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MARGUERIE
(-)
Marie MARGUERIE
(1620-)

 

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Spouses/Children:
1. Jacques HERTEL

2. Quentin MORAL

Marie MARGUERIE

  • Born: 12 Sep 1620, St Vincent Cathedral, Rouen, Normandy, France
  • Marriage (1): Jacques HERTEL on 23 Aug 1641 in Trois Rivieres, Maurice, Quebec
  • Marriage (2): Quentin MORAL in 1652 in Trois-Rivieres, Quebec
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bullet  General Notes:

Haplogroup W.

Based on present evidence, 140,000 people in the United States, and an even larger number in Canada, are direct matrilineal descendants of Marie Marguerie, the founder of the 'Marie W' haplotype lineage in the Americas. Recently, some of her descendants found each other through mitochondrial DNA testing, and have been able to identify Marie as their common matrilineal ancestor.

From http://www.thecid.com/w/frenchw/i91.htm

Based on present evidence, 140,000 people in the United States, and an even larger number in Canada, are direct matrilineal descendants of Marie Marguerie, the founder of the 'Marie W' haplotype lineage in the Americas. Recently, some of her descendants found each other through mitochondrial DNA testing, and have been able to identify Marie as their common matrilineal ancestor.

Rouen at the time of Marie's childhood
Marie Marguerie was baptized at St Vincent Cathedral in Rouen, France on 12 September 1620. Her godparents were Nicolas Duchemin and Marie Marguerie. Rouen was a major city of 35,000 people, a key port on the Seine River since Roman times. St Vincent's had been completed only a few years before, and featured the finest stained glass windows in the city (the cathedral was destroyed by bombing in World War II but the windows were stored in 1939 and can now be seen in the modernistic Church of Joan of Arc in Rouen).

Marie has been identified as one of 262 Filles a Marier or "marriageable girls" that emigrated to New France between 1634 and 1663. They were recruited by religious groups or reputable persons who had to guarantee their good conduct. Most were from rural peasant families. Unlike the later Filles du Roi who emigrated after 1663, the Filles a Marier were not recruited by the state; did not receive a dowry from the King; and were promised nothing but the possibility of a better life.
However Marie's story was not that of a typical Filles a Marier, and aside from the date of her migration to Canada, she probably does not fit into this category. Her father was a man of substance, a bourgeoisie, an oar maker and maritime merchant in Rouen. Given the fates of his children, it is likely her father was a member of the Compagnie des Marchands de Rouen et de Saint-Malo, formed by Samuel Champlain in 1614 to colonize Quebec and corner the American fur trade. Her brother Francois had already gone to Canada and his exploits were legendary. He was regarded by the First Nations as the European who had most thoroughly learned their language and customs - they called him the 'double man' - he could pass as European or Indigenous.

Perhaps, like the other Filles a Marier, her marriage to Hertel was not prearranged. She had her choice of husbands. But in 1640 Trois-Rivieres was still a raw place, with only a handful of inhabitants, less than half of them European, including rude French trappers, many living with indigenous wives with mixed children, and a handful of government officials and military officers.

on 23 August 1641 Marie Marguerie signed a contract to marry Jacques Hertel

Things seemed to be going well for Marie and her family. Then Francois Marguerie drowned when his canoe overturned in the Saint Lawrence River off Trois-Rivieres on 23 May 1648. Marie and Jacques had another daughter, Marguerite, on 26 August 1649. Marie endured another tragedy when Jacques died in an accident of an unknown nature on 10 August 1651.
Marie was left alone with a son of nine years and two infant daughters, in a primitive wilderness, in a remote settlement with just a handful of huts. It was perhaps no accident that an awful war would break out with the Iroquois in the spring after Jacques' death, leading to the near-destruction of the settlement.

Marie was left alone with a son of nine years and two infant daughters, in a primitive wilderness, in a remote settlement with just a handful of huts. It was perhaps no accident that an awful war would break out with the Iroquois in the spring after Jacques' death, leading to the near-destruction of the settlement.

