Bear River Indians. A body of Indians mentioned by Lawson and associated with
tribes. They may have been a part of the Machapunga. Rights (1947) calls them the Bear River or Bay River Indians. Lawson (1709) gives the name of their town as Raudauqua-quark and estimates the number of fighting at 50. Mooney (1928) places them with the Pamlico in his estimate as of the year 1600 and gives the two a population of 1,000. (See also California
for another tribe of the same name.)
Cape Fear Indians. Named from Cape Fear, their native designation being unknown or indeed whether they were an independent tribe or a part of some other.
Connections. No words of the language of the Cape Fear Indians have been preserved, but early references clearly associate them with the eastern Siouan tribes, and they may have been a part of the Waccamaw, since Waccamaw River heads close to Cape Fear. They would then have been connected with the Siouan linguistic
family and probably with the southern Atlantic division of which Catawba is the typical member.
Location. On Cape Fear River, as above stated. (See also South Carolina.)
The only village mentioned by name is Necoes, about 20 miles from the mouth of Cape Fear River, probably in Brunswick County. In 1715 five villages were reported.
History. While the Cape Fear Indians were probably met by several of the early voyagers, our first specific notice of them comes from the narratives of a New England colony planted on Cape Fear River in 1661. These settlers seized some of the Indian children and sent them away under pretense of instructing them in
the ways of civilization and were themselves in consequence driven off. In 1663 a colony from Barbadoes settled here but soon left. In 1665 a third colony established itself at the mouth of Oldtown Creek in Brunswick County, on the south side of the river, on land bought from the Indians, but, though the latter were friendly, like the others this attempt at
settlement was soon abandoned. They were visited by Capt. William Hilton in 1663. In 1695 they asked to be taken under the protection of Governor Archdale. The protection was granted and shortly afterward they rescued 52 passengers from a wrecked New England vessel who formed the nucleus of Christ Church Parish north of Cooper River. A few Cape Fear Indians
accompanied Barnwell on his Tuscarora expedition in 1711-12. They were active in his behalf as scouts and also guarded the region around Port Royal. After the Yamasee War they were removed to South Carolina and settled inland from Charleston, probably in Williamsburg County (Milling. 1940). In the latter part of the eighteenth century, a remnant of this tribe
and the Pedee lived in the Parishes of St. Stephens and St. Johns under a chief called King John. By 1808 only a half-breed woman remained of these two tribes, though others may have removed to the Catawba.
Population. Mooney (1928) estimates a population of 1,000 Cape Fear Indians in 1600. The census of 1715, above mentioned, gives 206. In 1808 White neighbors remembered when as many as 30 Pedee and Cape Fear Indians lived in their old territories.
Catawba. This tribe occupied parts of southwestern North Carolina near Catawba River. Significance unknown. (See South Carolina)
Cheraw. Significance unknown. Also called:
Ani'-Suwa'II, Cherokee name.
Saraw, Suali, synonyms even more common than Cheraw.
Xuala, Xualla, Spanish and Portuguese forms of the word, the x being intended for sh.
Connections. The Cheraw are classed on circumstantial grounds in the Siouan linguistic family though no words of their tongue have been preserved.
Location.-The earliest known location of the Cheraw appears to have been near the head of Saluda River in Pickens and Oconee Counties, S. C., whence they removed at an early date to the present Henderson, Polk, and Rutherford Counties.
The names given are always those of the tribe, though we have a "Lower Saura
Town" and an "Upper Saura Town on a map dating from 1760.
History. Mooney (1928) has shown that the Cheraw are identical with the Xuala province which De Soto entered in 1540, remaining about 4 days. They were visited by Pardo at a later date, and almost a hundred years afterward Lederer (1912) heard of them in the same region. Before 1700 they left their old country and
moved to the
Dan River near the southern line of Virginia, where they seem to have had two distinct settlements about 30 miles apart. About the year 1710, on account of constant
attacks, they moved southeast and joined the
. The colonists of North Carolina, being dissatisfied at the proximity of these and other tribes, Governor Eden declared war against the Cheraw, and applied to Virginia for assistance. This Governor Spotswood refused, as he believed the Carolinians were the aggressors, but the contest was prosecuted by the latter until after the Yamasee War. During this period
complaint was made that the Cheraw were responsible for most of the depredations committed north of Santee River and they were accused of trying to draw the coast tribes into an alliance with them from Virginia. The Cheraw were then living upon the upper course of the Great Pee Dee, near the line between the two colonies and in the later Cheraw district of South
Carolina. Being still subject to attack by the Iroquois they finally between 1726 and 1739 became incorporated with the Catawba, with whom at an earlier date they had been at enmity.
Population. During the Spanish period the Cheraw appear to have been of considerable importance but no estimate of their numbers has come down to us. Mooney (1928) gives 1,200 as a probable figure for the year 1600. The census of 1715 gives 140 men and a total of 510, probably including the Keyauwee and perhaps some other
tribes. In 1768 the survivors numbered 50 to 60.
Connection in which they have become noted. The Cheraw are famous as one of the few tribes in the Carolinas mentioned by De Soto's chroniclers which can be identified and located with fair precision. They were noted later for their persistent hostility to the English and have left their name in Suwali Gap in the
Blue Ridge Mountains, N. C.; in Saura Town Mountains, Stokes County, N. C.; in the town of Cheraw, Chesterfield County, S. C.; and possibly in the Uwaharrie River and Uwabarrie Mountains of North Carolina. There is a locality named Cheraw in Otero County, Colo.
Cherokee. The Cherokee lived in the mountainous parts of the State in the west. (See Tennessee.)
Chowanoc. Meaning in Algonquian "(people) at the south."
Connections. The Chowanoc belonged to the Algonquian linguistic family and were evidently most nearly allied to the other North Carolina Algonquians.
Location. On Chowan River about the junction of Meherrin and Blackwater Rivers.
Maraton, on the east bank of Chowan River in Chowan County.
Ohanoak, on the west side of Chowan River not far below Nottoway River probably in Hertford County.
Catoking, (probably) near Gatesville, in Gates County. Metocaum, on Chowan River in the present Bertie County.
Ramushonok, apparently between the Meherrin and Nottoway Rivers in Hertford
History. In 1584-85, when first known to Europeans, the Chowanoc were the leading tribe in northeastern North Carolina. In 1663 they entered into a treaty with the English by which they submitted to the English Crown, but they violated this in 1675 and after a year of warfare were compelled to confine themselves to
a reservation on Bennett's Creek which became reduced by 1707 from 12 square miles to 6. They sided with the colonists in the Tuscarora War, and at about the same time were visited by a Church of England missionary, Giles Rainsford. In 1723 a reservation of 53,000 acres was set aside for them conjointly with the Tuscarora and in 1733 they were given permission
to incorporate with that tribe. They continued to decline in numbers until in 1755 Governor Dobbs stated that only 2 men and 3 women were left.
Population. In 1584-85 one of the Chowanoc towns, Ohanoak was said to contain 700 warriors, and Mooney (1928) estimates their numbers at about 1,500 in 1600. In 1707 they were reduced to one town with about 15 fighting men, but at the end of the Tuscarora War their numbers were placed at 240. In 1731 less than 20
families were reported and by 1755 only 5 individuals, as above noted.
Connection in which they have become noted. The Chowanoc seem to have been the most powerful Algonquian tribe south of the Powhatan. Their memory is preserved in the names of Chowan River, and Chowan County, and in the designation of a small post office the county of the name, all in North Carolina.
Connections. As the final stage of the Coree existence was passed with an Algonquian tribe, some have thought that the affiliations of this people were also Algonquian. On the other hand Lawson (1860) that notes that their language and that of a tribe to the north were mutually intelligible and there is a
reason for thinking that this northern tribe belonged to the Iroquois Confederacy. At least the Coree were closely associated in many ways with the Iroquoian Tuscarora.
Location. On the peninsula south of Neuse River in Carteret an Craven Counties.
Coranine, probably on the coast in Cartert County.
Narhantes, among the Tuscarora, 30 miles from Newbern.
Raruta, probably on the coast of Carteret County, south of Neuse River.
