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This gazetteer has been developed as an ancillary resource to the heraldry information provided within the individual surname pages of our web-site. As such this resource will continue to grow as we research the heraldic components of additional family surnames.

The purpose of this gazetteer is to assist with accessing additional information about the places cited within Rietstap’s Armorial General.  To find the historical locations of persons with known armorial bearings click on the link above and enter the surname you are researching into the search box.

All listings in the gazetteer are alphabetized by the French spelling because the aforementioned resource is written in that language.  The English equivalent name is located in the second column.  Each name has been linked to the appropriate webpage at Wikipedia, or other appropriate source, so that you may explore the locale in more depth.  Because most political boundaries have changed, especially in continental Europe, each entry contains a brief definition of the locale usually between the 16th and 19th centuries, as well as a description of where to find the historical locale in the 21st century.

 

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A

French Name Abbreviation

English Name

Historical Entity / Modern Entity

Allemagne

Allem.

Germany

Historical: The first nation state named "Germany" began in 1871; before that Germany referred to a geographical entity comprising many states populated by German speakers. As such Germany would most likely refer to any location with the following 19th century entities: the German Confederation of 1815-1866; and the North German Confederation of 1866-1871 which became the German Empire of 1871-1918.  Modern: In addition to present-day Germany, large parts of what comprised the German Empire are now located within the following modern European countries of:  France, Belgium, Denmark, Czech Republic, Poland, Russia, and Lithuania.

Amsterdam

Amsterdam

Historical: By 1275 the town of Amstelland fell under the administrative jurisdiction of the Prince-bishop's Sticht Utrecht, and was a city in the former County of Holland. By the 16th century Amsterdam had come under the rule of the House of Burgundy and subsequently the House of Habsburg as part of the Holy Roman Empire and continued so until the establishment of the Dutch Republic that was in existence from 1581 to 1795.  It became a part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815 and remains so today. Modern: The city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country. It comprises the northern part of the Randstad.

Angoumois

Angoumois

Historical: Angoumois was a county and province of France.  Modern: Today its area closely corresponds to the Charente département.

Artois

Art.

Artois

Historical: Artois is a former province of northern France.  Modern: Today Artois occupies the interior of the Pas-de-Calais département.

Autriche

Aut.

Austria

Historical: During the 16th to 19th centuries “Austria” might refer to a locale within the Holy Roman Empire; the Austrian Empire a modern era successor empire centered on what is today's Austria and which officially lasted from 1804 to 1867.; or the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Modern: Today much of the old Austrian Empire is the country of modern Austria.  Other current European states would primarily include the Czech Republic; Croatia, Serbia, Poland, Italy, Slovakia, and Slovenia.

Auvergne

Auv.

Auvergne

Historical: An historic province in south central France. It was originally the feudal domain of the Counts of Auvergne.  Modern: Today, the whole of the province of Auvergne is contained inside the administrative région of Auvergne, a région which also includes provinces and territories that were not part of Auvergne historically. The capital of the région of Auvergne is Clermont-Ferrand.

B

French Name Abbreviation

English Name

Historical Entity / Modern Entity

Bade

Baden

Historical: The Grand Duchy of Baden was a historical state in the southwest of Germany, on the east bank of the Rhine. It existed between 1806 and 1918. It came into existence in the 12th century as the Margraviate of Baden and subsequently split into different lines, which were unified in 1771. It became the much-enlarged Grand Duchy of Baden through the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1803–06 and remained a sovereign country until it joined the German Empire in 1871, remaining a Grand Duchy until 1918 when it became part of the Weimar Republic as the Republic of Baden. In 1945, the French military government created the state of Baden (originally known as "South Baden") out of the southern half of the former Baden.  The northern half of the old Baden was combined with northern Württemberg and formed the state of Württemberg-Baden. Both states became states of West Germany upon its formation in 1949. In 1952 Baden merged with Württemberg-Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern to form Baden-Württemberg.  Modern:  Baden-Württemberg is one of the 16 states of Germany.  Baden-Württemberg is in the southwestern part of the country to the east of the Upper Rhine.  The state capital is Stuttgart.

