Transcribed from - Morris and Co.'s Commercial Directory and Gazetteer. 1870
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Transcribed by Val HENDERSON
TAVISTOCK is a market town and parliamentary borough, the principal of the union, deanery, and the hundred to which it gives its name, containing, in 1861, 8965 inhabitants, and13986A. Or. 20p.; in the archdeaconry of Totnes, diocese of Exeter, Southe Devonshire, on the banks of the river Tavy, from whence the name, 9 miles north-east from Callington, 14 south-east from Launceston, 15 north from Plymouth, 23 west from Ashburton, 33 south-west from Exeter, and 210 from London, on the Launceston and South Devon Railway, at which it has a station.
This was a prescriptive borough from a very early period, and sent members to parliament in the reign of Edward I., and continued to exercise the franchise uninterruptedly from the reign of Edward III., returning two members to Parliament until the passing of the Reform Bill of 1868, when it was restricted to one member. It is a Parliamentary borough only, never having had municipal privileges. The whole of the parish is included in the borough with exception of the manor of Cudlippton, about 5 miles north-east, and the portreeve is the returning officer.
During the wars between Charles I. and his Parliament, Tavistock was considerably excited, as the Duke of Bedford, with the celebrated Pym, one of the members for the borough, and most of the burgesses declared for the Parliament, whilst the neighbouring gentry continued true to the Crown; but the town does not appear to have been garrisoned with the exception of Fitzford House, at the west end of the town, the ancient seat of the Grenvilles, which was taken by the Earl of Essex, with £3000 in cash and 1000 stand of arms. During the blockading of Plymouth by the Royalists several councils were held here by Prince Charles, and the King passed through with hia army on his way to Cornwall.
An ABBEY was founded here in 961, by Orgar, Earl of Devon, father of the beautiful Lady Elfrida, King Edgar's Queen. It was noted as one of the most celebrated for learning, and possessed a printing press, believed to be the second which was set up in England. In 1514 the Abbot, Richard Banham, obtained for himself and successors a seat in Parliament, and also a bull from Pope Leo X., exempting the abbey from episcopal jurisdiction. On the dissolution by Henry VIII. the revenues were valued at £902 5s. 7d. per annum, a very large sum in those days; and about 1539 it was granted by that monarch to Lord John Russell, whose descendant, the present Duke of Bedford, is now the owner. The 'Bedford Hotel' comprises a portion of this once celebrated abbey, including the refectory and other parts.
The GUILDHALL is a handsome edifice, erected in 1848 by the Duke of Bedford, on another portion of the abbey site, and in imitation of the style of the original abbey. The ancient gateway has been restored and is still preserved.
The DEVON and CORNWALL BANKING COMPANY have recently erected a handsome building in West Street, as a branch bank, in place of the old and inconvenient premises formerly occupied by them. The new building forms one of a series of similar structures that have been erected in the principal towns of the two western counties, and combines a convenient residence for the manager, with spacious apartments and offices for banking purposes. The works are substantially executed, all the masonry being built in blue lias mortar. The principal front (towards West Street) is of fine wrought granite, the whole height of the lower or ground-floor story, and the remainder of the front, is executed in wrought stone from Hurdwick quarry, near Tavistock, the property of His Grace the Duke of Bedford. The dressing to the windows and the parapet are of Portland stone; all the front windows are glazed with polished plate glass, and the lower windows are fitted with Clark and Co.'s iron revolving shutters. The principal staircase and hall floor are laid with Maw and Co.'s tiles, arranged in simple but tasteful designs. All the wood-work of the staircase, and the best portions of the interior, are executed principally in pitch pine, with a slight admixture of wainscot. The whole of the works have been carried out by Mr. H. Blatchford, of Tavistiock, from the designs and under the superintendence of Mr. H. Elliott, of Plymoth, architect, at a total cost of about £2000.
The DISPENSARY, supported by voluntary contributions, is held in the Abbey Buildings.
This town is the centre of a considerable mining district, and silver-lead, manganese, tin, copper, &c., are produced in great quantities.
The CHURCH is a large ancient edifice, dedicated to St. Eustachius, consisting of nave, chancel, north and two south ailes, chancel with ailes, and a tower containing a peal of eight bells, and a clock with chimes playing every three hours. The chancel contains an alabaster monument to the memory of Sir John Glanville, Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, who died in 1600. The vicarage, in the incumbency of the Rev. John Osborne Tancock, D.C.L., is valued at £302 per annum, with residence, and is in the patronage of the Duke of Bedford, who is also impropriator of the rectorial tithes.
ST. PAUL'S, at Gulworthy, is a district church, which was erected by the Duke of Bedford, in 1854. The vicarage, in the incumbency of the Rev. Daniel Pring Alford, M.A., is valued at £150 per annum, with residence, and is in the patronage of the Duke of Bedford.