History. When the Coree and the Whites first met is unknown, but they appear in the records of the Raleigh colony under the name Cwarennoc. They were greatly reduced before 1696 in a war with another people. They took part with the Tuscarora in their war against the colonists, and in 1715 the remnant of them and
what was left of the Machapunga were assigned a reservation on Mattamuskeet Lake in Hyde County, where they occupied one village, probably until they became extinct. A few of them appear to have remained with the Tuscarora.
Population. The population of this tribe and the Neusiok was estimated by Mooney (1928) at 1,000 in 1600. In 1707 Lawson says they had 25 fighting men and were living in 2 villages. No later enumeration is known.
Connection in which they have become noted. Although some distance from the Coree country, Core Creek Station in Craven County, N. C., may perpetuate the name of the Coree.
Eno. Significance unknown, but Speck suggests i'nare, "to dislike," whence. "mean," "comptemptible"; yeni'nare, "People disliked,"
Haynokes, synonym form Yardley (1645)
Connections. The Eno were probably of the Siouan linguistic stock, though, on account of certain peculiarities attributed to them, Mooney (1895) casts some doubt upon this. Their nearest relatives were the Shakori.
Location. On Eno River in the present Orange and Durham Counties. (See also South Carolina.)
The only village name recorded, distinct from that of the tribe, is Adshusheer, a town which they shared with the Shakori. It is located by Mooney (1928) near the present Hillsboro. Lawson (1860) speaks in one place as if it were a tribe but
as there is no other mention of it, it is more likely that it was simply the name of the town which the Eno and Shakori occupied.
History. The Eno are first mentioned by Governor Yeardley of Virginia, who was told that they had valiantly resisted the northward advance of the Spaniards. From this it appears possible that they had formerly lived upon the Enoree River in South Carolina, which lay on the main trail from St. Helena to the Cheraw
country at the foot of the Appalachian Mountains. Lederer (1912) mentions them in 1671 and Lawson (1860) in 1701 when they and the Shakori were in the town of Adshusheer. About 1714, together with the
, they began to move toward the Virginia settlements. In 1716 Governor Spotswood of Virginia proposed to settle the
, and Keyuawee at Eno town "on the very frontiers" of North Carolina but the project was defeated by the latter province on the ground that all three tribes were then at war with South Carolina. From the records it is not clear whether this Eno town was the old settlement or a new one nearer the Albemarle colonists. Owing to the defeat of this plan,
the Eno moved into South Carolina. Presumably they finally united with the
, among whom, Adair (1930) states, their dialect was still spoken in 1743.
Population. Mooney (1928) estimates the combined Eno, Shakori, and Adshusheer at 1,500 in 1600. In 1714 the Eno, Shakori, Tutelo, Saponi, Occaneechi, and Keyauwee totaled 750. There is no other record of their numbers.
Connection in which they have become noted. In marked distinction from their neighbors, the Eno had taken to a trading life. Their name was given to Eno River in Orange and Durham Counties, N. C., and perhaps to a place called Enno in the southwestern part of Wake County, and to Enoree River in South Carolina (see
above), as also to a post village near the last mentioned.
Hatteras. Meaning unknown. linguistic Connections.-The Hatteras belonged to the Algonquian linguistic family.
Location. Among the sandbanks about Cape Hatteras east of Pamlico Sound and frequenting Roanoke Island.
Sandbanks, on Hatteras Island.
History. Lawson (1860) thought the Hatteras showed traces of White blood and therefore they may have been the
with whom Raleigh's colonists are supposed to have taken refuge. They disappeared soon after as a distinct tribe and united with the mainland Algonquians. In 1761, the Rev. Alex. Stewart baptized 7 Indians and mixed-blood children of the" Attamuskeet, Hatteras, and Roanoke" tribes and 2 years later he baptized 21 more.
Population. The Hatteras population has been estimated with the Machapunga and other tribes at 1,200 in 1600; they had 16 warriors in 1701, or a total population of about 80.
Connection in which they have become noted. The possible connection of the Hatteras with the Croatan has been mentioned and their name has become perpetuated in the dangerous cape at the angle of the outer sand islands of their old country.
Connections. From the historical affiliations of Keyauwee, they are presumed to have been of the Siouan linguistic family.
Location. About the points of meeting of the present Guilford, Davidson, and Randolph Counties. (See also South Carolina.)
Villages. No separately named villages are known.
History. The Keyauwee do not appear to have been noted by white men before 1701 when Lawson (1860) found them in a palisaded village about 30 miles northeast of Yadkin River near the present Highpoint, Guilford County. At that time they were preparing to join the
for better protection against their enemies, and, shortly afterward, together with the last mentioned tribes, the Occaneechi, and the Shakori, they moved toward the settlements about Albemarle Sound. As mentioned already, Governor Spotswood's project to settle this tribe together with the Eno and Cheraw at Enotown on the frontier of North Carolina was foiled by
the opposition of the latter colony. The Keyauwee then moved southward to the Pee Dee along with the Cheraw, and perhaps the Eno and Shakori. In the Jefferys atlas of 1761 their town appears close to the boundary line between the two Carolinas. They do not reappear in any the historical records but probably united ultimately in part with the Catawba, while some
of their descendants are represented among the Robeson County Indians, often miscalled Croatan.
Population. Mooney (1928) estimates 500 Keyauwee in 1600. In 1701 they are said to have numbered approximately as many as the Saponi, but the population of that tribe also is unknown. Shortly afterward it is stated that the Keyauwee, Tutelo, Saponi, Occaneechi, and Shakori totaled 750 souls. This is all the information that we
Machapunga. Said to mean "bad dust," or "much dirt," in the native Algonquian language.
Connections. The Machapunga belonged to the Algonquian linguistic stock.
Location. In the present Hyde County and probably also in Washington, Tyrrell, and Dare Counties, and part of Beaufort.
The only village named is Mattamuskeet (probably on Mattamuskeet Lake in Hyde County). However, we should probably add Secotan on the north bank
of Pamlico River in Beaufort County, and perhaps the town of the Bear River Indians
History.-The Machapunga seem to have embraced the larger part of the descendants of the Secotan, who lived between Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds when the Raleigh colony was established on Roanoke Island (1585-86) though the Pamlico may also have been included under the same head. They were reduced to a single
village by 1701, took part with other Indian tribes of the region in the Tuscarora War, and at its close were settled on Mattamuskeet Lake with the Coree. In 1761 a small number were still living in North Carolina, evidently at the same place, and the Rev. Alex. Stewart reported that he had baptized seven Indian and mixed-blood children belonging to the "Attamuskeet,
Hatteras, and Roanoke." On a second visit 2 years later he baptized 21 more.
Population.-The Machapunga are estimated by Mooney (1928) to have numbered 1,200, including some smaller tribes, in 1600. In 1701 Lawson gives 30 warriors, probably less than 100 souls (Lawson, 1860). In 1775 there were said to be 8 to 10 on the mainland and as many more on the off-shore banks. In 1761 the number
of warriors was only 7 or 8. The Bear River Indians may have combined with these.
Connection in which they have become noted. In the form Machipongo, the name is applied to a post village in Northampton County, Va.
Meherrin. This tribe extended across from Virginia into Northampton and Hertford Counties. (See Virginia.)
Connections. There is little doubt that the Moratok belonged to the Algonquian linguistic stock and were closely related to the other Algonquian tribes of the sound region of North Carolina.
Location. On Roanoke River and apparently on the north side, and
estimated to be 160 miles up the river, though the distance is evidently reckoned from the Raleigh settlement on Roanoke Island
Villages. The village bearing the name of the tribe is the only one known.
History. The sole mention of the Moratok is in the narratives of the Raleigh expeditions. They were first recognized as an independent tribe by Mr. Maurice Mook (1943 a).
Population. Unknown but reported as large.
Natchez. Part of the Natchez Indians sought refuge with and Cherokee after their tribe had been broken up by the French and most of them appear to have lived along Hiwassee River. They accompanied those Cherokee who moved to Oklahoma and settled on the western margin of the Cherokee Reservation, where a few of them retained their language long enough to have it
recorded. (See Mississippi.)
