CANADA AS A HOME.
Ontario's Attractions for Women.
Domestic Service is one of the most honourable, as well as one of the most useful, of pursuits. It provides a woman with more healthy surroundings than most kinds of employment open to the sex. Best of all, it is the one occupation which trains her to discharge those domestic duties of wife and mother which it is the natural ambition of every young woman, sound in body and mind, to look forward to.
How is it, then, that in the Old Country the vast majority of girls desire almost any kind of occupation but that which is called "domestic service?" The answer to this is that in the "Old Country," as most Canadians call it, the domestic servant has few chances of bettering herself, either by laying by a competency for old age or by satisfactory marriage.
How different the conditions are in the cities, towns and villages of Ontario is proved by the number of letters written home by girls who are doing well there, and whose one regret is that they did not emigrate sooner. The old-fashioned dread of the word "emigrate" is fast dying out, and in the case of a large number of ambitious and industrious young people of both sexes, the question they are asking themselves to-day is not, shall I better myself by emigrating? but, in what part of the British Empire over the sea am I most likely to have better prospects than lie before me at home? During the Coronation season, it is calculated by the steamship companies that about 15,000 people came over from Canada just on a pleasure trip, and that out of that number more than half came from the Province of Ontario; the bulk of those visitors were not wealthy and travelling regardless of expense, but they were mostly persons comfortably off travelling by choice rather than necessity, and able to spare the time and money to have a good time in visiting their friends and relations, or the places in the Old Country hallowed to their memory by old associations.
WHY ONTARIO IS THE PLACE TO GO TO.
Now that Canada is so much talked about and written about, many who are thinking of emigrating get puzzled, because Canada is such a big country, and it is not everyone who has had the chance to study big maps or to learn that Toronto, the capital city of Ontario, can be reached within a week from the United Kingdom.
Toronto is to-day a bigger city than Newcastle or Nottingham, and it has such fine public buildings, beautiful churches, handsome theatres, places of amusement, parks, and crowded thoroughfares, that the new arrival is generally surprised. Ontario, the Province of Canada of which Toronto is the capital city, is larger than the entire United Kingdom, and one of the principal reasons why girls from England, Scotland, and the North of Ireland feel so quickly at home when they get there is because there are more people in the cities, towns and villages of Ontario who have ties in the old Mother Country than there are in any other of the eight Provinces which make up the Dominion of Canada.
WAGES AND THE COST OF LIVING.
Though nobody now denies that better wages are paid in Canada than in the United Kingdom to domestics as well as to other kinds of labour, it is sometimes stated that the cost of living is greater. Of course, as regards food and lodging, even if such statements were true, they would not affect the domestic servant who lives in the house; but in reality, in the Province of Ontario generally, the cost of living on the same scale need not be greater than in the average town in the Old Country. The same remark applies to ordinary ready-made clothing. The fact that wages all round are so much better causes dressmaking to be dearer, and it is fair to say that luxuriesthe things people can do without -- are also more expensive than in an English city. Upon these points we have reliable testimony, not only from the Lady Superintendent of the Women's Welcome Hostel in Toronto, but from the letters of English, Scotch, and Irish girls who are living there.
Of the former, Miss FitzGibbon says :--"As a housekeeper I have, of course, noticed a general increase in the price of necessaries, but our food supplies are cheaper than the price I find generally charged in England; and look at the difference in wages." As regards other things, Miss FitzGibbon considers that dressmakers" bills, gloves, and ribbons were the only things she had found any cheaper in London than in the Toronto shops, which by the way, are there called "stores." Of the letters which mention this subject we quote one from Ada Cater, who was formerly in service at Gloucester, and writes from Toronto :--"Things seem as cheap here as in England."
THE CONDITIONS OF SERVICE.
Of course "mistresses" and their methods of housekeeping differ in Canada, -as elsewhere, but the testimony of the letters received by the Ontario Government and its Agencies show that there are few cases of dissatisfaction. In most instances girls find themselves treated with far more consideration in every way, and have far more time out; in many cases, especially in the country districts, they are frequently treated as members of the family. Here are the opinions of some English girls upon these points.
