condition has been little improved by change of country. How galling has it often been to the sympathies of a tenderhearted emigrant, to recognise some old neighbour reaping the fruits of his misconduct, while chained to the stocks or undergoing some other deserved penalty, notwithstanding a hope he might have entertained that the unhappy culprit had left home with full purpose of amendment. Emigrants who have got any eapital should, as soon as possible after landing, decide on the part of the country they wish to settle in, and at once proceed to examine it; the distance and delay to be measured by the depth of their purses-that is, if their means be small they must seek for land as near as they can match themselves, and not foolishly exhaust their money in moving to distant places, while suitable situations may be obtained near at hand. Prudence and promptitude should guide their conduct, and they may comfort themselves with the expectation that in a reasonable time, by perseverance and industry, their exertions shall be crowned with success. Strangers on arriving in Canada are often liable to be imposed upon, not because in it are to be found more impostors than in other countries; but they meet many person willing to offer their advice, which, unless from an intelligent friend, should be received with the utmost caution. Wild, visionary, or romantic ideas or situations should not be the objects of pursuit, and nothing, however attractive at first view, should determine the choice, unless upon sober deliberation it were found to have circumstances connected with it to render the speculation a prudent one:-the salutary counsel of a disinterested friend should always be a desirable thing, as it will ever be found to be of great service, but especially in cases where inexperience is a bar to the competency of our own unaided judgment. In Quebec his Majesty has appointed A. C. Buchannan, Esq., Resident Agent, for the purpose of giving information gratis to settlers; to him they should apply, as he will be able to give them much useful information and instructions, and point out where lands and employment may most probably and readily be obtained. Before giving further directions it may be necessary to insert a few cautions to the stranger arriving in Canada. And in the first place, temperance is earnestly recommended; many upon landing feel elated at having once more fixed their feet on firm land, and all sorts of spirituous liquors being cheap, when their prices are compared with those for which they are purchased at home, they are often led to indulge too freely in the use of them; not always with the intent of pursuing such a course of intoxication, but to gratify the desire of the moment, when, alas! a vicious inclination gratified, even for, a short time, more generally leads fo a confirmed habit, and this brings on, as its necessary consequence, poverty, disease, and all sorts of misery, which by a very natural combination must, eventually secure the death of their unhappy victim! Hundreds, yea thousands, have in these provinces been hurried to an untimely grave by this habit -persons who were once temperate, but whose intemperance it is believed may be traced to the above mentioned origin. Emigrants will therefore do well, both for themselves, their families, and society in general, by avoiding this baneful practice, however difficult their palates may find it to resist its baneful solicitations, or whatever false estimate they may themselves form of its contributing to promote sociability. They should always be cautious of taking draughts of cold water in warm weather, or when heated by labour and exertion, as it frequently in this country causes instantaneous death. Again, it is necessary to caution the stranger that he may often meet persons who will urge him to travel inland to distant parts, out of pure regard for his welfare as they will assert; but, on enquiry, they are generally found to be individuals interested in the disposal of lands to which they would direct the attention of the unsuspecting emigrant, or in steam boats and other modes of conveyance from which, of course, a profit must be derived to themselves proportional to the number that may avail themselves of the accommodation which they offer to persons proceeding in the same direction. Nothing is more common in Quebec on the arrival of a vessel with passengers, than for agents of steam boats, and such friends to go on board and advise those who are about landing to proceed to Montreal since, according to their representations, no wise person would stop short of that part of the country.* The poor deluded stranger is again advised in Montreal, by other pretended friends who may be found interested in transporting goods or passengers to Upper Canada, that he should by all means proceed upwards, for what wise man, say they, who has yet to settle himself, would remain in the lower province where he could get nothing but Fremcj onions and soup meagre.- The thankful wanderer is in this manner handed from one to another until he is at length introcuced to the blessings of the western wilderness, and no doubt should often be forwarded to the pacific ocean, if his purse continued unexhausted, or could he find friendly carriers to accommodate him with the modes of conveyance. He will also meet friends still more lavish of their benevolence, who would fain persuade him, that no wise man desirous of persuing the most effectual plan for the advancement of his interests, should remain in the British provinces, and that friendly persons could be procured who for a reasonable compensation would conduct him into the United States. Such has been heretofore the practice, and the newly arrived emigrant would do well to weigh in the balance of sense and discretion the advantage and necessity of proceeding very far inland, as, if led on by no other prospects or certain inducements than wild speculations, he may run the risk, after having considerably diminished his capital by the expenses connected with travelling, of being reduced to the alternative of taking up his abode in a settlement considerably inferior, in point of all advantages, to what he might have procured lower down, with much loss trouble, and before he should have incurred the expenses of his journey; or, taking all things into consideration, not better than he might have possessed himself of in a week after landing. Doubtless, having connections in distant parts, and particular views, with various other considerations, will and should influence a man to make a choice and proceed accordingly; but more on this head hereafter. These cautions are given merely to make the stranger aware, that every inducement which may be held out to him on landing will not always prove such as should have any weight in regulating his determination. In most parts of the Canadas good land is to be found, but in this the emigrant must expect to find some disadvantages connected with advantages, as well in America as in any part of Europe. *It is but fair to state that the proprietors of the steamers on the St. Lawrence are very liberal to emigrants in reducing the fare.
SECTION III. DIRECTIONS RELATING TO VARIOUS PARTS OF LOWER CANADA FAVOURABLE FOR SETTLING IN, WITH A FEW OBSERVATIONS ON THE SETTLEMENTS ALREADY FORMED.
Having briefly given a general outline of the Lower and Upper Provinces, with the roads and distances between the several places of any importance, and having suggested a few particulars which the newly-arrived emigrant may find of use to put him on his guard against imposition; we shall now proceed to take a view of several of the most favourable parts of Lower Canada, such as may probably prove most agreeable to the settler, and have also got the greatest quantity of wild land still unoccupied. The Seignorial parts of the Province being mostly taken up by Canadians of French extraction, or likely to be so in a short time by their families, the Townships present the most encouraging field to the industry of the emigrant; being in fact also the best land in the Province, and English being the language spoken among the inhabitants in consequence of their being themselves persons not long arrived from the United Kingdom, and from the States. There are, however, many parts of the Seigniories yet unoccupied, in which are to be found very favourable situations as well as cleared farms easy to be obtained; and many emigrants have purchased farms of this description in the Seigniories, especially in the vicinity of Quebec and Montreal. In the country parts hereafter mentioned, the emigrant may apprehend that he should be at too great a distance from the great markets of the Province, not being acquainted with the country; but it may be observed that farmers residing two hundred miles or more from Quebec and Montreal, if on good land, can live well and improve in their circumstances if not better, at least as well as those who have taken up their residence within a few miles of the cities.- This being the fact, I feel desirous to impress it on the minds of those for whose information I am writing these pages, that the colonist who makes choice of a more distant settlement is not liable to the expenses incurred near Towns, and farms are had on much cheaper terms. For many years he finds for the surplus of his produce a consumption on the spot among those who are daily arriving, and who must for some time, before they can enjoy the fruits of their own labour, supply themselves with the articles necessary for present use from the stock of those who have already settled themselves; and fat cattle, hogs, and horses are easily conveyed to distant markets, or they are bought up by the drovers before it is found necessary to remove them. The first I shall notice are the Townships in the county of Beauce; lying about 30 miles south by east of Quebec. In one of these, the Township of Hampton, there is a settlement newly formed by emigrants, which contains at present a population of seven or eight hundred. The land, though light, is of a very fair quality, and the occupiers generally doing well. In this, and the the adjoining Townships, what is denominated wild land can be purchased at five shillings an acre, or even less. Carters may be engaged at Point Levi, to convey loading to this place, at from 7s. 6d. to 10s. 0d. per load; and to that part of the country the road is good. From Beauce we shall proceed to describe in succession as they extend to the west, the several Township Counties heretofore known as the eastern Townships, though they are more properly the southern Townships of the Province. The next to Beauce, and to the west of it, is the county of Megantic, the way to which from Quebec is by the Craig's road, or the Kennebec road up the Chaudiere river. The settlements already established there, are situated on and near the Craigs road, in the Townships of Leeds, Inverness, Ireland, Halifax, and Broughton; the principal ones being in Ireland, Leeds, and Inverness. These have only been lately formed, and in a manner very much to their credit, and furnish a demonstration of the industry of the occupiers who amount to about 2000 souls. Leeds, as has been shown in the Account of Roads and Distances, is from Quebec 40 miles S. by W., and is the place of election for this county. The lands in these Townships are generally good, easily cleared, and such as in which situations can be had that present to the industrious a variety of advantages: they are well irrigated by the head waters of the St. Francis, Nicolet, Becancour, and Chaudiere rivers, and the face of the country undulated with gently rising hills and fertile valleys. Several small lakes, (the most considerable of which is the Megantic, at the head of the Chaudiere River, from which the county derives its name,) with ponds, brooks, and a number of rivers, beautifully diversify the scenery, and to the places through which they pass impart an unusual fertility; so that of this it may in truth be said that it has experienced from the bountiful hand of Nature much liberality in the distribution of her favours. Mill-sites and water power are to be found in abundance and will not be wanting when a numerous population may require these necessary conveniences; saw mills in particular are indispensible appendages to all new settlements in the wilderness. Grass when cultivated, or the seed sown, grows with great luzuriance in all the Townships, and here all the other productions of the soil in this province may be raised with advantage; and among the many other luxuries with which the agriculturist may expect to have his industry rewarded, is to be reckoned the maple sugar, which, in its proper season is extracted from the trees of that name in such manner as shall be hereafter described. Although a very considerable proportion of the lands in the neighbourhood of the settlements, has been already granted, but a very small part, however, is yet settled on. Many thousand acres, of excellent quality, are the property of the heirs of Joseph Frobisher, Esq. and are now offered for sale. Here the price of land varies much, being, from four to ten shillings per acre, near the settlements, but in other quarters may be had on much cheaper terms. Two small lakes, one in Ireland, and the other in Halifax and Inverness, both connected by a small river, form for boats a water communication of about twenty miles, which could be easily extended north to the St. Laurence, eighteen miles, and south to the lake St. Francis, two miles. It could still, with comparatively trifling expense, be continued down the St. Francis to Lennoxville, and thence through lake Massiwippi to lake Magog, in Stanstead. This would be of incalculable advantage to the townships. For such a communication as I have now described, Nature appears to have formed this route between Quebec and lake Magog, as vallies, gullies, ponds, lakes, and dead waters, seem to invite the hand of man to lend its cooperation, and take advantage of the facilities which they offer to the rapid progreas of art: and what presents most encouragement to such a work is that, than the tract of the country through which it should pass, is one of the most fertile in the Canadas. From surveys, made in the United States, a canal is projected to connect the head of lake Magog with lake Champlain, to the west, and the Connecticut river to the east; a part of lake Magog lying within the state of Vermont. A view of a map of the sections, will at once point out the importance and feasibility of the communication proposed; and a tax of one penny per acre on the lands through which it should pass, would provide a fund adequate to complete it in three years. This county is very large, comprising, the townships of Somerset, Nelson, Halifax, Inverness, Ireland, Wolfstown, Leeds, Thetford, Broughton, Coleraine, Tring, Shenley, Oulney, Winslow, Dorset and Gayhurst; each containing in surface, about one hundred square miles of land. In these infant settlements, they enjoy the benefit of several elementary schools; and in Leeds, there is an English church in progress, with a settled minister; in Ireland they have got a Wesleyan Methodist chapel. The respective populations of the inhabited townships are nearly as follow:- Leeds, 800; Inverness, 900; Ireland, 500; Halifax, 50; Broughton, 200; and scattered here and there, 250 souls. The next county which claims the attention of the settler, is that of Drummond, lying west of the last county noticed, and north of Sherbrooke; and nearly central between Quebec, Montreal, Three Rivera, and the United States. This county though large, is not populous, having but about 3,000 inhabitants. It comprises the townships of Aston, Bulstrode, Horton, Stanfold, Athabaska, Chester, Ham, Wotton, Tingwick, Warwick, Wendover, Simpson, Kingsey, Durham, Wickham, Grantham, Upton, and Acton, with their gores and augmentations. The part of it to the north, in the townships of Wendover, Simpson, Upton, Grantham, and part of Wickham, and adjoining the seignories, is generally of an inferior quality, except in a few situations. In these latter townships generally, the land does not appear to be inviting to emigrants, yet it is freely taken by Canadians of French extraction, who exhibit much patience and perseverance in turning their attention to the improvement of such places. Interspersed many lots are to be met with of a superior quality, and furnishing to the improving occupier, an abundance of blue marley clay, which can be conveniently raised to enrich the lands requiring such amelioration. South and east of these townships, in the same county, the land is very good, few in the province exceeding in quality of soil, &c., the townships of Kingsey, Tingwick, Chester, Durham, and part of Wickham: they are also well watered by the St. Francis and Nicolet rivers, whose fertilizing powers are aided by the friendly contiibutions of many small streams. Drummondville village, which is forty five miles from and to the south of, Three Rivers, and thirty-six miles south east of William Henry, is the county town, being the place of election, and where the Registry Office is kept. It contains about twenty houses, a Protestant Episcopal, as also a Roman Catholic church, a school-house under the Royal Institution, several stores, a post office, and two good taverns. This section was a wilderness until the year 1815-16, when government decided on forming a settlement on the tract of waste land between the seigniories on the St. Laurence, and the townships to the south. Drummondville was chosen for a military settlement, that is, for discharged soldiers; not to the exclusion of any other emigrants who may choose to fix their residence there: each settler was located to one hundred acres of land, and had a year's provisions granted by government, as also a variety of tools and some other matters that might have been considered necessary to contribute to the comforts of an infant colony. The expense attendant upon such encouragement becoming enormous to the government, it was found necessary to withdraw it, which check, combined with the failure of the crops in the years 1816 and 1817, and with the circumstance of the land itself being generally of inferior quality, caused many who had settled there to abandon it. Since that time many of the deserted lots have been occupied by families of French Canadians, with every favourable prospect of success. This village was almost wholly consumed by fire, in the year 1826; but has since arisen from its ashes. About half a mile lower down, is the seat of Colonel Herriot, C.B. and P.A.D., who, from the commencement, was superintendant of this settlement, and has been exerting all his influence to forward its importance: he was the first member returned, to represent, in the provincial parliament, the county, after its establishment in the year 1829. Being a near relative, of the late much lamented General Brock, Governor of Upper Canada, who lost his life at the battle of Queenstown, in the late war with the States, and having also distinguished himself during the same war, as Field Officer in command of the Lower Canada provincial troops, Colonel Herriot now deservedly enjoys the confidence of his government. To the Indians of the St. Francis, or Abinaquois tribe, belongs a large tract in the township of Durham, but, though given to them on condition of settlement, they have never effectually attempted to improve it. Some years since, their agent, with their own consent, leased a number of lots to persons who removed from the Drummondville settlement principally, the land in which the Indians had property being very good. The leases were given for twenty-one years free; after the expiration of which term the tenant is obliged to pay annually, one-third of the produce of all crops raised. Litigation and trouble are likely to arise from this confused and uncertain tenure; but the land being of such a quality as presents striking inducements to its cultivation, improvements have been made with considerable advantage by the lessees; how far the title may hold good is a question yet to be decided. Land is easily got in this county at from three to five shillings per acre; and here, as well, as the county of Sherbrooke, of which we shall presently give a sketch, several extensive landholders offer portions of lots, of fifty acres or more, off the original lots of 200 acres, to actual settlers, on condition of settlement, and keeping in repair the road across the parts so taken up, until the remainder shall have been sold or occupied. The township of Kingsey was the first part of this county that was colonized, thirty years ago, and now exhibits a very flourishing settlement. They have in all the settlements established elementary schools and school houses, in which also religious meetings are held, whenever they are visited by ministers. The inhabitants of the county are almost wholly British emigrants; and but a few Canadians and Americans from other quarters. The principal roads, as already noticed in the account of roads and distances, are the Craigs road, which, passing through the county of Megantic, enters this county, and through Chester and Tingwick leads on to Richmond, Sherbrook, &c.; the St. Gregoire road, which, from Three Rivers, passes through Acton, Horton, Wendover, Simpson, and Kingsey, meeting the road up the eastern side of the St. Francis to Richmond; and the Ymaska road, which passes from William Henry through Upton and Grantham, to Drummondville, meeting the road up the western bank of the St. Francis, to Durham, Melbourn, Richmond, Sherbrooke, &c.. The populations of the settled townships respectively, are nearly as follow:- Upton, 200; Horton and Aston, 100; Wendover, 200; Grantham, 600; Simpson, 50; Wickham, 300; Durham, 500; Kingsey, 600; Tingwick, 203; Chester, and scattered in the other townships, 100 Souls. The next county of importance to the emigrant, being more extensive and more thickly inhabited than either of the former, is that of Sherbrooke, lying south-west of Megantic, and south of Drummond counties, and north of latitude 45, and the State of Vermont. It comprises the townships of Garthby, Hatford, Whitton, Marston, Clinton, Woburn, Stanhope, Croydon, Chesham, Adstock, Tingwick, Weedon, Dudswell, Bury, Hampden, Ditton, Emberton, Drayton, Auckland, Newport, Westbury, Stoke, Ascot, Eaton, Hereford, Compton, Clifton, Windsor, Brompton, Shipton, Melbourne, and Orford, with their gores and augmentations. This county is well watered by the head waters of the rivers St. Francis and Nicolet, with brooks, which are to be found in great abundance; the face of the country is hilly, but not mountainous, unless a small ridge in Stoke and Westbury; and both soil and climate are mare favourable than in the counties before described. The townships near the leading roads which pass through this county, offer considerable advantages to the agriculturist; most of those already settled there have been brought up in the wilderness, having chiefly emigrated from the United States, whose industry, enterprisizig dispositions, and habits of settlement in a new country, have, in a great measure, opened this tract to the more easy access of such other settlers as may feel disposed, by setting their steady and persevering examples before them, to participate in their comforts. There are also in this county many others, who have emigrated from tbe United Kingdom, together with some families of French descent; they are settled in a way both advantageous and creditable to themselves, thus, by their present condition, demonstrating that this country bountifully rewards the efforts of those who steadily pursue a course of application and industry, in places teeming with benefits to as many as here court the favours of Providence, by bringing the fertility of the soil into active and skilful operation. The population of the whole county may, at present, be estimated at about 10,000 individuals. The village of Sherbrooke is the county town, in it being kept the Registry Office; but the election is held at Richmond, in Shipton, as well as at Sherbrooke. The latter is also the seat of judicial proceedings for the district of St. Francis. It is situated on the south-west bank of the river St. Francis, where it is joined by the waters of the Magog, whose descent into the former affords many of the advantages of water communication. It contains about thirty houses, besides a court-house, a good substantial brick jail, a Protestant church; a Roman Catholic church, a meeting and school-house, flour and saw mills, pearl-ash works, a post-office, several country stores, &c.; also a woolen factory, lately erected by C. F. H. Goodhue, Esq., which is likely to do well. This village appears well situated for trade, and has a good deal of intercourse with the different parts of the district. Although it has not much flourished heretofore, it is to be hoped that through the enterprising spirit and activity of the chief proprietors, the Hon. Mr. Felton, and C. F. H. Goodhue, Esq., it will make a rapid progress in the several branches of improvement, situated, as it is, in the midst of a beautiful country, and surrounded with good land, which is as yet but partially settled on, to the east, west, and north. A Weekly Newspaper is published here. About six miles west of Sherbrooke is Belvedere, the residence of the Hon. Mr. Felton, Commissioner for the management and sale of crown lands, and what are called clergy reserves. In the year 1816, he commenced his settlement in this place, than entirely a wilderness; and, with a great expenderitur of capital before roads were opened, cleared about a thousand acres, and built a handsome dwelling house, offices, farmhouses, &c. A road passes Mr. Felton's place, from Sherbrooke to outlet of Magog, and meets the Stanstead and Montreal road. The village of Richmond, in the township of Shipton, twenty-two miles below Sherbrooke, is, as has been already observed, the other place of election for this county; and is situated on the east bank of the river St. Francis, where the Craigs road, from Quebec, meets that river. This village has about a dozen good dwelling-houses, (several built of brick,) a Protestant Episcopal church and school, two excellent and extensive hotels, a post office, three or four country stores, tanneries, hatteries, also large stone-built, grist and saw mills, with extensive pearl-ash works, &c., chiefly the property of W. S. Wales, Esq. An academy to be built of brick, is in progress, which, when finished, will be of great advantage to this part of the country. On the side of the St. Francis, opposite Richmond, in the township of Melbourne, is also a rising village, which has got several good buildings, a meeting house, stores, &c. Also ten miles north-east from Richmond, on the Craigs road, commonly called the Back of Shipton, there is a flourishing settlement, and a village, the name of which is Danville: having several stores, a meeting house, schools, pearl-ash works, fulling and carding machines, &c. Between, Danville and Richmond may be seen a small, but neat, Roman Catholic chapel; and in the township are also Presbyterian and Methodist congregations. South of Sherbrooke, about four miles, is situated the village of Lennoxville, which has got about a dozen good dwelling houses, a Protestant Episcopal church, a meeting and school-house, a country store, a tavern, post-office, &c. From Lennoxville a road runs eastwardly to Eaton, which is rather well settled. In Eaton, there are two Episcopal churches, two stores, several schools, tanneries, pearl-ash works, &c.; there is also here a Baptist Society, and some others of various denominations. The country from Lennoxville to Compton, a distance of ten miles, is well settled. In Compton, there are two country stores, an Episcopal church, a post-office, several mills, &c. Eaton and Compton contain each a population of about 1,500; Ascot about 1,200; Shipton, 1,500; Melbourne, 800; Hereford, 200; Chifton, 150; Westbury, 100; Dudswell, 250; Stoke, 20; Orford, 300; Brompton, 300; and Windsor, 200; these being the only townships colonised in the county. The chief roads are-the Dudswell, passing from the county of Megantic, through Weedon, Dudswell, Bury, Westbury, Eaton, Clifton, and Hereford, into the state of Vermont, at the head of the Connecticut river- a branch of this leads from Eaton to Lennoxville; the Craigs road, leading from QUebec throgh. the counties of Megantk and Drummond, and passing through Shipton to Richmond, in this county; the roads leading up each bank of the St. Francis, through Shipton, Melbourne, Windsor, Brompton, Orford, Ascot, and Compton, continuing on towards Stanstead; and the Ymaska, mountain road passing through Melbourne. From the observations that have been made it will be seen tht few places offer more advantages to settlers, than the chief part of this county. Wild lands may be purchased at prices varying from 2s. 6d., to 7s. 6d., per acre; and partially cleared farms also may be had on reasonable terms. Should a man decide on buying crown or clergy lands, he may effect the purchase at once on the spot, from Mr. Felton, or from his agents at Sherbrooke. Baggage may be conveyed from Three Rivers to Sherbrooke, eighty-two miles, at from four to six dollars per load; and travellers by the mail stage, for five dollars. We shall now proceed to give a description of the county of Stanstead, lying southwest of the county of Sherbrooke; it is bounded on the south by lat. 45, the provincial line between this province and the state of Vermont, and on west by the county of Missiskoui. It comprises the townships of Hatley, Stanstead, Barnston, Barford, Potton, and Bolton; and is tolerably well colonised, having a population of about 10,000, chiefly emigrants from other parts of America; but there are still in all its townships, except Stanstead, large tracts of wild land of a good quality. The Township of Stanstead is the best settled in the province. Many partially cleared farms might be obtained in this county on easy terms, and with good titles, an opportunity which has been in many instances embraced, by British emigrants. From its contiguity to the States, a considerable share of commercial intercourse exists between the inhabitants and their American neighbours, to the advantage of both parties. The chief village is Stanstead Plain, in the township of Stanstead, two miles north of the Lines, and thirty three miles south-west of Sherbrooke; 115 miles south of Montreal, 150 miles southwest of Quebee, 116 miles south of Three Rivers, and about 200 miles northwest of Boston. Stanstead Plain village is on a plain surrounded by hills, and consists of about fifty houses, some of brick, and others of wood, in neat style. In it are are also to be seen a number of stores, a post office, tanneries, a paper mill, pearl-ash and cast iron works, cabinet makers, hatters, watchmakers, saddlers, &c.; it has got besides, a printing office which issues a weekly paper, a handsome brick Presbyterian and a Methodist chapel, an academy and school, and a large free church, for the use of all denominations, north of the village. Between this, and Three Rivers and Montreal, is a stage communication twice a week, as also to and from the United States. The township contains about 4,500 inhabitants; and, besides two academies, has about thirty elementary schools in active operation. The village of Georgeville lies about fifteen miles north-west of Stanstead Plain, in the same township, and on the east shore of lake Magog, a beautiful sheet of water, about thirty miles long and five in breadth: about one third of the south part of the lake is in the state of Vermont. Several picturesque mountains to the west and north of the lake, contribute much to the beauty of the scenery, and generally round it the land, though high, yet slopes with a gradual declivity to the water's edge; and all round, in every direction, are to be seen well improved farms and farm houses. Georgeville is a handsome village, and consists of about forty houses, several stores, a post office, a seminary, and other schools, an Episcopal, a Methodist and a free church, pearl-ash works, together with some other country manufactures.