"Man's inhumanity to man does not end with the passing of a single generation, or three, or thirteen. It's always there, it's never forgotten." - from Poltergeist: head of Legacy House explaining how it could happen that thirteen generations of people with the same DNA of a Puritan minister were victims of a curse put on him by a woman condemned as a witch. I want to make it clear that I actually have growing respect for the Rice and Balch families who appear to have been sources of the genetic mental illness as well as the genius that runs in the Raymond family. I have found my relatives of these lines to be intelligent, courageous and capable of rationally discussing genetic mental illness and the possibility of it in these family groups. The Balches have particularly always to some degree been this way; functionally as well as IQ-wise highly intelligent, and of sound liberal views and possessed of the courage of their convictions. I'm proud to say my grandmother took after them. But take a look at the situation. I couldn't have all of this come out of the Puritan zoo that was 17th century Massachusetts without having some fun with it. Those Puritans were pretty wound up people. Probably considerable genetic selection by temperament operated in who came to Massachusetts in the earlay 17th century. The Salem witch trials were partly about confrontation between the traditional semifeudal society of Salem Village and the developing Capitalistic society of Salem Town; this was threatening the traditional small farmers of Salem Village with ruin; they didn't understand the new ways of making money, for instance, a probably nephew of my Rice line ancestor, Marjorie Willard who married Dolor Davis, who married into my Rice line which carried manic depression, was named John Willard; he was executed in the witch trials because he had psychotic episodes, and because he speculated in land, and the Salem villagers , who thought land was something handed down to one's descendants, thought that was virtually Satanic. Most people who were executed were somehow connected with the "wrong" party in town, and that included the Bishops. But the girls of Salem village suffered from a severe anxiety disorder very similar to what I went through as an adolescent, because I thought my sexual fantasies, etc., were sin, and I failed to experience the objective signs that the Fundamentalists around us in the early 1970's were saying I must if I were saved, that I was saved. There were many ambiguities and anxieties that beset the Puritans of the Massachusetts Bay colony and the Salem villagers in particular, at that time. It was a time of rapid social change and of political troubles and war, and like me as an adolescent, the children picked up on all this anxiety in more ways than they would have thought they did and were overwhelmed by it, on top of the inherent and extremely frightening spiritual ambiguities of their faith. The notion that I should objectively know it if I was saved, came from the doctrine of Predestination, and the ambiguity of Calvinistic theology about how one came to be saved and how one knew the state of one's soul, was frightening children into stitches all over 17th century Massachusetts. Meanwhile, at the latter portion of the century, "all over Massachusetts", the most devout and scrupulous and respected adults of the community, often members of the ministers' immediate families, were finding themselves unable to bring themselves to attend Communion, or even Church. To be admitted as a full member of the church and to communion, one had to present to the people in charge of the church, objective evidence that one was in a state of grace and favor with God, and hence, one of his Elect. Too many good and scrupulous people simply couldn't convince themselves they could find any. I, too, concluded that God had really had it with me, and moved away from him, and away from my faith. See also my page on the Dehavens and the Reformed sect at My page on the spirituality and mental health of my Dehaven ancestors. This is one of my qualifying stories for the International Black Sheep Society at Rootsweb.Go to my main Lowe genealogy section
My Salem, MA lineageMarion Frances Raymond b 10/12/1858 Westminster, or Winchendon, MA prob m Florence, lived there 40 years according to hospital records on her death certificate. d 4/9/1925 Florence MA at Northhampton State Hospital. Spent my grandmother's childhood behind locked doors and windows, constantly convinced someone dangerous was outside trying to break in. My aunt writes in a series of autobiographical essays that she was manic depressive and paranoid, hardly words my aunt uses lightly, but I don't know if that is my aunt's diagnostic terms or the doctor's. I am working on getting her records, it could take awhile. She also didn't go to either her daughter's high school graduation or her wedding, both within walking distance of her home. She died at Northampton State Psychiatric Hospital - of breast cancer, at age 65. She m Charles Hiram Readio 1/20/1879 Middlefield MA and had one child, my grandmother, in 1890. Marion was one of three children. Sarah Jane Raymond 1857 to 1936 m Henry Ford of Ashfield MA Issue? Willis Harlowe Raymond extremely bright drowned at age 19. I think a boating accident or something. It needs to be checked out. SECOND GENERATION Henry Morgan Raymond