Huron Warrior
The Iroquois had been struggling with the Huron for the territory the French had chosen to inhabit even before the arrival of the colonists. Father Buteux and his fellow Jesuits had compounded tensions by attempting to enforce their form of strict Catholicism on the Indians. The trappers and missionaries had spread European diseases among even the most remote tribes, leading to the death of over half of their people and the collapse of their social systems. Tensions had built to the breaking point. Francois Marguerie had averted the attack on Trois-Rivieres nine years earlier, but now he, and Jacques, and Nicolet, were all gone.
The Iroquois attacked the town on 6 March 1652 but were repulsed by the French's Huron allies. On 10 March the Iroquois killed Buteux north of the town, and two Huron on 8 June. On 19 August they attacked again, this time killing the governor Guillaume Guillemot and 22 other settlers. The hostilities lead to the collapse of the beaver pelt trade. The defense of Trois-Rivieres now was in the hands of a few friendly Indians employed to fend off any final Iroquois raid.
Sometime in this tumultuous year Marie married Quentin Moral, a King's lieutenant. Quentin could only have suffered in comparison to Marie's first husband. But he was young, he was ambitious, he was available - he must have been the best choice in the traumatized settlement. Quentin would go on to become a quarrelsome lawyer, and finally a civil and criminal judge.

Quentin Moral
After what must have been a very hard winter, 16 French indentured servants, sailors, and others deserted Trois-Rivieres, heading for anywhere outside of New France on 21 April 1653. At other places in New France masters were being murdered by their servants. The Iroquois attacked Trois-Rivieres again on 21 August, but were repulsed after an eight-day siege. An exchange of prisoners was agreed.
In October the Huron reported that the remnants of the April deserters had shown up in Gaspe after a six-month trek. Several had died, and they had resorted to cannibalism. In November a vessel laden with the year's take of beaver pelts left for France, only to be taken by English privateers in the Saint Lawrence River. But that same month, with the colony facing extinction, a boat arrived at Montreal with 95 new settlers - the "Grand Recrue de 1653". The statistics of this group show the dangers of life in the colony. Of the 153 men who signed contracts to go to Canada, 50 did not show up for boarding; eight died on the transatlantic voyage; 24 were killed by Iroquois; and five in accidents. Nine left no offspring. But the 49 that left offspring were the basis for the survival of New France. The population would increase substantially each year from then on.
The Iroquois War was over and more stable times were ahead. Quentin turned to the matter at hand. Marie had inherited from her first husband 200 acres of land at Trois-Rivieres. Quentin's objective seemed primarily to be to obtain title to this land and become a seigneur. In French law a seigneur was a kind of lord who was a vassal of the King. The soil of the seigneur belonged to him, but the King held final title, mineral rights, and ownership of all oak trees on the property. In contrast the peasant settlers could only rent the land and were tenant farmers of the seigneurs.

New Construction at Trois-Rivieres
However there seems to be an issue with the rights to Jacque Hertel's land and the security it was supposed to provide from the very beginning. On 21 January 1654, less than two years after the marriage, Marie's son Jacques, at age 12, is reported to be "clearing trees of an island, inherited from his father, which he wanted to seed in order to support his mother and his young sisters". This small place, just off Trois-Rivieres in the Saint Lawrence River, was then known as Lile aux Cochons (Isle of the Pigs)

Childhood was brief in the 17th Century. On 26 August 1657, at age 15, Francois enlisted in the local militia for the defense of Trois-Rivieres. Marie was meanwhile ensuring that her daughters married well, as befitted what she saw as their station in life. Marie Madeleine Hertel was betrothed to master surgeon Louis Pinard in 1658 when she was 15.

Marie would bear Quentin Moral four daughters but no sons. The fame of his stepson may have been unbearable at this time and place to this man who now adopted the style 'Sieur de St-Quentin' and lorded over the island his step-son had cleared, which was known forever after as L'Óle Saint-Quentin. Presumably her son's status protected her from the hostility Quentin may have felt toward her.