Dora Birkett, formerly of Pershore Road, Birmingham, writing to the Secretary of the Society through which she went out, says: --
"I am never tired of singing the praises of Canada to my friends, but really I do wish I had come here sooner, say four years ago. I have, in a sense, wasted several years, when I should really have been well off now. Of course I've seen a good many different places and people, but we all know in the end, that as far as this world goes, "money is one's best friend," and we can get plenty of that here. As you told me in one of your letters once-- "If they like you they will try to encourage you." I have risen eight dollars (£1 12S 10d) a month since I have been here, so I don't think that had, and I've an unusually good home. They are away just now, and I'm the housekeeper and control everything."
Ellen Caddick, formerly of Bristol and now in Toronto, writes: --
"My sister and I arrived in Toronto in the evening, and at ten o'clock the next morning a lady came for me and my sister Annie to take us to our work. We both have good homes and very easy work, and are both earning the same wages as each other. I would not like to work in England again after the clean work we have over here, and am sorry I did not come years ago."
The number of well-to-do people in Ontario is increasing rapidly, and those who occupy large houses, of course have two, three, or more servants, who work more on the lines of similar establishments in England, but the girl who has the best chance of any of making a good home for herself is the one who is competent and willing to do general housework. The cook, with special qualifications, is also of course in great demand.
Kathleen Morris, formerly of Leicester, writes from Lake Rousseau, Ontario: --
"What I say to myself of my present experience is, that a good home, the best of everything, and £40 a year, is a very nice beginning. I like this land and its people,and get much sunshine out of my life."
In the summer months there is an immense demand for help in the various hotels and boarding houses of the lake and river summer resorts of the Province. Those who show good managing capacity find far greater opportunity for employment as working housekeepers than the Old Country now offers. For instance --
E. M. Churchill, formerly of Derby, now in Toronto, writes: --
"I am in a situation as housekeeper to a lady, and think it will be a very good home for me. I think I shall like Canada, and never return to England."
Here is another letter from a girl who was working in a boarding house: --
Ethel G. Shorr, formerly of Aston Hall, Sheffield, and now in Toronto, who says: --
"I am quite happy, and get eighteen dollars (£3 14S) a month, besides what I make at the tables. I had a letter from Marguerite Hicks, and she seems to be quite comfortable in a situation at Boissevain."
MORE PROSPECTS OF GOOD MARRIAGES.
Without labouring the point, it can be said with absolute truth that women have more chance of finding a good husband in a country where the men outnumber the women; where labour is better paid and more secure, and where more men can afford to support a comfortable home, and are of a class which looks for and values domestic qualities in their helpmate.
Nellie Byrne, of Toronto, formerly of Liskeard, Cheshire, who was getting £18 per annum in England and receives £40 in Toronto, writes: --
"I am very glad to have come to Canada. It is a lovely country; we are getting along splendid. There are two of our party of girls married since we came out. At present we have very cold weather, but we don't feel the cold, and I only wish I could get my sister here."
WAGES AND COMPARISONS WITH ENGLISH EARNINGS.
During her last visit to England, the Lady Superintendent of the Women's Welcome Hostel, in Toronto, was interviewed by a representative of the weekly illustrated journal, "Canada," which is published in London, to whom she said:--
"The very lowest monthly wage offered to the inexperienced new-comer is eight dollars (£1 13S) per month, and then the arrangement is almost invariably made that this shall be increased to ten dollars (£2 1S) per month if the girl stays on. For the experienced, the wages vary from sixteen dollars (£3 5s. 6d.) upwards. Some of my girls who have developed into superior cooks are getting as much as twenty-five dollars, or £5 per month. Some occupy other trustworthy positions at that figure. Many have been in the situations from three to seven years, but most marry."
Another lady engaged in promoting the emigration of women, who has just returned from Toronto, where she has successfully placed a number of girls from England in domestic service, in an interview with a representative of "The Canadian Mail," spoke enthusiastically in regard to the possibilities for women, especially trained domestic servants.