A handsome church has also been erected by the Duke of Bedford at the west end of the town; it is in the Romanesque style, and consists of nave, chancel, north and south leah-to aisles, with a noble detached tower; it will hold between 600 and 700 people, and half the sittings are free. The total cost was about £12,000. The rev. John Haley, M.A., is the curate.
The Unitarians have a place of worship in a portion of the Old Abbey, formerly the Abbots' Hall, and the Bible Christians, Independents, Plymouth Brethren, Socirty of Friends, and the United Methodist Free Church have each places of worship here.
The GRAMMAR SCHOOL is a large and elegant building, which was erected by the Duke of Bedford, in 1837, the former Grammar School, which was part of the old vicarage premises, having been taken down for the enlargement of the churchyard. The Duke of Bedford allows £50 per annum to the head master, and £30 per annum to each of the two assistant masters; and the head master receives £4 per annum from the trustees of Ford Street Charity. The pupils receive a good classical and general education for five guineas per annum, and there is an exhibition of £50 per annum, called the Glanville Exhibition, for youths natives of the town.
KELLY COLLEGE is about to be established here.
There are National Schools for children of both sexes, in the Dolvin Road, which were erected in 1847; and British Schools were erected in Abbey Mead, by the Duke of Bedford, in 1856.
The poor have two extensive charitable bequests, one left by Nicholas Watts, in 1674 which produces about £300 per annum; it is vested in trustees, and the amount distributed amongst the poor annually; and the Ford Street Charity, which was purchased by the Duke of Bedford some years ago, who pays £150 per annum to the trustees, which is also distributed for charitable purposes.
The Duke of Bedford is lord of the manor, and holds annual Courts Leet and Baron, at which a portreeve and other officers are appointed.
The Market Buildings were erected by the Duke of Bedford, in 1858, and extend over two acres of ground.
The Corn Market was erected in 1839. The Cattle Market is held at Crelake, near the Railway Station.
The Market Days are on Tuesday and Friday, the latter being the principal one for corn and general produce; and cattle fairs are held on the second Wednesday in January, March, May, July, September, October, and November, the third Wednesday in August, and the first Wednesday in December. Races are held annually in May.
Trades and Professions. ( Carpenter ~ Dyer)
Trades and Professions. ( Eastlake ~ Knott)
Trades and Professions. ( Langman ~ Northway)
Trades and Professions. ( Oates ~ Ryall)
Trades and Professions. ( Sampson ~ Vosper)
Trades and Professions. ( Wakem ~ Youren)
Information of Public Men and Institutions connected with the Town and County.
Post Office and Postal Telegraph Office, Abbey Bridge.
Edwin Straker, Postmaster.
Despatch of Letters.
Office hours during the week, from 7.15 a.m. to 8.0 p.m. On Sundays, from 7.15 a.m. to 10.00 a.m. only, after which hour no business is transacted with the public.
The Money Order, Post Office Savings Bank, and Government Insurance and Annuities Offices are open from 9.0 a.m. to 5.20 p.m.; and on Saturdays, in addition from 6.35 to 8.0 p.m.
The Letter Box in West Street is cleared daily (Sundays excepted), at 5.20 p.m. By paying a late fee of 4d., letters can be registered up to the closing of the box. Letters for the country villages can be posted up to 7.15 a.m.
There is only one delivery in the morning on Sundays, and one dispatch at 4.55 p.m.
Members of Parliament.
Arthur John Edward Russell, Esq., 10 South Audley street, and Brooks and Athenaeum Clubs, London.
County Magistrates usually attending Petty Sessions.
John Hornbrook Gill, Esq., Bickham park, Buckland-Monachorum
Rev. William Gill, Venn, Lamerton
William Pryce Michell, Esq., Holwell, Whitchurch
Rev. John Henry Moorshead, Vicarage, Kelly
J. Carpenter-Garnier, Esq., Mount Tavy, Tavistock
Wm. Henry Chichester, Esq., Grenofen, Whitchurch
clerk to the magistrates, Robert Luxton
The magistrates meet at theGuildhall fortnightly, on Wednesdays, at 11 a.m.; and Petty Sessions have been fixed under the Criminal Justice Act, for every day in the year (except Sundays, Good Friday, and Christmas day)
Devon and Cornwall Banking Co., West street --- (draw on Barclay, Bevan, and Co., London) --- Henry A. Gibson, jun., manager
Dingley, Pethybridge, White, and Dingley, 24, Higher Market street (draw on Union Bank of London).
Gill, Sons, and Co. (Tavistock Bank), Higher Market street (draw on Barnetts, Hoares, Hanburys, and Lloyds, London), open from 10 to 3, market days 10 to 4.