- There is here a ferry across the lake, which is one of the ways from Stanstead to Montreal. This is one of the places of election for the county, and it is here the registry office is kept. Ten miles to the north, is a small village of about a dozen houses called the Outlet of lake Magog, in which there are fulling, and carding mills, grist and saw mills, pearl-ash works, stores, taverns, schools, &c. and the main road from Stanstead, Hatly, &c. to Montreal passes through it. The other place of election for the county, is the village of Charleston, in the township of Hatley about halfway between Stanstead plain and Sherbrooke. It consists of about twenty houses, a neat Episcopal church, an academy, school, stores, post-office, brewery, pearl-ash works, &c.; and about a mile distant, is a neat free church for the accommodation of all parties. Throughout this county, and, indeed, in the eastern townships generally, schools for elementary instruction are never neglected after the settlements are once formed; a circumstance which attaches much credit to the character of the inhabitants; and where they are not provided with churches, they meet in the school-houses regularly on the Sabbath, for social religious worship, convinced of the obligation under which they lie, of paying a tribute of praise and thanksgiving to Him who is the anthor of every good gift; and that it as not only a "reasonable service," but also their interest to pray for a manifestation of his grace among them, his guidance, and his protection. Thus, by the aid of Divine grace, do they mutually contribute to promote among each other, the growth of religion, without which all other blessings are but imaginary; but which, when earnestly sought after and possessed, can temper the cup of affliction with happiness, (should such in the dispensations of Providence ever fall to the lot of its possessor,) and convert the most distant land into a home. Montreal is the chief foreign market for this county, unless for horses and cattle, which find a readier sale in Quebec. Vast quantities of pearl ashes are sent by waggons and carts in summer, and by sleighs in winter, to the former of these cities; and in return are brought back such commodities as there may be demand for in the villages and other parts of the townships. The face of the country is hilly but not broken, and is well watered by Lakes Magog and Massiwippi, together with various small streams which lend their aid; and though the most distant county from the St. Lawrence, it is however the most desirable part of the province to settle in, from the information possessd by the inhabitants and their enterprising charactrer, and from its being throughout the whole so abundantly supplied with farms, good roads, schools, &c. as may be seen from the more minute accounts already given. Wild lands are, as may be expected from the superior advantages of which it can boast, higher in this county than in any of those before noticed; being generally estimated at from five to ten shillings per acre, or more. The principal roads are, that from Shefford county and Montreal, through Hatley and Stanstead to Stanstead plain, and another road to the same place from Sherbrooke through Charleston. The whole country is however interspersed with good roads, for a more particular detail of which see the account for roads and distances. The populations in the several townshops of this county are nearly as follows;- Stanstead 4500; Hatley 2000; Barnston 2000; Bolton 1200; Potton 700; and Barford 100. The next, as holding out inducements to the emigrant, of the state of which I shall endeavor to furnish him with some information, is the county of Shefford. It is situated northwest of Stanstead and west of Sherbrooke counties, and nearer to Montreal than any of the former; the post roads from that city to Stanstead pass through it. The usual route to Shefford from William Henry and Montreal is by Ymaska mountain. Frost Village, the centre of the county, is distant from both these towns about sixty miles. This village presents a handsome appearance, and has got about thirty houses, an Episcopal Church, a school house, taverns, several country stores, a post office, pearl ash works, a tannery, and several other conveniences; it is also the place of election for the county, and where the registry office is established. About five miles west of Frost Village is the small village of Waterloo; and about ten miles further on towards Montreal is Granby Village, consisting of about a dozen houses, stores, school, &c. From these village roads lead in several directions to the different townships of this county as well as to Missiskoui, Stanstead, Sherbrooke, &c. The Ymaska river might by a little improvement, be rendered navigable to boats into this county, which is well watered by its head branches. The land is generally good upland, intespersed with many fertile valleys, and which, in alternate succession with gently rising hills, the face of the country is indented. Of the inhabitants three fourths are American emigrants, and the remainder are from the United Kingdoms. Many are in possession of good farms, and the easy access there is from this to the Montreal market renders the situation a very eligible one. The price of wild land varies from two and six pence to seven and sixpence for the acre, but no doubt will rapidly rise in value; and a great portion of the best quality remains still unoccupied, but henceforth no doubt many persons will feel it their interest to direct their attention that way, as roads are now opened through it in several directions, the chief of which are these already noticed, and the road from Ymaska mountains to Melbourne, lately opened, and passing through Milton, Roxton, and Ely. The population and townships comprised within this county are as follow.-Shefford about 1200- Stukeley 500- Ely 50- Roxton 20- Milton 50- Brome 1100- and Farnbam 1000 souls. At Ymaska mountain, joining to, though not in, this county, is a flourishing settlement of American and British emigrants, who are provided with an English church, schools, stores, post office, &c. The land is good but not in the townships, it being a Seignory. The county of Missiskoui, lying south of Shefford and west of Stanstead counties, next claims our attention; and of those formed out of the Eastern townships is the only one that remains to be noticed. In this also were made the first settlements in the townships in the year 1794. It is smal, consisting only of the townships of Dunham, Stanbridge, Sutton, and the Seignory of St. Armand; but is however the most populous of the township counties, as it contains a population exceeding 10,000; and, except in Sutton, most of the lands are occupied. It lies adjoining the state of Vermont, having on thir west Missiskoui Bay on Lake Champlain. The country is intersected in every direction by a number of roads leading to the other townships, to the United States, St. John, and Montreal, from which city the centre of the county is about fifty miles. The principal village is on Missiskoui Bay, and contains between sixty and seventy houses, with regular streets and some wharfs, a seminary, school houses, two Baptist meeting houses, a Methodist chapel, an Episcopal church, stores, a post office, pearl ashe works, &c. The Bay is about four miles wide, opposite this village, which is favorably situated for trade, and has considerable share, being about a mile north of the province line. The village next in importance is Dunham, which is one of the places of election, and where the registry office is kept. It lies about l6 miles north east of the former, and consists of about forty houses, an Episcopal church, stores, schools and a post office; in it are also to be found pearl ash works, country manufactures, &c. The other place of election is Freleighsburg in St. Armand, about ten miles west of Missiskoui Bay on Pike river; which contains about thirty houses, an episcopal church, nail factory, post office, stores, schools, &c. In this county there are not any large rivers, but it is well irrigated by Pike river, which discharges itself into Lake Champlain, and by some other smaller streams. The land is generally good, and the farms in a flourishing state; and in all the settlements, which are making a rapid progress in wealth and respectability, the agriculturist and tradesman possess abundant facilities of mutually contributing to the advancement of each other's interests, through the medium of those various factories that have been already noticed. Wild lands are worth from fire to shillings per acre according to situation. It is colonized chiefly by American emigrants with some from Great Britain and Ireland, who are all both enterprising and intelligent. The population may be estimated in the following proportion- The Seigniory of St. Armand about 4000 -Township of Dunham 3000- Sutton 1000 and Stanbridge 2500. Between this county and the Richelieu river, St. John, Chambly, &c.; many American and British emigrants settled on good lands in the Seignories; being well situated for settlement. The aforesaid counties now described contain that tract of Lower Canada heretofore known as the Eastern Townships, and lately divided into the said counties of Megantic, Drummond, Sherbrooke, Stanstead, Shefford, and Missiskoui. Before this division they were attached to the Seignorial counties and de facto had no representation in the legislature of the province. Roads and public improvements were left to the industry of the inhabitants, and these being scattered over a large tract of country were extremely bad. But in 1829, after many fruitless applications, a new division of the province took place, and these counties were set off as above described; they now enjoy the privilege of returning nine members to represent their interests in th assembly of the province, and have had leading roads opened and improved, which in a short time will add much to the value of real property in this important section. The settlements were only commenced in these townships between the years 1794 and 1803, but in Drummond, Megantic, and Shefford they are of a much later date. The first settlers, emigrants from the United States generally, penetrated into the wilderness and fixed themselves in places where they were often removed distances of from 40 to 60 miles from mills or neighbours, and without the convenience of roads unless Indian tracks, the only thread they had to guide their way through the intricacies and labyrinthes of the forest; but by perseverance and application, to which they were stimulated by a sense of the advantages they enjoyed in the quality of the soil, they at length surmounted the numerous obstacles and difficulties with which they had to struggle in this arduous undertaking. Times are now altered, and those who proceed to settle there can enjoy all the advantages of having the country already opened, leading roads through which is given a free access to the various benefits of commerce, a facility of obtaining provisions at hand until they can regale themselves with the fruits of their own industry, as also the advantage of a residence in the neighbourhood of farmers who from their own experience, are well acquainted with the plan of laying out and clearing a wooded country. South of Montreal, and west of the Chambly or Richelieu River, are the Counties of Chambly, La Prairie, L'Acadie, and Beauharnois. They are laid out in Seigniories, extept the townships of Sherrington, Hemmingford, Hinchinbrooke, and Godmanchester, lying near the Province Line, lat. 45, which divides this province from the State of New York. The townships have been generally colonized of late with emigrants from the United Kingdom, but the seigniories are almost wholly settled with French Canadians, among whom, however, are many British and American emigrants, particularly towards the south part of these counties. Farms, partially cleared are easily obtained; and also seignorual uncleared lands of a good quality. The climate, soil, and situation, are all favourable to industry: its vicinity to Montreal, (distances from various parts of from ten to thirty or forty miles,) and to the garrisons of Chambly, St. John's, and the Isle of Noix, renders it doubly so. This section of the country is intersected with many roads leading to Montreal and the United States. A number of Canadian villages and churches greatly ornament the face of the country, which is quite level with the exception of a few isolated remarkable lumps of rocks or mountains of peculiar formation which tend to diversify the scenery and render it attractive to the traveller's eye. Through a part of this tract, between Montreal and Lake Champlain, a Canal is contemplated, and a Rail road is already in progress. The County of Beauharnois has an easy access to Montreal by the St. Laurence, and Chateaugnay rivers. Though a great portion of this section is the most populous part of Lower Canada, it still presents many favourable situations to the enterprising settler. On the Island of Montreal, farms may be taken at an annual rent, and purchased on favourable terms; but near the city lands sell very high. The island is very fertile, and many British agriculturists are settled there on farms which they have either at a yearly rent or by purchase. It is somewhat triangular, being about 30 miles long by ten, where broadest, and is well settled throughout, having the advantage, of good roads intersecting it in every direction. Exclusive of the population of the city, which contains 30,000 souls, that of the island may be estimated at about 13,000. The City of Montreal is situated on the south east side of the Island, at the head of Ship Navigation on the St Laurence, in lat. 45, 31 north, and west longitude 73, 35; its situation being unrivalled for climate, trade, soil, or local advantages. A more minute description is considered here unnecessary. North of Montreal, in the county of Terrebonne and Lake of the Two Mountains, many British and American emigrants are favourably settled, especially in the seigniories of Terrebonne and Argentueil, St. Andrews, the township of Chatham, and the vicinity of the Ottawa River. It still offers many inviting tracts for settlement from 20 to 50 miles north and west of Montreal, with which it enjoys an easy communication by good roads and the Ottawa River. West of Montreal, and joining Upper Canada on the west, is the county of Vaudreuil; lying between the St. Laurence and Ottawa rivers. By roads from Montreal to Upper canada, passing through the county from east to west, as also by the rivers, there is free communication with that city, from which it is distant from 15 to 5O miles. This county is granted in Seignories, having only one Township,-Newton. The principal villages are Coteau du lac, the Cedars, and Vaudreuil. The land is generally good, and has many situations on which the agriculturist may speedily find himself amply remunerated for his pains. A number of emmigrants from the United Kingdom are settled in various parts, and are in possession of good productive farms; with other comforts which they enjoy, may be reckoned the advantage of a climate, if not better, at least equally good as that of any other part of the Lower Province. Northwest of Montreal, and on the north east bank of the Ottawa River, is the county of Ottawa; being a northwest Township county lately laid out, and northwest also of the county of the Lake of th Two Mountains. It has much good and productive land, as well as a large supply of valuable timber; from which is chosen a considerable portion of the timber exported from Quebec, adn is found to be of a superior quality. The settlements are confined to the bank of the Ottawa; the principal of which is Hull, and was commenced by Phileman Wright, Esq. who in this place, more than twenty years since, had to struggle with the inconvenience of settling in a wilderness far away from civilized society; but by active industry and perseverance surmounted every obstacle and at length effectually succeeded in showing the beneficial effects and advantages that can be derived from a steady course of application. The inhabitants, who amount to 2500, are emigrants from the United States and Great Britain, and are much employed in the timber trade. The Navigation of the Ottawa is improving, and is expected to be in a short time navigable for Steam Boats from Montreal to Hull; and in connexion with the Rideau canal, now nearly finished, will be navigable to the same sort of vessels through Upper Canada to Lake Ontario, &c. Along this line, and in this section of the province, are wide and encouraging fields, which afford to the emigrant full scope for the exercise of an enterprising spirit. With this county may be concluded the observations on the Lower Province, which it has been considered he may find of some use in directing him whither to turn his attention in choice of a resting place from his wanderings, before he can proceed to that actual expenditure of capital and labour from which he may expect to derive his future comforts; being well persuaded that if he cannot find situations to his taste and satisfaction in the parts noticed, he will find it difficult to please himself in Lower Canada. Besides the parts described, there are certainly other places in this province, which hold forth to the emigrant fair prospects, but these being thought fittest for him, have been described more minutely, with an earnest wish that this attempt may have the desired effect, in giving him correct information, and enabling him to make such a selection as will best answer the end for which he has, or shall have emigrated from his native country.
SECTION IV. COMPARATIVE VIEW OF BOTH PROVINCES, WITH SOME FURTHER REMARKS ON THE UPPER.
There are, no doubt, many emigrants who find that they have reasons of sufficient weight and importance to decide them in favor of settlements in tHe Upper Province. To as many a know their own reasons best, and have already given due consideration to the circumstances that should justly influence them not to confine their speculations to the Lower Country, it may be observed that it was not with the intent of forcing into a different channel from what they had marked out for themselves, the choice of such, that the cautions suggested to guard an inexperienced stranger from imposition and from being led astray upon his first arrival in America have been given; for convinced as the writer of these pages is, that there are very many who, from the time they first make up their minds to emigrate, have upon fair and rational grounds decided upon going at once to some part of the Upper country, and that there are others who may yet before they leave their own country feel it their interest to pursue the same course, he certainly does not presume that upon their determination should operate hints that are given only for the guidance of those who may be quite undecided whither to turn themselves, and have no reasons of their own sufficient to prevail upon them to give one province a preference beyond the other. But as it is not practicable to be equally minute in detailing the several particulars connected with the present state of Upper Canada, as with that of the Lower Province, in consequence of its not being so extensively settled or taken up for agricultural purposes, they who may feel disposed to make choice of some part thereof as the scene of the future industry and improvement, are referred to the more general description already given as also to what has been noted respecting the facilities of communication already established by roads, and the improvement of inland navigation. In the general view its peculiar advantages by reason of which many will think themselves warranted in preferring it to the Lower Province have been stated; where it has been observed that it is generelly a level country, and that the rivers have much good level water for boat and sloop navigation, even more so than Lower Canada. Another of its peculiar advantages there noticed, is the more moderate climate, a consideration which should often preponderate when put into the scale against other advantages by such as have regard to whatever is calculated in any measure to preserve to them the blessings of a sound constitution; but those who know how to estimate duly so valuable a possession as good health, should guard against fevers and ague, to which persons residing in the vicinity of lakes and swamps, especially in the south Western parts of the province, are exposed; against this inconvenience, however, we may set that arising from the fogs which often prevail towards the sea in the Lower province. It may also be observed that though in the latter province there is such a vast extent of good land that mnny years must roll over our heads before it can be all so taken up as to render it difficult for the newly-arrived colonist to settle himself to his satisfaction; however in the Upper the soil is more generally good and seldomer interrupted by veins of more inferior quality; and generally because it has not yet been so extensively cultivated, land is cheaper- a circumstance which of course deserves to be taken into account by those who have got but a very trifling capital; although, as has been already stated, whatever be the depth of a man's purse, he can meet no great difficulty in suiting himself in the lower province, and that before he has incurred the additional expense of travelling so much further up the country. To those also of the labouring class, if they can conveniently compass the expense of so long a journey, Upper Canada presents the encouragement of higher wages. It is hoped that because the substance of what is here given in this comparative view, of the relative advantages of both provinces has been already stated in former parts of these pages, it will not be considered superfluous in this place, as it has been considered necessary by presenting every thing in the most impartial light possible, to guard the reader against any misconception that it is by an excessive partiality for the lower province, the author has been induced to more minuteness in his account of it than of the upper. But though the present state of that province does not call for so much minuteness in describing settlements, villages, and various other particulars connected with its localities, some information may be given which the emigrant who may decide upon giving the preference to Upper Canada will find of use to assist him in his choice of a settlement. Those who seek the advantages of obtaining a speedy conveyance to the larger markets, for such commodities as they shall have to dispose of, and with equal dispatch to get in return whatever being indispensible to the agriculturist, is not to be found among the productions of his own farm, will find a settlement on the banks of lake Ontario, and not far removed from Kingston, a very desirable one, if they be possessed of capital sufficient to enable them to make a purchase, where a combination of so many advantages must render land very dear. Heretofore between this and Montreal, navigation has been much impeded and rendered dangerous, by the numerous rapids that are to be encountered in the St. Laurence; but this cause of complaint will not long exist, as by the great canal works noticed in the more general view of the province, steam boats will have a free and easy course to the Ottawa river, which joins the St. Laurence, within a few miles of Montreal, from which place to the Atlantic, the navigation is free from all manner of local interruption. Settlements formed along the Rideau canal, will be found to confer considerable advantages on their occupiers, from the connexion that it must establish, when completed, between foreign commerce and the agriculture of that country. Another circumstance that renders the situation a desirable one, is the opposite, but equally beneficial, effects which lake Ontario has on the temperature of both seasons; from its very great depth it is never frozen in winter, on which account, the neighbourhood, during that time, enjoys the benefit of a comparatively clement season; so, in summer, the breezes that pass over its surface, constribute greatly to cool the atmosphere. The same effects are, of course, to be expected from the other large lakes, upon the places immediately in their vicinity. But the Huron, a tract which extends over 1,100,000 acres, in the London District, besides the strong recommendation which it receives from the properties it possesses in common with other tracts, holds forth to a farmer of small capital, the additional inducement of cheap land; and even in that remote quarter, settlers who make choice of situations on the great lake of that name, are not cut off from the benefits of navigation, as it communicates with the Atlantic through lakes Erie and Ontario. Goderich, the chief town of this district, is situated where the river Maitland discharges itself into lake Huron, and from its many advantages, presents favourable prospects of rising to considerable importance. Several establishments, which must promote the interests of agricultural commerce in the surrounding tract, are here contemplated. It is true, that there are other parts where land can be obtained even cheaper than in, this tract; but this alone cannot be a consideration, sufficient to influence a judicious farmer to settle himself, where he must do it to the exclusion of more important advantages; and as this has met with the unqualified approbation of many persons of good judgment, by whom it has been explored and carefully examined, it may, for many reasons, be found such as will suit the circumstances of persons whose own inclinations would lead them to choose a remote settlement. The unsettled emigrant, who may expect to derive information of any value from the perusal, of these pages, (in which expectation, it is hoped, that he shall not find himself disapointed,) is now left, by a comparison and careful observation of what has been said, both generally and particularly of each province, to decide where a settlement may best suit his peculiar circumstances; and to him who has already decided upon the situation on which he purposes to plant himself, what is to follow may be found to convey no unacceptable information.
HOW TO ASCERTAIN THE QUALITY OF LANDS.