Bâle

Basel-Country

or Basel-City

Historical: Basel or Basle was a canton of Switzerland that was in existence between 1501 and 1833.  Modern: Since 1833 Basel has been the two present-day 'half-cantons' of Basel-City and Basel-Country. Basel-City is located where the Swiss, French and German borders meet. Basel-Country shares borders with the cantons of Basel-Stadt, Solothurn, Jura and Aargau, and with the French région of Alsace and the German state of Baden-Württemberg.

Bavière

Bav.

Bavaria

Historical: In the 17th century, the Duke of Bavaria became a Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. The Kingdom of Bavaria existed from 1806 to 1918.  Modern: A state of Germany, located in the southeast of Germany. Modern Bavaria also includes parts of the historical regions of Franconia, Upper Palatinate and Swabia.

Belgique

Belg.

Belgium

Historical: From the 16th century until 1830 Belgium was a part of the Netherlands. In 1831 the southern provinces of the Netherlands officially separated and became an independent French-speaking named Belgium.  Modern: Today Belgium is the same state as it was in 1831.

Berlin

Berlin

Historical: Berlin was the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (1701–1918), the German Empire (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (1919–33) and the Third Reich (1933–45). After World War II, the city became divided into East Berlin—the capital of East Germany—and West Berlin, a West German exclave from 1961–89. Following German reunification in 1990, the city regained its status as the capital of Germany.  Modern: Today Berlin is the capital city of Germany and one of the 16 states of Germany. It is located in northeastern Germany on the River Spree.

Bois-le-Duc

's-Hertogenbosch

Historical: From 1183 to 1795 's-Hertogenbosch was a part of the Duchy of Brabant. By 1629 it had been cut-off from the rest of the duchy and the area was treated by the Dutch Republic as an occupation zone without political liberties.  From 1806, the city became part of France. It was captured by the Prussians in 1814. The next year, when the United Kingdom of the Netherlands was established, it became the capital of North Brabant.  Modern: 's-Hertogenbosch  literally "The Duke's Forest") is a city and municipality in the southern Netherlands.  It is the capital of the province of North Brabant.

Bourgogne

Bourg.

Burgundy

Historical: The old Duchy of Burgundy became a part of France in 1477.  Modern: The modern-day administrative région comprises most of the former duchy. 

Brabant

Brab.

Brabant

Historical: The Province of Brabant aka. South Brabant was a part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands from 1815 until 1830. Upon Belgium's independence in 1831 it was renamed to simply Brabant and remained a province of the new Kingdom of Belgium until 1995.  Modern: Today the old province of Brabant is three separate entities. They are the Flemish Brabant, the Walloon Brabant and Brussels-Capital Region.

Brabant septentrional

Brab. sept.

North Brabant

Historical: Until the 17th century, the area that now makes up the province of North Brabant was mostly part of the Duchy of Brabant. In 1796, when the Dutch Republic became the Batavian Republic, Staats-Brabant became a province as Bataafs Brabant.  In 1815, the province of North Brabant was established and so named to distinguish it from South Brabant in present-day Belgium.  Modern: North Brabant mostly called Brabant, is a province of the Netherlands, located in the south of the country.

Brandebourg

Brandenburg

Historical:  Brandenburg was one of seven electoral states of the Holy Roman Empire, and, along with Prussia, formed the original core of the German Empire. Governed by the Hohenzollern dynasty from 1415, it contained the future German capital Berlin.  After 1618 the Margraviate of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia were combined to form Brandenburg-Prussia, which was ruled by the same branch of the House of Hohenzollern. In 1701 the state was elevated as the Kingdom of Prussia. When Prussia was subdivided into provinces in 1815, the territory of the Margraviate of Brandenburg became the Province of Brandenburg. After World War II, the Neumark, the part of Brandenburg was transferred to Poland.  The remainder of the province became a state in East Germany.  The State of Brandenburg was completely dissolved in 1952 by the Socialist government.  Modern:  Brandenburg is one of the sixteen federal-states of Germany. The capital is Potsdam.  It lies in the east of the country and is one of the federal states that were re-created in 1990 upon the reunification of the former West Germany and East Germany. Brandenburg surrounds but does not include the national capital and city-state Berlin.