"Domestic servants," she said, "have far more consideration and double the wages received in Great Britain. For instance, a girl, say, a competent general, would possibly get £ here; in Ontario she would easily get £37 to £40 to start with, a good home, three or four evenings a week to herself; alternate Sundays from 3 to 10 p.m., other Sundays 10.30 to 12.30, to enable her to go to Church. Every encouragement is given to the right class of women and girls. We guarantee a situation within 24 hours of arrival at such excellent wages as those mentioned. This is, I may say, the usual start, not by any means the exception. I am in this moment inundated with letters and commissions for good maids of all kinds for some of the best families in Toronto at wages varying from £37 for generals to £60 for cooks."
WHAT THE GIRLS WRITE HOME.
Probably, however, the opinions of some of the girls themselves will be best appreciated, and here are some more extracts taken from the original letters, which can be seen at the offices of the Ontario Government, 163, Strand, W.C.
Nellie Callow, formerly of Bristol, and now in Toronto, writes: --
"Now I am in Canada I think I would not live in England again for good. I got a very nice place, and am getting fifteen dollars (£3 1s. 7d.) a month. It is just grand here. My sisters are old enough to earn their own living, and I should like so much to have them all out here as I know they would like it."
Bessie Thomas, formerly of Trealaw, Wales, writes:--
"I am in a very nice place, which I think it will be wise to stay in for a while. The money is twenty dollars (£42s. 2d.) per month, and the work is not hard."
Clara Williams, formerly of St. Mary's, Scilly Isles, Cornwall, writes from Toronto: --
"I am glad to tell you that I have a fine situation. I am having eighteen dollars (£3 13s. 11d.), only two in family, and no washing."
Ida Knight, from Hallen, and now in St. Catharine's, writes: --
"I have got a good place, with lots of good food, and am to have $12 a month (£30 a year) English money. Don't you think I am lucky? I am only 17, and was only getting £9 a year in England. I wish my mother would come out, she could get good wages here."
POUNDS AND PENCE. DOLLARS AND CENTS.
The easiest way to calculate the respective values of the money in use in Canada as compared with England, is to remember that one halfpenny is nearly the exact value of once cent., and that one dollar is just over four shillings. For instance, if you are asked 25 cents. for an article it is about 25 halfpence, and 25 halfpence means 12 ½ pence, or one shilling as near as possible. Similarly, 50 cents.(half a dollar) equals about 2 shillings, 75 cents. 3 shillings, and 100 cents. 4 shillings, or one dollar. Thus the most important point to remember is that a 100 cents., or a trifle less than 50 pence, is equal to one dollar ($1). When you have mastered these points it is easy to calculate that five dollars ($5) equal one sovereign (£1).
In taking money with you to Canada, it is advisable to keep a few shillings in English money to purchase anything you need on board ship, and be provided with a few Canadian 25 cent. pieces (1/-),10 cent. pieces (5d.), and 5 cent. pieces (2 1/2d.), to use immediately you land on Canadian soil and during your journey to Toronto. For any sum of more than £2 or £3, it is better to get a bank draft, a post office money order, or an express order payable in Toronto. The exact rate of exchange is £1 3D $4.87, which means that for 240 pence or 480 halfpence paid in to the Money Order Department of the General Post Office here, you will receive 487 cents. in Canada.
Any odd English coins that a traveller may have will be exchanged by the Purser of the ship before arrival in Quebec, Montreal, Halifax or St. John, at a fair fixed rate, about equal to the above.
THE WELCOME UPON ARRIVAL.
Those who are desirous of more detailed information as to the total cost of railway and steamship journey from the place in which they are living to Toronto, the capital of Ontario, which is the distributing point for the entire Province, should write to Mr. N. B. Colcock, Agent for the Government of Ontario in the United Kingdom, 163, Strand, London, who will forward forms to be filled up, which will be sent out to Canada in advance, and ensure the holder on arrival being met in Toronto and provided with a situation, either there or in some other city, town or village in the Province.