Connections. The form of this name suggests that the Neusiok were of the Algonquian stock, but they may have been Iroquoian like their neighbors the
and Coree (?).
Location. On lower Neuse River particularly on the south side, in Craven and Cartaret Counties.
Village. Chattooka, on the site of Newbern, and Rouconk, exact location unknown.
History.-In 1584 Amadas and Barlowe heard of the Neusiok as at war with the tribes farther north. The later settlers speak to of them as Neuse Indians. They dwindled away rapidly and perhaps united finally with the Tuscarora.
Population.-With the Coree the Neusiok are estimated by Mooney (1928) at 1,000 in the year 1600. In 1790 they numbered but 15 warriors although occupying two towns.
Connection in which they have become noted. The name Neusiok is connected with that of the River Neuse in North Carolina, and a post village.
Occaneechi. When the Occaneechi lived on Roanoke River, Va., they probably ranged over into Warren, Halifax, and Northampton Counties, N. C. In 1701 they were in Orange County, N. C. (See Virginia.)
Connections. The Pamlico belonged to the Algonquian linguistic stock.
Location. On Pamlico River.
History. The Pamlico are mentioned by the Raleigh colonists in 1585-86 under the name Pomouik. In 1696 they were almost destroyed by smallpox. In 1701 Lawson recorded a vocabulary from them which shows their affiliations to have been as given above (Lawson, 1860). In 1710 they lived in a single small village. They
took part in the Tuscarora war, and at its close that part of the Tuscarora under treaty with the English agreed to destroy them. A remnant of the Pamlico was probably incorporated by the Tuscarora as slaves.
Population. The Pamlico are estimated by Mooney (1928), together with "Bear River" Indians, as 1,000 in 1600. In 1710 they numbered about 75.
Connection in which they have become noted. The Pamlico have given their name to or shared it with the largest sound in North Carolina and a North Carolina county. They are also noteworthy as having been almost if not quite the most southerly Algonquian tribe on the Atlantic seaboard, and the most southerly one
from which a vocabulary has been collected.
Saponi. This tribe lived on Yadkin River and in other parts of the State for a certain period. (See Virginia.)
Shakori. A native name but its significance unknown, though perhaps the same as Sugari, "stingy or spoiled people," or "of the river whose-water-cannot-be drunk." Also called:
Cacores, a misprint.
Connections. The Shakori belonged to the Siouan linguistic family, their closest connections being evidently with the southern division of the Siouan tribes of the East. Barnwell (1908) identified them with the Sissipahaw.
Location. The Shakori moved so frequently and there is so much uncertainty regarding their early history, that this is hard to give, but, as they usually kept company with the Eno, tenancy of the courses of Shocco and Big Shocco Creeks in the present Vance, Warren, and Franklin Counties is perhaps the location most
closely connected with them in historic times. (See South Carolina and Virginia.)
History. It is possible that the Shakori gave their name to the province of Chicora visited by Ayllon and his companions in 1521. If so, we must suppose that they moved north later in the sixteenth century or early in the seventeenth, perhaps as a result of the Pardo expeditions. In 1650 Edward Blande and his
associates found the "Nottoway and Schockoores old fields" between Meherrin and Nottoway Rivers, but the Indians were not there. In 1654 Governor Yeardley of Virginia was told by a Tuscarora Indian of an inland people called the "Cacores," probably an attempt to indicate this tribe. In 1672 Lederer found them living in a village 14 miles from
that of the Eno (Lederer, 1912), and in 1701 Lawson says these two tribes (the Shakori and Eno) were in one village called Adshusheer on Eno River (Lawson, 1860). The later fortunes of the Shakori were bound up with those of the Eno.
Population.-Mooney (1928) estimates the Shakori, Eno, and "Adshusheer" at 1,500 in 1600.
Connection in which they have become noted. The two creeks, Shocco and Big Shocco, and a post office 9 miles south of Warrenton, Warren County, perpetuate the name of the Shakori. If Chicora refers to the same tribe, it appears prominently in Spanish narratives of American exploration, particularly because of the
information regarding Indian customs obtained by Peter Martyr from an Indian, Francisco of Chicora.
Connections.-The Sissipahaw were probably of the Siouan linguistic family though no words of their language are known.
Location.-The principal Sissipahaw settlement appears to have been about the present Saxapahaw on Haw River in the lower part of Alamance County. (See also South Carolina.)
History.-The name of this tribe is possibly preserved in the Sauxpa mentioned by the Spanish officer Vandera in 1569 as a place visited by Juan Pardo. Lawson (1860) spoke of them in connection with his travels through Carolina in 1701, but he did not visit them. Barnwell (1908) identified them with the Shakori with
whom they were doubtless nearly allied and of whom they may have been a branch. They united with other tribes of the region against the English in the Yamasee war of 1715, and later with other Siouan remnants probably joined the Catawba.
Population.-Mooney (1928) estimates the Sissipahaw at 800 in 1600. "Haw Old Fields" constituted the largest body of fertile land in the region.
Connections in which they have become noted. The name Sissipahaw has been brought down to our times by Haw River and the towns of Haw River and Saxapahaw on the same, in Alamance County, N. C.
Sugeree. This tribe occupied parts of Mecklenburg County. (See South Carolina.)
Tuscarora. From their own name Skǎ-ru'-rěn, signifying according to Hewitt (in Hodge, 1910), "hemp gatherers," and applied on account of the great use they made of Apocynum cannabinum. Also called:
Ă-ko-t'ǎs'-kǎ-to'-rěn Mohawk name.
Ani'-Skǎlǎ'lǐ, Cherokee name.
Ă-t'ǎs-kǎ-lo'-lěn, Oneida name.
Tewohomomy (or Keew-ahomomy), Saponi name.
Connections. The Tuscarora belonged to the Iroquoian linguistic family.
Location. On the Roanoke, Tar, Pamlico, and Neuse Rivers. (See also Pennsylvania and New York.)
The Tuscarora should be considered a confederacy with three tribes or a tribe with three subtribes as follows: Kǎ'tě'nu'ā'kā', "People of the submerged
pine tree"; Akawǎntca'kā', meaning doubtful; and Skarū'rěn, "hemp gatherers," i. e., the Tuscarora proper.
The following were in North Carolina, a more precise location not being possible except in the cases specified:
Contahnah, near the mouth of Neuse River.
Cotechney, on the opposite side of Neuse River from Fort Barnwell, about the
mouth of Contentnea Creek.
Neoheroka, in Greene County.
Tasqui, a day's journey from Cotechney on the way to Nottaway village.
Tonarooka, on a branch of Neuse River between "Fort Narhantes" and Cotechney.
Torhunte, on a northern affluent of Neuse River.
Ucouhnerunt, on Pamlico River, probably in the vicinity of Greenville, in Pitt County.
Unanauhan. Later settlements in New York were these:
Canasaraga, on Canaseraga Creek on the site of the present Sullivan.
Nyuchirhaan, near Lewiston, Niagara County.
Ohagi, on the west side of Genesee River a short distance below Cuylersviile, Livingston County.
Oquaga, on the east branch of the Susquehanna on both sides, in the town of Colesville, Broome County.
Oyonwayea, also called Johnson's Landing, in Niagara County, about 4 miles
east of the outlet of Niagara River at the mouth of Four Mile Creek.
Shawiangto, on the west side of the Susquehanna not far from Windsor, Broome
Tiochrungwe, on the "main road" from Oneida to Onondaga.
Tuscarora, the name of three villages: one a short distance east of "Anatsagane," probably the present Stockbridge, in Madison County; the second about 3 miles below Oquaga, in Broome County, approximately on the site of Windsor; and the third 12 miles by land and 20 by water below Oquaga, in the vicinity of Great Bend, in Susquehanna County.
The location of Ganatisgowa is uncertain.