Bréme 

Bremen

Modern:  Bremen is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany. Bremen is some 60 km (37 mi) south from the Weser mouth on the North Sea. With Bremerhaven right on the mouth the two comprise the state of Bremen.

Bretagne

Bret.

Brittany

Historical: Previously a kingdom and then a duchy, Brittany was united to the Kingdom of France in 1532 as a province.  Modern: The historical province of Brittany is divided into five departments: Finistère in the west, Côtes-d'Armor in the north, Ille-et-Vilaine in the north east, Loire-Atlantique in the south east and Morbihan in the south on the Bay of Biscay.

C

French Name Abbreviation

English Name

Historical Entity / Modern Entity

Cambrésis

Cambr.

Cambrai

Historical: Cambrai is the seat of an archdiocese whose jurisdiction was immense during the Middle Ages. The territory of the Bishopric of Cambrai, roughly coinciding with the shire of Brabant, included the central part of the Low Countries.  Modern: Today Cambrai is located in the Nord department in northern France. 

Carcassonne

Carcassone

Historical: An ancient fortified city located in the former province of Languedoc. Modern: Today this French town is in the Aude department, of which it is the prefecture.

Carinthie

Carinthia

Historical: The Duchy of Carinthia was the first newly created duchy of the Holy Roman Empire and for a short while comprised lands stretching from the Adriatic Sea almost to the Danube. In 1335, Carinthia passed to the House of Habsburg. After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire 1806, Carinthia was incorporated in the Austrian Empire's Kingdom of Illyria until 1918.  Modern: Today Carinthia is the southernmost Austrian state.

Champagne

Champ.

Champagne

Historical: Champagne is a historic province in the northeast of France formerly ruled by the counts of Champagne. Modern: Most of Champagne is now part of the French administrative region of Champagne-Ardenne, which comprises four departments: Ardennes, Aube, Haute-Marne, and Marne.

D

French Name Abbreviation

English Name

Historical Entity / Modern Entity

Danemark

Dan.

Denmark

Historical: In 1397, Denmark entered into a personal union with Norway and Sweden. Sweden permanently broke away from the Kalmar Union in 1523.  The remaining Danish-Norwegian union was dissolved in 1814.  Denmark kept the colonies of Iceland, Faroe Islands and Greenland.  In 1849 Denmark peacefully became a constitutional monarchy.  In 1864, Denmark was forced to cede Schleswig and Holstein to Prussia. In 1918 Iceland became an independent country, and in 1920 Northern Schleswig was recovered by Denmark. Modern: Denmark is a sovereign state in Northern Europe, with two additional overseas constituent countries also forming integral parts of the kingdom; the Faroe Islands and Greenland

E

French Name Abbreviation

English Name

Historical Entity / Modern Entity

Espagne

Esp.

Spain

Historical: Spain emerged as a unified country in the 15th century, following the unification of the crowns of Aragon and Castile by the marriage of their sovereigns.  This event  laid the basis for modern Spain and the Spanish Empire, although each kingdoms of Spain remain as separate countries, in social, political, laws, currency and language. Modern: Spain officially the Kingdom of Spain  is a sovereign state located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.

Esthonie

Estonia

Historical: Estonia was known as the  Governorate of Estonia from 1721 to 1917. This entity, also known as the Government of Estonia or Province of Estonia, was a governorate of the Russian Empire in what is now northern Estonia. The Governorate was also known as Duchy of Estonia that Russia inherited from Sweden in 1721. Until the late 19th century the Duchy was not ruled by Russia but was administered independently by the local Baltic German nobility through a feudal Regional Council.  Modern: Today Estonia is officially the Republic of Estonia an independent state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.