The Women's Welcome Hostel, 52, St. Alban's Street, Toronto, an illustration of which appears on the cover of this pamphlet, is partly supported by the Government, and is managed by a committee of ladies who are interested in seeing that newly arrived girls from the Old Country receive a welcome upon their arrival in a temporary home.
Miss Agnes FitzGibbon, the Secretary of this valuable institution, during a recent visit to London, in an interview with the representatives of the Weekly Illustrated Journal, "Canada," the "Canadian Gazette," "Canadian Mail," and other British papers, speaking as to the work of the Hostel, said: --
"Our work is in no sense sectarian. So long as we have room, any girl with good references is received, and for the first twenty-four hours after her arrival, or until the Monday if she arrives on a Saturday, the new-comer has bed and board free of charge. We meet new-comers at the railway station, look after their luggage, and during their stay with us do our best to make them thoroughly understand the particular conditions as to domestic service which prevail with us, the nature of the laws regarding employer and employed, and particularly those which apply to the moral protection of the young girl, who is liable to encounter many pitfalls upon her arrival in a New Country, where, wearied with the long journey and distracted with the novelty of her surroundings, she is especially liable to be victimised by the unscrupulous. Girls who desire to remain after the first twenty-four hours are charged 50 cents. (2s.1d.) a day for their board, though it is in rare cases that they are not placed in satisfactory situations immediately. Some are actually en route to places which have been secured for them previously, and use the hostel as a rest house. Though we receive many applications for domestic help, we do not, of course, pretend to act as a registry office, and collect no fees. Subject to certain necessary regulations as to hours, etc., our inmates are entirely unfettered in their movements, and are quite at liberty to look for situations themselves."
Except in rare cases, it is better for the girl who intends to emigrate to wait until she reaches Toronto to enter into an engagement. The demand is always greater than the supply. There is no occasion for anxiety as to not obtaining a situation within a day or two after arrival.
For the voyage, provide warm clothing, as cool weather may be met with, even in the summer months. A thick serge dress is always useful, also a heavy jacket with large turn-up collar, or fur necklet to protect throat and ears. Warm under-clothing, woolen stockings, lined gloves, and furs are always useful, but it is quite unnecessary to provide a large stock of clothing, because, with a few exceptions, such as gloves, millinery, hairpins, needles, &c., clothing of all kinds more suitable to all seasons of the year can be obtained cheaply in the shops in Ontario towns.
Before leaving the steamer in the summer time, put on light clothing and underwear for travelling on land. It is likely to be warm on the train. In winter it is also advisable to change into a light blouse for railway travel, as the carriages are heated, and too heavy clothing would be uncomfortable. Have your heavy outer clothing ready to put on before you leave the train.
Much trouble will be avoided by putting all the personal effects and clothing not actually wanted for use on the voyage in boxes or trunks labelled "Not Wanted on Voyage," and plainly addressed with the name and final place of destination. Limit what you put in box labelled "Wanted on Voyage" to actual necessaries.
Miss FitzGibbon, the Secretary of the Women's Welcome Hostel, in Toronto, writes: --
"From a long experience of looking after the luggage of women coming to Canada, tin trunks are about the worse things to use, they are so easily bent and the locks wrenched apart. The American iron bound, or basket trunk, is decidedly the best, is not easily broken and is lighter to carry. A strong hamper covered with coarse canvas is not an expensive thing and is most durable."
All luggage, whether marked "wanted" or "not wanted on voyage," should be claimed on arrival at the port in Canada by its owner on landing from the ship at the dock, and a check obtained for it before getting on the train.
These checks you retain until your arrival at Toronto, or any other railway station to which you are booked, where they are not to be given up except to the railway official who hands you the articles, each of which has a duplicate numbered check upon it.
The usual charge for delivering a box from a railway station in Canada to any address within the town limits is 25 cents., or 1/-
Passengers on the train are allowed one hundred weight of luggage free, with a small charge for any excess.