Next to the choice of situation, that which concerns a settler, before he should take any steps towards making a bargain, is to make himself acquaintedwith the quality of the soil; for which let him remember, in the first place, that when choosing land in a state of nature, he may commonly know its quality by the Sort of timber growing thereon. -Thus, a mixture of all kinds of hard and soft wood, (that is, evergreens and such as shed their leaves,) of a healthy growth, without too much underwood, has a corresponding good soil fitted for most sorts of agricultural productions. When the land is covered with firs or evergreen trees, called soft wood, they indicate a poor sandy soil, which is by no means to be recommended. The absence of all fir or soft wood, denotes a better quality, and if there be no timber growing on it but maple and beech, the soil is light and sandy. From a growth of large elm, maple, birch, oak, walnut, beech, basswood, and some hemlock, with little underwood, may be expected the best soil, if dry; but examination will satisfy the inquirer. Large tracts of flat land are often met with, covered mostly with tamarack or larch, where the upper soil is sandy to the depth of from eight to twelve inches on a substratum of marly clay, which, when cleared and drained is very durable and good, as deep ploughing brings up the clay and fertilizes the surface. Emigrants, however, seldom like to settle on such land, while the French Canadians generally prefer it, the largest tracts of this quality being found in the seigniories, near the St. Laurence, in Lower Canada. This sort is not susceptible of such speedy cultivation as the former kinds, it being generally necessary to drain it, and extract the roots of the trees, before it can be ploughed or cultivated to advantage; while, on the other hand, hardwood upland can be immediately cultivated the same year, after having cleared off the timber, without extracting the roots; or even beforehand, the crop often amply repaying the expense of clearing and bringing it to that state.
DIRECTIONS RELATIVE TO THE OBTAINING OF LANDS -SECURING TITLES THEREIN- WITH SOME REMARKS ON THE SEVERAL KINDS OF TITLE, &C.
Government heretofore adopted various methods in settling the waste lands, by several successive plans laid down for that purpose. A complement of land was given gratis to every settler, on certain conditions of settlement; but this is now no longer the case, as at present all the crown lands are sold on easy terms of payment. Officers and discharged soldiers, however, receive grants gratis, in the following proportions:- Privates, 100 acres; sergeants, 200; sergeant-majors 300; Subalterns 500; Captains 800; Majors 1000; and all higher officers 1200 acres. It is thought the British Government were led into the plan of selling land, from the comparative failure of the several other plans that had been previously adopted, and from a hope that such a system would tend to prevent the accumulation of large tracts in the hands of unimproving individuals. Commissioners for the sale of crown lands have been accordingly appointed in the several provinces, who keep offices for this purpose at the Seats of Government where all persons may purchase at a fixed rate, called "The upset price." There are also for the same purpose in various parts of the country, Agents appointed by these Commissioners. In several places, at certain periods of the year, "The upset price" being fixed by Government, lands are set up for sale and struck off to the highest bidder on any of the following conditions.-In the first place, to such as pay the full price, they immediately get from the Crown a direct title in free and common soccage for ever. Next, to those who pay down one fourth of the purchase the three other parts in annual instalments, free of interest: no right further than occupying it is given, until the whole purchase money is paid; and the land, if not paid for as agreed, may again be sold. Poor persons wanting 100 acres, or less, may have the same by paying down one year's interest on the amount of the purchase, and every other year doing the same till the principal shall have been paid up; the land being liable to revert to the Crown, if the interest be not punctually paid:-the purchaser may however, instead of continuing the plan of paying this way, clear up what may be still unpaid of the principal at any time convenient. Unless the whole of the purchase money be paid, no person can sell or transfer lands thus obtained, without the consent of Government, which is easily got if the parties wish, or appear to act uprightly. The emigrant may be able to effect a purchase of crown land on any of the conditions now mentioned, in Quebec, or in York, on his arrival in either province, and choose such terms as will best suit his views and circumstances, as the title obtained from tile crown is the best that can be' procured. To these offices therefore the settler is particularly referred, as by making himself there acquainted with the terms and some other particulars, it will give him a general idea of the value of lands in the several townships and their vicinities. The prices of Crown lands for the current year, (1832) in Lower Canada, in the townships open for sale, are as follows-In the townships of Stanbridge and Dunham ten shillings per acre. In Farnham, Stanstead, and Compton four shillings per acre. In Sutton, Granby, Shefford, Milton, Potton, Barnston, Clifton, Hereford, Eaton, Shipton, Windsor, Kingsey, Melbourne, Ely, Durham, and Upton, five shillings. In Bolton, Westbury, Newport, Wickham, Ireland, Leeds, Hallifax, and Inverness, four shillings. In Wendover, Caxton, &c. two shillings and six-pence. In the townships on the Ottawa river, and south of Montreal, five shillings. And in those of Stoneham and Tewkesbury, north of Quebec, four shillings. In other cases when the settler purchases land from private individuals, or from proprietors on an extensive scale, who are always met with in large towns, good titles may be had, but he will do well to have proper legal advice as to the manner of sale, security of title, &c. In the townships of Lower Canada, and in Upper Canada, offices are established for the registry of any incumbrance affecting real or landed property, and in such places secure titles may be easily obtained; otherwise, great caution is requisite in persons who are unacquainted with the laws and customs of the colony, as in a considerable extent of the settled parts of Lower Canada it is difficult to procure good or sufficiently secured titles to land. Partially cleared lots which would make desirable farms, may be had for ever in most settled parts; they can be procured in more easily, and on cheaper terms, than wooded land could be purchased for and afterwards cleared by a person who is a stranger to that business, and are more desirable to the British farmer who, by availing himself of such lots, would be at once able to settle and keep stock to farm with, and thus be the sooner in the actual enjoyment of comforts, and free from those inconveniences that are sometimes felt by those locating in the woods. In mnny cases such farms with from ten to thirty acres or more of cleared land, can be purchased for less money than wood land, adding thereto the cost of clearing, being put into that state by persons who prefer clearing to farming;, therefore to the settler who has got sufficient money for that purpose, such farms would be an advantage if the soil be good- on the contrary, if bad, the labour of clearing is thrown away, and his circumstances become the most uncomfortable. Bad land being harder to be cleared than good, which fulfils the old Yankee proverb, "it is like a bad horse, hard to be caught, and when caught, good for nothing." Another method of obtaining land, of which it may be necessary to apprise the settler, prevails in the Canadas. Persons advanced in life are often met with, who, either not having children, or having them already settled in life, desire to make their old age comfortable without labour. They will give their farms, implements, and stock, to an honest industrious person, who binds himself either to support them during their lives, or else may pay them a certain rent for the same term, upon the expiration of which, the tenant enjoys the whole without further payment. In such cases, he will do well to be cautious, and consult an honest lawyer on the form, conditions, &c. before he involve himself in what, if not properly secured, may ultimately prove to have been a severe burden. But if all things are found regular and fair, the acquisition of a cleared farm and stock by this means, would be a great advantage to the poor settler. It is common also to rent farms for terms of from one to seven years, longer leases not being frequently given; in such cases the yearly rent is from seven shillings and six pence to fifteen shillings per acre near the cities and large towns, and from five to ten shillings at a distance of from ten to twenty miles. Cleared farms are also frequently let on shares; that is, the owner of the farm stocks it with horses, cattle, agricultural implements, and half the seed necessary to be planted or sown; the tenant in return is to pay as rent half of the whole increase of the stock produced on the farm; being bound in all cases to cultivate it to advantage, and take all necessary care of its fences, and of such other matters as may require to be attended to. The Upper Canada Land Company, who have agents in Quebec, Montreal, and various other parts, have vast quantities of land scattered all over the upper province, besides the Huron Tract already noticed, which consists of 1,000,000 acres near Lake Huron, 600 miles above Montreal. Their agents will be able to inform the emigrant of their terms, and to show from surveys the various situations and lands to be disposed of, the quality of the soil and all other particulars connected with it, as well as the route to be taken by the purchaser. They give titles of the land they dispose of, in free and common soccage for ever. The lands granted by the British government, since the conquest of Canada from the French, which include almost the whole of the upper and the townships in the lower province, are granted in free and common soccage; by this tenure the owner is lord of the soil, which is not liable to any rent or charge whatever, mines only being reserved by the crown; and in this manner the land is sold and transferred from one to another, subject to no condition or reservation unless by mutual agreement. In Lower Canada that tract along both banks of the St. Laurence, from its mouth to Upper Canada, and extending back from the river from ten to twenty miles or more, having been granted by the French government before the conquest, is conceeded under a decription of title not familiar to the British settler; it shall, therefore, be described more particularly, as there are many desirable tracts of seignorial land, very favourably situated near the St. Laurence, and easily obtained. The substance of what follows on this head is taken from a work on Canada, by Colonel Bouchette, Surveyor General. The lands alluded to were conceded by the French king in Seigniories, Fiefs, or Baronies, according to the Feudal system. The Seignior holding the seigniory, fief, or barony, from the king as lord paramount for public settlement, each seignior as he comes into possession, and on the accession of a new sovereign, is obliged to do homage and fealty for his seigniory, and on all transfers or sales of the seigniory to pay to the king a quint or fifth part of the purchase, which, if paid instanter, causes a reduction of two-thirds; so that in fact the seignior was not much more than an agent to the king, to settle a portion of the country, and receive certain emoluments for doing so and taking care of the same. The seigniory is more or less in size from one to one hundred square miles in surface. The Seigniors are by law obliged to concede or lease lots, of about ninety acres each, of the seigniory to tenants or censitaires on certain conditions that are easy: the tenant has a lease for ever and pays for a lot from a halfpenny to a penny per acre yearly, with other trifling considerations which come to about the same. Latterly the seigniors have been charging more, whether legal or not, is not so clearly, ascertained. The seignior has the exclusive right to the grist mills on his seigniory, to which the tenants are obliged to give employment, by using them when they have any thing in that way to get ground the charge being one-fourteenth for grinding. Lands are also held on leases of from twenty to fifty years or more, subject to a very small rent, which titles are termed bail amphiteotique. Other lands are held by what is called Franc allen, a freehold similar to what is called free and common soccage, being exempt from all charges to any person but the king. Another sort of title is called censive, subject to a yearly rent in money or produce. All these that have been enumerated include the different forms of title granted in the seigniories. A most material privilege however belongs to the seignior or landlord of the seigniory, which is called lods et vente or part of the sales, being a twelfth part of the value of all farms sold from one to another on his seigniory, which every purchaser must pay; but a deduction of one-fourth is made for prompt payment. Thus, whenever a farm on a seigniory is sold, the seignior claims a twelfth of its value, which is a great draw back on industry; for if a person takes a lot worth 10£, and then expends on it 1190£, thereby making it worth 1200£, on the sale thereof the seignior claims 100£, to which he can have no equitable claim, though legal. Besides these privileges and emoluments to the seignior, he has the right also of droit de retrait, which is, that he can claim any farm sold by the tenant, within forty days after the sale, by paying the highest price for the same. He can also claim a tithe of all fish caught on the seigniory, besides being entitled to fell forest timber any where on the same for his house, mills, roads, public works, and the churches. Some seigniors have compounded for all their rights, unless lods et vente, by receiving a greater yearly rent, that is, from fifteen to twenty shillings per lot: The same remedy might be applied for lods et vent: also, and thus have justice done to all, by charging a yearly rent; and not suffering it to be as at present a tax on improvement. However, when the land is not sold there is no lods et vents to pay, which is only a grievance when a sale takes place. The French Canadians are generally partial to the seignorial titles, perhaps from habit, and in consequence of having them associated as they are with their laws and religion; the Roman Catholics, who occupy farms in the seigniories, are obliged to pay a tithe of one twenty-fifth, of all grain raised by them, to their own clergy, besides assisting to build and repair their churches, parsonages, &c. The seigniors to whom these seigniories belong, either live on them or have resident agents, who are always ready to concede lands, and give titles at once with scarcely any expense.
CURRENCY OR COIN CURRENT IN CANADA.
Before we proceed farther, it is necessary to inform the stranger, that the pounds, shillings; and pence, in these colonies, commonly called Halifax currency, are in value ten per cent below the pounds, shillings, and pence, sterling. Thus 100£ sterling is equivalent to 110£ currency. All the current gold, silver, and copper coins of Europe and America pass here in that proportion of value. The guinea and sovereign pass respectively for about tweuty three shillings and four pence, and twenty-two shillings, and some times more if the rate of exchange is high on England; the dollar five shillings; the British shilling one and a penny; the English and French crown five shillings and six pence, and their several parts in proportion. In most places bargains are made by the number of dollars, as four dollars make one pound, which is a ready mode of calculating. It is hoped that this will not be considered an irrelevant digression, as the emigrant who has not had experience himself in these matter, must require to be taught by others in order that he may find the less embarrassment in making such preliminary arrangements as are necessary before he can proceed to occupy himself in the more immediate works of agriculture.
SOME MATTERS TO BE PROVIDED ON PROCEEDING TO SETTLE.
Having now endeavoured to give, in what I conceived to be the most natural order, such directions and information so that the emigrant cannot be at a loss how to conduct himself in any of the preparatory steps to be taken, either in making choice of situation, ascertaining the quality and properties of the soil, making a purchase, or procuring a lease of a farm, and securing his title therein, I shall next proceed to give such further hints as be may find useful, after all the other arrangements shall have been fully made to his satisfaction; before which, it may be no harm, in addition to what has been already said, again to remind him that however good the quality of the land may be or eligible its situation in other respects, it will nevertheless be of importance top pay attention to the following particulars: Whether there be roads or communications leading to, from, or near such lands; for if they do not possess these indispensible conveniences he will find it a circumastance attended with much trouble, as there should be a road at least within three miles of him, if not more immediately contiguous. Whether they be in the vicinity of, or have easy access to, a market of some kind, either store, village, town, or city, as any one of them will generally answer the generation that settle the land; grist and saw mills are equally necessary, not forgetting the neighbourhood, neighbours, &c. And lastly, but not of least importance, the security or validity of the title in the land to be purchased. By paying due regard to these particulars, and acting with discretion and prudence, he may proceed at once to his land, and under the blessing of Divine Providence need not fear the result: sobriety, industry, and perseverance, will be sure to crown his exertions with the desired success. In proceeding thus at length, after he has surmounted all his preliminary troubles, to settle himself on his farm, he will require to ascertain if provision can be got in its immediate vicinity, if not to provide them in the most convenient place possible, as it will be well to save the expense of carriage; otherwise he should buy them in the town before starting. He should be also provided with suitable axes for chopping, with strong hoes, a spade, grinding stone, pickaxe, hand-saw, files, chissels, planes, a cross-cut saw, spoke-shave, hammers, nails, hinges, locks, glass and putty. The axes, hoes, and grinding stone, are what he will find necessary for clearing, but the other implements will be found very convenient, as the settler will be able to do and get done many useful and necessary jobs by being provided with them. Many, if not all, of these articles may be got near the farm, especially the axes, and if cheap it will be best to buy them there, otherwise to purchase them where most convenient and cheapest. Loading, whether passengers or luggage, will be conveyed for one penny a mile per cwt. land carriage, or less, according to circumstances: French Canadians will cart cheaper than any other, but the employed will remember to make the best bargain he can. In travelling by land it is customary to carry provisions for the road; and to stop at any farmer's house for refreshment, as public houses are not always convenient on the different roads. It is in no wise recommended to the settler of contracted means to buy horses for a new farm, on which there is not much grass. A cow or two with a yoke of oxen (with a yoke and chain to work and clear land) can be easily supported on brushwood, and will live well in the woods, a few acres of which may be inclosed with fallen trees, so as to prevent the cattle from straying away; but when accustomed to get a handful of salt once or twice a week, they will always return of their own accord; however a good cow-bell should be strapped about the neck, to indicate, if necessary, where they may be found. Horned cattle may be nearly supported during the winter also on hardwood tops and brush wood. The following prices of cattle and articles are, what are generally given at present in Canada; which will not be found, to differ much in either province, unless when the size or breed make the alteration: A much cow from 3£ to 5£; a working horse, from 7£ to 10£; sheep from 7s. 6d. to 15s.; a yoke of oxen from 8£ to 12£; young pigs from 3s. to 4s., and, if six months old, from 10s to 15s.; a plough from 2£. to 3£.; an ass from 7s. 6d. to 10s., &c.; but from these rates there must be often a deviation, as the season, place, and other circumstances, cause the prices to be either below or above those mentioned. In all cases it will be prudent for the settler to inquire concerning the value of such articles in the neighbourhood where he is purchasing them, and to act accordingly in making his bargain.
BUILDING.
A supply of such necessaries as the settler may require being provided, a convenient lodging in the neighbourhood of his farm, will be the best to procure until a log house can be erected. If this cannot be provided, a log camp may be speedily erected in a few hours, where a family can comfortably lodge for some time, and in which (being built with logs and covered over with bark, split timber, boards, or fir tops) more comfort will be found than expected, especially after the confinement experienced by the emigrant on board ship. When this is effected another camp may be erected in which to place his goods, and thus he will find himself lodged at home on his own estate; which often gives more real satisfaction than elegant and costly mansions do to the great. Care should be taken that no large trees be left standing near the house or camp, which in falling might reach it, as in consequence of having their roots running near the surface they are liable to be laid prostrate by a sudden gust of wind. It would be advisable for the settler, if he have got the means, to employ a man accustomed to clear land for some time, by which way he would in a short time become fully acquainted with the business: or it would be well if he could contract for a job of three or four acres to be cleared off, which generally costs from two to three pounds per acre, the stumps of the trees being left in the ground, which is not only the usual plan, but in fact the best and cheapest. This he should get done round about the site of his intended buildings, which ought to be in a dry situation, and near good water. As soon as there is a sufficient space cleared for building a log house on, straight logs may be got from the timber cut down for clearing, or picked out up and down and drawn to the building site:- the best timber for that purpose is pine, spruce, cedar, hemlock, or fir; and if these cannot be got the straightest timber of any other kind convenient. The log-house should not be longer than from twenty-four to thirty feet at most, nor its breadth more than from twenty to twenty-four feet; neither should the walls be raised more than ten or twelve feet; for if the dimensions exceed these, as the logs decay they will be apt to give out and fall. In general houses of this description are not so large. Under the house should be dug out a good cellar, where potatoes, and all such other provisions as may require this precaution, could be preserved during winter from the frost, and in summer from the heat. It will be found easier to do this before the house is built, and if laid up with small logs, they will prevent the earth from falling in; the cellar should not be within three feet of the breadth or length of the house, and aught to be five or six feet deep, if the place can be conveniently sunk so much. When a sufficient number of logs are provided, the usual practice is for a few neighbours to assemble and assist the new settler in laying up the walls of his house, each log being mortised half way through at the angles for the cross one to rest in; and by this means it becomes a firm building while the timbers last, which they may be expected to do for about twenty years. On laying up the logs over the parts intended for the doors and windows, notches are made large enough to admit a saw, that when the walls are up there may be no trouble in sawing them out to the proper size. When the rafters and ribs are set up, they may be covered with shingles of split pine or spruce, or with boards, if to be had near; but if these cannot be provided, the bark of elm, pine, or spruce, may be easily peeled off in June or July, which makes a good covering for a few years, and is again easily got and renewed. After the house is covered in, if boards cannot be got, split basswood, fir, or pine, is used for flooring, hewn smooth, and pinned to the sills or beams of the floor. A house thus built, covered, and floored, may be got up for about 10£. by contract, but will not cost half so much if the economical plan here suggested be attended to; the owner will then have to finish it off as may be convenient and suited to his taste. The usual practice is to get small sashes and have them fitted in, a door hung on, stones collected and a chimney built in one end of the house, moss and splinters of wood stuffed well between the chinks of the logs, and plastered over with mortar made of clay and sand; and after all this has been executed, the house may be divided to suit the occupiers' comfort and wishes. In such a house a family may live comfortably, cheered by the gratifying reflection that they are residing on their own estate, which will become more valuable every year, and for which they have not to pay rent, taxes, nor any other of those charges, which have been to them, while in their native country, a source of perpetual uneasiness: where they can taste the sweets of freedom, independence, serenity, and repose. At the approach of winter it will be necessary to bank up the house with earth, about a foot high round the foundation on the outside, in order to secure the cellar against frost, and make the dwelling as warm as possible. In effecting these or other local improvements, information and assistance may be always got from those previously settled, who are ever found ready to contribute in every possible way towards promoting the comforts of newcomer to the bush: a fellow feeling that prevails, on such occasions, as well as a desire to see their neighbours settled, causes all to interest themselves in the welfare of the industrious new settler. A small pig or two may be advantageously fed on the offal of the house, a yard being enclosed for them, and the ensuing year they will be found to contribute to the comforts of the family, after potatoes and other agricultural produce shall have been raised. In parts where beech and oak grow, hogs feed and fatten on the nuts and acorns, without any other assistance; but care should be taken that they trespass not on the neighbours' crops. A few fowls will also be a convenience, and are easily kept; it will be necessary, however, to defend them from hawks, foxes, and any other enemies to which they may be liable to fail a prey.
CLEARING LAND.