b 12/23/1831 m 11/28/1855 d 7/26/1914 Ashhumham, MA Almira Raymond Henry's first cousin b 8/20/1828 d 5/30/1902 Ashhumham, MA THIRD GENERATION Henry's parents; Amos Raymond b 1795 d 1886 Julia Morgan b Wales, Gt Britain Other children: (This from Raymond Genealogy as rattled off over the phone by my uncooperative aunt, I don't know I have it right way around!) Harriett d infancy Sarah d infancy Henry James d age 16 Harlow b 1829 m Clarinda Buckley Middletown CT Anne Elisa b 1835 d 1871 m Charles Barrett, Banett Edward J b 1837 Horner b 1840 d 1841 Julius b 1843 d 1843 Charles b 1846 d 1847 Henry Morgan must have been one of them, too Almira's parents: Asa Raymond b 1797 d 1818 ???? m 1855 ?? Holden, Worcester, MA, 12/16/1818/ Tabitha Walker his first cousin b abt 1798/9 Westminster, Worcesthire, MA d 1869 Children: Almira Charles Harvey Asa Walker Ely W Harritt Elsa Goerge I have name circled for some reason, maybe he is the Raymond who went to Glens Falls or something I found in some other genealogy? FOURTH GENERATION Amos's and Asa's parents: Daniel Raymond b 2/1/1764 Princeton MA m 10/9/1745 Bedford MA d 12/2/1780 Molly Kingsley b 1762 Shrewsbury, Worcestershire, MA She traces back to emigrant John Kingsley, who was of Dorchester, MA, 1635, in 1636 one of seven pillars of formation of Mather's church, "probably came with some other friends of Mather". I would like to know who were the OTHER friends of Mather... could be ancestors, too! A number of Kingsley lines trace into the aristocracy. This girl is the source of tremendous confusion. My mother's records said this was Polly Ames, b 12/6/1763, d 3/9/1814, dau of Enoch and Sarah Noyes, descended from Joseph Noyes who went to Sudbury where the Rice's were, who was son of Rev. James Noyes, brother to Rev. Nicholas NOyes, whose son Rev Nicholas Noyes was HEAD CLERGICAL CRITTER presiding over the Salem witch trials. The families Joseph NOyes produced by marriage in Sudbury quickly had alot of mental illness and disability, and so seemingly did every other family this NOyes family married into, including the Balch family. . There is alot of confusion about this; it turns out to be true, after appearing to be an error. First, there is enough confusion about who her parents were. Her father, Enoch Kingsley, married Sarah Maynard. Some sources neglect to point out this is not her maiden name. She was the widow of Samuel Maynard. Her parents were Lt. Daniel Noyes, and Sarah Gott. Because these people were in Sudbury, where Peter Noyes went, while his fanatical cousins of questionable stability went to Essex Co Massachusetts and Rhode Island, and Peter had a son named Joseph who was the father of Daniel Noyes, the appearance is created that Polly Ames was a descendant of the rock-stable Peter Noyes. That appearance is incorrect. There were two Joseph Noyes on the scene. Joseph Noyes son of James Noyes who had settled in Newbury MA or in RI, had settled in Sudbury, and Daniel was HIS son! So Polly Ames was of the Salem Bird Noyes'. Nicholas and James Noyes were praying and fasting young PUritan fanatics from an Oxford educated clergy family, and Nicholas was the father of Salem Critter Nicholas. Rev. Nicholas Noyes was one very severe Puritan, tough on sinners and a fanatical witch-hunter. Peter was a steadier sort; his family were prosperous yeomen and village leaders and local church officials, he was the head man at new Sudbury, Massachusetts, and he demonstrated an ability to compromise as well as leadership ability that was crucial when founding a new village during a time of rapid social transformation composed of people from all over England with very different experiences with and ideas about land division and use. This ability caused him to win out in competition for leadership over the probably manic depressive Edmund Rice, a brilliant leader who always won tremendous respect but never attained the top posts of leadership because people thought he was capable but unstable, because he never stuck around long enough, and because at times he antagonized people he disagreed with. There literally seems to be serious insanity affecting entire families for generations everywhere the blood of Nicholas and James Noyes turns up, it's better than the Rice's record and it isn't impossible that in this group of families with tremendous and extreme both obvious and hidden inbreeding, it is responsible for the Rice's record of genius and manic depression. I'm even getting the impression that James' and Nicholas' Noyes' Parker mother was responsible, since mental illness if more loosely seems to follow their lines around, too. clearly the gene came from some woman who married into the Noyes family after where it divided toward Peter's line and James' and Nicholas'. My 5th or something Raymond cousin Carl Flegal, also trying to track the family history of genius and mental illness, has his Noyes of the James brother of Nicholas the Bat family; I have to check on this. And also that that family had problems; one brother had seizures, another suffered from "distraction". Another cousin, Myrrha, has the legendary genius, Mensa membership, and manic depression came straight down her line, too; Rice appeared as the common ancestors who were afflicted with serious mental illness. But she had Willard ancestry and didn't know it, so she could possibly have Bird Noyes ancestry, too.