"Not wanted" luggage can he sent on as advance luggage by passenger train, and delivered at the steamer in London, Liverpool or Glasgow at a small transfer fee (about 6d. per box) paid in advance, thus saving all trouble to the passenger. It may, however, be necessary to satisfy the station-master at the home station, by producing sailing ticket or otherwise, that the owner will follow by a later train.
Agents of the steamships meet every train at the port of departure just prior to sailing dates, to conduct passengers to the vessel, and otherwise render that assistance which is necessary to their comfort.
All necessary luggage labels are supplied by the steamship agent with whom the passage is booked.
Landing in Canada.
Immediately upon leaving the ship at Quebec, Halifax, or St. John, and passing the inspection, the passenger must first see that all her luggage is passed by the Custom House Officers. Usually, it is all collected in a shed alongside the ship under the letters of the alphabet--thus, if your name is Simpson, look for it where the letter S is posted up. After all has been passed by the Customs Officer, see that every article except what you can carry in your hand for use on the train is handed over to the railway official, who will give you the duplicate numbered brass check above referred to, for each individual article.
The next thing to do is to request the agent of the Canadian Pacific Railway, the Grand Trunk Railway, or the Canadian Northern Railway Company, to wire to Miss FitzGibbon, giving the time of departure of your train to Toronto. This will be done free of charge on production of your railroad ticket to the agent of whichever line you are travelling by. Miss FitzGibbon's telegraphic address is "Welcome," Toronto.
Voluntary Testimony from British Girls in Situations in Ontario.
Priscilla Vowles, of Sault Ste Marie, and formerly of Patchway, Gloucester, writes: --
"I have got a very good situation, and it's a very pretty place; there is a big lake just in front of us. I like it very much so far, and have got a very nice English girl as a companion. She has been out here four years, and she has only had one situation; she is in the same one now as when she came out here. She is living with the sister of my mistress, and says she would not come back to England for anything."
Margaret Price, formerly of East Sheen, London, S.W., writes from Rosedale, Toronto: --
"I came out here on October 13th, and have been in this situation ever since, and now my sister would like to come out. I will pay part of her fare now I have just finished paying off my own."
Ina Stafford, formerly of Bristol, writes from Toronto:--
"I have got a very good place, and am very happy and contented, and only regret that I did not leave before, and am advising all my friends to come to Canada."
The Mother of Marianne and Floss Curtis, of Chelsham School, Surrey, says of her daughters now in Toronto: --
"They both write me such nice, interesting letters, and they seem quite settled down and are getting £40 per year."
E. Fox, formerly of Worksop, now in Toronto, writes: --
"I like being here very much. I expect you will soon have a letter from Ethel, telling you about Maggie, that she is very happy and got a good home."
Jessie Holmes, now in Brighton, Ontario, and formerly in service near Regent's Park, writes: --
"I do not want to come back to England."
Helena E. Preston, formerly of Tytherington, Gloucester, now in Toronto, writes: --
"I like the place very well so far, and think that I shall get on very well. I think that I shall like Canada very much."
Nellie Whittaker, now in Toronto, and formerly of Stratford, London, writes: --
"I am very happy here, £2 18s. 0d. per month."
Carrie Searle, of Toronto, and formerly of Pendleton, Manchester, writes: --
"I have heard from a young friend, and she wishes she were out here with me, and so I have told her to hurry up and save, like I did. I am getting £3 10s. 0d. per month."
D. Birkett, of Quebec, and formerly of Birmingham, writes: --
"I don't regret at all coming to Canada. When I think of the horrors of an English winter, I am more than thankful. It's beautiful weather here, even with icicles a yard long hanging all round, and snow about four feet deep; but there is the beautiful sunshine and blue sky to be seen; and I've got a very happy home, and have a Sunday School class, and am in the Church choir."
May England, formerly of Ashton Gate, Bristol, writes from Toronto: --
"I am very pleased to tell you I like Toronto very much, and although all my friends are in England, I would not come back to stay."
Lucy Turner, formerly in service near Regent's Park, writes from Cluny Avenue, Toronto: --
"I have a fine place, £5 0s. 0d. per month. I find plenty of time to go out. The work is not near so hard as in England."
