Language and name experts
have hypothesised that the surnames of Vine, Vines, Viner, and Viney
may have arisen from a common ancestor or family since the beginning of
the patronymic naming system about a thousand years ago. A long term DNA
testing project on cell samples from such families has been commenced to
obtain evidence of genetic relationships for genealogical purposes. Contact
To test whether persons of these
names are genetically related by being descendants from one common ancestor.
To differentiate genetic families
and establish a benchmark or typical haplotype for each line.
To validate genealogy established
from evidence provided by official church and state records of births,
deaths, marriages, wills, land ownership, military and other historical
records and physical indications such as written on burial memorials.
To test the validity of family
legends of relationships.
To indicate which family lines
may benefit by further collaboration in their research.
To set up a genetic family data
base for future researchers use.
The basis for DNA technology
used for these objectives is:
For well described information
on DNA for the layman see
The DNA of the Y chromosome,
one of the 23rd chromosome pair in males, found in the nucleus of the human
cell, differs between unrelated males. It is passed from father to son
only, with little mutational change over long periods of time. The surname
in the patronymic naming system generally follows the Y chromosome DNA.
The DNA of the mitochondria
in the cell, (but outside of the nucleus,) which control the use of sugar
and oxygen to release energy, is passed only from mother to child. It is
very useful for showing population movements in the past.
Mutational changes within the
Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA can be used to estimate time back to
a common ancestor.
This is a long term project
intended to assist historians of all Vines and
variant family names; participation is invited. It necessitates
comparison of Y DNA from living males of these surnames, and will define
the various Vines family lines. A few males of different surnames may be
included when circumstances indicate that they may have descended directly
with name change from Vines. As time passes it may be necessary to widen
the list to include other related names or to hive off a name to form a
Note: Unexpected results
may be revealed long after an event.
You must be over 18 years old,
male with the surname of Vines, Vine, Vigne, Viner or Viney and other acceptable
You should provide a pedigree
or known history of paternal ancestry for at least 4 generations, without
name change or adoption from outside the genetic line.
You must have an email address
for communications and delivery of test results.
To join, contact
Fred Vines. On acceptance for association with the project as a genuine
family line you will be given the internet address for a test order form
from FTDNA testing company at Houston, Texas, which allows the reduced
test price for group members.
The standard test for Y chromosome
DNA, which is inherited by males only from their fathers, costs US$169
plus $2-$4 for postage according to location. Payment can be made safely
on the form by credit card from most countries. Other tests for mitochondrial
DNA, inherited only from mothers, and tests for recent ethnic origins are
also supported by this project, see FTDNA
home page for full details.
A sampling kit will be
sent to your mailing address. It contains two scraper-swabs, two tiny vials,
an addressed return envelope and instructions.
The sample is taken at home
by rubbing the swab around the inside of the cheeks and gums for a minute
and absorbing saliva and cells. The scraper is detached directly into the
vial, to be sealed and posted off to the laboratory. No pain or blood
is involved and the process takes only a few minutes.
The test does not find health
problems or genetic defects nor does it indicate the life expectancy or
age at death.
The tests require 4 to 8 weeks
from reception at the lab. Results will be made available on a secure web
site, after notice by email that they are ready. FTDNA will also include
them in their database. If they find that a result matches any already
in the database the testee will be informed.
All results for this project
will be reported also in the table on this website under Results
and discussed on this website. Participants will be identified by the test
kit number, and made known to each other initially by mutual consent through
me as group administrator. See also the website for FTDNA
An unmarried daughter in a family
might have her illegimate child carry her family name, but the son would
not have the Y DNA of her father.
A man might raise his dead sisters
child in his own name, but the child would have different genetics to his
A child resulting from an illicit
union within a marriage may or may not have the Y DNA of his nominal father,
depending on the relationship of the real father to the nominal father,
eg a brother, paternal uncle or cousin etc., would have identical
Y DNA to the nominal father and a false paternity record would not be detected.
The marriage of a man to a woman
pregnant by another, is a not uncommon cause for unrecorded lineage and
unexpected DNA test results.
It should be remembered that
these surnames are relatively rare and even though false paternity may
be proved by this project, the fact of carrying the name shows probability
of family association of some sort. The actual history may be different
to the documentary or legendary evidence.