Tabitha Walker's parents: Hezekiah Walker b 2/14/1750 Worcester or Lancaster Co Ma c 5/5/1751 Lancaster Co MA m 5/16/1775 HOlden Worcester, MA d 12/30/1857 They were Baptists. Lucy Raymond b 2/6/1755 Sudbury, Middlesex MA d 1/21/1849 FIFTH GENERATION Parents of Lucy and Daniel Raymond: William Raymond (Ramond) b 7/30/1725 **** Salem, MA **** m 10/9/1745 Bedford MA d 12/2/1780 Mercy or Marcy Davis b 7/23/1725 d 2/4/1810. She has a line of royal descent and a line of prominent Puritan descent, and a number of aristocratic lines, some of which she shares with other Raymond and Balch ancestors! They lived in Holden around 1750-1770, had 13 children there. SIXTH GENERATION Parents of William Raymond: Paul Raymond (Ramond) b 1/22/1695 Beverly, MA (adjacent to SAlem to the north) m 2/28/1716-7d 1759 Tabitha Balch b 1702 Beverly MA d Bedrord in 1737 Parents of Mercy Davis: Daniel Davis b 3/16/1673 or 3/26 Concord, Middlesex, MA m 4/27/1698/9 d 2/11/1741 Mary Hubbard b 4/3/1682 or 6/3, Concord, MA d 2/2/1769 age 81 Bedford SEVENTH GENERATION Parents of Paul Raymond: William Raymond b 1666 Beverly MA d 1/29/1709 One of "less deluded" witnesses in the witch trials. Ha, ha, as you will see below, the Raymonds and the Balches were more or less peripherally related to the victims, as well as unobtrusive and prosperous people geographically located on the outskirts of town. Not all of them strictly kept out of it. The witch hunt was primarily about socio-economic and religious conflict within SAlem village and Salem town, which naturally also targeted people who had marginal status in the village but were central enough to it to be caught up in community controversy. The Balches, though at first stoutly Puritan, were among a small group of founders of the town who were there before more fanatical elements arrived adn took over and always looked at and were looked at a bit askance, though they remained community leaders. The Raymonds came later, lived next door to the Balches, and were similar in general behavior - though possibly crazier. ! "William Raymond married Mary Kettle the daughter of John Kettel and was killed by the fall of a tree". (Exact quote from every source on the early Raymonds and Raymond connections to the Balches I have ever seen, and also one of the two things my mother ever told me about the Raymonds when I was a child and mildly interested in the family genealogy. The other was, my great grandmother's parents were first cousins. I guess she didn't know THEIR parents were first cousins, because it wasn't in the book, since one of them didn't wear the Raymond surname.) Mary Kettle b 1682 Beverly MA (married 2 Ruth Hull of Beverly) Parents of Tabitha Balch: Freeborn Balch b 4/9/1660 Beverly MA m 4/30/1690 d 6/11/1729 Beverly MA Elizabeth Fairfield b 1666 Wenham MA d 1/31/1737 BEverly MA Elizabeth, wife of Freeborn's brother Benjamin, testified in witch trials against both Bridgette Bishop, and her step-daughter-in-law, Sarah Bishop. Bridgette was an unpopular brightly dressed elderly woman with a tough character, a history of a troubled and violent family life; she and her husband had been put in the town stockade or fined twice for swearing and fighting, and testimony said that she wore bruises and was once seen with her nose bleeding heavily; he said she hit first. In the fashion of that time had been formerly charged with witchcraft when her second husband died intestate and she was made executor of his estate. She escaped trial by marrying my direct ancestor, Edward Bishop Sr, who lived next door to the Raymonds and the Balches, adn whose daughter married my ancestor William Raymond. Bridgette's step-daughter-in-law, Sarah Bishop, had a similar troubled and violent home life and with her husband, Edward Jr, the son of Bridgette's husband Edward by his first wife, Hannah. Edward and Hannah, my direct ancestors, incidentally had once been punished for petty theft of fruit, corn and a knife from a neighbor and then lying about it. Edward Bishop Jr and Sarah operated a tavern on the outskirts of Salem Village that entertained young people with riotous shuffle board games or something until late at night, which bothered the Puritans, especially neighbors who happened to be kin of the people who made most of the accusations in the witch trials, and also competed with the tavern that they variously owned and favored. Sarah Bishop was also a target because she was the daughter of