History. The place or manner of separation of the Tuscarora from the Iroquois tribes of New York is not known, and they were found in the tract indicated above when the country was first entered by white colonists. John Lawson, Surveyor General of North Carolina, lived in close contact with these Indians for many
years and his History of Carolina gives us our earliest satisfactory picture of them. (See Lawson, 1860.) It was his capture and execution by the tribe in September 1711, however, which brought on the first Tuscarora War, though behind it lay a series of encroachments by the Whites on Tuscarora territory, and the kidnapping and enslavement of numbers of Indians.
Immediately after Lawson's death, part of the Tuscarora, headed by chief Hencock, and the Coree, Pamlico, Machapunga, and Bear River Indians conspired to cut off the white settlers and, in consequence, on September 22, 1711, they rose and massacred about 130 of the colonists on Trent and Pamlico Rivers. Colonel Barnwell, with 33 white men and about 500 Indians,
marched against the hostiles, by direction of the colony of South Carolina, drove them from one of their towns with great loss, and invested Hencock's own town, Cotechney. But having suffered severely in two assaults upon the place and fearing lest the white captives in the hands of the Indians would be killed, he made peace and returned home. Dissatisfied with
the treatment accorded him by the North Carolina authorities, however, he violated the treaty during his retreat by seizing some Indians and sending them away as slaves. This brought on the second Tuscarora War, 1712-13. South Carolina was again appealed to for assistance, and Colonel James Moore set out for the north with about 900 Indians and 33 white men, a
number which was considerably swelled before he reached the seat of trouble. March 20 to 23 he stormed the palisaded town of Neoheroka, inflicting a loss upon the enemy of about 950. The Tuscarora became so terrified at this that part of them abandoned Fort Cohunche, situated at Hencock's town and started north to join their relatives, the Iroquois. This was
only the beginning of the movement, bands of Tuscarora being noted at intervals as moving north or as having arrived among the Five Nations. They were adopted by the Oneida but, contrary to the general impression, were not granted coordinate rights in the League before September 1722. A part of the Tuscarora under a chief named Tom Blunt (or Blount), had,
however, remained neutral. They received recognition by the government of North Carolina, and continued in their former homes under their own chiefs. In 1766, 155 removed to New York, and the 105 remaining were brought north in 1802 while a deputation of northern Tuscarora were in Carolina to obtain payment for the lands they had formerly occupied. When the
Tuscarora first moved north they were settled at various places along the Susquehanna in Pennsylvania and in New York, some in the Oneida country itself. In 1875, by the treaty of Fort Herkimer, the Oneida sold to the State of New York, the lands on which their adopted children, the Tuscarora, had settled, and for a time the Tuscarora were dispersed in various
settlements in New York State, and even in Pennsylvania. At the outbreak of the American Revolution, the majority of Tuscarora and Oneida espoused the cause of the colonists and in consequence they were attacked by Indians in the British interest, including even some of their Iroquois brethren, their houses were burned, their crops and other property destroyed,
and they themselves scattered. A large band of them settled, however, at a place called Oyonwayea or Johnson's Landing, on Lake Ontario. Later a party from this settlement discovered a place in the northeastern part of the present Tuscarora Reservation which Pleased them so much that they decided to winter there and they were presently joined by the rest of the
inhabitants of Oyonwayea. At the treaty held at Genesee, September 15, 1797, between Robert Morris and the Seneca tribe, Morris reserved to the tribe, by grant, 2 square miles, covering their new settlements, and the Seneca there upon granted them an additional square mile. As a result of their appeal to the legislature of North Carolina above mentioned, they
were able to lease lands in the south, and they devoted the proceeds to the purchase of 4,329 acres adjoining their New York reserve. The Tuscarora who had sided with Great Britain were granted lands in severalty on Grand River, Ontario.
Population. There were 5,000 Tuscarora in 1600 according to an estimate by Mooney (1928). In 1708, Lawson gives 15 towns and 1,200 warriors (Lawson, 1860). Barnwell in 1712 estimates 1,200 to 1,400 fighting men (Barnwell, 1908); Chauvignerie in 1736, 250 warriors, not including those in North Carolina, and on the
Susquehanna and Juniata Rivers (Chauvignerie, in Schoolcraft, 1851-57, vol. 3, p. 555). In 1752 the southern Tuscarora were said to number 300 men; in 1754 there were said to be 100 men and 200 women and children and these figures are repeated in 1761. In 1766 there were said to be 220 to 230 all told in the south; next year we read that 155 southern Tuscarora
had removed and that 105 remained. Other estimates place the total Tuscarora population at 1,000 in 1765, 2,000 in 1778, 1,000 in 1783, and 400 in 1796. In 1885 there were 828 (evenly divided between New York and Canada). In 1909 there were 364 in New York and a year later 416 in Canada, a total of 780. In 1910, 400 were reported in the United States and in
1923, 376 in New York alone. The number in Canada is not separately given.
Connection in which they have become noted. This tribe is noted historically for its prominence among the peoples of eastern North Carolina, for the two wars which it waged with the colonists, and for the rather spectacular migration of the greater part to the north and its union with the Five Iroquois Nations. The
name Tuscarora occurs applied to settlements in Frederick County, Md.; Craven County, North Carolina; Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania; Livingston County, N. Y.; Elko County, Nev.; and Ontario; and to a creek and mountain in Pennsylvania.
Tutelo. This tribe lived for a while on the upper Yadkin and later in Bertie County. (See
Waccamaw. They probably ranged across into North Carolina from the head of Waccamaw River. (See
Wateree. According to Lederer (1912) they were living in 1670 on the upper Yadkin. (See
Weapemeoc. Meaning unknown, but evidently a place name. Also called:
Yeopim, a shortened and more usual form.
Connections. The Weapemeoc were almost certainly of the Algonquian linguistic family and related to the
Indians the north and the Chowan, Machapunga, and Pamlico to the south.
Location. Most of the present Currituck, Camden, Pasquotank, and Perquimans Counties, and part of Chowan County north of Albemarle Sound.
In the same section in later times are given the following tribes which must be regarded as subdivisions of the Weapemeoc:
Pasquotank, on Pasquotank River.
Perquiman, on Perquimans River.
Poteskeet, location uncertain.
Yeopim, or Weapemeoc proper, on Yeopim River.
Chepanoc, on Albemarle Sound in Perquimans County.
Mascoming, on the north shore of Albemarle Sound, in Chowan County. Metachkwem, location unknown.
Pasquenock, perhaps identical with Pasquotank, on the north shore of Albemarle Sound, perhaps in Camden County.
Weapemeoc, probably in Pasquotank County.
History.-The Weapemeoc first appear in history in the narratives of the Raleigh colony of 1585-86. Later they are spoken of under the various subdivisional names. They parted with some of their land in 1662. In 1701, according to Lawson (1860), only 6 of the Yeopim survived though there were 40 warriors of the
other subdivisions, including 10 Pasquotank and 30 Potekeet.
Population. In the time of the Raleigh colony the Weapemeoc are said to have had between 700 and 800 warriors. They were estimated by Mooney (1928) at 800 in 1600. From their number as given by Lawson in 1701 Rights (1947) estimates 200 at that date.
Connection in which they have become noted. In the form Yeopim the name has been preserved in that of a railroad station in Perquimans County, N. C.
Connections. The Woccon belonged to the Siouan linguistic stock, their closest relations being the Catawba.
Location. Between Neuse River and one of its affluents, perhaps about the present Goldsboro, Wayne County.
Tooptatmeer, supposed to have been in Greene County.
Yupwauremau, supposed to have been in Greene County.
History.-The first mention of the Woccon appears to be by Lawson writing about 1701, who recorded 150 words of their language. These show that it was nearer Catawba than any other known variety of speech. Lack of any earlier mention of such a large tribe lends strength to the theory of Dr. Douglas L. Rights that
they were originally Waccamaw (q. v., under South Carolina). They took part against the Whites in the Tuscarora Wars and were probably extinguished as a tribe at that time, the remnant fleeing north with the Tuscarora, uniting with the Catawba, or combining with other Siouan remnants in the people later known as Croatan.
Population. The number of Woccon war estimated by Mooney (1928) at 600 in 1600. Lawson (1860) gives 120 warriors in 1709.