In clearing land to advantage, there is need of much art and dexterity, and notwithstanding any directions that may be given, a settler desirous of learning, will gain more by trying to derive practical information from observing those who are well acquainted with that business, than by volumes written on the theory. He is therefore advised to observe for himself; or employ some person who has been brought up in such work, or at least well acquainted with it; for, some will clear an acre of land with one third of the labour that others have in doing so, and labour saved in that way is as good as money saved. However, for the information of the stranger, I will here add methods usually persued in clearing, as he may not always find it easy to get such labourers as are most profitable; and useful practical hints may occasionally prove salutary. A piece of dry land, or tolerably so, near the house is the most, advisable to begin with. The most approved method of clearing, especially if hardwood land, is to cut down the brushwood, close to the ground, with a bush-hook or axe; in order to preserve the edge, the blow should given up, but as close to the ground as possible, that the stumps should not afterwards obstruct the harrowing. This should be thrown in heaps, that when dry it may burn off the better, on burning the other timber. When the brushwood is cut and piled on the piece intended to be cleared, chopping down the large timber may be proceeded with according to the following plan:- Observe to which side the tree inclines, if to any, and on that side or near it chop in about two feet from the ground; chop sloping dow, above, and straight in below, so as that the stump shall be left quite flat. After having cut in more than half way, minding to do it straight across, begin to cut on the opposite side, about an inch or more higher than the former incision; and work in as before, having one cut sloping down, and the other horizontal; when the tree begins to crack or shake, it should be watched at each blow of the axe, until you see it begin to fall; and then step one side, sufficiently out of the way, as trees often bound, and are dangerous in falling. Care should also be taken that it fall not upon another tree, as the getting it down will be attended with some trouble and danger: dead, dry, or broken limbs should also be watched lest they should fall on the chopper. Upright trees may be made fall in any particular direction that may be desired, by chopping first and deepest into the side at which it is required it should fall; a little experience and observation, with presence of mind, caution, and prudence, will only be necessary. When the tree is fallen the limbs should be cut off into heaps, after which the body is to be cut up into lengths of 10 or 12 feet; then take another and prosceed in the same manner, which will cause them not to interfere with one another. Six men accustomed to this work, will, if diligent, chop abunt an acre in a day. In about a month or six weeks, or sooner if in summer when the leaves are on, the timber thus cut will be fit to burn, particularly if there be a few dry days previous to firing it; it will be best to do so when there is a light wind blowing from the buildings, and then the fire should be put in the windy side of the field chopped down, and it will spread the better among the fallen timber: it should be done about 10 or 12 o'clock in the day. When the fierceness of the fire is past, the brands and small wood may be thrown in heaps on the larger timber; and the heavy logs are afterwards to be hauled together with oxen, or rolled with handspikes into heaps, and burned off. As the piles are burned out, the ashes may be saved for pot or pearl ash manufactories, being worth from six to ten shillings per bushel for that purpose, if care be taken to preserve it from wet. The land is then fit for planting or sowing in, and, if at a proper season, the sooner the better after the fire becomes entirely extinguished. Others again clear their land by first chopping down the brushwood, leaving it scattered as it falls; after which they cut down the large trees, and cut off the limbs, leaving them also scattered as they fall, but do not chop up the body of the tree. When sufficiently dry, it is set on fire as before, and let burn off; after which, such logs as are not burned are chopped up, rolled or drawn together in heaps, and burned off as already mentioned. When time or labour is scarce in spring, many defer burning off the heavy timber, and plant potatoes, Indian corn, or some other crops among the logs, which answers very well when time does not admit of the land being wholly cleared off, as when the crop is off in the fall the timber is easily chopped and burned. The settler can pursue either plan, as both are followed with success. He will of course perceive that what is meant by clearing off the land does not include taking out the stumps of the trees; as they rot out by degrees, and injure the land less by being left to dd so than by digging them out, a process in the course of which the poor clay is drawn up to the surface: they will soon rot, and can be drawn out or burned off with ease when dry. The stumps are very little in the way of farming to advantage, as the ground may be ploughed and planted between them without any difficulty, especially by a person accustomed to them; their chief evil is the unsightly appearance they present to the eye of an European, who is used to clear and level fields.
FENCING.
In clearing land, suitable timber may be selected for fencing, and drawn or carried to the places where such enclosures are to be made; but they should not be erected before the fire is past, or it may burn them down again. Various methods of fencing are resorted to, but if the place cleared be surrounded on all sides by the woods, a row of trees felled one after the other, with such additions as may be requisite, will be a sufficient temporary fence. When clearings join the road or other clearings, a more regular fence will be requisite, which is generally constructed on new lands, with logs cut twelve or fourteen feet long, and about a foot or more thick; they are laid up thus:- The largest are laid next the ground, lapping about a foot of each end, side by side: some put a cross block under the lapped ends of the logs, to raise them from the ground: on this row of logs is placed another, with cross blocks under their ends, as under the first, and with notches in the blocks for the end of the logs to lie in; and by again laying on this another row of smaller logs as before, the fence is completed, three rows high being generally sufficient, if the logs of which they are composed be large. Some drive two stakes by each side of every length of the Logs to cross at the top, on which they place long heavy poles, to render the fence firm and strong. Others again lay up what is called a zig-zag fence, which they construct with poles, and find to answer very well; but the former will stand fifteen or twenty years and is very firm. The settler may, as soon as he has got his land cleared please himself by a choice of the many sorts of fencing used in the country; and as good and firm ones are so very necessary to preserve the fruits of the farmer's labour, he will do well to have his land sufficiently secured that way, in order to guard against trespassers which would in a short time ruin the prospects of a crop, if it were left at their mercy.
SOWING AND PLANTING NEW CLEARED LAND.
When the settler has a piece of land cleared, he should not think of sowing wheat after the first of June, although it is sometimat done in Lower Canada on new well burnt land, any day during the first week of that month; the author himself had a good crop of wheat which was not sowed till the eighth of June; but this should not be depended on, and the earlier the better. Oats, barley, Indian corn, beans, and rye, may be sowed on new land, the first ten days of June to advantage, and potatoes may be planted all the month; but, as observed before, the earlier the crops are put down, if the land be fit, the less danger will there be of their being injured by the early frosts in autumn. Wheat, rye, and peas require to be earliest sowed, and should be put in ground as soon as ever it is free from frost in spring and fit in other respects, but the above time is mentioned as the latest period for sowing them. In such parts of new land as grain is to be sowed in, the piece designed for that purpose should be harrowed among the stumps, in length and across, with a harrow made like the letter A, and having nine large teeth, two inches square, which should be drawn by the top by a strong horse, or yoke of oxen; by this process the land is pulverized, and considerably improved for receiving the seed. When this is done one bushel of wheat, rye, or peas, will be sufficient for an acre, and of barley or oats one and a half bushel. After sowing the seed, harrow the ground, well as before, and should any remain uncovered, round stumps, or in any other place out of the reach of the harrow, it may be covered in with a hand hoe; many poor settlers, when they cannot procure harrows or oxen, hoe in all their grain, and raise good crops. After it is harrowed in, it requires no further labour till the crop is fit for cutting, unless to cut down weeds or sprouts when they overtop it. With this cultivation wheat will produce from ten to twenty five bushels or more per acre, but fifteen is considered a fair return. Rye yields about the same produce, and will do best in a light dry soil that may not answer for wheat; Oat, and Barley from twenty to forty busbels per acre:-Peas from ten to twenty bushels; -much of course depends on the care taken, the soil, season, and some other accidental circumstances. Buckwheat may be sown about the last of June, and will take about four gallons of seed to the acre; if it succeeds well it will give a return of from thirty to fifty bushels. After the smaller grain is sowed, Indian corn, potatoes, and other vegetables, (unless those of the kitchen-garden, which may be put down sooner,) depand the settler's attention. Indian corn should be planted as soon as possible after the first of May, but may be put later in new land than in old. After the ground has been harrowed, if it be entirely cleared off, the planter having the seed in a small bag tied round his, waist, commences the process of planting by striking his hoe into the ground, raising the earth a little by lowering the handle, and dropping in three, or four grains; then withdrawing the hoe, he takes a step forward, treading down the earth on the seed, and striking it in again about three feet from the former incision, so proceeds; the corn being buried about two inches in the earth, and intervals of about three feet being left between the rows and hills, it will require no other attendance but weeding, until ripe. In every third or fourth hill or row, two or three pumpkin seeds may be thrown in with the corn, as they grow well with it, and when ripe are found very valuable to feed cattle or hogs- the Americans also make good palatable pies of them. About a gallon of Indian corn is sufficient to plant an acre, and if soaked in warm water and copperas water, it will sprout the quicker; the copperas will also have the effect of preventing vermin or birds from destroying it when coming up. Some plant corn in new land, by scooping out a little earth with the hoe, and, after they have dropped in the seed, cover it over in a small hill; the former plan answers as well, and is done with much more expedition. It will produce in a warm summer, from twenty to fifty bushels per acre, and makes good bread or pudding, and is found a useful ingredient in several other luxuries. It is a common thing to cut off the tops a few inches above the ear or cob when it is full; which being dried and carried home, make such fodder for cows, horses, and sheep, as they are very fond of, and is, if well saved better than many sorts of hay. The corn is ripe when the grain gets glazed in the ear, but must, when pulled, be kept from lying too much in a heap, to prevent its growing mouldy. It is usually gathered in September; the ears are broken off and thrown in small heaps in the field; and as soon as convenient the husks are pulled off, which may be done at night; after which the clean ears are spread about six or eight inches deep on a dry loft or floor to dry and season. Others make a crib two or three feet wide, and as long as may be necessary, in which they put the cleaned ears of corn, and cover them in to protect them from the wet; the air passing through hardens and dries the grain. When hard it may be shelled, and if dry enough, ground up for use; unless it be very dry will become mouldy when ground, if much be left together; therefore the meal should be spread thin and loose in a box or bin made for that purpose, else it will be soon unfit for use. Much then of this should not be ground at once, unless extremely dry or kiln-dried. Indian corn, besides being good for family use, is good for fattening hogs, cattle, &c. and may, when ground, be mixed with pumpkins or potatoes; the soft unripe ears are also picked out at the time of harvest, and are excellent food for hogs, being thrown to them without any further preparation:-in fact, Indian corn, when it succeeds well, is one of the best productions of a new farm. The pumpkins when the corn is being gathered, may be carted home, as they do not keep well when, exposed to frost and thaws, and are therefore given to the cattle and hogs in the fall or early in winter. Hogs fatten well on them when cut up, and boiled and mixed with a little potatoes and meal; but they may be given raw to the larger cattle, which are very fond of them:-a great quantity will grow on an acre with the Indian corn. Potatoes, the best root a farmer can raise, and which are easily raised on a new farm, next demands the attention of the settler. The quantity of seed required is about ten bushels to the acre, the large round white potatoe being preferred. When the land, after the burning off of the timber, is well harrowed according to the plan already laid down, four or five cuts or seed ends are laid on the surface of the ground, about six inches asunder, in a square; the earth is then hoed up on them, forming a hill nearly as large as the contents of a bushel measure emptied out; this plan is proceeded with, till the piece of ground intended for that purpose be covered with these hills, which one with another will occupy each about a yard square. Until fit to take up in September, they will require to have no further labour expended on them, unless weeding, which is seldom necessary. They are very easily taken out, and may be deposited in small pits in the field, covered lightly with earth, or put in the cellar of the house at once; otherwise, if wanted to be kept till spring, they may be laid up in large pits, in a dry situaUon, covered as usual with about two or three feet of earth, and they will keep all the winter-but should not be opened till the April following. They yield from two hundred to four hundred bushels per acre, and the earlier planted after the middle, of May, the drier and better. Turnips may be sowed in June or July in new land, and require little attendance unless to thin or weed them: they require to be lightly harrowed, and sowed before rain, and they will then grow fast. Beets, carrots, parsnip, mangel wurzel and Swedish turnip, require to be sowed earlier, and will do well-: all these must be sowed broad cast, in new land. Melons, cucumbers, and other garden vegetables of this description, grown in the open air, and are easily cultivated. French or dwarf beans are planted in the same way as Indian corn, but not more than one foot asunder, and are a very profitable crop for a family: the white or mottled ones that do not run to vines are the best to plant, and may be put down from the middle of May to the middle of June. In saving crops of grain, potatoes, and other vegetables, the same customs as in Europe may be followed, unless in the additional care to prevent roots from the frost. The whole of the crops in Canada when saved, are laid up in the barn, stable, roott house, or cellar. The Canadian farmers reap their corn greener than is generally done in Europe, and spread it thin in the field as cut: after it has been left lying for some days in fair weather, they bind it in large bundles and carry it to their houses, which answers well in this country. They also bind up their hay in bundles of fifteen pounds each, and sell these by the hundred, equal to two thirds of a ton. It will be wisdom in the settler to follow any good plan he may observe in useful operation among persons long settled in the country, and so far as be is able, to improve upon them; but not to make too much of a venture, until acquainted with the climate and the country. Such lands as are sowed with wheat, rye, oats, or barley, should be laid down the first year with Timothy, or fox tail grass seed or clover, and they will have a coat of grass for the next year's use: the usual complement of seed for an acre is about two gallons of grass with two pounds of red clover; but if the land be low or wet, two pounds of red top grass seed will be sufficient for an acre without clover. The grass seed may be mixed with the grain about to be sowed, and all harrowed together, but others sow it when the grain is over the ground, before rain; the former method however is preferred. Grass is generally cut the latter end of July and the beginning of August, and in a dry season, (as it usually is) is easily saved, put up in the barn, and secured. The settler should lay down in grass, each year, the part he sows with grain, until he has his farm large enough; and endeavour yearly to clear a sifficient extent for new crops; then in a few years, what is first laid down in good heart will be fit to break up, and most of the stumps will plough out. In addition to what has been observed respecting seasons it may be added, that in Upper Canada, and in the south West parts of Lower Canada, the spring seasons are ten or fifteen days longer than in the lower parts of this province, and the progress of vegetation extremely rapid in all parts after the frost and snow depart. Also for three hundred miles or more around Quebec, Montreal, or Kingston, little difference is perceptible for or against the farmer in the settled parts. The nearer the sea the deeper the snow lies in winter, and the farther west the less snow or indeed frost; but always enough to prevent vegetation, as when there is frost in Quebec it generally extends to the utmost parts of Upper Canada, though it may not be so severe. During the winter in the upper province, and to the south, there are many thaws succeeded by frosts: in Lower Canada the season is more regular and steady, but uniformly healthy and generally agreeable; and labouring men can with little inconvenience work in the open air all seasons in the year. Having thus noticed the progress of clearing and cultivating land on a new farm, it may be observed, that on old cleared farms the same mode of farming as in the United Kingdoms may be followed with success; subject only to such alterations as may be necessary to suit the climate, secure the crops, and meet some other contingencies: and also that fall or winter wheat and rye may be raised well, though not usually done. As the hints contained in these pages are not so much intended for the guidance of the farmer in farming, as of the emigrant in settling, further observations on this head are deemed unnecessary.
ON MAKING MAPLE SUGAR.
A branch of rural economy and comfort, peculiar to North America, is necessary to be noticed for the information of the emigrant, which is the manufacture of maple sugar. The settler should examine his farm, and where he can get from 200 to 500 or more maple trees together, and most convenient, that should be reserved for a sugary. There being two kinds of maple, the hard and soft, the rock or hard maple is the one to be preferred: both will make sugar, but this will yield the sweetest sap and the brightest quality. If from among the trees intended for this use the brushwood be cut down and removed, the business can be carried on more conveniently. The process of sugar making is as follows: As the sun gets power in the latter part of March, and beginning of April, the sap begins to rise from the roots, and the trees are fit for tapping: the sap continues, at intervals on fair days, to run for about a month, until the sun gets too warm, and the buds swell out on the tree. A large gouge or hollow chissel should be provided, and a piece of dry pine or cedar got and cut into lengths of about nine inches each. These pieces should be split into bolts, about an inch thick, the breadth of the gouge; and these bolts again split up, with the gouge, about a quarter of an inch thick, by which they will become hollow spouts, like the instrument with which they are cut, for the sap to run in: they should then be pared with a sharp knife at the end, to the shape of the edge or point of the gouge, so that when it is driven half an inch or so into the tree, the spout, also may be driven into the incision, and fit it tightly. Troughs to receive the sap as it falls from the spout, are made of pine, fir or ash, of a proper size, being about fifteen inches through; such trees are cut up into lengths of two feet, which pieces being split into two, each half piece is hollowed out with an axe so as to contain about two gallons. A man accustomed to the work will make forty or fifty troughs in a day, and they may be bought for about ten shillings per hundred. Each tree of ordinary size will require one, and very large trees two troughs. Those who can afford to get buckets instead of them will find it an advantage, as much sap is thereby saved: they cost about ten pence each. A tree will run about a bucket-full per day, on days succeeding frosty nights with a moderately warm run to thaw the sap. After all these have been prepared, one or two of the troughs being placed under each tree, the person holding the spouts, gouge and an axe, makes with the corner of the axe a small sloping notch about an inch and a half long, and deep enough to penetrate into the wood of the tree half an inch; the under side of the incision being cut sloping down into the tree, so as that the sap may run to its lowest point: if fit to tap, the sap is seen immediately, to ooze from the cut. About an inch under that, the gouge is driven in for the spout as before directed, through which the sap is conveyed down till it drops into the bucket or trough at the foot of the tree, the cut being made almost two feet from the ground: one man can thus tap about two hundred trees or more in a day. Others for tapping are provided with an inch auger, with which instead of making an incision with the axe, they bore a hole an inch deep, and put in the spout an inch lower down as already directed: this though more tedious is the best plan for the tree. One tapping generally answers for a season, and the trees, if not greatly hacked, will do for a sugary many years. The sap is collected with a yoke and handled buckets by a man every evening, or as the troughs get nearly full; whence it is conveyed to the boiling place which should be a dry spot, - the most central and convenient to the sugary. At the boiling place there should be receivers, such as puncheons or barrels, to hold the sap until boiled down; but when those cannot be got, large logs are hollowed out with an axe for that purpose. The process of boiling the sap into sugar is simple, and easily acquired: two stout crotches are fixed upright in the ground eight or ten feet asunder, and on them is placed a cross stick from which the pots or kettles are hung; a crook to hang them by being made of a hooked piece of wood. The fire is made underneath of split or small wood between two larger logs rolled on each side. The sap should be strained into the boilers, and when boiling down, one boiler should be kept filled from the other, and that again supplied from the receivers till the liquid be boiled down to the consistency of sirrup. It is then taken up and strained into a deep narrow vessel, there it is left to settle for a day or two. When about being sugared off, it is carefully poured from the sediment into a small boiler, and again hung over & slow fire; a little milk, or a couple of eggs beat up, being put in to clarify it: as it boils, it is skimmed, and after boiling about an hour to a proper consistence, which is ascertained by practice and observation, it is poured into vessels to cool, and stirred occasionally till cold. The Canadians boil it so much, that when cold it forms hard solid cakes; to make use of which, it becomes necessary to scrape it with a knife. It is better, however, not to boil it so dry, but to pour it into a barrel after boiling sufficently, and when cold, the sugar begins to crust on the surface in a day or so; after which, by having a few gimlet holes bored in the bottom of the barrel, the molasses will run off, and leave after it a clean fair sugar, similar to, and better than, the best muscovado, and more delicate in flavor- if care be taken in boiling, settling, straining and cleansing. To prevent the sap or sirrup from boiling over, about an inch square of fat pork should be thrown in once or twice a day, and it will be found to have the desired effect. The scum, sediment, and last run of the sap from the trees which is not good for suger, abould be boiled together one half down, and being barrelled, will by allowing it to ferment, make good vinegar: it may be well, to put, in a little leaven or yest, though it will answer without it. Each tree will average a produce of about two pounds of sugar in the season, which extends to the end of April. Two men will be able to attend from two hundred two five hundred trees, and by attention will make good profit at a season, when they are not wanted for other purposes; the sugar being worth from four pence to seven pence halfpenny per pound. By a little examination and experience, better than by any further direction, the settler may in a few days obtain a perfect knowledge of the process; and if for a short time the labour be found severe, the reward will be sweet.
GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON ASHES, SALTS, TIMBER, &C.
Before bringing to a close the observations relative to the course an agriculturist is to pursue on newly cleared land, a few other remarks are added, which may be conducive to his advantage on settling in the woods. The first is respecting the ashes that may be saved of the heavy hardwood timber burned on the land; the sorts producing the best for pot or pearl ashes are, elm, maple, basswood, large birch, and brown ash; the same use can be made of all others that can be got, but these mentioned produce most and best. In order to keep it uninjured, as before observed, from wet or damp, when the timber is burned, the ashes should be collected and placed in a bin or safe; this may be simply made of small logs, floored with logs or boards, and covered over head from the rain. They should not be put in or near a house, lest if put in hot they might burn the building; they have been known also to take fire if vegetable oil be poured on cold ashes. In such a safe or bin, as has descrbed, they may be preserveed until sold or otherwise disposed of; therefore care should be taken to preserve all that can be collected, as they are worth from six pence to one shilling per blishel, according to the price of pot and pearl ashes; and if a fair price can be obtained for them in this state, it is better for the settler to sell them than boil them himself, as he is not accustomed to the process. The older settlers manufacture their ashes, for sale to the country merchants, into what is called the salts of lye, when there are no purchasers convenient to buy them before taken through any such process. To effect this, they provide themselves with two or more deep tubs called leeches, which hold six or eight bushels of ashes, with a spigot in the bottom; they are placed on a stand a foot or two from the ground, with troughs underneath them to receive the lye when it runs off. A few brick, stone, or a handful of brushwood, are put inside over the spigot, on which is placed a little straw to prevent the ashes running through or rendering muddy the lye: over this the dry ashes are poured, nearly filling the leech, and gently pressed down; on which is poured boiling water for the first run, that is, until with it the ashes be perfectly soaked through: cold water may be then used until the strength is all taken from the ashes, which is known when the lye running off is weak like water. Two or more kettles, as in sugar making, are hung over a fire to boil down the liquid that has run from the ashes, one boiler being kept filled from the other, and that again filled from the lye running off the ashes, until all gets boiled down to the consistence of tar, which, when cold, it as hard or harder than pitch. This substance is called salts of lye, and is the pot or pearl ashes in a crude state; it is readily purchased by all Canadian country merchants, who have pot or pearl ash works in which this is again manufactured by another process not necessary here to be described. Salts of lye can be sold in the country, if not for more, at least for one-half the price that pot or pearl ashes will fetch in the ports or cities. The ashes saved from an acre of good hardwood land will produce three or four, and in some cases five cwt. of salts which sells this year (1831) at seventeen shillings and six pence per cwt. A handy man will boil 1 cwt. in a day, and almost sixteen bushels of good ashes will produce so much. This resource is a great advantage to the new settler, as it affords him some cash for clearing off his land, by producing an article for sale, which is always in demand, from what would be otherwise thrown away as being of no use to newly cleared land. The boiling place should be made near soft water if it can be conveniently got. On land where much pine, spruce, or cedar is found, and not far from streams of water on which, when cut, it can be floated, the settler can sell to lumber merchants such timber, being worth when standing from one shilling to two and six pence per tree, according to size, distance from market, &c; but in case he can sell them delivered on the bank of the stream, it may be his advantage to do so, and thus earn the more from his own labour and resources. I would by no means advise him to attempt taking the timber to market himself, but leave that to those who understand it and make that business their avocation; his object should be to clear his land, make a farm, keep it in good order when cleared, raise necessary provisions for himself and as much as he can for sale, a succession of settlers always causing a demand for the necessaries of life. When once he is independent, comfort is the result, if not his own fault; nor need he long be deprived of the injuries attending independence and freedom. As settlers extend their farms, the demand on the spot for the surplus of their produce naturally decreases in proportion as provisions become more plentiful: the farmer then by degrees may raise and fatten hogs, beef, sheep, and horses; which will carry themselves to market, though at a great distance, and in the different large towns and cities, or near the fisheries or ports, meet a ready sale. Thus, in the beginning of his settlement the emigrant can save his ashes and valuable timber for sale; as these decrease in the course of cultivation, the produce of the farm will more than compensate for the want: and in this manner much may be gained from the wilderness while he is extending his farm for the good of the country, himself, and his family; with a sure prospect of ultimate success.
CONCLUSION.