John Wild, of Topsfield. He married Priscilla Gould, daugher of Zaccheus Gould, an extremely rich and prominent man. Priscilla's brother John Gould was vocal about his views in favor of extending voting rights from inner members of Puritan churches to all property owners, which would have cost the PUritans their political control of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. John Wild turned John Gould in for treason, for some reason, and he was executed. Priscilla died, and John married again, to Sarah Averill. In 1663. In 1692, she must have been old. As a youth, she was wild and probably not mentally well. She dressed brightly, she was promiscuous, and she wandered in the forest, and there were some strange tales of her behavior there; in jail and at her trial she also acted as if she were not mentally stable. One begins to get quite a picture of this group of families, and the Raymonds belonged to it! Meanwhile, JOhn was prominent in politics in the town of Topsfield. Topsfield and Salem Village got involved in a heated conflict over the town boundary line. At issue was who was paying what taxes to whre. The people of Salem Village were cranks when it came to taxes; they demanded their own church partly because they didn't want to pay taxes to Salem Town, and then didn't want to pay for the upkeep of their own minister and church! Topsfield won, and John Wilde played a prominent role. Now, John PUtnam, who was one of the principal accusers of the witch trials, were cousins to the Goulds, and the others of Salem Village, allied against money in general and people who claimed a right to any of theirs in particular, hated the men of Topsfield in general and John Wilde in particular. Priscilla Gould's other sibling, Mary, married John Reddington and lived next door to the Wilde's in Topsfield, and, hating the Wilde's, she started rumors as early as 1686 that Sarah Wilde was a witch. The Wilde's enemies built on this, and Sarah was formerly charged with being a witch in the witchcraft trials, and she was executed. I think it is an author of an older history of Salem who asked what any town would have done with someone as wild and unstable as her! (much of this immediately from Wildes, Dana A, "Sarah Wild: Murdered July 19, 1692", at her web site at Rootsweb (I didn't get the url). Elizabeth Balch testified against Bridgette Bishop, that her son David, who died the previous year at age 18 of a fever, had while delirious said that he saw the spectre forms of three women at the foot of his bed and they has caused his fever by casting a spell, and Bridgette Bishop was one of these women. The latter was the "latter episode of witchcraft" at the Balch house that Beverly Historical Society home page mentions. Elizabeth Balch then testified against Sarah Bishop that one day some years earlier she and her sister were riding together back from a funeral in Salem, and they came on Sarah and Edward Bishop riding together also, on one horse. Elizabeth and her sister rode with them for a while. Edward, an OJ Simpson type, had atleast seemingly deliberately badly nearly thrown his wfie from the horse by unexpectedly steering the horse into a deep hole in the road. His wife swore and started yelling at him, and they hotly exchanged insults. Meanwhile, Elizabeth and her sister were riding along with them, seemingly doing their best to ignore the whole thing. Then Edward turned to Elizabeth and her sister, and told them a long and very vivid tale that Sarah was a witch, she kept company with the devil, brewed the devil's things in her cauldron, stayed up half the night keeping him company, etc. To this, Elizabeth answered that she thought he shouldn't talk to his wife that way. Sarah sat through this insane tirade saying absolutely nothing. Then the four of them rode on together in apparent peace until they came to the Bishops' house, where the Bishops turned in. Elizabeth testified in court that afterwards Sarah's silence bothered her; she wondered if perhaps Sarah's failure to defend herself against her clearly very abusive husband's raving meant she was guilty of the things he accused her of! So, of course, she had to self-righteously come and tell the court about it. Hm-m-m, read on. The genealogy of Christian Woodbury Trask, wife of John Trask, sheds new light on Elizabeth's interest in the affair. Elizbeth's maiden name was Woodberry. She was sister, niece, or first cousin once