Connection in which they have become noted. The sole claim of the Woccon to distinction is from the fact that it is the only one of the southern group of eastern
tribes other than the Catawba from which a vocabulary has been preserved.
Yadkin. Meaning unknown.
Connections. The Yadkin probably belonged to the Siouan linguistic family.
Location.-On Yadkin River.
History. The Yadkin first appear in history in a letter by the Indian trader, Abraham Wood, narrating the adventures of two men, James Needham and Gabriel Arthur, whom he had sent on an exploring expedition to the west. They passed this tribe and town, which they call "Yattken," in the summer of 1674.
Lawson (1860) gives the name as Reatkin but applies it to the river, and there is no later mention of the people.
Connection in which they have become noted. Their name Yadkin is perpetuated by the Yadkin River, Yadkin County, and the towns and villages of Yadkin College, Yadkin Falls, Yadkin Valley, and Yadkinville, all in the State of North Carolina.
Connections. The Moneton belonged to the Siouan linguistic family; their nearest connections were probably the Manahoac and Monacan of Virginia and perhaps Ofo of Ohio and Mississippi.
Location.-Probably on the lower course of Kanawha River.
History. The Moneton were first mentioned by Thomas Batts in 1671. (See Alvord and Bidgood, 1912.) Three years later they were visited by Gabriel Arthur, an indentured servant of the trader Abraham Wood, and this is the last we hear of them as an independent tribe. They probably united with the Siouan people in the Piedmont region of
Population. Unknown. Arthur calls the principal Moneton settlement "a great town."
Cherokee (see Tennessee), Conoy (see Maryland), Delaware (see New Jersey), Honniasont and Susquehanna (see Pennsylvania), and Shawnee (see
) settled in various parts of West Virginia from time to time, but none of them was established there at an early date for an appreciable period except perhaps the Conoy, whose name appears to be perpetuated in that of the Kanawha River. There is no information regarding the Moneton residence there other than the preservation of their name.
Virginia Indian Tribes
Cherokee. This tribe claimed territory in the extreme southwestern part of the State. If not actually occupied by them, it at least formed part of their hunting territories. (See
Manahoac. Meaning "They are very merry," according to Tooker (1895), but this seems improbable. Also called:
Mahocks, apparently a shortened form.
Connections. The Manaboac belonged to the Siouan linguistic family; their nearest connections were probably the
, Moneton, and
Location. In northern Virginia between the falls of the rivers and the mountains east and west and the Potomac and North Anna Rivers north and south.
Subtribes or tribes of the confederacy as far as known were the following:
Hassinunga, on the headwaters of the Rappahannock River.
Manahoac proper, according to Jefferson (1801), in Stafford and Spottsylvania Counties.
Ontponea, in Orange County.
Shackaconia, on the south bank of the Rappahannock River in Spottsylvania County.
Stegaraki, on the Rapidan River in Orange County.
Tanxnitania, on the north side of the upper Rappahannock River in Fauquier County.
tegninateo, in Culpeper County, at the head of the Rappahannock River. Whonkentia, in Fauquier County, near the head of the Rappahannock.
Villages: Mahaskahod, on the Rappahannock River, probably near Fredericksburg, is the only town known by name.
History. Traditional evidence points to an early home of the Manahoac people in the Ohio Valley. In 1608 John Smith discovered them in the location above given and learned that they with the Monacan but at war with the
Indians and the
(or perhaps rather the
). After this they suddenly vanish from history under a certainly recognizable name, but there is good reason to believe that they were one of those tribes which settled near the falls of the James River in 1654 or 1656 and defeated a combined force of Whites and coast Indians who had been sent against them. They seem to have been forced out of their old country
by the Susquehanna. Probably they remained for a time in the neighborhood of the Monacan proper and were in fact the Mahock encountered by Lederer (1912) in 1670 at a point on James River which Bushnell seems to have identified with the site of the
old Massinacack town, the fact that a stream entering the James at this point is called the Mohawk rendering his case rather strong. Perhaps the old inhabitants had withdrawn to the lower Monacan town, Mowhemencho. In 1700 the Stegaraki were located by Governor Spotswood of Virginia at Fort Christanna, and the Mepontsky,
also placed there, may have been the Ontponea. We hear of the former as late as 1723, and there is good reason to believe that they united with the
and followed their fortunes, and that under these two names were included all remnants of the Manahoac.
Population. Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 1,500 Manahoac in 1600 but this is probably rather too high, since their numbers and those of the Tutelo together seem to have been 600-700 in 1654. However, it is possible that these figures cover only the Manahoac, while Mooney's include part of the Saponi and
Connections. The Meherrin belonged to the Iroquoian linguistic family, their closest connections probably being the
Location. Along the river of the same name on the Virginia-North Carolina border.
History. The tribal name Meherrin first appears in the form "Maharineck" in the account of an expedition by Edward Blande and others to North Carolina in 1650, and next body Indian census taken in 1669. Later they seem to have adopted a body of Conestoga or Susquehanna fleeing from Pennsylvania after
account dispersal by the Iroquois about 1675. This is the only way to account for the fact that they are all said to have been refugee Conestoga. They were living on Roanoke River in 1761 with the southern bands of
and Saponi, and the
, and probably went north in the last Tuscarora removal in 1802. (For information regarding another possible band of
Population. Mooney (1928) estimates the Meherrin population at 700 in 1600. In 1669 they are said to have had 50 bowmen, or approximately 180 souls. In 1755 they were said to be reduced to 7 or 8 fighting men, but in 1761 they are reported to have had 20.
Connection in which they have become noted. Meherrin River, an affluent of the Chowan, running through southern Virginia and northeastern North Carolina, and a Virginia town perpetuate the name of the Meherrin.
Monacan. Possibly from an Algonquian word signifying "digging stick," or "spade," but more likely from their own language. Also called:
Rahowacah, by Archer, 1607, in Smith (1884).
Connections. The Monacan belonged to the Siouan linguistic stock. Their nearest connections were the Manahoac, Tutelo, and Saponi.
Location. On the upper waters of James River above the falls at Richmond.
Villages (Locations as determined by D. I. Bushnell, Jr.)
Massinacack, on the right bank of James River about the mouth of Mohawk Creek, and a mile or more south of Goochland.
Mohemencho, later called Monacan Town, on the south bank of James River and probably covering some of "the level area bordering the stream in the extreme eastern part of the present Powhatan County, between Bernards Creek on the east and Jones Creek on the west."
Rassawek, at the confluence of the James and Rivanna Rivers and probably "on the right bank of the Rivanna, within the angle formed by the two streams."
Two other towns are sometimes added but as they afterward appeared as wholly independent tribes, the Saponi and the Tutelo, it is probable that their connection with the Monacan was never very intimate. They seem to have been classed as Monacan largely on the evidence furnished by Smith's map, in which they appear in the
country of the "Monacans" but Smith's topography, as Bushnell has shown, was very much foreshortened toward the mountains and the Saponi and Tutelo towns were farther away than he supposed. Again, while Massinacack and Mohemencho are specifically referred to as Monacan towns and Smith calls Rassawek "the chief habitation" of the Monacan,
there is no such characterization of either of the others.
History. Capt. John Smith learned of the Monacan in the course of an exploratory trip which he made up James River in May 1607. The people themselves were visited by Captain Newport the year following, who discovered the two lower towns. The population gradually declined and in 1699 some Huguenots took possession
of the land of Mowhemencho. The greater part of the Monacan had been driven away some years before this by Colonel Bornn (Byrd?). Those who escaped continued to camp in the region until after 1702, as we learn from a Swiss traveler named F. L. Michel (1916). It is probable that the remnant finally united with their relatives the Saponi and Tutelo when they were
at Fort Christanna and followed their fortunes, but we have no further information as to their fate.
Population. The number of the Monacan was estimated by Mooney (1928) at 1,200 in 1600 including part of the Saponi and Tutelo, but they can hardly have comprised over half as many. In 1669 there were still about 100 true Monacan as they were credited with 30 bowmen.
Connection in which they have become noted. The name Monacan is perpetuated by a small place called Manakin on the north bank of James River, in Goochland County, Va.
Nahyssan. A contraction of Monahassano or Monahassanugh, remembered in later times as Yesan.