To attain this desired result with satisfaction, industry, sobriety, and perseverance, only are necessary. The country affords the materials, which only require to be acted upon; protected as it is by a powerful state, in the enjoyment of civil and religious liberty; and where the law affects no man for his opinions and actions, unless so far as his conduct may be personally injurious to public or private interests. As this is the case in the Canadas, it would conduce much to preserve the blessing of public tranquility, if every emigrant and settler coming to this country would lay aside all political animosities and other intolerant feelings, and to live and let live in mutual forbearance and christian charity; having a portion of that kindly feeling for our fellow men, that the Most High has for all. With such sentiments and a watchful care to preserve the public rights, supporting the government in all its constitutional privileges; and discountenancing every effort made to the contrary, they settler may live and enjoy himself in comfort and happiness; the birth right of every peaceable and upright British subject. In the foregoing pages much pains have been taken that nothing be withheld in point of information, whether topographical, commercial, or agricultural, on which the emigrant may depend to guard him against uncertainty, imposition, wild or hazardous speculations; and to which, as to a directory claiming no other merit than accuracy, faithfulness, and impartiality, he may with safety and without fear of disappointment be referred for instruction in every step, which he shall find it necessary to take, from the time of his first landing on the shores of British America until being himself a settled and experienced agriculturist he shall find it no longer necessary to seek instruction from the experience of any other individual. It has been the author's aim, while he gave, without any exaggeration, a fair view of the inducements which this country presents to the honest, the enterprising, and the industrious man, at the same time to put him in possession of the difficulties he must at first have to struggle with, and the inconveniences to submit to, in order that he should not flatter himself with such hopes as may afterwards cause him to exclaim, like the Irishman in the play, in the agonizing effusion of a disappointed spirit, that, "though he had left his native land in expectation of shoveling up the dollars out of the street, he had not yet fingered the ghost of one." It is then only to such persons as can be content to endure a little labour before they can regale themselves with its pleasant fruits, that the instruction contained in the foregoing remarks can be of any value. Each individual is better aquainted, than another can delineate to him, with his own condition and circumstances; and can therefore, by comparing them with what has been here submitted to him, calculate how far the favourable prospects, connected with emigration, can compensate for the sorrow of a separation from many intimate friends, and of a residence far removed from the scene of his early recollections. Certainly if a man enjoy the blessings of a permanent competency for himself and his family, combined with a freedom from any distressing apprehensions as to what may probably befal them at some future period, this ought to be a consideration sufficient to induce him not to abandon his native home, as such a step in order to better a condition already well enough, my be an act of wantonness well worthy of being punished with woful disappointment: but how many are there who, though in the enjoyment of a competency for the present, and able to supply their families with all necessary comforts while kept together, and under their own protection, yet have no fair prospect of being able to provide for them individually; and must consequently find their tranquillity and happiness often interrupted by forebodings so excruciating to the tender feelings of a loving parent, that they all may in a few days, if deprived of his care, be sent forth to be tossed on the troubled waves of poverty and affliction. Such apprehensions and uneasiness can indeed be alleviated by a belief in the superintendence of His providence who ordereth all things according to the council of His own will, and by whom the very hairs of our heads are all numbered, but when He gives us an easy access to the means of relief we are bound to accept them with a grateful hand, and then leave the things of futurity to be disposed of according to the wisdom and beneficence so cheeringly exhibited in all his dispensations. Again, how many are there who, after having not only expended their money, and often defrauded the jaded body of a portion of its necessary repose, while trying to realize an income on some unproductive piece of land, but have also plentifully watered the same with many a weighty drop of sweat, must nevertheless, if they survive the expiration of the term, be content to get a preference, from some relentless landlord at the highest penny that can be extracted from it when worked up to the meridian of its fertility; and it is unnecessary to remind the improving and indefatigable tenant on an Irish farm how often he is denied even that preference though the lowest favor that can be sought, but is left, to receive from experience a lesson on the instability of human friendship, and, while soliloquizing on the bitterness of his disappointment, to appropriate to himself the reflection of the bard, "How bright soe'er the prospect seems All thoughts of friendship are but dreams." It is to those who, from their own experience, can testify the reality of the pictures now portrayed, that the invitation is especially given to come to Canada: to a country in which they certainly cannot expect to eat the bread of idleness, but where they may expect what is more worthy to be: denominated happiness -the comfortable fruits of industry, and a total emancipation from those painful apprehensions and reflections with which, while at present struggling against the current of affliction, they are enervated for the task, and their minds kept in a perpetual ferment. It may also in conclusion be observed, for the information of as many as may feel disposed to aspire to respectability, that in this country, while such distinctions of rank are regarded as are deemed necessary for the maintenance of the order and happiness of society, the source however of true respectability is looked for in the aspirant himself, and not attempted to be traced through the cumbersome ramifications to the sapless stock of the Genealogical Tree.
APPENDIX.
It has been justly observed that what are generally called men of fortune ought not to go to Canada, except they have determined to fix their residence either at Quebec or Montreal. In these cities not only all the necessaries, but most of the luxuries of life can be procured with ease and at moderate prices; they can enjoy the elegancies of life, refined and literary society, &c., but of course in a more limited degree than in European cities. Beyond these places persons must not attempt to stir, unless they can determine to become men of the world, and cheerfully submit to take things as they find them. And we have no doubt that there are many high and noble minded men (and those rich men too,) who could live in many parts of Canada, and enjoy more real happiness in witnessing and promoting the development of a new world than in all the parade and ceremony connected with what is called fashionable life. Canada is, truly speakiug, the poor mans country; he can live comfortably, and procure good wages, and the man of small fortune can make money, acquire property, and provide for his family with comparative ease. Emigrants should not on any account burthen themselves with heavy or troublesome articles when proceeding to Canada; however they will do well not to omit a tolerable supply of strong warm clothing, bedding, shirts, and house linen, cooking utensils, a clock or time piece, hosiery, boots and shoes fit for winter weather, a few good books; also such articles of ironmongery as may be necessary, such as the iron parts of farming and gardening implements, a few of the ordinary tools used by carpenters, &c., to these may be added a rifle or fowling piece, which the emigrant will find both useful and amusing in winter, and fishing tackle for summer sport, if his fancy leads him to such amusement; a few simple medicines, such as epsom salts, calcined magnesia, castor oil, cream of tartar, ipecacuanha (commnonly called hippo), and tartarised antimony (called tartar emetic), will be found extremely useful when the emigrant has got settled. In the selection of a vessel a fast sailer should have the preference, particularly in the spring; a fortnight or three weeks earlier arrival at Quebec will be of material importance to the emigrant, since he may, by such timely exertion, put in the ground a small crop; and thus in part provide subsistence for the first year; which he should otherwise be obliged to purchase. Small quantities of seeds, such as lucern, trefoil, turnip, and the ordinary garden seeds, and a few select samples of potato, oats, China or skinless oats, and the large black oat of the south of Ireland for seed will be a valuable appendage. We would here observe that working artizans, particlarly blacksmiths, carpenters, bricklayers, plasterers, masons, coopers, millwrights and wheelwrights cannot fail, if they are industrious, succeeding in any part of the Canadas, and by one season's work saving sufficient to purchase lands in a settled township. On the 9th of February, 1832, his Majesty's Commissioners for Emigration published a small paper respecting the British Colonies in North America, the object of which was to afford information to persons desiring to emigrate, or to assist others emigrating to British America, and in the first place to define the nature of the assistance to be expected from Government. No pecuniary aid will be allowed to emigrants, or after their arrival will they receive grants of lands, gifts of tools, or a supply of provisions. Land is now disposed of only by sale at moderate rates, but generally it will not be sold for less than from 4s. to 5s. per acre; and in situations where roads have been made, or where the ground has been partially cleared, the common prices lately have been 7s. 6d., 10s., and 15s. per acre. Agents will be maintained at the principal colonial ports, whose duty it will be, without fee or reward, from private individuals to protect emigrants against imposition, acquaint them with the demand for labour in different districts, point out the most advantageous routes, and furnish them with all useful advice upon the objects they have had in view in emigrating. And when a private engagement cannot be immediately obtained, employment will be afforded on some of the public works in progress in the colonies. Persons newly arrived are strongly urged to consult the government Agent for Emigrants. The following Agents for immigration have been appointed:- Quebec, A. C. Buchanan, Esq.; St. John's, A. Wedderburn, Esq,; St. Andrews, C. N. Smith, Esq.; Miramichi, J. Canard, Esq.; York, (name not yet reported). No effort will be spared to exempt emigrants froth any necessity for delay at the place of disembarkation, and from uncertainty as to the opportunities of at once turning their labour to account. The ordiniry charges for passage to Quebec is then given, but on this subject the emigrant will be enabled to judge for himself, as the price varies at the different ports; but emigrants should not lay in an insufficient stock of provisions; fifty days is the shortest period for which it is safe to provide. The best months for leaving England, (and we may add Ireland) are certainly March and April. The paper then proceeds to caution emigrants against frauds and tricks practised by Ship Agents, who receive passage money, and then detain the emigrant at expense before the departure of the vessel. However this can be guarded against by dealing with respectable Agents, or by having the day upon which the vessel is to sail fixed at the time of agreeing for the passage, and in case any delay should arise, that then the emigrant should be received on board and victualled by the owners. Conveyance of passengers is regulated by the Act of 9 Geo. IV. c. 21. Ships for conveyance of passengers to these colonies must be five feet and a half between decks, and they must not carry more than three passengers for every four tons of the registered burthen; there must be on board at least 50 gallons of pure water, and 50 lbs. of bread, biscuit, oatmeal, or breadstuff, for each passenger; when the vessel carries the full number of passengers allowed by law, no part of the cargo or stores may be carried between decks. Masters of vessels who land passengers, unless with their own consent, at a place different from that originally agreed upon, are subject to a penalty of £20, recoverable by summary process before two Justices of the Peace in any of the North American Colonies. The enforcement of this law rests with the Officers of Customs, and persons having complaints to make of its infraction should apply at the nearest Custom-house. Beside the expenses of sea voyage to Canada, persons should be provided with the means of proceeding on the journey which they may have to make after their arrival at Quebec, the cost of which must depend on the distance or situation of the place where they wish to settle. The following report of prices of conveyance during last season from Quebec to York, the capital of Upper Canada, may be useful. From Quebec to Montreal (180 miles) by steamboat, the charge was 6s. 6d.; Montreal to Prescott (120 miles) by boats or barges, 7s.; from Prescott to York (250 miles) by steam-boat, 7s. The journey occupies from ten to twelve days: adding therefore 11s. for provisions, the total cost from Quebec to York (a distance of 550 miles) may be stated, according to the charges of last year, at £1 11s. 6d. Persons who have sufficient money and prefer traveling by land, that part of the route where the St. Lawrence is not navigable for steamboats, can accomplish the journey in six days for about £6. It must be observed that the prices of conveyance are not always stationary, but the Government Agents will at all times be enabled to supply the emigrant with more exact particulars. Mr. Pickering, in his Publication on Emigration, recommends those who intend to marry to bring out wives with them if they can get good ones. Women are wanted, there being males than females, and with other reasons for this advice, he states that a man will find a woman of his own country more congenial to his habits and taste as a wife than any other. He also states, that Canada is not a bad country for single females to come to, as house servants, as they can get from 20s. to 30s. a month, if industrious, &c. Canada presents a wide field to men of capital, and money can be employed to advantage by investments in almost every description of property, if done with judgment, in purchasing land particularly near towns and villages that must increase, in building houses, mills, &c., in establishing breweries, distilleries, furnaces, forges, and manufactories, &c. Before proceeding to describe in detail the several districts of Upper Canada, we shall notice more particularly the counties of Two Mountains and Ottawa, situate on the north side of the St. Lawrence. The county of Two Mountains contains six townships, viz. Arundell, Chatham, Grenville, Harrington, Howard, and Wentworth. The land in the township of Chatham is rather uneven in its surface, part being mountainous, but contains excellent pasturage, and the land is calculated to produce hemp, and flax, and the best sorts of grain; some excellent timber is to be found, and which can be readily floated down the North River, passing through this township to the Ottawa. It is also watered by West River (which is navigable for some distance) several small lakes and numerous streams. The public road from Montreal to the upper townships passes along the front near the Ottawa, and two other roads lead towards the rere. This township is inhabited by English, Scotch, and Irish, Americans, and a few Canadians; the population may now be estimated at about 1,500; it contains one village called Davisville, having saw-mills, country stores, taverns, school, &c. Adjoining this township, and in the rere of the Seigniory of Argentuil, is a small tract called Chatham Gore, interspersed with several beautiful lakes, which make the country picturesque and romantic; they abound with fish, particularly lake Bouchette, whose waters are remarkably clear, and afford plenty of fine salmon trout. The land is fit for agriculture. The population is now about 500, nearly all Irish, and of the Church of England. There is one church, a well-attended school, pot and pearl ash works, tanneries, &c. Grenville on the Ottawa, with its augmentation to the west of the former township, is bounded in the rere by the projected township of Harrington, and to the west by La Petite Nation. It is remarkable for the canal formed at considerable expense along the river to avoid the dangerous rapids on the Long Sault, the Carillon rapids, and another which in front of this township interrupt the navigation of this river. The soil varies, part being very poor and part extremely rich and fertile. An extensive valley runs through the east part of the augmentation, along the Beaver Meadow Creek, and Rouge River, from which several other valleys diverge, and present excellent situation for settlers. This township is also watered by the Kingham and Calumet rivers, and several small lakes abounding with fish. There are tolerable good roads in various directions. There is a military station on the canal, and a village; the population now amounts to upwards of 2000, and they have the usual schools, mills, pot ash works, a pottery, &c. Wentworth is partly in the rere of the townships of Chatham and Grenville, and very mountainous. It is not well suited for arable purposes, but it produces excellent timber for ship building, which is conveyed by North River to the Ottawa. Harrington, Howard, and Arundell are only projected and not yet surveyed. The county of Ottawa is the most distant in the lower province, and is situate on the river of that name, which divides it from Upper Canada, a communication has been formed between them, by a line of bridges, thrown across the rapids between Hull and By Town, several townships have been projected, and some of them surveyed. Buckingham adjoining the seigniory of La Petite Nation, is watered by the river Au Li‚vre and its head streams; the first range next the Ottawa in this and the other townships on its banks, is oveflowed in the spring and fall, by that great stream, whose waters rise at those seasons, and like the Nile enriches the soil, and when the waters recede produce the most luxuriant pusturage. Few buildings can be erected on its banks. A part of this township has been granted by letters patent to the late Captain Robinson and with the Crown reserves being unsettled, retard its general improvement; however, a Mr. Beglow, a large proprietor, has cleared upwards of 400 acres, and erected a saw-mill, &c. There are several eligible situations for towns in this township, some saw, and corn-mills erected, a pottery, potash works, taverns, &c. Templeton, next the above, is bounded in the rere by the township of Portland, near the Ottawa, the land is low, but very fertile; at some distance from the river, the land rises into gentle swells, and is of exceeding good quality. The principal settlements are toward the south-west, along the road opened by the commissioners, in front of the township. The population is increasing. There are some pot and pearl ash works, &c, and the entire is well watered by several streams, and narrow ponds or lakes. Portland, adjoining the former, is watered by the river Blanche. As yet few settlements have been made in it. Hull, on the Ottawa, and above Templeton, as has been already noticed, owes its present prosperity to Mr.. Wright, who in 1806, obtained a grant of 12,000 acres, of which nearly 6000 are now improved; he and his family, as a reward for his great industry and management, have been granted 5000 acres in the township of Templeton, and nearly as much in Lochabar. This township is in a state of high cultivation, and the whole is well watered by the river Gatineau, several lakes, some of which are entirely beautiful, and various small streams. Several roads have been opened by Mr. Wright, towards the interior, from the town of Hull, which is about 124 miles from Montreal; there is also the village of Wright on the south-east angle of this township, which contains a handsome church, with a steeple 120 feet high, a comfortable hotel, and several other edifices, such as schools, tanneries, &c. The population of this township is rapidly increasing. Eardly is the next township on this river, or rather what is there called lake Chaudiere, it is indented by two large bays of the lake into which small rivers flow, is thinly settled, and as yet the roads have not been completed. The land is good, and it is probable, will very shortly become well settled. Onalow and Bristol are thinly settled, and very little is known respecting them. The soil or surface do not appear to present many inducements to settlers. Clarendon is the last township up the Ottawa that is partly settled. Little is known respecting it, except that it is well watered, and has got corn and saw mills, &c. It may not be improper here to notice the interesting river Gatineau, which flows from some lakes far in the interior, traverses Hull, and falls into the Ottawa, in the western front of the township of Templeton. This wide, and in the upper parts rapid river, is navigable for steamboats, nearly 5 miles from its mouth, then becomes rapid for about 15 miles, turning several mills, and thence is navigable for canoes, &c. it is said for 300 miles, passing through an interesting vale full of natural riches, and abounding in views of the wildest and most romantic scenery, and it is probable that at no very distant day, this district will be explored, and settlements established on the banks of this river beyond the rapids or falls, some of which are stated to be 100 feet in height. The upper northern banks of the Ottawa, belonging to this province not yet surveyed, are reported to contain some very superior land, well wooded, the importance of which may be inferred from the fact that the greater proportion of those enormous rafts of fine timber, which make so considerable a branch of Canadian commerce with the mother country, are brought from thence, being floated down the river.
UPPER CANADA.
It has been mentioned in the former part of this work that this province, being a younger colony, is less settled than Lower Canada, and consequently it is more difficult to procure accurate information respecting its present state, but the rapid increase of population, and intercourse with the interior occasioned thereby, will speedily remove those impediments and in a few years, the entire of this highly interesting portion of the British colonies, will be fully explored, and, we hesitate not to say, that it will not disappoint the most sanguine expectations entertained of it. However, we are not left altogether uninformed on the subject, and, in addition to what has been previously stated, we have selected the following remarks from the recent work on the Canadas, published by Mr. Picken, which we have read with much pleasure and satisfaction, and can with confidence recommend it to such as may require a detailed and extended publication on the Canadas. Upper Canada possesses a rich soil and fine climate, and for the last three years, emigrants of the poorer classes have directed their attention to it, this has been caused in a great measure, by the higher rate of wages to be had there, and the greater certainty of obtaining employment. On examining a map of the Canadas, the great extent of water frontier enjoyed by the upper province cannot be overlooked, exclusive of the numerous rivers and lakes to be found in the interior, the country being in general level possessing very little of what is usually called mountain, (none of the elevated parts deserving that name). These natural canals and lakes, not improperly called inland seas, afford considerable facilities to the rapid improvement of the country. The general monotony of the face of the country is diversified by a few ridges of elevated or table land, the first of which commences about the boundary between this and the lower province, and running westerly between the St. Lawrence and Ottawa, in the line of Osnabruck, Williamsburg, and Matilda, in which last mentioned township the river Petite Nation takes its source, only 5 miles from the St. Lawrence, and thence after, crossing the townships of Bustard and Crosby, it is lost at no great distance inland. Several other low ridges traverse the country, generally in a westerly direction, as if they were a continuation of the above, and out of which spring numerous streams. On the northern borders of the Balsam lake, the chief of these ridges assumes a higher elevation than usual, from whence they stretch towards Lake Simcoe. There is another ridge of elevated land, which commences at the bay of Quinte, near lake Ontario, and extending westerly along its shores, and approaching it in the township of Hamilton, at a distance of not more than nine miles, thence taking a northerly course, passes the rere of York, at a distance of 24 miles, from whence bending to the south-east round the head of the lake, it joins the Burlington and Queenstown heights, and then running easterly along the south shore of the lake, it enters the United States at the falls of Niagara. It has been remarked that the great majority of the rivers which spring from the south side of these ridges, and flow into the St. Lawrence or Lake Ontario, are short and small, whilst those that flow towards the north, until they join the Ottawa, are of much greater extent, but the descent of the rivers on both sides of the ridges or range of hills being about four feet to a mile, some difficulty arose, considering the distance on the south side being much shorter than on the north, but the engineer employed on the Rideau Canal, ascertained and established that the level of Lake Ontario is nearly 130 feet higher than that of the Ottawa, and therefore the gradual descent of the rivers on both sides of the ridges or table land, calculating their respective lengths, is easily accounted for. Kingston is the largest and most populous town in Upper Canada, and is called the key to the province. It is situated at the head of the St. Lawrence on Lake Ontario, and contains a population of 6000 souls. It contains noble dock-yards, and conveniences for shipbuilding, and is a military post of importance, as well as a naval depot; a vessel of 120 guns can, according to Howison, lie close to the Quay; the wharfs on the river, and spacious well fitted warehouses behind them, as well as in the town, indicate the mercantile importance it has now attained. The streets are regularly formed at right angles, which is the favourite plan in the new settlements. The houses are mostly built of limestone, which is to be had in abundance in the immediate vicinity of that town. Kingston must derive immense importance from its central situation, being the great thoroughfare between the upper and lower provinces, as well as to and from the States on the opposite side of the river. Between the lower province and this town, as has been partly observed in the account of roads and distances, are the several towns of Cornwall, Johnstown, Prescott, Elizabethtown, and Brockville, besides a continuance of small villages on the same line along the St. Lawrence. Cornwall and Johnstown stand close to the river, and contain about 100 houses, built of wood, with a church, court house, schools, &c. Prescott, now called Fort Wellington, is the chief stage between Kingston and Montreal, from which latter, as has been mentioned, it is distant 135 miles, and between which coaches nun every day except Sunday; from its position at the head of the Montreal boat navigation, and at the foot of the sloop and steam navigation from the lakes, it must rapidly increase in extent and importance. The town of Perth, situate in the district of Bathurst and township of Drummond, on a small branch of the Rideau called the Tay River, being nearly central between the St. Lawrence and Ottawa, was founded in 1815, by British emigrants, chiefly from Scotland, many of whom are now in comfortable circumstances. The streets are sixty six feet wide, and on a hill near the centre of the town a jail and two churches have been erected. The population is now considerable, and many of the houses are furnished with considerable taste and judgment. The relative situation of this place near the Rideau canal, in the midst of a fertile country, gives good promise of its future prosperity and importance. Bytown, situated on the southern beak of the Ottawa below the Chaudiere falls, and opposite Hull in Lower Canada, stands upon a bold eminence surrounding a bay of that river, and on both banks of the Rideau canal which here meets it. The streets are wide, and laid out at right angles; the number of buildings are rapidly increasing; the greater number are of wood, and executed with much taste. The excellent residence of Colonel By, a large and commodious hospital, with three barracks, all of stone, are delightfully situated on the elevated banks of the bay, commanding a prospect over the river, its falls and rapids, that can be scarcely equalled in the Canadas.
EASTERN SECTION.