Mary Chappell, formerly of Wickwar, near Bristol, writes from Toronto: --
"I am so glad to tell you that I like Canada well. Both Ada and I are getting on fine, and like our situations."
Phoebe Bewley, of Russell Hill Drive, Toronto, formerly of Ealing, London, writes: --
"I am getting on fine. I like my place much. Have a rise of 8/6 a month. I went to see Lizzie, and she is getting on fine, and happy as a lark."
Beatrice Hornby, formerly living at Brighouse, Yorkshire, now in Ontario, writes: --
"I like my place very much indeed, it will also learn me more of the cookery than if I had gone on a farm. I like Canada very much, and am getting $22 (£4 10s. 5d.); it's a very good home."
M. E. Johnson, formerly of Huyton, Liverpool, and now living at Long Branch, Ontario, writes: --
"I have got settled in my new home, and am feeling quite happy and contented."
Alice Potter, now in Toronto, formerly of Westbury-on-Trym, near Bristol, writes: --
"I like it very much here; it is a very pretty place, and I am to have £4 10s. 0d. a month (£50 a year)."
Amy Bryant, formerly of Bristol, and now in Toronto, writes: --
"I am getting £4 5s. 0d. now, and am very comfortable. Lizzie Elliss, who went west while you were out here, has come back to Toronto again, she did not like it so well out there. My two brothers want to come out, will you please write and tell them what to do."
Writing from the residence of Lady Falconbridge, 80 Isabella Street, Toronto, to the Ontario Government Agent in London, on August 24th, Lillie Taylor and Jeannette Matthews, say:--
"We arrived on the 11th, just seven days after leaving London, and ever since we put foot into the country, have met with nothing but kindness from everybody. Indeed they seem to vie each other to do as much as possible for us and make us feel at home. I can never hope to make you understand how grateful we are, and how much we are indebted to everyone here. Before a week was over our heads, we were both fixed up. For myself you will see by the address I have not done badly, I am governess to the two little grandsons of Sir Glenholme and Lady Falconbridge. Both are consideration itself to me, and if all goes well the winter promises to be a happy one for both Jeannette and myself. The weather is delightful and certainly appears as though it will last some time yet."
Writing from Toronto, October 25th, Mr. C. Wake says: --
"Your letters of introduction were of great service to me, and ultimately landed me into the position I at present occupy, i.e., store accountant to one of the largest and most popular hotels in this city. The Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Mr. C. C. James, passed me on to Mr. J. M. Clark, the Immigration Agent of Toronto, and I cannot speak too highly of the kindness I received from this official who did everything possible, from arranging for the transport of my baggage to securing me employment. Three of my daughters obtained positions through the kindness of Miss FitzGibbon of the Hostel, and the eldest of the three is now drawing $25 a month and all found, for services in a gentleman's family at Niagara Falls; this seems almost incredible, as her work in England was quite of a different nature, and I gladly mention the fact to prove that I was justified in bringing them to Canada. We are all delighted with the Country,and my wife finds housekeeping expenses for necessaries are about on par with the prices that obtain in a London suburb; luxuries vary in price, some being dearer, whilst others are less expensive than in England. House rent is a heavy item, as in the Old Country. Clothing all round costs more because people dress better, which is a sign of prosperity. It appears to be the correct thing to dress differently for Spring, Summer, Autumn or Fall, as it is here called, and Winter. Both sexes are guilty of this extravagance."
E. Jaquest, writes from Toronto, 7thJune: --
"Just a card as promised to let you know I got a place the day after I got here, and am very comfortable and happy. I think this is a splendid country and I like it very much."