Connections. The Nahyssan belonged to the Siouan linguistic stock, their nearest relatives being the Tutelo, Saponi, and probably the Monacan and Manahoac.
Location. The oldest known location of the Nahyssan has been identified by D. I. Bushnell, Jr. (1930), within very narrow limits as "probably on the left bank of the James, about 1½ miles up the stream from Wingina, in Nelson County."
History. In 1650 Blande and his companions noted a site, 12 miles south-southwest of the present Petersburg, called "Manks Nessoneicks" which was presumably occupied for a time by the Nahyssan or a part of them, since "Manks" may be intended for "Tanks," the Powhatan adjective
signifying "little." In 1654 or 1656 this tribe and the Manahoac appeared at the falls of James River having perhaps been driven from their former homes by the Susquehanna. They defeated a force of colonials and
Indians sent against them but did not advance further into the settlements. In 1670 Lederer (1912) found two Indian towns on Staunton River, one of which he calls Sapon and the other Pintahae. Sapon was, of course, the town of the Saponi but it is believed that Pintahae was the town of the Nahyssan Indians, though Lederer gives this name to both towns. Pintahae
was probably the Hanathaskie or Hanahaskie town of which Batts and Fallam (1912) speak a year later. About 1675 the Nahyssan settled on an island below the Occaneechi at the junction of the Staunton and Dan Rivers. Before 1701 all of the Siouan tribes who had settled in this neighborhood moved into North Carolina, and it is thought that the Nahyssan followed the
Saponi and Tutelo to the headwaters of the Yadkin and that
their subsequent fortunes were identical with those of these two. (See Saponi and Tutelo.)
Population.-(See Saponi and Tutelo.)
Nottaway. Meaning "adders," in the language of their Algonquian neighbors, a common designation for alien tribes by peoples of that linguistic stock. Also called:
Cheroenhaka, their own name, probably signifying "fork of a stream." Mangoak, Mengwe, another Algonquian term, signifying "stealthy," "treacherous."
Connections. The Nottaway belonged to the Iroquoian linguistic family, their closest connections probably being the Meherrin, Tuscarora, and Susquehanna.
Location. On the river of the same name in southeastern Virginia.
History. The Nottaway were found by the Virginia colonists in the location given above. Though they were never prominent in colonial history, they kept up their organization long after the other tribes of the region were practically extinct. In 1825 they are mentioned as living on a reservation in Southampton
County and ruled over by a "queen." The name of this tribe was also applied to a band of Indians which appeared on the northern frontiers of South Carolina between 1748 and 1754. They may have included those Susquehanna who are sometimes confounded with the Meherrin, and are more likely to have included Meherrin than true Nottaway although they
retained the name of the latter (see Swanton, 1946).
Population. The number of Nottaway, exclusive of those last mentioned, was estimated by Mooney (1928) at 1,500 in the year 1600. In 1709 Lawson reported one town with 30 fighting men, but in 1827 Byrd estimated that there were 300 Nottaway in Virginia. In 1825, 47 were reported. The band that made its appearance on
the frontiers of South Carolina was said to number about 300.
Connection in which they have become noted. The name of the Nottaway is preserved by Nottoway River, Nottoway County, and two towns, one the county seat of the above, the other in Sussex county. There is a Nottawa in St. Joseph County, Mich.
Occaneechi. Meaning unknown.
The Botshenins, or Patshenins, a band associated with the Saponi and Tutelo in Ontario, were perhaps identical with this tribe.
Connections. The Occaneechi belonged to the Siouan linguistic stock; their closest connections were probably the Tutelo and Saponi.
Location. On the middle and largest island in Roanoke River, just below the confluence of the Staunton and the Dan, near the site of Clarksville, Mecklenburg County, Va. (See also
History. Edward Blande and his companions heard of them in 1650. When first met by Lederer in 1670 at the spot above mentioned, the Occaneechi were noted throughout the region as traders, and their language is said to have been the common speech both of trade and religion over a considerable area (Lederer, 1912).
Between 1670 and 1676 the Occaneechi had been joined by the Tutelo and Saponi, who settled upon two neighboring islands. In the latter year the Conestoga sought refuge among them and were hospitably received, but, attempting to dispossess their benefactors, they were driven away. Later, harassed by the Iroquois and English, the Occaneechi fled south and in 1701
Lawson (1860) found them on the Eno River, about the present Hillsboro, Orange County, N. C. Later still they united with the Tutelo and Saponi and followed their fortunes, having, according to Byrd, taken the name of the Saponi.
Population. Mooney (1928) estimates that there were 1,200 Occaneechi in the year 1600. There is no later estimate, but in 1709 this tribe along with the Shakori, Saponi, Tutelo, and Keyauwee were about 750.
Connection in which they have become noted. The name Occaneechi is associated particularly with the Occaneechi Trail or Trading Path, which extended southwest through North and South Carolina from the neighborhood of Petersburg, Va.
Powhatan. Said by Gerard to signify "falls in a current of water," and applied originally to one tribe but extended by the English to its chief Wahunsonacock, and through him to the body of tribes which came under his sway. Also called:
Sachdagugh-roonaw, Iroquois name.
Connections. The Powhatan belonged to the Algonquian linguistic stock, their nearest relatives probably being the Algonquian tribes of Carolina and the
Location. In the tidewater section of Virginia from Potomac River to the divide between James River and Albemarle Sound, and the territory of the present eastern shore of Virginia. (See also
District of Columbia
Subtribes constituting this group are as follows:
Accohanoc, in Accomac and part of Northampton Counties. Va.. and probably
extending slightly into Maryland.
Accomac, in the southern part of Northampton County, Va. Appomattoc, in Chesterfield County.
Arrohattoc, in Henrico County.
Chesapeake, in Princess Anne County. Chickahominy, on Chickahominy River. Chiskiac, in York County.
Cuttatawomen, in King George County.
Kecoughtan, in Elizabeth City County.
Mattapony on Mattapony River.
Moraughtacund, in Lancaster and Richmond Counties.
Mummapacune, on York River.
Nansemond, in Nansemond County.
Nantaughtacund, in Essex and Caroline Counties.
Onawmanient, in Westmoreland County. Pamunkey, in King William County.
Paspahegh, in Charles City and James City Counties.
Pataunck, on Pamunkey River.
Piankatank, on Piankatank River.
Pissasec, in King George and Westmoreland Counties. Potomac, in Stafford and King George Counties.
Powhatan, in Henrico County.
Rappahannock, in Richmond County.
Secacawoni, in Northumberland County.
Tauxenent, in Fairfax County.
Warrasqueoc, in Isle of Wight County.
Weanoc, in Charles City County.
Werowocomoco, in Gloucester County.
Wicocomoco, in Northumberland County.
Youghtanund, on Pamunkey River.
Accohanoc, on the river of the same name in Accomac or Northampton Counties.
Accomac, according to Jefferson (18i,l), about Cheriton, on Cherrystone Inlet,
Acconoc, between Chickahominy and Pamunkey Rivers, in New Kent County. Accoqueck, on Rappahannock River, above Secobec, in Caroline County. Accossuwinck, on Pamunkey River, King William County.
Acquack, on the north bank of Rappahannock River, in Caroline County. Appamattoc, on the site of Bermuda Hundred, in Prince George County. Appocant, on the north bank of Chickahominy River, in New Kent County. Arrohattoc, in Henrico County on the James River, 12 miles below the falls at
Askakep, near Pamunkey River in New Kent County.
Assaomeck, near Alexandria.
Assuweska, on the north bank of the Rappahannock in King George County. Attamtuck, between the Chickahominy and Pamunkey Rivers in New Kent
Aubomesk, on the north bank of the Rappahannock in Richmond County. Aureuapeugh, on Rappahannock River in Essex County.
Cantaunkack, on York River in Gloucester County.
Capahowasic, about Cappahosic in Gloucester County.
Cattachiptico, on Pamunkey River in King William County.
Cawwontoll, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in Richmond County. Chawopo, at the mouth of Chipoak Creek, Surry County.