F

French Name Abbreviation

English Name

Historical Entity / Modern Entity

Finlande

Finland

Historical: From the 12th until the start of the 19th century, Finland was a part of Sweden. It then became an autonomous Grand Duchy within the Russian Empire until the Russian Revolution in 1917 after which it gained its independence.. Modern: The Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Sweden to the west, Norway to the north and Russia to the east, while Estonia lies to the south across the Gulf of Finland.

Flandre francaise

Fl. fr.

French Flanders

Historical: French Flanders was originally part of the feudal Countship of Flanders, then part of the Southern Netherlands. During the 17th century the region was ceded to the Kingdom of France, and became part of the province of Flanders and Hainaut.  Modern: The region today lies in the modern-day region of Nord-Pas de Calais and roughly corresponds to the arrondissements of Lille, Douai and Dunkirk on the Belgian border. Together with French Hainaut it makes up the department of Nord.

Forez

Forez

Historical: Forez was a former province of France. Modern: Today Forez ccorresponds approximately to the central part of the modern Loire département and a part of the Haute-Loire and Puy-de-Dôme départements.

G

French Name Abbreviation

 

Historical Entity / Modern Entity

Gascogne

Gasc.

Gascony

Historical: Up to the end of the 18th century Gascony was part of the historic French  "Province of Guyenne and Gascony."  This area although vaguely defined puts Gascony east and south of Bordeaux, France.  Modern: Today Gascony is an area of southwest France. It is currently divided between the Aquitaine région (départements of Landes, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, south and west of Gironde, and south of Lot-et-Garonne) and the Midi-Pyrénées région (départements of Gers, Hautes-Pyrénées, southwest of Tarn-et-Garonne, and west of Haute-Garonne).

Gâtinais

Gâtinais

Historical: Gâtinais aka. Gâtine was an historic province of France.  Modern: Today the area of the old province corresponds roughly to the northeastern part of the départment of Loiret, and the south of the present departments Seine-et-Marne

Genève

Geneva

Historical: By the 18th century, Geneva had come under the influence of France. In 1798, revolutionary France under the Directory annexed Geneva. At the end of the Napoleonic Wars, in 1815, Geneva was admitted to the Swiss Confederation. Modern: Geneva is located in Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland. It is the capital of the Republic and Canton of Geneva.

Görlitz

Görlitz

Historical: Görlitz was in the region of Upper Lusatia. However, in 1815, some parts of Lusatia were integrated into the Province of Silesia, and later into the Province of Lower Silesia.  Modern: Today Görlitz is a town in Germany. It is the easternmost town in the country, located on the Lusatian Neisse River in the Bundesland (Federal State) of Saxony. It is opposite the Polish town of Zgorzelec, which was a part of Görlitz until 1945.

H

French Name Abbreviation

English Name

Historical Entity / Modern Entity

Hambourg

Hamburg

Historical: Hamburg was a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, as a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire.  Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, Hamburg was a fully sovereign state of its own. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919, the stringent civic republic was ruled by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten.  Modern: Hamburg. officially Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg, is a city-state and one of the sixteen States of modern Germany. Hamburg is located on the southern point of the Jutland Peninsula, directly between Continental Europe to its south and Scandinavia to its north.

Hanovre

Han.

Hanover

Historical: Hanover is a territory that was at various times the principality Electorate of Hanover within the Holy Roman Empire, an independent Kingdom of Hanover, and a subordinate Province of Hanover within the Kingdom of Prussia. The territory was named after its capital, the city of Hanover, which was the principal town of the region from 1636.  Modern: In contemporary usage, the name is only used for the city; most of the historical territory of Hanover forms the greater part of the German Land of Lower Saxony.