The first or eastern section of this province, in which the before-mentioned towns are situate, consists of that tract of land lying between the St. Lawrence and Ottawa, bounded on the east by the county of Vaudreuil, in the lower province, and on the west by the Newcastle district. It is divided into five districts, viz. the Eastern, the Ottawa, the Johnstown, the Bathurst, and the Midland. The entire of this section is of moderate elevation, with gradual depressions towards the different rivers with which it is bounded and intersected; the soil in general is rich and fertile, with a mixture of soft and marshy spots. The timber in the forests is large and lofty, and of the different descriptions herein before mentioned. On the banks of the St. Lawrence and Ottawa, the land is thickly settled, particularly from Point au Baudet to, the head of the bay of Quinte. The Eastern District, commencing at the boundary line of the province on the east, has the St. Lawrence on the south, the district of Johnstown on the west, and the Ottawa district on the north. It is divided into twelve townships, in two ranges, viz. Lancaster, Charlotteburgh, Cornwall, Osnabruck, Williamsburgh, and Matilda, on the banks of the St. Lawrence; and Lochiel, Kenyon, Roxburgh, Finch, Winchester, and Mountain, in the rere of the former. The township of Lancaster is well settled, and the land generally good. The rivers Bodatte and Delisle, with several other smaller streams run through it. The principal road from the lower and through the upper province called Dundas street, passes through this township. Lochiel is also well settled, and the land of like quality as the former township; the River La Grass, and several small streams which flow into it, waters this townships and the river Delisle crosses the south west corner; the road from Cornwall to the Ottawa, and several others, pass through this township; grist and saw mills have been erected on the rivers. Roxburgh is partially settled, some of it having been granted to New England Loyalists, and a considerable portion being Clergy reserves; it is rather swampy, the north branch of the river Aux Raisins, and a branch of the river Petite Nation called the Pean, rises in this township. The road from Cornwall to the settlement on the Petite Nation passes by the east side of the ninth concession. Finch is thinly settled, and contains some excellent land; a considerable portion of it was granted to the families of New England Loyalists, which has fallen into the hands of speculators, and has operated against the settlement of this township. The river Petite Nation runs through it crossways and the Pean river lengthways. Little has been done to roads; which is an inconvenience to settlets. Mr. Crysler has become possessed of large quantities of land, and has erected saw and grist mills. Winchester is generally good land, but parts swampy, population thin, and in great want of roads. The Petite Nation runs through it, and in winter answers the purpose of a road, as well as a navigation in summer. Mountain has fine thriving settlement along the Petite Nation, with some good roads; the land is very good, and some large tracts have been granted to individuals. Several mills have been erected in this township, and when the contemplated improvement in the navigation of the Petite Nation by the communication with St. Lawrence shall be completed, the value of land must be greatly increased. Williamsburgh is well settled by Loyalists who served during the first American war with the States; the land in this township is generally good; mills have been erected on streams which flow into the Petite Nation. The Ottawa District is exactly in the rere of the former, bounded on the north by the Ottawa, on the west by Johnstown and Bathurst districts, and on the east by the boundary of the lower province: it is divided into eleven townships, viz. Hawkesbury East, Hawkesbury West, Alfred, Plantagenet, Clarence, Cumberland, Gloucester, (all on the Ottawa,) Caledonia, Cambridge, Russel, and Osgoode, in the interior and adjoining the eastern district. The land is generally good in East and West Hawkesbury. The Grenville canal passes on the banks of the Ottawa, opposite Hawkesbury, by which the rapids on that river called the Long Sault rapids, are surmounted. The western division at present appears to possess superior advantages, having good roads in various directions, and several mills, distilleries, stores, shops, &c.; the lumber men have cut down a great deal of the valuable timber. The river Lagrass runs through the western division, and some other small streams which fall into the Ottawa. The local situation of these townships is very favourable, the population rapidly increasing, and appear endeavouring to excel in industry. Caledonia is only partially settled, the land being very swampy, however there are some good lots to be had, and the Canadians are partial to some descriptions of swamps, which they drain, and afterwards cultivate; roads have been completed which will considerably advance the interests of the present settlers as they do not enjoy the advantage of any large river. In the township of Alfred the lands are swampy, but suited to the Canadian mode of clearing; the Chester road crosses this township; there are some streams, the principal of which are Horn Creek, which flows into the Petite Nation, and Dezemacane, which enters the Ottawa to the north east. Plantagenet is well settled, and the land of various qualities, part being light and sandy, part very good, and some swampy. There are several roads in the township; its situation is very favourable and well watered by the Petite Nation, Bear Brook, Horn Creek, and Scotch river. The lumbermen have taken a considerable portion of the most valuable timber. The township of Clarence is favourably situated, and possesses some very good land, and the population is now increasing. Until lately there were no roads in this township; but this advantage was in some measure supplied by the passing of the steam boats on the Ottawa. Bear Brook runs across it towards the rere, and on which there are a number of mill-sites. Cumberland is very like Clarence in extent, situation, and soil, and the Bear Brook crosses it also. This township must rapidly improve, possessing as it does, (with Clarence) the advantage of the Ottawa navigation in front, and the Bear Brook in the rere, upon which there are several favourable situations for mills, factories, &c., and by which at high water in spring, timber can be rafted down to the Petite Nation. The township of Gloucester is bounded on one side by the Ottawa, and on another by the Rideau river. Great part of the land is good, with some swamps, suited to the taste of the Canadians. This township is well settled near the Ottawa and Rideau; Green's Creek, Bear Brook, Belling's Creek, and other small streams water it in various directions, and on which mills have been erected, roads are increasing, and from its vicinity to Bytown & the Rideau canal, this must be a very promising township. In Cambridge the soil is light and sandy, some good land towards the south-east and south-west, and a few large swamps; the Petite Nation and a branch of it called the Eastern River, cross this township. The township of Russell is well watered by the Eastern River and its several branches. The land is not very good, a great part is swampy, with white sandy bottom; however some favourable settlements have been formed in it. Osgoode, fronting the Rideau, contains some excellent land, and is well watered by the Castere river and several small streams which fall into it. Several roads have been projected in this township which when completed, will greatly facilitate its settlement, and increase the value of land. In winter, when the rivers are frozen they are used as roads by the settlers, and by which they procure many necessary supplies. JOHNSTOWN DISTRICT next above the Eastern, on the St. Lawrence, is now divided into eighteen townships, viz. Edwardsburgh, Augusta, Elizabeth, Yonge, Lansdown, and Leeds, on the St. Lawrence; South Gower, Oxford, Wolford, Kitley, partly bounded on the north by the Rideau canal and river, Bastard through which the canal passes obliquely, and South Crosby, all lying in the rere of the six first mentioned townships; North Gower, Marlborough, Montague, Elmsley, Burgess, and North Crosby, bounded on the north by the Bathurst district, and having on the south the Rideau canal. The soil in these townships is generally good, and they are most eligibly situated, being intersected by the Rideau canal, now completed, and having in front the St. Lawrence, besides being well watered by several rivers and lakes. It is true that several swamps are to be met with, but these have been, in many places, highly improved by the Canadian farmers, and add much to the fertility of the district. Lake Gananoqui crosses the township of Lansdowne and enters Yonge and Leeds. There are a few small lakes in North and South Crosby, also in Bastard, from whence, and from the Rideau lake, in Burgess and Elmsley, (and into which the canal opens) flow the principal head waters of the Rideau river, which passes by several of the other townships, on its course to the Ottawa, the popalation of these townships is now rapidly increasing, and it would be difficult to procure an exact enumeration of the inhabitants. This district contains several towns, viz. Brockville and Elizabeth Town, in the township so named; Prescott or Fort Wellington, the principal port between Kingston and Montreal in Augusta, and Johnstown in Edwardsburgh; although the Rideau canal was originally intended as a communication in time of war with the upper province, its advantages as a peace one are of the highest importance, and has opened a line of settlement with several townships which now present a flourishing appearance, but would otherwise remain unoccupied for many years. BATHURST DISTRICT, on the Ottawa, is in the rere of Johnstown, and bounded on the west by the Midland district, the Ottawa is here called Lake Chaudiere, and a little higher up Lake Chat from the expansion of the river. This district is divided Into twenty townabipi, viz. Nepean, on the Ottawa Goulburn, Beckwith, Drummond, Bathurst, South Sherbrooke, North Sherbrooke, Dalhousie, Lanark, Ramsey, and Huntley, March and Torbottom, on Lake Chaudiere, Fitzroy on Lake Chat, Pakenham, Darling, and Lovant; MacNab, and Horton, also on Lake Chat, and also a triangular township, through which flows the river Madawasca. The Bathurat district is extremely narrow at its eastern extremity, having only the township of Nepean, it however extends very considerably towards the west, and in shape resembles a triangle. A considerable portion of the land in this district, is very valuable, and will, no doubt, be ere long thickly inhabited, but like other parts of the Canadas, it is not free from swampy land. This is the most northerly portion of the upper province at present surveyed, and in which settlements have been formed. It is well watered by several lakes and rivers, which flow through the townships to the river. The largest lake is situate in Drummond, Beckwith and Ramsay, from whence a considerable river rus through the greater part of Ramsey, Pakenham, and Fitzroy, till it meets the Ottawa. Roads are not numerous as yet, but the sale of crown lands in this district, as well as other parts of the Canadas, will enable the government to complete various roads by which access can be had to the the interior. The Midland District is bounded, on the east by the Johnstown and Bathurst districts, on the west by the Newcastle district, on the northeast by the Ottawa, and on the south by Lake Ontario, from which the St. Lawrence issues. This district is at least four times the extent from north to south, that it is from east to west, and lies right across Upper Canada, from Lake Ontario to the Ottawa. This district is surveyed in part, and thirty-six townships have been laid out, however, from the rapid progress made in the different districts, it is probable that the entire Province will be in a short time, subdivided into townships and lots for settlers, the several townships fronting the St. Lawrence, bay of Quinte, and lake Ontario, are of various extent and shape, occasioned by the bays, harbours, and peninsulas formed by the waters of this inland sea. Pittsburgh, Kingston, Earnest town, Fredericksburgh, Adolphustown, Richmond, Marysburgh, Hallowell, Sophiasburgh, Hillier, and Ameliasburgh, are the townships adjoining the waters of the Ontario, towards the east; Loughborough, Portland, and Camden, Trendinaga, Thurlow, and Sidney, being situate on the bay of Quinte; Bedfford, Hinchinbrook, Sheffield, Hungerford, Huntingdon, and Rawdon, being the third range of townships Oso, Olden, Kennebec, Kalladar, Elzevir, Madox, Marmora, being the fourth range, Palmerston, Clarendon, Barrie, Anglesea, Grimsthorpe, Tudor, and Lake, are the fifth range, and beyond which no settlements have been yet effected. These townships do not occupy half the district, the remainder being still unexplored, or at least not subdivided. All the townships adjoining the waters of Lake Ontario are most advantageously situated, the soil generally good; however, there are several swamps, and some rocky land. The Rideau canal passes through Pittsburgh. The bay of Quinte is formed by the peninsula called Prince Edward's Island, and which is divided into the townships of Marysburgh, Hallowell, Sophiasburgh, Hillier, and Ameliasburgh, as before mentioned. Mr. Ferguson, in his Tour in Canada, lately published, states that the scenery in this bay was pleasing, and in many places settlements formed on every hand, the soil partly clay, partly loam and sand, sufficiently rich in some instances to yield fifteen good crops of wheat in a period of twenty years. Granite, limestone, and schistes or clayslate are successively met with, wherever a stream or creek of any importance falls into the lake, there a mill site and village are to be found, the embryo in many cases, of considerable towns. Bath, Adolphustown, Hallowell, Sophiasburgh, and Belleville, are all thriving villages, and many individuals are to be met with in each, who, from humble situations, are rapidly acquiring independence. Belleville is the county town of Hastings, and has already three churches, a court-house, and projected jail, a valuable mill power, and a fine situation for houses. The main road from Kingston to York passes through it (as has been noticed in the account of roads and distances) and it is not improbable that it will become a place of considerable note. Steam boats call at the various ports and villages on the lake, and by the time they reach Kingston, the deck is absolutely heaped with flour-barrels and other produce. Steam navigation has done more for Canada, within the last few years, than could have been effected in a century, under the old system of inland water conveyance. The river Trent passes through the townships of Huntingdon, Rawdon, and Sidney, falling into the head of the bay of Quinte. The Nappanee river waters the townships of Loughborough, Portland, Camden, and Richmond, and also falls into the bay. Various other rivers, besides many considerable lakes, water the several townships, and will, a doubt, afford considerable facility to settle in those remote from the lake. The labyrinth of the thousand islands, at the entrance to lake Ontario, and through which the steamers pass and repass from Prescott to Kingston, affords some splendid scenery,-the river, in fine weather, smooth as a mirror, reflects minutely every tree and rock. On every hand, numerous channels present themselves, and wooded islands of all sizes and forms, well stocked with water fowl.
CENTRAL SECTION.
This section of the upper province is divided into two large districts, namely, the Newcastle, and Home, and embrace an extensive tract of country, lying to the west of the Midland district, and extending 120 miles along the front of Lake Ontario, bounded on the north by the Ottawa, French River, and Lake Huron, and on the west by the Gore and London districts. This section contains several extensive lakes, and York, the metropolitan town of this province, is situate in the Home district. THE NEWCASTLE DISTRICT extends from Lake Ontario to the Ottawa, and is nearly four times the extent from north to south that it is from east to west. It is well watered by Rice, Balsam, Trout, and other lakes in the interior, and also by the Otanabee part of the Trent, and various other rivers. The colonization experiments of 1823 and 1825, under the control of Mr. Robinson, were made in this district. A very considerable portion of this district has been surveyed or laid out in townships. The following are the only ones yet named or settled, viz, Murray, Cramahe, Haldimand, Hamilton, Hope, Clarke, and Darlington, on Lake Ontario; Seymour, Percy, Alnwick, Asphodel, Otanabee, Monaghan, Cavan, Manvers, and Cartwright, being the second range from the Lake; Belmont, Dummer, Douro, Smith, Emily, Ops, and Mariposa, on the third range; Methuen, Burleigh, Harvey, Verulam, Fenelon, and Eldon, on the fourth range, making in the whole twenty-nine townships. This district is thickly settled, and in a rapid state of progression. The river Trent, on the east, is crossed by a ferry, and the road from Kingston enters this district (crossing the townships on the lake to the Home district) and upon which the improving towns of Cobourg and Port Hope are situate. Cobourg is now a place of considerable trade, through the spirit and enterprise of its merchants, and contains several good houses and stores, an Episcopal Church, Methodist Chapel, good hotels, several distilleries, mills, &c. The exports and imports are very considerable. An excellent road leads from this town through Hamilton to the Rice Lake. The soil of Hamilton is a sandy loam, and well suited for Agricultural purposes. Monaghan and Otanabee are on the north side of Rice Lake. The soil in general is excellant, and the population rapidly increasing. The Otonabee River divides these townships. On the north east angle of Monaghan is situate the town of Peterborough. The country round is fertile and well watered; a frame bridge has been erected over the Otonabee at this place, and the whole neighborhood presents gratifying evidence of steady and prosperous industry. Smith, Douro, and Emily, are well settled; the soil in general good, and in great variety; there is a sufficient supply of water for mills and other purposes. Dummer resembles the last mentioned townships in soil, is well watered, and possesses many advantages, which will be made use of by the settler. Beaver meadows are frequent in these townships, and are very serviceable to the inhabitants; saw and other mills have been erected in many places; the line of water communication is so considerable in the northern townships it is expected that the greater portion of their prodmce will pass by Peterborough. Ops is one of the finest townships in this district, and is well watered by the Scugog River, which is navigable for boats, and by which settlers may proceed to Mud Lake. There is a road from Port Hope to Emily, and Smith passing along the boundary line between Hope and Hamilton, Cavan and Monaghan. Cavan was first located in 1817, and there has been for some years a lot undisposed of (except reserves). The soil is good, and well watered. This township is highly improved, and the clearings very extensive. The other townships in this district possess much good land, and are in general well watered, upon which many mills have been erected in convenient situations. Generally speaking the soil in the inland townships is superior to those near Ontario. Churches and various other places of worship have been erected in this district, and numerous schools are established in the townships. Petersborough was selected by Mr. Robinson in the year 1825, as the depot or head quarters of the emigrants who were located at that period under his direction. The HOME DISTRICT lies to the west of Newcastle, and extends from Lake Ontario on the south to the French River on the north. The south-eastern limb of Lake Huron extends considerably into this district, and with Lake Simcoe, nearly divide it. There are several Dutch settlements in this district, in and near the township of Markham. The soil near Lake Ontario is not so good as in the interior, particularly near Lake Simcoe. York, the seat of the Provincial Government of the Province is in this district. It is well situated on north of an excellent harbour on Lake Ontario, and contains the house of Assembly, Government House, Provincial Bank, College, Court House, Hall for the Law Society, Gaol, Barracks, Churches, and other places of worship, with several other public buildings; the streets are spacious and regular; many of the houses are built of brick and stone, but the majority are of timber. The population is considerable and rapidly increasing. Being the residence of the Chief Officers of the Government, many of the luxuries of live are to be had. There are several newspapers published here. The lands in the neigbourhood are highly cultivated, and the market of the town is always well supplied. In the rere of the town runs the road called Yonge street, which leads to Gwilliamburg, a village 32 miles to the northward, and from thence to Cook's Bay, 5 miles distant, from whence by Lake Simcoe there is a communication with Lake Huron. The land in the neighbour-hood of this road is very fertile and well cultivated; several other roads diverge from York to various places. The townships on the Lakes are thickly settled, with a few exceptions, where the soil is bad, and the entire is well watered. The rivers abound with fish, particularly salmon. A considerable portion of the district to the north of Lake Simcoe has not been surveyed, but the southern part has been laid out, and contains fifty three townships, as follows, viz. Whitby, Pickering, Scarboro', York, and Toronto, on Lake Ontario; Reach, Uxbridge, Markham, Vaughan, Gore of Toronto, Ettibocoke, and Chinguacousy, (in rere of the former,) Brock, (whose north-east angle borders Lake Simcoe), Scott, Whitchurch, King, Newmarket, Albion, and Caledon, being the third range of townships from Lake Ontario; Georgina, bounded on the north by Lake Simcoe; east, west and north, Gwilliamburg, surrounding a bay of the same lake, Tecumseth, Adjala, Mono, Amaranth, and Luther, Innisfil bounded on the east by Lake Simcoe, Essa, Tossorondio, Mulmur, Melancthon, and Proton; Oro on the north west shore of Lake Simcoe, and divided from Innisfil by a bay, Vespra, also adjoining the bay; Sunnidale, bounded on the north by Lake Huron, Merlin, Ospry, and Artenesia, Java, Alta, and Zero, bounded on the north-east by a bay of Lake Huron, called Nottawasaga, and into which the river of that name flows, Euphrasia; the narrow township of Thorah, Mara, and Rama, lying between Lake Simcoe and the Newcastle district; -Orillia, opposite Rama, on the other side of the lake; Maichudash on the River Severn, which flows from lake Simcoe into lahe Huron, Medonte, and Flos, whose west angle touches Nottawasaga bay; Tay and Tiny, peninsular townships, extending into the Georgian bay of lake Huron; the Nottawasaga river rises in the township of Amaranth, and takes its course to the Huron lake, passing Mono, Adjala, Tecumseth, Essa, Vespra, Flos, and Sunnidale; several tributary streams join this river from other townships: this district is highly recommended by many persons, as presenting to emigrants a large quantity of good land, numerous roads kept in tolerable order, several water privileges and conveyances, excellent markets, a fine climate, and thriving colony.
WESTERN SECTION.
