Gilbert Of Ghent
BIOGRAPHY: Notes: Lord of Folkingham and Hunmandby, Lincoln.
Alice Of Montfort
BIOGRAPHY: Notes: Henry II's mistress
Earl Of Salisbury
King Of England
BIOGRAPHY: Notes:John was born on Christmas Eve 1167. His parents drifted apart after his birth; his youth was divided between his eldest brother Henry's house, where he learned the art of knighthood, and the house of his father's justiciar, Ranulf Glanvil, where he learned the business of government. As the fourth child, inherited lands were not available to him, giving rise to his nickname, Lackland. His first marriage lasted but ten years and was fruitless, but his second wife, Isabella of Angouleme, bore him two sons and three daughters. He also had an illegitimate daughter, Joan, who married Llywelyn the Great, Ruler of All Wales, fromwhich the Tudor line of monarchs was descended. The survival of the English government during John's reign is a testament to the reforms of his father, as John taxed the system socially, economically, and judicially.
BIOGRAPHY: The Angevin family feuds profoundly marked John. He and Richard clashed in 1184 following Richard's refusal to honor his father's wishes surrender Aquitane to John. The following year Henry II sent John to rule Ireland, but John alienated both the native Irish and the transplanted Anglo-Normans who emigrated to carve out new lordships for themselves; the experiment was a total failure and John returned home within six months. After Richard gained the throne in 1189, he gaveJohn vast estates in an unsuccessful attempt to appease his younger brother. John failed to overthrow Richard's administrators during the German captivity and conspired with Philip II in another failed coup attempt. Upon Richard's release from captivity in 1194, John was forced to sue for pardon and he spent the next five years in his brother's shadow.
BIOGRAPHY: John's reign was troubled in many respects. A quarrel with the Church resulted in England being placed under an interdict in 1207, with John actually excommunicated two years later. The dispute centered on John's stubborn refusal to install the papal candidate,Stephen Langdon, as Archbishop of Canterbury; the issue was not resolved untilJohn surrendered to the wishes of Pope Innocent III and paid tribute for England as the Pope's vassal.
BIOGRAPHY: John proved extremely unpopular with hissubjects. In addition to the Irish debacle, he inflamed his French vassals by orchestrating the murder of his popular nephew, Arthur of Brittany. By spring 1205, he lost the last of his French possessions and returned to England. The final ten years of his reign were occupied with failed attempts to regain these territories. After levying a number of new taxes upon the barons to pay for his dismal campaigns, the discontented barons revolted, capturing London in May 1215. At Runnymeade in the following June, John succumbed to pressure from the barons, the Church, and the English people at-large, and signed the Magna Carta. The document, a declaration of feudal rights, stressed three points. First, the Church was free to make ecclesiastic appointments. Second, larger-than-normal amounts of money could only be collected with the consent of the king's feudal tenants. Third, no freeman was to be punished except within the context of common law. Magna Carta, although a testament to John's complete failure as monarch,was the forerunner of modern constitutions. John only signed the document as ameans of buying time and his hesitance to implement its principles compelled the nobility to seek French assistance. The barons offered the throne to Philip II's son, Louis. John died in the midst of invasion from the French in the South and rebellion from his barons in the North.
BIOGRAPHY: John was rememberedin elegant fashion by Sir Richard Baker in A Chronicle of the Kings of England: ". . .his works of piety were very many . . . as for his actions, he neither came to the crown by justice, nor held it with any honour, nor left it peace."
BIOGRAPHY: Notes: John was an able administra
notes: mistress of King Henry I
Miles Of Gloucester
Earl Of Hereford
BIOGRAPHY: notes: One of the Magna Charta Sureties
Ogre Of Abergavenny
BIOGRAPHY: Notes: Starved to death along with her son, William in the Dungeon of Windsor Castle by John I (Lackland)
BIOGRAPHY: Notes: Also known as "Sybil".
Earl Of Pembroke
BIOGRAPHY: Notes:Richard fitz Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Pembroke and Lord of Leinster, was thefather of Isabel de Clare, wife of William Marshal. Richard was the son of Gilbert fitz Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Pembroke, and Isabel de Beaumont, sister toWaleran Count of Meulan and Robert Earl of Leicester. Richard, like his father, was known as "Strongbow" for his skill and use of the long bow of the men of Gwent. Richard and his father supported King Stephen in the civil war between Stephen and the Empress Matilda for the throne of England until c1141 when King Stephen took Gilbert's lands and castles on the suspicion that Gilbert might join his nephew, Gilbert Earl of Clare, and Ranulf Earl of Chester on the Empress's side.
Gilbert Earl of Pembroke died in 1148, and Richard at the age of eighteen took seisin of his father's lands, castles and titles. In the Treaty of Windsor of 1153, King Stephen recognized Henry Duke of Anjou as his heir to the throne of England, and Richard witnessed the Treaty as "comes de Penbroc." However, once Henry became King Henry II of England in December 1154, he did not recognize Richard's right to the title or the lands of Pembroke [inherited by hisfather from his uncle Walter de Clare and granted by King Stephen] nor as lordof Orbec and Bienfaite in Normandy [inherited by his father from his uncle Roger de Clare and granted by King Henry I]. Whatever Henry's reasons for denying Richard his lands and titles [there are no definite proven reasons or justifications of this act of Henry's], Richard was a knight and baron of one of the oldest and greatest families of the Conqueror's time who found himself without hisrightful inheritance.
BIOGRAPHY: At the age of thirty-eight and still unmarried due to a lack of royal favor, Richard was ready for the arrival and proposal of Dermot MacMurchada Lord of Leinster in 1168/69. Dermot arrived in Bristol, along with his daughter Aoife, and went to the home of Robert fitz Harding, a wealthy merchant, money-lender, and favorite of King Henry's. Dermot had goneto King Henry in Normandy and gained permission to recruit knights from Henry's lands in Wales and the Marches for his battle to regain his own lordship of Leinster in Ireland. It is possible and probable that fitz Harding, to whom de Clare may have owed money, recommended Strongbow to Dermot as a good candidate to be recruited. Dermot offered Strongbow lands in Ireland, his daughter Eve in marriage, and the lordship of Leinster on Dermot's death. Dermot offered Strongbow a gamble, a chance, on winning lands, a royal wife, wealth, and knightly fame. He accepted the chance on the proviso that he obtained permission from KingHenry, his lord and king. Strongbow went to King Henry and obtained his permission, although Henry would later deny that he had given it except in a jesting manner.
BIOGRAPHY: Strongbow arrived in Ireland in August 1170; he had already sent many of his vassals from Wales to Ireland in 1169. Strongbow met Dermot and the Anglo-Norman knights, who were already there, with 200 men-at-arms and over one thousand archers. They took Waterford on St. Bartholomew's Eve [August 28, 1170], and a day later, he and Eve MacMurchada were married in the cathedral in Waterford. [There is a painting of the marriage of Strongbow and Aoife by Maclise in the National Gallery of Ireland in Dublin.] Soon after the marriage, Strongbow, Dermot and their knights marched to Dublin and took that city and the adjacent surrounding lands. Strongbow and the other Anglo-Normans quicklytook control of the cities of Dublin, Waterford, and Wexford and much of the southeastern land of Ireland.
BIOGRAPHY: King Henry II became alarmed at thesuccess of his knights and fearing their growing strength and possible motives, he ordered all his knights in Ireland to return to England on pain of forfeiture of their lands in England, Wales and Normandy
Countess Of Ireland