Hildburghausen

Hildburghausen

(Town)

Hildburghausen

(District)

Historical: Hildburghausen was the capital of Saxe-Hildburghausen until its dissolution in 1826, after which it passed to Saxe-Meiningen. The town became part of the new state of Thuringia in 1920. Modern: Hildburghausen is both a town and district of Thuringia in central Germany.

Hollande

Holl.

Holland

Historical: From the 10th century to the 16th century, Holland proper was a unified political region, a county ruled by the Counts of Holland. By the 17th century, Holland had risen to become a maritime and economic power, dominating the other provinces of the Dutch Republic.  Modern: Today, the former County of Holland consists of the two Dutch provinces of North Holland and South Holland, which together include the Netherlands' three largest cities: Amsterdam; The Hague; and Rotterdam.

Holland septentrional

Holl. Sept.

North Holland

Historical: The province of North Holland has its origins in the period of French rule from 1795 to 1813 when the Batavian Republic was established. When constitutional amendments were introduced in 1840, it was decided to officially split Holland into two provinces called "North Holland" and "South Holland".   Modern: North Holland is a province situated on the North Sea in the northwest of the Netherlands. The provincial capital is Haarlem and its largest city is Amsterdam.

I

French Name Abbreviation

English Name

Historical Entity / Modern Entity

Ile-de-France

Ile-de-Fr.

Ile-de-France

Historical: The province, also known as Isle de France is a historical province of France, and the one at the center of power during most of French history. The historical province is centered on Paris, the seat of the Crown of France. Modern: The present-day région Île-de-France doe correspond to the historical province although  some parts now are incorporated in the present-day region of Picardy, whereas other parts of the present-day région Île-de-France are taken from the historical province of Champagne.

Irlande

Irl.

Ireland

Historical: The Kingdom of Ireland existed from 1542 to 1800 when it became a part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.  Modern: Today this locale would probably be located within either the Republic of Ireland or Northern Ireland.

J

French Name

English Name

Historical Entity / Modern Entity

 

 

 

K

French Name

English Name

Historical Entity / Modern Entity

 

 

 

L

French Name Abbreviation

English Name

Historical Entity / Modern Entity

Languedoc

Lang.

Languedoc

Historical: Languedoc is a former province of France.  The province of Languedoc was located in the central part of southern France, roughly the region between the Rhône River (border with Provence) and the Garonne River (border with Gascony), extending northwards to the Cévennes and the Massif Central (border with Auvergne).  Modern: Today the former historic province is now continued in the modern-day régions of Languedoc-Roussillon and Midi-Pyrénées in the south of France, and whose capital city was Toulouse, now in Midi-Pyrénées.

Liége

Liège

Historical: The modern borders of the province of Liège originated in 1795 in the unification of the Principality or Prince-Bishopric of Liège with the revolutionary France Department of the Ourthe.  Most of the province traces its history to the Prince-Bishopric of Liège though. Prince-Bishopric of Liège was dissolved in 1795, when it was annexed by France. Its territory was divided over the départements Meuse-Inférieure, Ourthe, and Sambre-et-Meuse. Creating the modern boundaries of the Liege Province.  Modern: Liège is the easternmost province of Wallonia and Belgium. It is an area of French and German ethnicity.

Limbourg

Limb.

Limburg

Historical: Limburg was one of the provinces of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and later Belgium. The province existed for the duration of the United Kingdom, from 1815 to 1830, and for the first years after the Belgian independence, from 1830 to 1839. In 1839, the province was split into a Belgian, and a Dutch part, the new Duchy of Limburg.  Modern: Today the old province of Limburg falls into both the Netherlands and Belgium. Limburg is the southernmost provinces of the Netherlands and the easternmost of the five provinces of modern Flanders in Belgium. 

Livonie

Livonia

Historical: Since the 16th century the area known as Livonia has been administered by the following entities: Duchy of Livonia (1561–1621); Swedish Livonia 1629–1721; Riga Governorate 1721–1796; and the Governorate of Livonia 1796–1918.  Modern: Livonia no longer exits. Today the lands of historical Livonia are located along the eastern coasts of the Baltic Sea, in present-day Latvia and Estonia.  Its frontiers were the Gulf of Riga and the Gulf of Finland in the north-west, Lake Peipus and Russia to the east, and Lithuania to the south.