West of England and South Wales district Bank (branch of), West street (draw on Glyn, Mills, Currie, and Co., London), open from 10 to 3, on market days 10 to 4 --- John Mayjor, manager
Savings Bank, Abbey bridge --- Open on Fridays from 1 to 3 p.m. Saturdays from 6 to 8 p.m. --- Edwin Straker, actuary
British and Foreign Bible Society's Depot, West street --- William Robjohns, depositary
Cemetery --- Dolvin road
Cottage Garden Society --- G. H. Smith, secretary
County Constabulary, Guildhall --- William White Standfast Pickford, superintendent
County Court Office, Church lane ---
Matthew Fortescue, Esq., judge
Christopher Vickry Bridgman, registrar
William Monk and James Greenfield, high bailiffs
The district comprises the following places:--
Beerferris, Brentor, Buckland Monachorum, Calstock (Cornwall), Coryton, Cudlipptown, Dartmoor, Gunnislake, Hingston Down (Cornwall),Horrabridge, Latchley, Lamerton, Lewtrenchard, Lidford Town, Maristowe, Marytavy, Meavy, Mill Hill, Milton Abbot, Morwellham and the Quays, Petertavey, Princetown, Sampford Spiney, Sydenham Damerel, Sheepstor, Stowford, Thrushelton, Tavistock, Walkhampton, and Whichurch.
Dispensary, Abbey buildings --- Robert W. Crighton, M.D., physician; Richard Sleman, surgeon
Gas Company (limited), Ford street --- Charles Terdrey, manager
Guildhall, Abbey place
Highway Board Surveyor's Office, Canal road --- Robert Luxton, clerk; John Davy, surveyor
Mechanics' Institute, Duke street --- W. S. Pearce, James Whitemore, secretaries; William Reynolds, librarian
Musical Society, Town Hall --- Samuel J. Bowers, treasurer; Edward Horsewill, librarian
Parish Office, West street --- John Coleman Wills, assistant overseer
Public Library, Abbey --- William Merrifield, librarian
School of Art, West street --- F. Greenfield, secretary; F. R. Robjohns, master
Stamp Office, Duke street --- William Criper, sub-distributor
Working Men's Equitable Loan Society, Old Post Office lane --- Saml. Gale, manager
Union Workhouse, Bannawell street ---
Henry Hart, master
Mrs. Hart, matron
Robert Luxton, clerk to the Guardians
Richard Sleman, medical officer
William Bowden, schoolmaster
Mrs. Ann Ford, schoolmistress
Public Officers not Enumerated with Public Establishments.
Assessor of Taxes --- John Coleman Wills
Boroughreeve --- William Monk
Clerk to the Commissioners of Taxes --- Robt. Luxton; Assistant. Clerk --- Hy. Luxton
Inland Revenue Officer --- Henry Yeo
Inspector of Common Lodginghouses and Weights and Measures --- William White Standfast Pickford
Inspector of Corn Returns --- John Phillips
Portreeve --- Thomas Nicholls
Registrar of Births, Deaths, and Marriages --- Francis Davis Deputy --- J. W. Greenfield
Relieving Officer for the North District --- William Perry
Relieving Officer for the South District --- William Merrifield
Superintendent Registrar --- Robert Luxton; Deputy --- Henry Luxton
Town Crier --- Henry Tyrell
Town Sergeant --- William Monk
Places of Worship.
St. Eustachius Parish Church --- Rev. Osborne John Tancock, D.C.L., Vicar ; Rev. Frederick Lee Bazeley, M.A., and Rev. J. M. Catton, B.A.
St. Paul's District Church, Gulworthy cross --- Rev. Daniel Pring Alford, M.A., vicar
New Church, Fitzford --- Rev. John B. Haly, B.A.
Dissenting Places of Worship.
Bible Christian Chapel, Bannawell street --- Rev. Richard Seldon, minister
Independent Chapel, Brook street --- Rev. J. M. Newland, minister
Plymouth Brethren Chapel, Old Butter Market --- Rev. Edwd. Dingle, minister
Society of Friends, Dolvin road --- (transcript note- no minister entered in directory listings)
Unitarian Chapel, Abbey bridge --- Rev. William Smith, minister
United Methodist Free Church, Russell street --- Rev. George Reeves, minister
Wesleyan Chapel, Chapel street --- Rev. Wm. Piggott, and Rev. Joseph B. Norton, ministers
Grammar, Russell street --- Rev. Edward Spencer, M.A. (late Fellow and Lecturer of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge), headmaster ; W. h. Barnes, classical master ; Richard M. Thornton, English master
National, Dolvin road --- John Loam, master ; Miss. Ellen Gibbings, mistress ; Miss. Mary Read, infants' mistress
British, Abbey mead --- William Moffatt, master ; Miss. Elizabeth Oates, mistress ; Miss. Emma Marshall, infants' mistress
Tavistock Gazette, Office, Bedford square --- George Spencer, proprietor and publisher
Launceston and South Devon Railway Station --- William Gale, stationmaster
Callington --- Coach, daily (Sundays excepted), from the Corn Market Inn, at 8.45 a.m. --- Thomas K. Bickell, proprietor
Bastow T. W.
Derry and Son
Pickford and Co., Abbey mead