This Section embraces all that tract of country, from the head of lake Ontario; bounded by lake Erie on the south, lakes St Clair and Huron on the west, the indian territory on the north, and the Home district on the east: its extreme length, from north to south, exceeds 200 miles, and is in breadth, from east to west, in its widest part, nearly as much. Its surface is generally level, having few eminences-the principai of which is that ridge which forms the Falls of Niagara, as has been already mentioned. The soil is, without exception, better then in any other part of the Canadas; the whole tract is alluvial in its formation, and the surface is a deep and rich vegetable mould, sometimes intermixed with a rich sandy loam, highly fertile in its properties--extensive quarries of limestone are to be found in various parts of this province; freestone is occasionally found on the shores of the lakes. This section is divided into four districts -namely, the Gore, Niagara, London and Western; the whole is well watered by the following rivers, and their numerous branches, viz. the Thames, Ouse, Welland or Chippewa, Big Bear, and Maitland. The Gore District is bounded on the north and east by the Home district; on the south, by lake Ontario, and the Niagara district; and on the west, by the London district and Indian territory. A considerable portion of this tract belongs to the Canada Company, who have built nearly in its centre, the town of Guelph, upon the river Speed, a branch of the Ouse. This rapidly rising town was commenced by Mr. Galy, for the Canada Company, in 1827, and is now of considerable extent and importance, containing several places of worship, grist and saw mills, distileries, market-house, schools, printing office, hotels, and taverns, &c.; many new houses are erected every year, and the population is very considerable. About eighteen miles from Guelph, in the township of Dumfries, the Hon. Mr. Dixon founded the town of Galt: its situation is excellent, and will, no doubt, attract settlers of respectability and capital. There are several villages rising into importance in the district, particularly on the main road from York to the Niagara district; the princial of which are, Ancaster, and Dundas. This district is divided into eighteen townships, viz,. Trafalgar, Nelson, and Flamboro east, on the head of lake Ontario, called Burlington bay; Ancaster, at the extreme point of the bay, Beverley and, Dumfries, Esquising, Nassagiweya, Flamboro West, Puslinch, Waterloo, and Wilmot, Erin, Eramosa, Guelph, Garafraxa, Nichol, Woolwich, and the reserve for the six nations, or Aborigines of North America. In many of the townships the farms have attained a well cultivated appearance, comfort and cheerful industry are very apparent, where the settlers are occupied in the clearing of land, or conducting the business of more advanced husbandry. The humble shanty, the original nest of the family, is frequently observed- beside the new and more extended mansion, and is calculated to form a useful memorial of the days when they entered the great Forest, but which a few short years have transformed into luxuriant fields of corn; and Mr. Fergusson states, that cleanliness and comfort seemed to prevail in the interior of each habitation, and that the women and children were particularly tidy and neat; he also speaks highly of Summer's tavern, in Nelson township, about thirty-five miles from York. The surface of the country from Nelson to Guelph, is finely undulated, with copious springs, numerous rivulets, and romantic dells; the road in some is in a bad state, particularly when passing over swamps: it may not be amiss here to state, that the roads across swamps are formed of logs or trees, laid side by side, in consequence of which they have obtained the name of Corduroy's. The Canadian horses, with infinite caution, contrive to scramble over them; but a stranger feels rather uncomfortable at the occasional flounders of his horse in a mud hole, or the giving way of a rotten log. However, these little annoyances will soon be corrected; and even at present they only affect the settler in the summer months, at a time when he is least disposed to leave home, or make use of the roads;-a new bridge has been just erected across the river Speed, at Guelph, and round which the river flows. The land in the township of Waterloo is very good, and the farms greatly improved; the stock large, and in excellent condition; the inhabitants, are mostly Dutch-their dwelling-houses, offices, and gardens, are kept with a degree of neatness not to be surpassed in Canada, occasionally the traveller meets the residence of a negro family, whose house and farm speak the steady labour that has been bestowed on them, and clearly proves, that the negro will not prove too indolent for labour in a state of freedom: numbers of these poor creatures escape from that land of liberty, the United States, and settle in various parts of the Canadas. Galt is on the bank of the Ouse, and the proprietor of the township resides here; and by his judicious and liberal conduct, have produced a great influx of emigrants, from whom he receives payment of the purchase money of land by instalments, in money or produce, at such times as they can afford to pay; and even in some instances, he has supplied the means of purchasing oxen, implements, and seed. Flour and saw mills, cooperage, &c., have been established here; and it has been lately ascertained that the Ouse is navigable to the Welland canal, a distance, by water, of 100 miles, and which is a discovery of incalculable value to this district, as farming produce can now be conveyed by this line to lake Ontario, at one third the cost which had been theretofore incurred. Many very superior lots of land are to be met with in this district, in convenient situations, and at moderate prices; the emigrant must not forget that in the Canadas a very few years produces more change in the appearance of the country, and in the value of land, than he can almost imagine; and that these changes are for the better, so much so, that it would almost require an annual publication to give a true picture of the Canadas. The Niagara District is bounded on the east, by the Niagara river, which passes from lake Erie to lake Ontario;- on the west, by the London district; on the north, by lake Ontario, and a part of the Gore district; and on the south, by lake Erie. It is in shape nearly an oblong; the Ouse traverses a considerable portion of it; and the Welland canal before mentioned, connects the navigation of the two lakes passing through this district. There are several towns and villages in Niagara: the principal of which are, Hamilton, a neat town, with a handsome Courthouse erected for the district; Fort George, or Niagara, also called Newark, on lake Ontario, and at the mouth of the Niagara river: it is a thriving town-the arrival at and departure from, of the various steam-boats, sloops, and other vessels employed on the lake, must greatly increase its prosperity. It is protected by a fort, in which there is a large detachment of military; a weekly market is held in the town, which is well attended. Grimsby is eighteen miles from Hamilton, on the road to Queenston. The country along this line is, in many places, romantic and beautiful, with fine farms, and rich orchards of peach, plum, cherry, apple, &c. The crops in general are of the best description, and most abundant, particularly, the wheat; the road runs by the ridge which passes round the head of lake Ontario, and over which the waters of the Niagara fall. Grimsby is a neat town, near the margin of the lake, under the brow of the ridge; St. Catharine's is upon the summit level of the Welland canal, and which at this point descends by wooden locks to the level of the lake -the canal was opened about a year since. The country between this and Queenston is mostly under culture, interspersed with numerous fine orchards. Queenston is situated on the Niagara, opposite the American village of Lewiston; the monument erected to the memory of the gallant and lamented General Brock, is on the loftiest part of the heights of Queenston, and forms an object of much interest to the traveller. This town contains a church, court house, government stores, and has a numerous and increasing population. Four miles west of Queenston, is the village of St. David's, on a small stream called Four Mile Creek. Chippewa, on both sides of the Welland river, and ten miles from Queenston, contains a barrack, small fort, and some neat houses. At the head of the Niagara river, and sixteen miles from Chippewa, near Fort Erie, is the village of Waterloo, opposite Black Rock and Buffalo, on the American bank; (convenient to the Falls, in the States, is the village of Manchester, having good hotels, and various mills;) other villages and hamlets are scattered in this district, but those already mentioned are the principal. There is a splendid establishment near the Falls of Niagara, called Forsyth's Hotel, where every accommodation can be had, and is much frequented by persons visiting the Falls, Mr. Fergusson says, when speaking of Niagara, that "the most eloquent description will prove inadequate to convey a just conception of the scene, nor can the pencil ever do it justice. A cataract may be said (as regards the painter's art) to differ from all objects in nature: the human face and figure, the rich and varied landscape, the animal and vegetable world, may, with sufficient propriety, be delineated at rest: but quiescence forms no feature here: the ceaseless roar, the spray mounting like clouds of smoke from a great limekiln, with the enormous sheet of water which rolls over the precipice, can be felt and understood only by repeated visits to the scene." The rapids above the Falls, are extremely interesting, and excite admiration and wonder. A short distance above the Falls, the river is a mile across, and presents one continued sheet of foam; below the Falls there is a ferry to the American side, and from it the scene is magnificent- the Horse Shoe, the American Fall, and Goat Island being all in view, with the great cauldron boiling and eddying in fearful and endless disorder. Much might be written respecting this very interesting district; but here any thing further would exceed the limits prescribed for this work, except stating the respective townships into which it is divided, and of which there are twenty-one, viz., Barton, Saltfleet, Grimsby, Clinton, Louth, Grantham, and Niagara, on the south shore of lake Ontario; Glanford, Binbrook, Caistor, Gainsboro, Pelham, Thorold, and Stamford, in rere of the former; Canboro, Moulton, Wainfleet, Humberstone, Bertie, Crowland, and Willoughby, partly bounded by the north shore of lake Erie, and on the east by the Niagara river. Several highly respectable individuals have published a project of an intended city at the Falls, intended or designed to be the Bath or Brighton of the North American continent. The London District, including the Indian territory, is bounded on the east, by the Niagara, Gore, and Home districts; on the west, by the Western District and lake Huron; on the north, by the same lake: and on the south, by lake Erie. The quality of the soil, in the extensive district, is extremely good, and generally composed of a deep, rich, black loam, and thinly timbered. The Thames, Ouse, Aux Sables, Maitland, and several other rivers water this tract in various directions, in addition to the extensive water frontier which it possesses. On the road which passes the frontier of lake Erie, is the village of Dover, in the township of Woodhouse; ten miles further is the village of Charlotteville, in which iron works have been established, and which are well supplied with ore from the neighbourhood. To the north of Charlotteville, on the post road, is another village, called Victoria; Oxford, on the road called Dundas street, is ninety miles from York; London, situate on the Thames and on the same route, is 128 miles; the village of Dellaware also on the Thames, and not very distant from London, is principally inhabited by Indians, and near which there is a Moravian settlement, who, by industry and good conduct exhibit an example to the Indian converts over whom they exercise a missionary superintendance; the settlement is in a flourishing state, and the land highly cultivated; the Indians appear cheerful, contented, and happy, and many of them are very intelligent. Goderich, on lake Huron, is a town recently founded by the Canada Company in their tract- the river Maitland falls into the Huron at this town. It is the only port on the Canadian side of the lake, and is capable of containing vessels of 200 tons burthen. The town has been judiciously planned on the elevated shores of the lake, by which, and the Maitland, it is surrounded on three sides; the streets diverge from an octagon-shaped market-place; roads are in progress to various parts, and the Canada Company have engaged to expend a sum of £48,000 in this tract, in the making roads, improvement of water communications, building of churches, school houses, bridges, wharfs, and other works, for the benefit and accomodation of the public. On the shore, and about the centre of lake Erie, is situate the celebrated settlement of Colonel Talbot, and which he commenced in 1802; the progress which he has made is truly astonishing. Roads are now made from Port Talbot on every side, and the whole presents one of the most highly improved and valuable tracts in the province: he has located nearly 80,000 souls, or 6,000 families. A considerable portion of this district has been surveyed, and laid out into townships; the Huron tract is now the exclusive property of the Canada Company. There are fifty-four townships, viz., Rainham, Walpole, Woodhouse, Charlotteville, Walsingham, from whence long point extends into lake Erie; Houghton, Bayham, Malahide, Yarmouth, Southwold, Dunwich and Aldborough, on lake Erie; Townsend, Wyndham, Norwich, Dereham, Dorchester North, Dorchester South, Westminster, Delaware, Carradoc, Ekfrid and Mosa, in rere of the former; Burford, Oxford East, Oxford West, Oxford North, Nissouri, London, and Lobo being the third range of townships from lake Erie; Blenheim, Blandford, and Zorra: the following are in the Canada Company's Huron tract, North Easthope, South Easthope, Ellice, Logan, McKillop, Hullett, Colborne, to the north, and bounding land belonging to the Crown; Downie, Fullarton, Hibbert and Tucker, Smith, Goderich, Stanley, Hay, Stephen, McGillivray, and Bosanquet, on lake Huron; William, Biddulph, Blanchard, and Usborne, in the Interior. The Indian territory lies to the north of the Huron tract, and has not been yet explored. The Western District is bounded on the East by the London district, on the West by the river St. Clair, lake St. Clair, and Detroit river, on the North by lake Huron, and on the South by lake Erie, the St. Clair runs from lake Huron to lake St. Clair, the Detroit river from lake St. Clair to lake Erie. This tract is tongue-shaped, lake St. Clair indenting it, and approaching lake Erie, and is surrounded on three sides by rivers and lakes. The Thames and Big Beer Creek rivers flow from the London district, through this, and falls into lake St. Clair. The Thames is navigable for vessels of considerable size, to Chatham, about fifteen miles from its mouth, and for boats to London. The rivers which fall into lake St. Clair, flow through rich alluvial soils, and bring down a large quantity of mud, particularly in spring, this being deposited at the mouth of the different rivers, forms bars, which are rapidly increasing, and encroaching on the lake in a semicircular form like a ridge, alternately with a prairie, and a marshy run of water. It is supposed that eventually the entire of lake St. Clair will become a fertile plain, with a deep sluggish river running through it. Besides the rivers already mentioned, several other streams flow through this district. Amherstburgh (on the east bank of the Detroit about three miles from lake Erie) is the principal town. This beautifully situated and somewhat wealthy town was founded by the French upwards of a century ago, and being a frontier post, and military depot during the war, the state of society is more refined than in any of the other towns in this province. This town possesses a safe and convenient harbour, and its situation is much admired, being in the midst of a fine country, intersperscd with rich and luxuriant orchards, bearing, in the highest perfection, the rarest fruits in the open air, without any particular attention or care, it contains a Church, Court house, Gaol, and some other public buildings, also several good houses, shops, hotels, a numerous population. Fourteen miles higher up the Detroit, and about midway between lakes St. Clair and Erie, the town of Sandwich has been built, containing nearly two hundred houses, also a Church, court-house, Gaol, &c. Chatham village, on the Thames, is in the centre of a rich and improving tract and will, no doubt, become a town of some importance, and a place of export for farming produce. There are several villages scattered through the district, and many flourishing settlements, also an Indian village in the township of Zone. On the northern banks, and near the head of lake Erie, there is a large settlement of American loyalists. Along the Detroit, the lots for settlements have been laid out in long narrow slips, in the manner of the seignorial concessions of Lower Canada, and the manners of the people partake much of the character of the better sort of Canadians of the lower province. Hemp, flax, and tobacco have been cultivated in this district. The quantity of tobacco sent to market has been very considerable. There are several roads made, and others projected to various parts. Many persons conceive that a Canal from St. Clair to lake Erie, by the Romney township line, or from the river Thames at its nearest point to lake Erie,. would, by turning the waters of the St. Clair through that channel, drain, and otherwise improve a vast quantity of land, now mostly under water, and that the greater part of lake St. Clair would be completely drained. This district is divided into twenty-three townships, as follows:- Orford, Howard, Harwich, Raleigh, Tilbury, East Rowney, Mersea, Gosfield and Colchester, on lake Erie; Zone, Camden, and Chatham, Dover, Tilbury West, Rochester West, and Maidstone, on lake St. Clair; Sandwich, Maiden, and Amherstburgh, on Detroit river; St. Clair, Indian Reserves, and Sombra, on the St. Clair river; and Dawn in the interior adjoining Sombra; there is also a considerable tract towards the North, and adjoining lake Huron not yet named, the London and Western districts have been called the Garden of Canada, and there is not in America so large a tract of unexceptionable land, it is based on limestone rock, over which there is a stratum of clay, then a layer of gravel, varying in thickness, and the surface or mould is of a loamy description, sometimes sandy and clayey, but in every case highly productive. In many parts of this province Gypsum is found in great abundance; which makes a superior top dressing for grass lands, and is a most valuable manure, acting upon land, as lime does, but used in a lesser proportion. Salt is also much used in the Canadas, and perhaps it is more necessary there than in the United Kingdoms, the atmosphere, being in the interior so far removed from the influence of the sea.
CITIES AND TOWNS.
Quebec is proudly seated on Cape Diamond, on the northern banks of the St. Lawrence, the lower town is at the foot of the promontory, and is excessively crowded with buildings, for the convenience of the shipping. The warehouses and stores are built on the wharfs; the streets are narrow and not very clean; the ascent to the Upper Town irregular, but the houses and buildings improve as you advance; they are mostly built of grey stone, with high sloping roofs, generally covered with tin or sheet iron. The view from the ramparts of the citadel of the celebrated plains of Abram beyond can scarcely be equalled. The citadel is built on the river-ward edge of the rock, at the height of 350 feet above the level of the St. Lawrence. Here also stands the Governor's residence and other public buildings, also a monument to the memory of Wolfe. The Upper Town is entered by a fortified gate from which streets diverge in various directions; and one of which leads to a large and spacious square. The streets in this part of the town are wide, and the houses large and respectable. The population is about 30,000, or upwards, The customhouse is in the lower town. Government has expended large sums of money upon the fortifications of Quebec, and which are almost impregnable; the walls of the citadel are forty feet high, and the ditch about fifty feet wide, cut out of the solid rock. From the old Cavalier's Battery, on the summit, there is a magnificent view of the noble St. Lawrence, underneath is the city, with its wharfs and numerous shipping. On the opposite or southern shore rises Point Levi, enlivened by many a gay building, and improved farms. To the east the Isle of Orleans is seen dividing the river, and on the north east the river Montmorenci precipitates its waters over a fall 240 feet in height. The plains of Abram extend to the westward, and the main road to Montreaa intersects them. The inhabitants of Quebec are of various nations, French Canadians, English, Irish, Scotch, Americans, Indians, and various others. Law proceedings are conducted in English and French, being the languages generally spoken. The influx of emigrants to the port of Quebec to the 16th of September, 1832, amounted to 49,569, being an increase of 3,500 over the preceding year to the same date, and it is probable that nearly 5,000 arrived after that date. Several steamboats arrive at and depart from Quebec every day, and of which Mr. Molsom is the principal proprietor. There are several public buildings in Quebec, some of them equal to many in European cities, the principal of which are the houses in which the Provincial Parliament holds their sittings, the Seminary or Collegiate building, Court house, Gaol, Metropolitan Catholic Cathedral, Protestant Cathedral, Ursuline and other Convents, Armoury, Bank, library, Exchange, and various others usual in principal cities. Between St. Louis and St. John's Gate is a fine esplanade, and is the usual place of parade for the troops of the garrison. Point aux Tremble is a considerable town on the St. Lawrence, twenty-four miles from Quebec, and contains a Collegiate Church, a Convent for Nuns, and a considerable population, all of whom are French Caadians. Three Rivers is situate on a point of land on the north bank of the St. Lawrence, where the St. Maurice (on which the celebrated iron works and forges are erected,) falls into it. This is one of the oldest towns in Canada; it contains a Protestant and Catholic Church, a Convent of Ursulines, which may be more properly called an Hospital and Seminary for female Education, Courthouse for the district, Gaol, Barrick, &c. The population exceeds 3,000. The houses are generally built of wood; there is a considerable trade carried on at Three Rivers. The forges on the St. Maurice are about seven miles distant. Berthier is midway between Three Rivers and Montreal, and through which the stage coaches pass. It contains a handsome Church, inns, shops, and over 900 inhabitants. It is a place of considerable importance, and has many stores for general merchandize. William Henry is 135 miles from Quebec, on the south bank of the St. Lawrence, having the Richelieu river on the west; it is regularly laid out with a square in the Centre, and contains well-built Protestant and Catholic churches, block-house, Hospital, and a small garrison. From its salubrious and pleasant situation, this town is generally the summer residence of the Governor of the province. The population is about 2000. The steam boats take in fuel here. Montreal is situated on the south of the island, and seigniory of Montreal. The new and upper part of the city is well laid out, and contains some good streets; many of the houses are handsome; the view of the city as it is approached from Prairie is splendid, the glistening tin roofs of houses, nunneries, and churches, give its magnificent appearance rarely equalled, while the mountain, with its woods, orchards, villas, and rocks, forms a beautiful and romantic background to the picture. Many of the public buildings are well designed and executed, particularly the Court-house and Gaol, and the Roman Catholic Cathedral, lately erected at an expense of 100,000£. The material employed for building is a fine dark grey limestone susceptible of a good polish. The shops and houses are generally provided with iron shutters, which gives the city a gloomy and prison-like appearance on Sundays. As yet no quays have been built; but they are in contemplation. There are two market-places in Montreal, in one of which stands a monument to Lord Nelson, which is a Doric column, surmounted by a colossal statue of the naval hero. The Champ de Mars is an agreeable esplanade planted round with Lombardy poplars, and contains several handsome buildings. The troops of the garrison are reviewed here, and the military bands perform during the evenings, in summer and autumn, for the amusement of the fashionables who promenade there. There are several churches and protestant places of worship in this city, the principal of which is in Notre Dame-street; it is a handsome stone edifice with a beautiful spire. There are considerable number of charitable institutions, colleges, seminaries, libraries, and other public buildings, in Montreal, there are several excellent hotels, and one of them near the river is more like a public edifice than a house of entertainment. The population exceeds 30,000, and is of a very mixed character, native Canadians in their, grey surtouts; Indians wrapt up in their blankets; English, Irish, and Scotch, are seen bustling along, with priests and bands of pretty little female choristers arrayed in white, flitting from church to convent, and some few mendicants soliciting alms. The artillery station is on the river St. Helen's opposite the lower end of the city. For the accomodation of trade, it is expected that a Custom-house will be erected, but at present all vessels clear out from Quebec. The royal mountain which overlooks the city, whose altitude is 800 feet above the river, is considered for soft luxuriant beauty, not to be equalled in America. Round this mountain is the favourite drive of the citizens. The principal towns in the upper province have been already noticed in their respective districts, and therefore it is not neceassry to mention them again, it may not, however, be uninteresting to the public to mention, that a new city is about being erected at the Falls of Niagara, and the following is the substance of a paper recently published or circulated in the Canadas and United States.
CITY OF THE FALLS.
Mr. Forsyth having disposed of his interest in the property at the Falls of Niagara, it is proposed to found a city on the elevated grounds contiguos to the falls, a situation the most healthful on the North American Continent. After mentioning several probable causes for the salubrity of this place-the places of attraction in America, and that none of them possess the advntages to be found in any of the many places of fashionable resort in Europe; the situation of the Falls for the formation of a city embracing the several advantages necessary, is pointed out, and particularly the various means for internal communication with the entire Continent of America. It is alleged, that the proposed "City of the Falls" is placed like the heart in the human body, standing in the direct route of persons travelling to and from various parts of this country, and affording an easy approach for the annual aasemblage of the fashionable, the learned, and the great. These considerations have led to the ronnation of a company of gentlemen, who have purchased Forsyth's grounds, houses, &c. and who propose to lay out the lands so purchased, in streets, or lots to be sold for buildings, according to a scale, insuring the comfort of the new community. The association propose to place the Pavilion and Ontario house under proper superintendance; so that all who resort there will find a union of comfort with economy, in the midst of a society truly desirable. Baths are to be erected near the cataract, and over these a splendid pump-room, reading room, library, &c., for the accommodation of all visiters-the grounds to be laid out in the most approved style; lots will be set apart for public buildings; cottages to be forthwith erected and furnished for private families resorting to the falls during Summer. The Pavilion is intended for those who propose remaining over a week; Ontario house for those staying a shorter period; both to be well supplied with everyone necessary accommodation, at moderate charges. Peculiar advantages are held out to such as may erect houses during the present year for permanent or Summer residences; streets to be laid, out and marked in building lots; materials are from 50 to 100 per cent cheaper than in New York; the city will afford a most agreeable, permanent residence for respectable families of limited income, the necessaries and luxuries of life being remarkably cheap; good schools will be formed, and the best society met without the expense of entertaining them. A charter is to be applied for, so that aliens may hpld real estate in the city; proprietors, Hon. W. Allen, James Buchanan, Esq, Hon. Thomas Clarke, Hon. J. H. Dunn, Thomas Dixon, Esq., Lieutenant General Murray, James Robinson, Esq., and Samuel Street, Esq. The survey was to have been completed the 1st of August last; and an agent is in attendance, to give every necessary information. General Murray has already fixed his residence at the new city, and several other gentlemen contemplate building immediately.
LAKES AND CANALS.
In concluding this sketch of the Canadas it may not be thought unimportant to give the particulars of the extent of the principal Lakes and Canals. Lake Ontario is the first on the river St. Lawrence; its greatest length is 180 miles, and greatest breadth 60 miles, and average depth 500 feet; it is calculated that the surface of this Lake is about 200 feet above the level of the St. Lawrence, at Three Rivers. Lake Erie is the next, and is separated from Ontario by the Niagara river (upon which the celebrated falls are); it is about 270 miles in length, nearly 70 miles in breadth, and 200 feet in depth, and upward of 300 feet above the level of Lake Ontario. Lake Huron is 246 miles in length, 220 in breadth, and nearly 1000 feet in depth; this Lake is not more than 60 or 70 feet above the level of Lake Erie. Lake Superior is the largest in the Canadas, and is supposed to be 1500 miles in circumference, and is about the same depth as Lake Huron and its surface is calculated to be over 1000 feet above the level of the sea. This Lake may be called the real head of the St. Lawrence, and presents one vast line of water communication from the sea by the several lakes, rivers, and canals, to the head of Lake Superior, of at least 2000 miles in extent. The precise extent of the various other lakes has not been ascertained with sufficient accuracy, so as to notice them in this work. The Welland Canal unites Lakes Erie and Ontario, and enables vessels to surmount the Falls of Niagara. It is about 42 miles in length, and has 37 locks in its course, each of which is 100 feet in length by 22 feet in breadth; the Canal is 56 feet in width at the surface of the water, 26 feet at the bottom, and 8 1/2 feet in depth. The Rideau Canal, between Kingston on Lake Ontario and Bytown on the River Ottawa, is 185 miles in length, including the numerous lakes and dams in its course, and of which the Rideau Lake forms a portion of 24 miles (being about 250 feet above the level of the Ottawa, and 150 feet above, the level of Lake Ontario.) There are on this Canal 47 locks, each 142 feet in length, 33 feet in breadth, and 5 feet in depth; there are also on this line 20 dams, whereby the waters of the rivers and lakes are raised at different points to the levels required, and by which means the expense of excavating to an enormous extent is saved; this is a new principle in engineering, and well suited to the waters of these provinces. The Grenville Canal is on the northern bank of the Ottawa for the avoiding the rapids on that river; it is in three sections, namely-opposite the long Salt rapids, the Chute a Blondeau and the Carillon rapids. These canals are 48 feet in breadth at the surface of the water, 28 feet at the bottom, and 5 feet in depth. The Lachine Canal, from Montreal to the village of Lachine, along the banks of the St. Lawrence, was made for the purpose of avoiding the rapids, or cascade, called Sault St. Louis, it is about 8 miles in length, 48 feet in breadth, at the surface of the water; 28 feet at the bottom, and 5 feet in depth; the locks are 100 feet in length, by 20 feet in breadth; but these will be altered to the same size as those of the Rideau, if another canal is not cut at the rere of the Island of Montreal. It is very probable that various other canals will, in a short time, be made in Upper Canada, when the country becomes better settled, and a consequent necessity for such means of conveying the produce of the land to market; and particularly in this country where the great expense of such works is considerably reduced by the numerous rivers, whose level waters only require occasional locks or dams, or short canals, to open communications between them, many persons in the Canadas are favourable to rail-roads; but on the whole, it is considered, that for many years water conveyance will be found more advantageous to the interests and improvement of the country.