Lorraine

Lorr.

Lorraine

Historical: The areas former known as Upper Lorraine and Lower Lorraine were annexed by France in 1766 and reorganized as a province by the French government.  Throughout the 19th century The Lorraine region remained a contested territory between France and Germany. It was part of France until the Franco-Prussian War of 1870/1871, when northern parts of Lorraine around Metz, along with Alsace, were annexed by the newly-founded German Empire.  Modern: Lorraine is one of the régions of France. The administrative region has two cities of equal importance, Metz and Nancy. The region consists of four departments: Meurthe-et-Moselle, Meuse, Moselle and Vosges.

Luxembourg

Luxemb.

Luxembourg

Historical: In 1815 Luxembourg was formed as a Grand Duchy in personal union with the Netherlands.  Luxembourg also became a member of the German Confederation.  The Belgian Revolution of 1830–1839 reduced Luxembourg's territory by more than half, as the predominantly francophone western part of the country was transferred to Belgium.  Modern: Luxembourg is a landlocked country in western Europe, bordered by Belgium, France, and Germany. It has two principal regions: the Oesling in the north, and the Gutland in the south.

Luxenstein

M

French Name

English Name

Historical Entity / Modern Entity

Middlebourg

Middleburg

Historical: Middelburg was granted city rights in 1217. In the Eighty Years' War, the northern provinces of the original Low Countries won their independence from their former Spanish Habsburg rulers and formed The Netherlands, a Protestant state, of which Middleburg was a part.. Modern: Middelburg is a municipality and a city in the south-western Netherlands and the capital of the province of Zeeland. It is situated in the Midden-Zeeland region.

N

French Name Abbreviation

English Name

Historical Entity / Modern Entity

Nassau

Nassau

Historical: Refers to Nassau a German state within the Holy Roman Empire and later in the German Confederation. After the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, Nassau was annexed by Prussia and became part of the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau.  Modern: Much of the former territory now lies in the modern German state of Hesse.

Néerlande

Néerl.

Netherland

Historical: The 1579 Union of Utrecht is seen as the foundation of the modern Netherlands. After formal independence in 1648 the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands was formed. In 1815, the United Kingdom of the Netherlands  expanded to include Belgium. Belgium rebelled and gained independence in 1830.  Modern: The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east.

Nimègue

Nijmegen

Historical: Nijmegen became a part of the Dutch Republic (Republic of United Provinces) in 1585. In 1815 it became a part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands.   Modern: Nijmegen is a municipality and a city in the east of the Netherlands, near the German border.

Normandie

Norm.

Normandy

Historical: Originally the Duchy of Normandy was a vassal of the King of France. After the Norman conquest of England in 1066  this area was ruled as part of the Anglo-Norman realm until 1204, when Philip II of France conquered the continental lands of the Duchy. At this time the Normandy was established as a province of France. The former province of Normandy comprised present-day Upper Normandy and Lower Normandy, as well as small areas now part of the départements of Eure-et-Loir, Mayenne, and Sarthe.  In 1790 the current five departments of Normandy replaced the former province.  Modern: Today Upper Normandy (Haute-Normandie) consists of the French departments of Seine-Maritime and Eure, and Lower Normandy (Basse-Normandie) of the departments of Orne, Calvados, and Manche.

Nuremberg

Nuremberg

Historical: Nuremberg was an independent city ruled by the Bishop of Bamberg up to 1555. It there after remained an independent city until it became a part of the Kingdom of Bavaria from 1806 to 1918.  Modern: Today Nuremberg is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. Situated on the Pegnitz river and the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal, it is located about 170 kilometres (110 mi) north of Munich.

O

French Name

English Name

Historical Entity / Modern Entity

 

 

 

P

French Name Abbreviation

English Name

Historical Entity / Modern Entity

Picardie

Pic.