Checopissowo, on Rappahannock River above Tobacco Creek, in Caroline County.
Chesakawon, above the mouth of Corotoman River, in Lancaster County. Chesapeake, according to Jefferson on Linnhaven River in Princess Anne County, a small stream flowing north into Chesapeake Bay.
Chiconessex, about Wiseville, in Accomac County. Chincoteague, about Chincoteague Inlet, in Accomac County.
Chiskiac, on the south side of York River, about 10 miles below the junction of
the Mattapony and Pamunkey.
Cinquack, near Smiths Point on the Potomac, in Northumberland County. Cinquoteck, in the fork of Mattapony and Pamunkey Rivers, in King William County.
(1) on the Rappahannock River at Corotoman River in Lancaster County;
(2) about Lamb Creek on the Rappahannock, in King George County. Gangasco, near Eastville, in Northampton County.
Kapawnich, on the north bank of the Rappahannock, about Corotoman River in Lancaster County.
Kerahocak, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in King George County.
Kiequotank, on the eastern shore of Accomac County, north of Metomkin. Kupkipcock, on Pamunkey River in King William County. Machapunga,
(1) in Northampton County;
(2) on Potomac River.
Mamanahunt, on Chickahominy River, in Charles City County.
Mamanassy, at the junction of Pamunkey and Mattapony Rivers in King and
Mangoraca, on the north bank of the Rappahannock in Richmond County. Mantoughquemec, on Nansemond River, in Nansemond County. Martoughquaunk, on Mattapony River in Caroline County.
Massawoteck, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in King George County.
Matchopick, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in Richmond County. Matchut, on Pamunkey River, in New Kent County.
Mathomauk, on the west bank of James River, in Isle of Wight County. Matomkin, about Metomkin Inlet in Accomac County.
Mattacock, on the north bank of York River in Gloucester County.
Mattacunt, on the south side of Potomac River in King George County. Mattanock, on the west side of Nansemond River, near its mouth, in Nansemond
Maysonec, on the north bank of the Chickahominy in New Kent County. Menacupunt, on Pamunkey River, in King William County.
Menaskunt, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Richmond County. Meyascosic, on the north side of James River in Charles City County. Mohominge, near the falls of James River, in Richmond County.
Mokete, on Warrasqueoc Creek, in Isle of Wight County.
Moraughtacund, near the mouth of Moratico River in Richmond County. Mouanast, on the north bank of Rappahannock River, in King George County. Mutchut, on the north bank of the Mattapony River in King and Queen County. Muttamussinsack, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Caroline County. Myghtuckpassu, on the south bank of Mattapony
River in King William County. Namassingakent, on the south bank of Potomac River in Fairfax County. Nameroughquena, on the south bank of the Potomac River in Alexandria County, opposite Washington, D. C.
Nansemond, probably about Chuckatuck in Nansemond County.
Nantapoyac, on the south bank of James River in Surry County. Nantaughtacund, on the south side of the Rappahannock River in either Essex
County or Caroline County.
Nawacaten, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in Richmond County. Nawnautough, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in Richmond County.
Nechanicok, on the south bank of the Chickahominy in the lower part of Henrico County.
Nepawtacum, on the north bank of the Rappahannock in Lancaster County. Onancock, near Onancock in Accomac County.
Onawmanient, probably on Nominy Bay, in Westmoreland County.
Opiscopank, on the south bank of the Rappahannock River in Middlesex County.
Oquomock, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in Richmond County. Orapaks, in New Kent County, between the Chickahominy and Pamunkey Rivers.
Ottachugh, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in Lancaster County. Ozatawomen, on the south bank of the Potomac River in King George County. Ozenic, on Chickahominy River in New Kent County.
Pamawauk, perhaps identical with Pamunkey.
Pamuncoroy, on the south bank of Pamunkey River in New Kent County. Pamunkey, probably near West Point in King William County.
Papiscone, on the north bank of the Rappahannock in King George County. Pasaugtacock, on the north bank of York River in King and Queen County. Paspahegh,
(1) on the south bank of Chickahominy River in Charles City County;
(2) on the north bank of James River in Charles City County.
Passaunkack, on the south bank of Mattapony River in the northwestern part of
King William County.
Pastanza, on or near Potomac River, possibly on Aquia Creek, in Stafford County.
Pawcocomac, on the north bank of Rappahannock River at the mouth of the Corotoman in Lancaster County.
Peccarecamek, an Indian settlement reported on the southern Virginia border,
Pemacocack, on the west bank of Potomac River in Prince William County about 30 miles below Alexandria.
Piankatank, on Piankatank River in Middlesex County.
Pissacoac, on the north bank of Rappahannock River above Leedstown in Westmoreland County.
Poruptanck, on the north bank of York River in Gloucester County.
Potaucac, in New Kent County between the Chickahominy and Pamunkey
Potomac, about 55 miles in a straight line from Chesapeake Bay, on a peninsula
in what is now Stafford County, formed by Potomac River and Potomac Creek.
Powcomonet, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Richmond County. Powhatan, on the north bank of James River at the falls on ground now forming
an eastern suburb of Richmond.
Poyektauk, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Richmond County. Poykemkack, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Richmond County. Pungoteque, in Accomac County, probably near Metomkin Inlet. Quackcohowaon, on the south bank of the Mattapony in King William County. Quioucohanock, probably on an eminence now called Wharf Bluff just
Upper Chipoak Creek in Surry County.
Quiyough, on the south bank of Aquia Creek near its mouth, in Stafford County. Rappahannock, at the mouth of a creek on Rappahannock River in Richmond
Rickahake, probably in Norfolk County.
Righkahauk, on the west bank of Chickahominy River in New Kent County. Ritanoe, probably Powhatan, in Virginia or North Carolina.
Roscows, in Elizabeth City County.
Secacawoni, at the mouth of Coan Creek on the south bank of the Potomac in
Secobec, on the south bank of Rappahannock River in Caroline County. Shamapa, on Pamunkey or York River.
Sockobeck, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in King George County. Tantucquask, on Rappahannock River in Richmond County.
Tauxenent, about Mount Vernon in Fairfax County.
Teracosick, on the west bank of Nansemond River in Nansemond County. Utenstank, on the north bank of Mattapony River in Caroline County. Uttamussac, on the north bank of Pamunkey River in King William County. Uttamussamacoma, on the south bank of Potomac River in Westmoreland
Waconiask, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in King George County. Warrasqueoc, on the south bank of James River at the mouth of Warrasqueoc Creek in Isle of Wight County.
Weanoc, below the mouth of Appamattox River at the present Weyanoke in Prince George County.
Wecuppom, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Richmond County. Werawahon, on the north bank of Chickahominy River in New Kent County. Werowacomoco, on the north bank of York River in Gloucester County about
opposite the mouth of Queen Creek.
Wicocomoco, at the mouth of Wicomico River in Northumberland County. Winsack, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Richmond County.
History. The Powhatan were visited by some very early explorers, including probably the Cabots in 1498. Their territory was well known to the Spaniards in the latter part of the sixteenth century and a Jesuit mission was established among them in 1570 though soon extinguished by the Indians. In 1607
the Virginia colony was planted on James River and from that time on relations between the Whites and Powhatans were of the most intimate character, friendly at first, but later disturbed by the exactions of the newcomers. Peace was restored for a time by the marriage of
to John Rolfe, and lasted until Powhatan's death in 1618. In 1622 Powhatan's second successor, Opechancanough, led an uprising against the colonists, as a result of which all of the White settlements except those immediately about Jamestown were destroyed. War continued until 1636 when exhaustion of both sides led to peace, but in 1644
led another uprising as destructive as the first. He was captured and was killed the same year. The tribes made peace separately, and they were placed upon reservations, where they gradually dwindled away. In 1654 or 1656 the Pamunkey assisted the English in resisting an invasion of some inland people, but the allied army was severely defeated (see
). In 1675 these Indians were accused of having committed certain depredations, really caused by the Conestoga, and several unauthorized expeditions were led against them by Nathaniel Bacon. In August 1676, a great body of them gathered in a fort near Richmond which was carried by storm, and men, women, and children indiscriminately massacred. Peace was made
with the survivors on condition that an annual tribute be paid by each village. In 1722 in a treaty made at Albany between the English and Iroquois, the latter agreed to cease their attacks upon the Powhatan Indians, but the Powhatans already had been greatly reduced and they continued to decline. Those on the eastern shore of Virginia, who had become very much
mixed with Negroes, were driven away in 1831 during the excitement caused by the slave rising under Nat Turner. In 1785 Jefferson reported the Powhatan Indians reduced to two tribes, the Pamunkey and Mattapony, embracing only about 15 men, but be must have overlooked great numbers of these Indians, for at the present time there are several bands, including the
Chickahominy, Nansemond, Pamunkey, Mattapony, Upper Mattapony, Rappahannock, Wicocomoco, Potomac, Powhatan, and Werowocomoco (Speck, 1925).