Marie saw to it that her children received good educations. Her daughters by Quentin were educated at the Ursuline convent established just across the street from the Hertel house. Francois' three letters of his Iroquois captivity mention his fluency in French, English, and Latin.

In 1668 Marie saw the first her daughters by Quentin Moral married. Marie Jeanne Moral was betrothed to Jacques Maugras at the age of 15. Maugras would eventually settle in St-Francois-du-Lac at the settlement founded by his brother-in-law Jean Crevier. In 1677, at age 26, their second daughter, Marie-Therese Moral, married to Veron de Grandmesnil, a fur trader of some means.

Marie continued on in Trois-Rivieres. She had seen so much in her long life. She had survived numerous attacks of the town by the Iroquois. She had seen her brother, her son, and her grandson all taken captive by the Indians, only to have them return alive months or years later. She had left a bustling French city for a rude settlement of wooden huts between the forest and the river, where every year, even the good ones, found another member of the community kidnapped or killed by marauding Iroquois.

Perhaps she found sustenance and solace in the rigid religion of the colony - it is recorded that she was for fifty years the sacristan of the parish. Did she also need solace from an unhappy second marriage to Quentin Moral? Whatever may be the case, she outlived Quentin by 14 years. Upon her death at age 80, Marie Marguerie was buried beside Jacques Hertel, her first husband. Could there be any greater evidence of her estrangement from Quentin? The cure of the parish of Trois-Rivieres, Luc Filiastre, officiated.

Marie's Legacy
Marie and her first husband Jacques Hertel are considered one of the founders of Quebec. Jacques Hertel founded the town of Trois-Rivieres, and her son-in-law Jean Crevier founded St-Francois-du-Lac. There is a Jacques Hertel house in Trois-Rivieres, but it is of stone, built on the site of the original in 1820 by one of Hertel's descendants. L'Óle Saint-Quentin remained cropland until 1930, when it was converted to recreational use. Today it is a popular park.
Marie has left her mitochondrial genetic heritage to around 140,000 people in the United States, and many times that number in Canada.

Mary and her family in Rouen
Marie's mitochondrial DNA was of the W haplogroup. The first woman of the W haplogroup - who I have dubbed Wilma - was born about 38,000 years ago in what is now northwest India or northern Pakistan. By 32,000 years ago Wilma's descendants were distributed in a band across southwest Asia, from Anatolia to northern India With the onset of the last glacial maximum, the area became extremely arid and the mountains blocked by glaciers. There are indications that the peoples including Wilma's descendants were broken into two groups, separated by the arid desert that stretched from the Indian Ocean up to the glacier-bound Asian mountains. These tribes managed to survive the Ice Age in these two areas of 'glacial refuge'.
After the glaciers receded and the deserts retreated 14,000 years ago, the way was clear for the expansion of modern humans from their ice age refuge. Wilma's descendants entered Europe through the Balkans, spreading in several directions. During this journey one W haplotype woman had a distinctive mutation at letter 119 in the HVR2 of her mitochondrial DNA. This woman's descendants finally settled in what is now France, and one of them was Marie Marguerie's female ancestor.
The differences from the Cambridge Reference Sequence in Marie Marguerie's mtDNA code in the Highly Variable Regions 1 and 2 were:
HVR1: 16209C 16223T 16255A 16292T 16519C HVR2: 73G 119C 189G 195C 204C 207A 263G 309.1C 315.1C
One descendent has an additional HVR2 309.2C destination, which must have occurred in the ten generations since her lineage split from that of the other members of the group that long ago.


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Marie married Jacques HERTEL on 23 Aug 1641 in Trois Rivieres, Maurice, Quebec. (Jacques HERTEL was born in LeHavre, Normandy, France and died on 10 Aug 1651 in Trois Rivieres, Maurice, Quebec.)


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Marie next married Quentin MORAL in 1652 in Trois-Rivieres, Quebec. (Quentin MORAL died in 1686.)



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