removed from Christian. Christian in 1689, had severe depression. She lived next door to the Bishop tavern, and blamed her inability to sleep on the noise. One night she stormed into the tavern, confronted Sarah, and threw some shuffleboard game pieces at which people were playing into the fire. Then she complained to Rev. hale that the tavern was corrupting the local youth. Christian's father was a founder of the Beverly church, like Edward Bishop Sr and a deacon; Rev. Hale was its minister. A short time later, she recanted her charges and asked Rev. Hale to help her make up with the Bishops. Before he could act on this, she became completely distracted and distraught. Finally she committed suicide with a pair of scizzors. Both the distraction and the death were blamed on witchcraft by Sarah. According to a Trask genealogy by Juel M Trask at http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Forum/2225, this brought a slew of Raymond (from both John and Capt William) Trask, Kettle and Woodbury relatives out of the woodwork. He claims Capt William and William Raymond Jr both testified about animals strangely dying. I do not know his source. George Raymond the full brother of William Jr was married to Jerusha Raymond, Christian's first cousin. The Trasks and Woodbury's were immediate neighbors of the Balch, Raymond and Bishop families, and there were also strong mutual ties between the Woodbury's and Trasks, Balches and Raymonds via the Batcheldors and the Kettels, and especially the Dodge's. The other witness against Sarah Bishop was James Kettle, aged 27, none other than the brother in law of William Raymond who was killed by the fall of a tree, who was one of the guardians of his three minor sons. He testified that he was at Doctor Griggs house one day (a friend of the man, perhaps? One can see where the original soap opera got the name Salem!) and he saw there Elizabeth Hubbard having fits, and when she came out of her fits, still hysterical, she said Sarah Bishop appeared to her and said all kinds of nasty things, including that she had killed two of his children who died! Understand, Elizabeth probably confused Bridgette and Sarah, but their neighbor and kinsman James Kettle sure knew them apart! Bridgette Bishop and Sarah Wilde were both executed. Sarah Bishop and her husband, Edward Bishop Jr, escaped from jail soon afterward. Freeborn Balch by his first wife, also had a son, Freeborn. He m (2) mary Hubbard, niece of Rev Wm Hubbard of Ipswitch, and dau of Elizabeth Clark, who married (2) Cotton Mather! Freeborn Balch's grandson, John, bapt 4/22/1722 died insane at Ipswich 5/28/1785. This this grandson was by a different wife than the wife who was TAbitha's mother, if the same gene came down both lines Freeborn must have carried it. Actually, mental illness often clearly hereditary has so far turned up in four lines of descent from Freeborn by two wives. See chart of mental illness in Raymond and allied lines.
Increase Mather Father of Cotton Mather
This house was built by John Balch, emigrant, and today belongs to Beverly Historical Society and is a museum. According to Beverly Historical Society page, "a later incident of witchcraft" occurred at this house". That turned out to be David Balch's delirious "visitation" from Bridget Bishop. The hall of the Balch house. Looks just appropriate for Halloween, doesn't it?Parents of Daniel Davis Samuel DAvis of Concrd MA b 1635 England Mary Meads b abt 1639 Parents of Mary Hubbard Jonathan Hubbard b 1658 Wethersfield CT of same Hubbard line as Martha Hubbard of 1-12, #15 (a reference to one of my own sheets not with me) Hannah Rice b 1658 of Sudbury MA EIGHTH GENERATION ancestry of William Raymond: William Raymond b 1627, or 1637 St. John's. S. G. England, m 1660/6 Beverly MA d 1/29/1708/9 Came here from Essex Cty England in 1652 son of George Raymond Rayment b  d bef 10/30/1651 St John, S, G, Engl m Hannah Bishop b 4/12/1646 BEverly MA d 1738 dau Edward Bishop b 1620 England d 1646 Salem MA m abat 1650 Chelmsford MA Hannah Moore b 12/29/1644 Salem MA d 1680 Salem MA and ALSO (2) Ruth Hull of Beverly. Now, it's critical to fully understand the set of relationships involved, here. The president of the Balch association actually told me that Elizabeth Balch wondered why Edward Bishop, jr carried on with her the way he did because they were complete strangers. That's what he gets for failing to look at collateral lines. It did take