NEW BRUNSWICK.
As the province of New Brunswick is closely connected with Lower Canada, and many persons may feel disposed to settle there, the following short notice has been prepared, by which it will appear that it is by no means an unimportant portion of the British dominions in America:- it is about 180 miles in extent from East to West, and 200 from North to South, and is situate between the boundary line of the United States on the South West, and the bay of Chaleur and river Ristigouche, which divides it from Lower Canada on the North, and has to the East an extensive sea-coast from the bay of Chaleur to the bay of Fundy; a great part of the country is still a complete wilderness, but the soil in general is extremely rich and fertile; a small portion near the coast, on the bay of Fundy, is rocky and hard to cultivate; the immense forests which cover the country are principally composed of pine, birch, beech, and maple, with some others; the trees are of enormous size, and considered the finest in America; the land is very level, having few hills, and none that can be properly called mountains. At particular seasons in the year the several rivers overflow their banks and irrigate the soil. Beaver meadows are very frequent in the interior on the banks of small streams. This province is well watered by numerous rivers, the principal of which are, St. John's, Miramichi, Nipishighit, Magadavic, Richibucto, Oromocto, Petit Coudiac, and several others, which are navigable for a considerable distance into the country. The lakes are very numerous, and some of them of considerable extent, viz. Grand Lake, Oromocto and Big Magadavic Lake. Limestone and marble are found in various parts in great abundance-also coal, iron ore, gypsum, &c., which must add to the prosperity of the province; the scenery on the rivers, lakes, and cataracts, is picturesque and beautiful-often wild and romantic. Wild animals are very numerous in the woods, and amongst others are bears, moose, deer, foxes, tiger-cats, racoons, porcupines, martins, beavers, otters, hares, weasels, &c. &c. Fish is very abundant on the coast, and in the rivers and lakes. Cod, haddock, mackerel, salmon, shad, bass, &c. &c. are the principal, but there are many others. The climate of New Brunswick is salubrious; the fevers of the Southern States of America are unknown here; occasional colds and gentle typhus fever in the beginning of winter are the prevailing diseases, and are generally contracted in the beginning of winter for want of proper precaution at the change of the season. Rheumatism affects lumberers, who are much exposed to cold and wet in the rivers getting down the rafts of timber. The country is fully as healthy as England; The population does not exceed 90,000, although it is capable of maintaining 3,000,000. The principal settlements are along the banks of all the navigable rivers, and many of them very flourishing. The chief towns are St. John's, Frederickton, St. Andrew's, and Miramichi. In 1785, by a royal charter, New Brunswick was constituted a district province, and a Governor appointed; the government consists of the Governor, Council of Twelve, and House of Representatives of twenty eight member, returned by the counties and cities. The Governor sits in the Court of Chancery; a Chief and three Puisne Judges sit in the Supreme Court, which is somewhat similar in practice to the King's Bench in Great Britain. Civil and criminal cases are tried in this Court-terms in February, May, July, and October. Inferior courts or courts of Commons Pleas are held in the several counties for trial of petty offences and actions of small amount-debts under £5. are recoverable before the Magistrates. The revenue of the province amounts to about £43,000, and is raised by trifling duties on imports, rent of wild meadows, and lands belonging to the crown, this is appropriated by the House of Assembly, to the necessary purposes of the government, and improving the country. This province is divided into ten counties, viz. St. John's, Westmoreland, Charlotte, Sunbury, York, Northumberland, Kent, Gloucester, Devon, and Hereford; St. John's is the largest town, though it is not the metropolis, (Frederickton being the seat of government)-it has an excellent Court-house, Marine Hospital, Poor-house, Gaol, two Episcopal Churches, Scotch Kirk, Roman Catholic Chapel, Methodist, and Baptist Chapels, Bank, &c., and the city is governed by a Mayor, Recorder, six Aldermen, Sheriff &c., who hold a court for the county and city of St. John's. The government price of land in the forest is 3s. per acre, but improved land can be had in various parts at moderate rates, near the chief towns land is very valuable, and brings very high prices. Summer continues seven months, winter five; the weather in winter is cold and dry, frost and snow for four months ;. summer dry and warm; thermometer from 60 to 90. The staple trade consists of exports of timber of every description in gross and in plank, staves, &c., salted fish, and ship building. The imports, of flour from the United States and Canada, and all the luxuries of life from Great Britain. The great tide of emigration to the Canadas has nearly put the many advantages which this province possesses in the back ground, and few of the late writers on British America have noticed it at all. This is not fair dealing, particularly when upon enquiry and full examination it will be found that this province posseses some of the best land in America, an equally good climate, and facilities to the emigrant in obtaining land and effecting a settlement at a cheaper rate than in the Canadas.
The following papers have been circulated by His Majesty' Agent at Quebec: ADVICE TO EMIGRANTS. Quebec, 1st May, 1832.
There is nothing of more importance to Emigrants on arrival at Quebec, than correct information on the leading points connected with their future pursuits. Many have suffered much by a want of caution, and by listening to the opinions of interested designing characters, who frequently offer their advice unsolicited, and who are met generally about wharfs, and landing places frequented by strangers. To guard emigrants from falling into such errors, they should, immediately on arrival at Quebec, proceed to the Office of the Chief Agent for Emigrants, in Sault au Matelot street, Lower Town, where every information requisite to their future guidance in either getting settlement on lands, or obtaining employment in Upper or Lower Canada, will be obtained (gratis.) The following Directions are of importance to the Emigrant arriving in Canada, and are addressed to him in the simplest language. Previous to disembarkation, arrange your baggage in a small compass, the fewer packages the better, but have them well secured,-old dirty clothing, large-boxes, and other useless article are not worth the carriages if you have any provisions left, such as oatmeal, potatoes, &c. you can sell them at Quebec at a profit, and avoid the expense of transport, and you can purchase baker's bread, butter, tea, sugar, and other necessaries more suited for your journey. All sorts of provisions may be bought cheaper, and generally of a better quality, in Montreal and Upper Canada, than at Quebec. Dress yourself in light clean clothing. Females frequently bring on sickness, by being too warmly clothed. Cut your hair short, and wash daily and thoroughly. Avoid drinking ardent spirits of any kind, and when heated do not drink cold water. Eat moderately of light food. Avoid night dews. By attending to the preceding directions, sickness will be prevented, with other serious inconveniences. When every thing is ready for disembarkation, and if the ship is lying at anchor in the river;-take care in passing from the ship to the boat; avoid all haste and see that your baggage is in the same conveyance with yourself, or left under the charge of some friend, with your name on it. If the ship hauls to the wharf to disembark, do not be in a hurry, but await the proper time of tide, when the ships deck will be on a line with the quay or wharf. Passengers are entitled by law to the privilege of remaining on board ship 48 hours after arrival; and it is unlawful for the Captain to deprive his passengers of any of their usual accommodations for cooking or otherwise; you may therefore avoid the expense of lodgings, and make all your arragements for prosecuting your journey. Previous to disembarkation, should sickness overtake you, proceed immediately, or be removed to the Emigrant Hospital, in St. John's Suburb., where you will be taken care of and provided with every thing needful until restored to health. Medicene and medical advice also be had at the Dispensary attached to the Quebec Charitable Emigrant Society. This society will grant relief to all destitute emigrants. In Montreal there is a similar institution for the relief of emigrants. It is particularly recommended to emigrants, not to loiter their valuable time at the port of landing; but to proceed to obtain settldment or employment. Many have regretted when too late that they did not pursue this course, and take advantage of the frequent opportunities that presented themselves for settlement in convenient situations in Upper or Lower Canada, instead of squandering their means and valuable time in looking after an imaginary paradise in the aguish swamps of Illinois and Missouri, or other distant regions of the Western States. There is no portion of the American continent more congenial to the constitution or habits of emigrants from the United Kingdom, or that offer a wider field or surer reward for industry and good conduct, than the fertile districts of Upper Canada or Lower Canada. Many emigrants will find employment in the city of Quebec and its vicinity, as also in and about Montreal. Single men in particular are advised to embrace the offer, but emigrants with large families had better proceed without delay to Upper Canada, as hereafter directed, or to situations in Lower Canada, particularly the Eastern townships, and if they have sons and daughters grown up, they will find a sure demand for their services. Artificiers, and mechanics of all denominations, and farming labourers, if sober and industrious, may be sure of doing well. Blacksmiths, particularly those acquainted with steam engine work, also good millwrights and sawyers by machinery, are much wanted in the Canadas. The following are the current rates of wages paid in Upper and Lower Canada to persons acquainted with the country;-strangers ought not to expect so much: Upper Canada Lower Canada s. d. to s. d. s. d. to s. d. Ship Carpenters and Joiners, per day 5 0 7 6 3 6 6 0 Bricklayers and masons do 4 6 7 6 4 0 6 0 Blacksmiths, millwrights, &c. do 5 0 8 6 3 6 7 6 Farm and Common labourers, &c do 2 6 4 0 2 0 3 0 Ditto Ditto, per month and found 30 0 60 0 20 0 50 0 House Servants, (men) do do 30 0 50 0 20 0 40 0 Ditto do (females) do 20 0 35 0 10 0 30 0 A great number of labourers are employed on board ships, and about timber-yards at Quebec and Montreal, who get from 3s. to 4s. 6d. a day, and generally found. The extravagant habits engsndeted in such occupations, are decidedly in favour of the labouring emigrant proceeding immediatly to the country. Emigrants with families, and who are possessed of from £20 to £25, are advised to push immediately into the woods, in the vicinity of old settlements where they can obtain provisions for their spare labour. The difficulties, although great at first, soon subside, and much experience is the result. The cost of clearing wild lands, and making it ready for crop, is from 50s. to 70s. per acre in Upper Canada and the Townships of Lower Canada. To these I should say, select a favourable spot for your log house near a spring of water, or running stream, and where a cellar to keep your potatos is winter can be dug under the house. [ Carefully clear the timber and brush to a distance from your dwelling and out buildings; or, in the event of a fire in the woods, great risk is incurred of their being destroyed. ] If you proceed to build houses and clear lands on a large scale on first arrival, it rarely succeeds so well; for the price of labour is so high, and the difficulty of getting persons to work, added to the great expense of providing food for increased numbers, until produced from your own land, ought in every instance to induce the strange emigrant and family to proceed cautiously in laying out their money; but a crop of potatoes and fodder for a cow is the first object, and this may be accomplished the first year, if you arrive early. The second you will be enabled to feed your family with the necessaries of life, and the third year you may find yourself possessed of a yoke of oxen, a cow or two, and a year old calf, a couple of pigs, poultry, &c. abundance of provisions for your family, and fodder for your cattle. The Irish and Scotch peasantry know well how to value the economy of a milch cow; every new settler ought to strive to obtain one as soon as possible, taking care to provide a sufficiency of fodder for the long winter. Cattle require a little salt in the Canadas. It is not considerd necessary to go further into the details of the first settlement, as on all these points you will be guided by your own observations on the spot, and the advice you will get from the local agents and superintendents. Great caution is necessary in all your transactions. When you stant in need of advice, apply to the government agents, or other respectable sources. You will find many plans and schemes offered to your consideration, on your route from Quebec to your destination in Upper Canada; but turn away from them unless you are well satisfied of the purity of the statements. Should you require to change your English money, go to the banks or some well known respectable person. The currency in the Canadas, is at the rate of 5s. to the dollar, and is called Halifax currency. The value of English gold, or silver, is regulated by the rate of exchange in England, which fluctuates. At present the gold sovereign is worth 23s. 6d. to 24s. currency. In New York 8s. is calculated for the dollar; hence many are deceived when hearing of the rates of labour, &c. In Canada, 5s. equal to 8s. in New York; thus, 8s. New York currency is equivalent to 5s. Halifax. In Upper Canada, and in the Townships of Lower Canada, the tenure of land is "Free and Common Soccage," as in England. In the Seigneurial or French parts of Lower Canada, the feudal or French tenure is the custom. In the Canadas you live under the British laws and constitution, and are lees incumbered with taxes or local imposts, than in any other country on the face of the globe. You ought, previous to leaving Quebec, to apply at the Post office should you expect any letters, and if you are writing to your friends in the United Kingdom by post, you must pay the postage; so also when writing to the United States. Letters from one part of the Canadas to the other do not recquire to be post-paid. Emigrants may forward letters to the United Kingdom from Quebec, by taking them to the keeper of the Merchant's Exchange, and paying one penny for each. Having arranged all your business at Quebec, you will proceed without loss of time to Montral, by steam-boat, on your route to Upper Canada. Two steam-boats ply daily to Montreal, 180 miles up the St. Lawrence, which is performed in 24 or 30 hours. The fare for deck passengers, is 7s. 6d for adults; children under 12 years pay half price, and under 7 one third. These steam boats belong to private individuals. Government is in no manner connected with them. At Montreal you will find a government agent, who will advise you should you require it. Routes to the principal places in UPPER CANADA, as follows:- Quebec to Montreal, by steam boats, 7s. 6d. cost Montreal to Prescott, by Durham boats, 6s. 3d. Prescott to Kingston, by steam, 5s. 0d. Ditto to Cobourg or Port Hope, 7s. 6d. Prescott to York, Capital of Upper Canada, Hamilton, and Niagara 10s. From Niagara, you proceed by land to Fort Erie, opposite Buffalo on Lake Erie, where steam-boats, or sailing schooners, will convey those destined to Port Talbot, or other parts of the London districts, or vicinty of Lake St. Clair. Persons going to settle on the lands of the Canada Company will proceed to York or Burlington Bay head of lake Ontario. As most of the preceeding towns and landing places, you will find government agents. If you are bound to Perth or New Lanark, or the vicinity, disembark at Prescott; or you may go via By-Town on the Ottawa. If for the thriving settlements in the Newcastle district, disembark at Coburgh or Port Hope on lake Ontario. Those going to the townships of Seymour may proceed from Kingston by the beautiful Bay of Quinte, to the mouth of the Trent River, from whence a road, distance 18 miles brings you to Seymour. If proceeding to the Home or Westhern districts, disembark at York, the Capital of Upper Canada. Emigrant going any where beyond York, will in general find it their interest to make it their route. If for the London districts, proceed by the Niagara frontier, to Lake Erie, and the Talbot Settlement. If for By-Town, Grenville, Hull, Horton, or other destinations on the Ottawa River, proceed from Montreal, and Lachine, by the usual conveyances. Crown lands, of the most fertile quality, are prepared for the reception of emigrants in many parts of Upper Canada, and will be sold, payable by installments. The following offices have been opened by the Commisssioners of Crown Lands in Upper Canada, for the convenience of Emigrants:- In the Bathurst District, Mr. McNaughton will open his office at By-Town. Major Campbell, of the Township of Seymour, for the Midland District. Mr. Ritchie for the Home District, and will reside in Sunnidale. Mr. Mount, Deputy-Surveyor, for the Western District, between Carradoc and St. Clair. Emigrants may obtain employment for two or three months, on the roads, in several Townships, in the Western and Home Districts of Upper Canada. Routes to the principal settlements Lower Canada, are as follows:- District of Quebec, south side of the river St. Lawrence. Township of Frampton, 88 mile from Quebec by Point Levy, a thriving settlement inhabitants mostly Irish. Townships lying contiguous to the Kennebec road beyond Frampton, offer good prospects for settlement. The lands are principally private property. The Seigniory of St. Giles, 80 miles from Quebec, by St. Nicholas and the Craig's road, is favourably situated for emigrants, from its contiguity to the capital, and is increasing rapidly; its population is principally Irish. New Argyle, in the seigniory of St. Croix, 8 miles from Richardson's Tavern, on the Craig's road in St. Giles, and 38 miles from Quebec; the new road to the Township of Inverness passes through this settlement. Inhabitants principally highlanders from the Island of Islay, and Irish. The lands in this part are of good quality. The settlements of Ulster, Yorkshire, Dublin and New Hamilton, commence four miles beyond New Argyle, and 42 miles from Quebec, and are situated in the flourishing Township of Inverness through which a new road has been nearly finished to the borders of the Township of Halifax. The inhabitants of Inverness are from various parts of the United Kingdom. Those from England are principally from Yorkshire; those from Ireland, mostly from the northern counties; and those from Scotland are chiefly Highlanders from the Island of Arran. Beyond Inverness lie the Townships of Halifax, Chester, and Tingwick, good lands for settlement; but at present there is no convenient road to them. The Township of Athabaska joins Inverness, and is a desireable place for settlement. The Township of Leeds through which Craig's road passes, lies to the left of Inverness, is 50 miles from Quebec, and is increasing rapidly in population. Inhabitants Scotch, Irish, and English. The Township of New Ireland, through which Craig's road also passes, lies beyond Leeds, 80 miles from Quebec, and is increasing much in population. The inhabitants are principally Irish and a number of English of the Wesleyan connexion, also about 25 American families from the United States. Craig's road leads to Shipton and Dudswell, but is impasable for wheel-carriage transport beyond Ireland. From the Market-slip, in the Lower Town of Quebec, ferry-boats go daily as the tide suits to St. Nicholas, 12 miles up the river on the south side, where Craig's road begins. Eastern Townships of Lower Canada. The present route is via Three Rivers, 90 miles above Quebee, by steam boat, here cross the St. Lawrence to the soutb shore and proceed to Sherbrooke, by Nicolet, La Baie, and Drummondville; or you may proceed to Sorrel 40 miles above Three Rivers, on the south side of the St. Lawrence, and there disembark. The rate of passage from Quebec by the steam-boat will be about the same as to stop at Three Rivers, and you will avoid the ferry. A good road leads from Sorrel to Sherbrook, by Yamaska and Drummondville. The distance from Quebec to to Sherbrook in a straight line by the new road to Inverness, when finished, is 99 miles, and by Three Rivers or Sorrel; the route to be taken for transport is 160 of which 70 is land carriage. Sherbrooke is the capital of the eastern Townships, and is surrounded by thriving settlements, particularly Stanstead, where industrious farming labourers or mechanics are much wanted, and are sure (by good conduct) to do well; as also the Townships of Stanbridge, Brome, Dunham, Pottan, and the seigniory of St. Armand, the route to which is by St. John's. Chambly is 40 miles from Sorrel, and 18 from Montreal. Labourers may get employment at the canal now making at Chambly, Chateauguay, Godmanchester, and Sherington, from 25 to 40 miles from Montreal, south side of the St. Lawrence, are thriving situations. North side of the river St. Lawrence, and in the district and vicinity of Quebec, are the settlements of Beauport, Stonenam, Tewksbury, Valcartier, and Jacques Cartier, Deschambault, and the settlement of Portneuf. Inhabitants principally Irish. Three Rivers and its vicinity, 90 miles from Quebec, give employment to many emigrants. In the rere of Berthier, 130 miles above Quebec, are the Townships of Brandon, Kilkenny, Rawdon and Kildare. New Glasgow settlement, in the seigniory of Terrebonne is about 30 miles from Montreal. Persons bound for the Townships bordering on the Ottawa river, particularly Lochaber, Templeton, Hull, &c. will take their route and departure from Montreal. There are many desireable situations for settlement belonging to private individuals in Upper and Lower Canada. The names of the proprietors or the agents may be had on application at this office. It is particularly recommended to emigrants to be exceedingly cautious in ascertaining the titles to such lands as they may settle on. Recommendation for lands to the respective Township agents and superintendents, of settlements in Upper and Lower Canada, with routes, &c. will be furnished to emigrants (gratis). A. C. Buchanan, Chief Agent. Emigrant Department, Quebec, 1st May, 1832.
FOR THE INFORMATION OF EMIGRANTS.
Office of His Majesties Chief Agent for the Superintendence of Emigrants in Upper and Lower Canada. Quebec, 1st June, 1832. EMIGRANTS arriving at Quebec from the United Kingdom, and who are desirous of settling in Upper Canada or Lower Canada, or of obtaining employment, are informed that all necessary information for their guidance may be obtained (gratis) on application at this office, between the hours of 10 and 3 o'clock daily, Sundays excepted. The principal situations in Upper Canada, where arrangements are made for locating emigrants, are in the Bathurst, Newcastle, Home, and Western Districts, Indigent emigrants, on condition of actual settlement, may obtain a location on the following terms, viz. Fifty acres of land will be allotted to each head of a family, upon condition of paying at the rate of 5s. currency per acre. The first payment to be made at the expiration of three years, and the whole to be paid by annual instalments of £3. 2s. 6d. each, with interest, to commence from the expiration of three years. The government will incur the expense of building a small log house for the temporary accommodation of settler on their respective locations, and will afford some assistance towards opening roads to the lands proposed to be settled, but will make no advances in provisions or utensils, and the settlers must depend entirely upon their own resoures for bringing their lands into cultivation. Settlers with means will have opportunities of purchasing Crown Lands in several parts of the province at the public sales, due notice of which may be obtained on application at the Commissioner of Crown Lands' office, York, or to the following government agents:- Ottawa and Bathurst District Mr. McNaughton, at Bytown Newcastle District Mr. McDouall, Peterboro Home District Mr. Ritchie, Township of Medonto Western District Mr. Mount, Carrodoc and St. Clair A. C. Buchanan, Chief Agent.