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Now, for the first time in history, genealogists are able to determine scientifically if a male of their line is related to any other male of the same surname. DNA is a perfect companion to conventional research in order to confirm lineage.


The Basic Principle Behind Y DNA Testing

The Y chromosome is known to be transmitted from father to son virtually unchanged. Testing the Y chromosome provides information about the direct male line, meaning the father to his father to his grandfather and so on. The locations tested on the Y chromosome are called “markers.” Occasionally a mutation occurs at one of the markers in the Y chromosome. Mutations are simply small changes in the DNA sequence—sometimes called copying errors. They are natural occurrences and take place at random intervals. Overall, they are estimated to occur once every 500 generations per marker. Mutations can sometimes be valuable in identifying branches of a family tree.

Each marker has a name assigned to it by the scientific community, such as DYS#391, DYS#439 or GATA H4. The scientists classify these markers as Short Tandem Repeats (STR) because at each of these marker locations a short DNA code repeats itself. The result for a marker is the number of times the code repeats at that location and is called the “allele value.”

The number of markers (DYS numbers) tested depends on the test ordered—12, 25, 37, or 67.

The result received for a Y-DNA test is a string of allele values and is called a “haplotype” or DNA signature. This DNA signature can then be directly compared to anyone else of the same surname in our project to determine if they have an identical or nearly identical signature which will indicate they have a common male ancestor in the past. The haplotype suggests a “haplogroup” to which this line belongs and points to deep ethnic origins.


Surname Project

A Surname Project is a project which is established to test and compare those with a common surname and variants. A Surname Project has a leader known as the Group Administrator. This person assists the members with understanding their results, typically interprets the results for the group, and may publish this information in a newsletter or web site.

There are a wide variety of applications for Y-DNA testing. Y-DNA testing can be used to confirm the paper genealogical research for your family tree. It can determine which family trees with the same or variant surnames are related, and can provide clues to help you with your genealogy research. It can help eliminate lines to which your own can not be related. These are just a few of the applications for Y-DNA testing.

Since the Y chromosome is only found in men, those who take the Y-DNA test must be males. For females who are interested in the Y-DNA result for their surname or family tree, a close male relative with that surname would need to provide the sample.

Family Tree DNA offers Five Y chromosome tests:

12-Marker
25-Marker
37-Marker
67-Marker
Backbone Haplogroup (SNP)
Deep-SNP Test


Y-Chromosome - DNA Tests


Ethnic and Geographic Origins: All Y-DNA tests allow you to identify your ethnic and geographic origins, both recent and far distant on your direct male paternal line. Among others, you will be able to check your Native-American or African ancestry as well as for the Cohanim ancestry. This is identified by the Haplogroup. Y-DNA test results suggest the haplogroup into which your DNA signature belongs but can be confirmed by either the Backbone SNP test or the Deep-SNP test after the test results are received.

 

Y-DNA12 - 12 Marker Test: this test is the world standard to verify the Y chromosome for genetic matches between males. Results are placed in our Y-DNA database and when 2 people show the same identical results, we will inform both parties if they have both signed the FTDNA Release Form. The customer receives a Certificate & report generally describing Y-DNA sequencing and the meaning of the probability between matches. Group cost is $99 (plus $4 S&H).

A Y-DNA12 marker test is considered an “entry level” test. If a match is found to another Turner on the Y-DNA12 marker test. the person will be encouraged to upgrade to a greater number of markers to confirm that there are enough additional markers matching so that the common ancestor would be in a genealogically significant time period. No new sample is needed for an upgrade but additional time will be required for the sample to be rerun. See costs below for the upgrade or refine test.

Y-DNA25 - 25 Marker Test: : tests the Y chromosome for genetic matches between males. Results are placed in our Y-DNA database and when 2 people show the same identical or near identical results, we will inform both parties if you have both signed the FTDNA Release Form. A perfect match of 25 markers means that the two matching individuals shared a common ancestor in more recent time period than the 12 marker test. Group cost is $124 (plus $4 S&H).

Y-DNA37 - 37 Marker Test: tests the Y chromosome for genetic matches between males. Results are placed in our Y-DNA database and when 2 people show the same identical or near identical results, we will inform both parties if you have both signed the FTDNA Release Form. A perfect match of 37 markers means that the two matching individuals shared a common ancestor in recent times. Group cost is $149 (plus $4 S&H). At this time, the Y-DNA37 marker test is considered by your Group Administrator to be the most markers really needed.

Y-DNA67 - 67 Marker Test: the highest resolution Y-DNA test in the world: tests the Y chromosome for genetic matches between males. Results are placed in our Y-DNA database and when 2 people show the same identical or near identical results, we will inform both parties if you have both signed the FTDNA Release Form. A perfect match of 67 markers means a very tight connection: a common ancestor in very recent times. Group cost is $248 (plus $4 S&H).

Y-Refine12to25: This refinement of our 12 marker Y-DNA test reduces the time (in generations) to the Most Recent Common Ancestor. Y-DNA12to25 adds 13 additional markers to your previous results without the need for you to provide an additional sample. Therefore it can't be ordered as a stand-alone test without your having previously ordered the Y-DNA test. Group cost is $49.

Y-Refine 12to37: This refinement of our 12 marker Y-DNA test dramatically reduces the time (in generations) to the Most Recent Common Ancestor. Y-DNA12to37 adds 25 additional markers to your previous results without the need for you to provide an additional sample. Therefore it can't be ordered as a stand-alone test without your having previously ordered the Y-DNA test. Group cost is $99.

Y-Refine 12to67:This refinement of our 12 marker Y-DNA test dramatically reduces the time (in generations) to the Most Recent Common Ancestor. Y-DNA12to67 adds 55 additional markers to your previous results without the need for you to provide an additional sample. Therefore it can't be ordered as a stand-alone test without your having previously ordered the Y-DNA test. Group cost is $189. Unless you have several matches at 37 markers, testing to the 67 marker level at this time is probably not cost effective. Thirty-seven markers is considered a good level of testing until you have several matches at 37.

Y-Refine 25to37: This refinement of our 25 marker Y-DNA test reduces the time (in generations) to the Most Recent Common Ancestor. Y-DNA 25to37 adds 12 additional markers to your previous results without the need for you to provide an additional sample. Therefore it can't be ordered as a stand-alone test without your having previously ordered the Y-DNA test. Group cost is $49.

Y-Refine 25to67: This refinement of our 25 marker Y-DNA test dramatically reduces the time (in generations) to the Most Recent Common Ancestor. Y-DNA 25to67 adds 42 additional markers to your previous results without the need for you to provide an additional sample. Therefore it can't be ordered as a stand-alone test without your having previously ordered the Y-DNA test. Group cost is $148.

Y-Refine37to67: This refinement of our 37 marker Y-DNA test dramatically reduces the time (in generations) to the Most Recent Common Ancestor. Y-DNA37to67 adds 30 additional markers to your previous results without the need for you to provide an additional sample. Therefore it can't be ordered as a stand-alone test without your having previously ordered the Y-DNA test. Group cost is $99.


Mitochondria - mtDNA Tests


mtDNA: tests the mtDNA (maternal DNA) of females and the female lineage of males. These tests are available from Family Tree DNA Company but because they do not test for the Turner surname, they are not considered an integral part of our Turner Surname DNA Project. Any member has the option to order these maternal line tests but they do not impact the Turner Surname as such. Their value is more anthropological rather than genealogical.

Combined mtDNA and Y-DNA chromosome tests are available but are not necessary for the Turner Surname Project and are considered optional tests that a person might pursue.




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