me, as well as Salem historians, a long time to unravel which Salem Bishops were witch. Edward Bishop Sr. lived Salem Town m 1 Hannah---------------- Edward and Hannah once i punished for stealing i foodstuffs. i After Bridget's i execution, he at age i 72, married again! i m 2 Bridget She and her i second husband were twice i fined/ whipped/ stockaded i for fighting (neighbor i testified she once had i black and blue face, once i had bloody nose, he said i she hit him) and for i swearing at each other on i the Lord's Day. After i his death, intestate, she i was made his executor and i then charged with i witchcraft. She probably i was somewhat cranky and i at i times did common sorts of i efforts at black magic, i and also proved scrappy i when picked on or i targeted by neighbors. i She sometimes nursed the i sick, was not popular, i and was an early target i in the witchhunt, the i community ganged up on i her, and she was first i to be executed as i a witch. Her bright red i clothes got her in i trouble with the Puritan i community, too. i i Edward Bishop ----------i m i Sarah i This was the couple i Elizabaeth Balch and her i sister witnessed i fighting, and who owned i the tavern where young i people could act i riotous until late. i i Benjamin Balch ------------------------ Capt. William Raymond i i (Balch and Raymond land was adjacent) m i i Hannah Bishop -----------i i i i i i William Raymond "married i Mary Kettle daughter of John Kettel and i was killed by the fall of a tree" - i leaving three minor sons to be wards i of a brother, and his cousin, Richard i Bishop! ---------------------------------- i i i i i i i i i Benjamin Balch Jr i Deborah Balch m William i m i Raymond --i Elizabeth who i i testified against i i---- Abigail m Daniel i Bridgette and i i Raymond---i Sarah Freeborn Balch--i i i-----Tabitha m Paul i Raymond---i Anyone besides me think there's more to that tree falling story? Parents of Freeborn Balch Benjamin Balch b Winter 1628 Salem MA m 1650 Salem MA d 1/31/1715 Salem MA All versions have him b just bef 1630, but one has him married in 1629, though first son not b until 1651! Sarah Gardner b 1630/1 of Salem MA d 4/15/1686 BEverly MA NINTH GENERATION John Balch b 1579 Bridgewater, Somersetshire Engl m Essex Cty, MA d 6/25/1648 Beverly, Essex County MA Held in esteem in his small colony, one of four original settlers. He had been one of a party supposed to settle Cape Anne, that venture failed, the four who didn't return to England settled in Salem. Staunchly Puritan, one of founding members of the first church of Salem, established very early in its history. Held various offices of trust, often acted in magisterial capacity as arbitrator, principal land surveyor. Had a fair education for his time. In 1638 he moved from Salem to 200 acres in Bass River (Beverly). d 1648. His will exists intact. SEveral of his grandchildren gave rise to dynasties of clergy, and great grandson Ebenezer gave the land for the Second Parish Church. Margery Lovell or Lovett b 1581 of BEverly, MA a woman of good background? d 1682 Thomas Gardner husbandman from Weymouth, Dorsetshire, spring 1623-4 superintendent of planting of the colongy sent by Western Advanturers of Dorchester, Entl. Succeeded by Roger Cnant also for one year. Settled at Salem. Juryman, otwn officer, deputy to General court. m (1) unknown. m (2) 1642 Damaris, widow of ___ Shattuck, who was prominent among the Quakers of the town. (A Shattuck was one of the main accusers in the witch trials, this "dour Quaker" had a son with epilepsy, and he successfully accused each of his neighbors who he didn't get along with of causing it!) Geneal in prep by Frank Augustine Gardner, MD. Sarah APPEARS to be daughter of wife 1. Another version has Sarah daughter of Thomas, merchant, and son of Thomas. But the first version gives Thomas I's will as his source. TENTH GENERATION George Balch b 1536, Somersetshire, England The Balch's of Somersetshire were gentry and prosperous yeoman farmers. The sort of people who became Puritans. One of George's line served as mayor of his town. They proved during a 17th century visitation that they were entitled to bear a coat of arms. Another testament to their stature is that, in addition to being sometimes clergy who held seats, they often were called upon to be on the boards that oversaw local schools. <../momsgraphics/nutfar.gif">
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