H. Blake (late Egham, Surrey), now at 10, Elm Avenue, Rosedale, Toronto, writes to the Booking Agent: --
"I thought perhaps you would like a few lines from me, just to hear how I am getting on. Well, for a start I had a very comfortable voyage, and we had every comfort on the steamship. I think Toronto a lovely city, quite deserving the name of the Queen City. Everyone here is so well dressed, and the styles of hairdressing are most elaborate. A thing you never see here is untidy people out walking, even the children are smartly dressed; in fact, it is quite a different style to England altogether. Now I must tell you that I have a very comfortable place here. It is quite a holiday after Park Wood. I have not a quarter of the work and worry I had there, and am getting at the rate of £25 a year more, and we have everything we want. Each servant has her own room; also bathroom for our use. The residential parts of Toronto are simply lovely. All the streets and avenues are laid out in the boulevard style, and at night when lighted up by the electric light, are a grand sight. The scenery here is grand. I am going to the Niagara Falls the beginning of August."
Beth Haining (Dumfries), writes: --
"I am in a good place, and well treated by the Mr. And Mrs. Better than girls are treated in Scotland. I am in a very pretty part of Ontario."
Mrs. A. White (Castlehill, Troqueer, Dumfries), states: --
"That she was placed in a good situation by Miss FitzGibbon. She obtained £3 13s. 6d. the first month, and obtains a dollar a month increase for the next few months. She likes the place, and thanks the agent here for his kindness to her."
Jeanie Gracie (Hunterstown, West Kilbride), says: --
"She likes Canada awfully well and has got a very good place. The agent on arrival met them and was very kind, taking her to his home for the night. On entering her place next day she was made quite at home. Her work is much the same as at home, but the hours are shorter. Everyone round is nice to her. There is a great demand for both girls and men from Scotland in her district of Ontario."
Jessie Kenyon (Lower Stepford, Dunscore, Scotland), writes from Ontario: --
"That she is getting on all right. She has got a nice place and all the people are very friendly and nice. She finds the work much easier than in the Old Country, and, most important of all, the wages are much better. She had no trouble all the way out, and no bother getting a place."
ONTARIO Where it is situated.... It's size and climatic conditions.
The Province of Ontario contains a total area of 222,000 square miles, as compared with the 121,377 square miles of England and Wales, Ireland and Scotland combined. Ontario contains more than one third of the entire population of Canada. Ontario contains a greater number of cities and towns, with over 10,000 population, than any other area of Canada.
Ottawa, the capital of the Dominion of Canada, is in the Province of Ontario. Toronto, the capital city of the Province and seat of the Ontario Parliament buildings, Law Courts, and public offices, has a population of nearly 400,000, more than that of Hull, Leicester, Newcastle-on-Tyne, Nottingham or Edinburgh. Toronto is 333 miles from Montreal, and 506 miles from Quebec, where the steamers land their passengers between May and November; it can be reached within seven days from London, Edinburgh or Dublin at a cost of under £8 third class, and about £10 10s. second class.
The principal cities in Ontario, after Toronto and Ottawa, having, according to the Dominion Government Census of 1911, over 15,000 population, are Berlin, Brantford, Fort William, Guelph, Hamilton, Kingston, London, Peterborough, and Windsor. Electric tramways run through the streets and far into the outskirts. Electric light is generally in use in shops, factories, and private residences, as also in many farm houses. The telephone is more in use in Ontario than in any other portion of the British Empire.
Many counties in Ontario are named after those in Great Britain, and contain a large number of natives or descendants of those who were born in England or Wales, Scotland or Ireland; for instance, Elgin, Essex, Kent, Lincoln, Middlesex, Norfolk, Northumberland, Durham, Oxford, Perth, Renfrew and York, are all counties in Ontario.
Generally speaking, the heat of summer is greater than in England, but is not continuous enough to enervate as in southern climates, while the winter, though much colder, is less damp and consequently more bracing. Summer extends from early in June till late in September, autumn, known as "the fall," from then till the end of November, winter till the end of March, and spring till the beginning of June.
NOTE.The Ontario Emigration department desires emigrants and booking agents to distinctly understand that it is not responsible for any statements made by Employment Bureaus, Emigration Societies, Booking Agents, or others in the United Kingdom or elsewhere, apart from those contained in printed pamphlets, or circulars issued by the Department of Agriculture in Toronto, or at the offices of the Ontario Government, 163, Strand, London, and supplied from thence to its duly authorized Agents in the United Kingdom.
Bill Martin, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada.
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