Picardy

Historical: In the 16th century, Picardy became a new administrative region of France, separate from what was historically defined as Picardy. The new Picardy included the Somme département, the northern half of the Aisne département, and a small fringe in the north of the Oise département.  Modern: Today, the modern region of Picardy no longer includes the coastline from Berck to Calais, via Boulogne (Boulonais), that is now in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region, but does incorporate the pays of Beauvaisis, Valois, Noyonnais, Laonnois, Soissonnais, Omois, among other departments of France.

Pologne

Pol.

Poland

Historical: The Kingdom of Poland was formed in 1025.  In 1569 it joined with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania forming the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Commonwealth ceased to exist in 1795 as the Polish lands were partitioned among the Kingdom of Prussia, the Russian Empire, and Old Austria. Poland regained its independence as the Second Polish Republic in 1918.  Modern: Poland is a country in Central Europe, bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north.

Poméranie

Pom.

Pomerania

Historical: Pomerania is a historical region on the south shore of the Baltic Sea.  In 1466 Pomerania became part of the Polish province of Royal Prussia and remained as part of Poland until 1772. As part of Royal Prussia, Pomerania was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia during the 18th century Partitions of Poland, becoming part of the new Province of West Prussia until 1918.  Modern: Historical Pomerania is currently sub-divided into the following contemporary political regions: Vorpommern  in northeastern Germany; as well as Zachodniopomorskie and Pomerelia  in Poland.

Portugal

Port.

Portugal

Historical: Portugal established itself as an independent kingdom from León in 1139, claiming to be the oldest European nation-state.  Modern: Portugal is a country located in Southwestern Europe, on the Iberian Peninsula. It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west and south and by Spain to the north and east.

Provence

Prov.

Provence

Historical: The historical region of Provence was legally incorporated into the French royal domain in 1486. The traditional region of Provence comprises the départements of Var, Vaucluse, Bouches-du-Rhône, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, Alpes-Maritimes and parts of Hautes-Alpes.  Modern: Today Provence is a region of south eastern France on the Mediterranean adjacent to Italy. It is part of the administrative région of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur.

Province rhénane

Prov. Rhén.

Rhine Province

Historical: From 1822 to 1946 the Rhine Province was the westernmost province of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Free State of Prussia, within the German Reich. . It was orginally created from the provinces of the Lower Rhine and Jülich-Cleves-Berg.  Modern: Areas of the former Rhine Province were divided into the newly-founded states of Hesse, North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate.

Prusse

Prussia

Historical: In 1466, Prussia was split into the western Royal Prussia, a province of Poland, and the eastern part, since 1525 called Duchy of Prussia, a fief of the Crown of Poland up to 1657. The union of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia in 1618 led to the proclamation of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701. Prussia was the core of the unified North German Confederation formed in 1867, which became part of the German Empire or Deutsches Reich in 1871. In 1947 the Allied Control Council formally proclaimed the dissolution of Prussia.  Modern: In the Soviet Zone of Occupation, which became East Germany in 1949, the former Prussian territories were reorganized into the states of Brandenburg and Saxony-Anhalt, with the remaining parts of the Province of Pomerania going to Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. These states were abolished in 1952 in favor of districts, but were recreated after the fall of the Eastern Bloc in 1990.  In the Western Zones of occupation, which became West Germany in 1949, the former Prussian territories were divided up among North Rhine-Westphalia, Lower Saxony, Hesse, Rhineland-Palatinate, and Schleswig-Holstein. Württemberg-Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern were later merged with Baden to create the state of Baden-Württemberg.