Population. The Powhatan population was estimated by Mooney (1928) as 9,000 in 1600; Smith (1884) allows them 2,400 warriors; in 1669 a census gave 528 warriors or about 2,000 population, the Wicocomoco being then the largest tribe. In 1705 the Pamunkey by themselves numbered 150 souls. Jefferson in
1785 represented the two tribes which he mentions as having but 15 men; Mooney, however, believed that there must have been a population of something like1,000 because of the number of mixed-bloods still surviving. The census of 1910 returned 115 Chickahominy and 85 Pamunkey. The United States Office of Indian Affairs Report for 1923 includes still other bands,
giving in all a population of 822, and Speck (1925) gives the names of 10 bands aggregating 2,118 in 1923. The census of 1930 returned only 203 Indians from Virginia but evidently missed nearly all except the Pamunkey.
Connection in which they have become noted. The Powhatan Confederacy is famous as embracing those Indians among whom the first permanent English settlement in North America was made; for the personal character of its chief, Powhatan, who had conquered about 24 tribes, in addition to the 6 under
him at his accession, before the appearance of the Europeans; on account of the dealings of the Whites with both Powhatan and his brother Opechancanough, as well as the massacre of the settlers by the latter in 1622 and again in 1644; and not least from the fame attached to Powhatan's daughter, Pocahontas. There are post villages named Powhatan in Jefferson
County, Ala.; Lawrence County, Ark.; Natchitoches Parish, La.; McDowell County, W. Va.; a county and county seat of the name in Virginia; Powhatan Point in Belmont County, Ohio; and Powhatan in Brown County, Kans.
Saponi. Evidently a corruption of Monasiccapano or Monasukapanough, which, as shown by Bushnell, is probably derived in part from a native term "moni seep" signifying "shallow water." Paanese is a corruption and in no way connected with the word "Pawnee."
Connections. The Saponi belonged to the Siouan linguistic family, their nearest relations being the Tutelo.
Location. The earliest known location of the Saponi has been identified by Bushnell (1930) with high probability with "an extensive village site on the banks of the Rivanna, in Albemarle County, directly north of the University of Virginia and about one-half mile up the river from the bridge of
the Southern Railway." This was their location when, if ever, they formed a part of the Monacan Confederacy. (See also
Villages. The principal Saponi settlement usually bore the same name as the tribe or, at least, it has survived to us under that name. In 1670 Lederer reports another which he visited called Pintahae, situated not far from the main Saponi town after it had been removed to Otter Creek, southwest of
the present Lynchburg (Lederer,
1912), but this was probably the Nahyssan town.
History.-As first pointed out by Mooney (1895), the Saponi tribe is identical with the Monasukapanough which appears on Smith's map as though it were a town of the Monacan and may in fact have been such. Before 1670, and probably between 1650 and 1660, they moved to the southwest and probably settled
on Otter Creek, as above indicated. In 1670 they were visited by Lederer in their new home and by Thomas Batts (1912) a year later. Not long afterward they and the Tutelo moved to the junction of the Staunton and Dan Rivers, where each occupied an island in Roanoke River in Mecklenburg County. This movement was to enable them to escape the attacks of the
Iroquois, and for the same reason they again moved south before 1701, when Lawson (1860) found them on Yadkin River near the present site of Salisbury, N. C. Soon afterward they left this place and gravitated toward the White settlements in Virginia. They evidently crossed Roanoke River before the Tuscarora War of 1711, establishing themselves a short distance
east of it and 15 miles west of the present Windsor, Bertie County, N. C. A little later they, along with the Tutelo and some other tribes, were placed by Governor Spotswood near Fort Christanna, 10 miles north of Roanoke River about the present Gholsonville, Brunswick County. The name of Sappony Creek in Dinwiddie County, dating back to 1733 at least, indicates
that they sometimes extended their excursions north of Nottoway River. By the treaty of Albany (1722) the Iroquois agreed to stop incursions on the Virginia Indians and, probably about 1740, the greater part of the Saponi and the Tutelo moved north stopping for a time at Shamokin, Pa., about the site of Sunbury. One band, however, remained in the south, in
Granville County, N. C., until at least 1755, when they comprised 14 men and 14 women. In 1753 the Cayuga Iroquois formally adopted this tribe and the Tutelo. Some of them remained on the upper waters of the Susquehanna in Pennsylvania until 1778, but in 1771 the principal section had their village in the territory of the Cayuga, about 2 miles south of Ithaca,
N. Y. They are said to have separated from the Tutelo in 1779 at Niagara, when the latter fled to Canada, and to have become lost, but a portion, at least, were living with the Cayuga on Seneca River in Seneca County, N. Y., in 1780. Besides the Person County Indians, a band of Saponi Indians remained behind in North Carolina which seems to have fused with the
Tuscarora, Meherrin, and Machapunga and gone north with them in 1802.
Population. The Saponi and the Tutelo are identified by Mooney (1928) as remnants of the Manahoac and Monacan with an estimated population of 2,700 in 1600. In 1716 the Huguenot Fontaine found 200 Saponi, Manahoac, and Tutelo at Fort Christanna. In 1765, when they were living on the upper
Susquehanna, the Saponi are said to have had 30 warriors. The main North Carolina band counted 20 warriors in 1761, and those in Person County, 14 men and 14 women in 1755.
Connection in which they have become noted. A small place called Sapona, in Davidson County, N. C., east of the Yadkin River, preserves the name of the Saponi. Shakori. They seem to have lived in the State at one time. (See
Shawnee. Indians of this tribe were settled for a time in the Sbenandoah Valley. (See
Tutelo. Significance unknown but used by the Iroquois, who seem to have taken it from some southern tongue. Also called:
Kattera, another form of Tutelo.
Shateras, a third form of the name.
Connections. The Tutelo belonged to the Siouan linguistic family, their nearest connections being the Saponi and probably the Monacan.
Location. The oldest known town site of the Tutelo was near Salem, Va., though the Big Sandy River at one time bore their name and may have been an earlier seat. (See also
History. In 1671 Fallam and Batts (1912) visited the town above mentioned. Some years later the Tutelo moved to an island in Roanoke River just above the Occaneechi, but in 1701 Lawson found them still farther southwest, probably about the headwaters of the Yadkin (Lawson, 1860). From that time
forward they accompanied the Saponi until the latter tribe separated from them at Niagara as above noted. In 1771 they were settled on the east side of Cayuga Inlet about 3 miles from the south end of the lake. This village was destroyed by Sullivan in 1779, but the Tutelo continued to live among the Cayuga sufficiently apart to retain their own language until
1898, when the last individual who could speak it fluently died. A certain amount of Tutelo blood flows in the veins of some of the Iroquois. (For further information, see Swanton (1937).)
Population. (See Saponi.) In 1701-9, according to Lawson (1860), the
numbered together about 750. In 1715 Governor Spotswood reported that the Indians at Fort Christanna, including the Tutelo, Saponi, Occaneechi, and
, numbered 300. In 1763 the Tutelo, Saponi, Nanticoke, and
had 200 men, probably less than 1,000 souls.
Connection in which they have become noted.-The Tutelo are noteworthy chiefly as the principal body of Siouan Indians from Virginia to retain their integrity and preserve a knowledge of their language late enough for a permanent record of it to be made.