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R

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Ratisbonne

Regensburg -

District

 

Regensburg –

City

Historical: The Regensburg region became a part of Bavaria in the late 12th century, when the line of the counts of Regensburg and Stefling came to an end. While the city of Regensburg became a Free Imperial City, the surrounding lands were a part of the Duchy of Bavaria. The Principality of Regensburg was a principality within the Holy Roman Empire and the Confederation of the Rhine which existed between 1803 and 1810 whereupon Regensburg was ceded to the Kingdom of Bavaria. Modern: Today Regensburg is an administrative district in Bavaria, Germany as well as the city of Regensburg which is enclosed by, but does not belong to the district; it is nonetheless its administrative seat.

Rotterdam

Rotterdam

Historical: A city in the former County of Holland it was part of the Holy Roman Empire and continued so until the establishment of the Dutch Republic that was in existence from 1581 to 1795.  It became a part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815 and remains so today.  Modern: Today Rotterdam is located In the province of South Holland, in the west of Netherlands and the south of the Randstad.

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French Name

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Historical Entity / Modern Entity

Saxe

Saxony

Historical: The Electorate of Saxony sometimes referred to as Upper Saxony, was a State of the Holy Roman Empire. It was established in 1356 when the Ascanian duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg was raised to the status of an Electorate.   Upon the extinction of the House of Ascania, it was enfeoffed to the Margraves of Meissen from the Wettin dynasty in 1423.  After the Empire's dissolution in 1806, the Wettin electors assumed the title of a King of Saxony.  The Kingdom of Saxony lasted from 1806 to1918. From 1871 it was part of the German Empire.  Modern: The Free State of Saxony is a state of Germany, bordering Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, Bavaria, the Czech Republic, and Poland.

Schwäbisch-Hall

Schwäbisch-Hall

Historical:  From 1280–1802 Schwäbisch-Hall was a Free Imperial City of the Holy Roman Empire.  Following the Treaty of Lunéville in 1801, it fell under the administration of the duke of Württemberg.  As such by 1802 Schwäbisch-Hall lost its territory and political independence and became a the seat of an Oberamt, comparable to a county).  Modern:  Schwäbisch Hall  is a town in the German state of Baden-Württemberg and capital of the district of Schwäbisch Hall.

Silésie

Silesia

Historical: An historical region of Central Europe It came under the rule of the Crown of Bohemia, which passed to the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy in 1526. Most of Silesia was conquered by Prussia in 1742, later becoming part of the German Empire until 1918.  Modern: Today the historic region of Silesia is located mostly in Poland, with smaller parts in the Czech Republic, and Germany.

Soleure

Solothurn – City

 

Solothurn –

Canton

 

Historical: From 1218 to 1648 Solothurn was a Free Imperial City of the Holy Roman Empire. Following the capitulation of Solothurn to the French in 1798 the eleven old Vogtei(baillywicks) were replaced by five districts; Solothurn, Biberist, Balsthal, Olten and Dornach. Between 1798 and 1803 the canton was part of the Helvetic Republic. After 1815 Solothurn became a part of the modern state of Switzerland.  Modern: Solothurn is a canton of Switzerland. It is located in the northwest of Switzerland. The capital is the city of Solothurn. The territory of the canton comprises land acquired by the city of Solothurn. For that reason the shape of the canton is irregular and includes two exclaves along the French border, separated from the rest of the canton by Basel-Land, which form separate districts of the canton.

St. Gallen

St. Gall.

St. Gallen (City)

 

St. Gallen  (Canton)

Historical: In 1415 the city of St. Gallen bought its liberty from the German king Sigismund.  By 1457 it became completely free from the rule of the Catholic Church and was a member of the Old Swiss Confederation. In 1803 as part of the Act of Mediation the area joined the Swiss Confederation as the canton of St. Gallen.  Modern: Located in the north east of Switzerland St. Gallen is the capital city of the Swiss canton with the same name.  Spelling variations include: St. Gall, Saint Gall, Saint Gallen, Sankt Gallen, and Son Gagl.

Styrie

Styria

Historical: In 1180 Styria separated from the Duchy of Carinthia and became a Grand Duchy of its own; in 1192 it became part of Austria. After the hereditary subdivision of the latter, Styria formed the central part of Inner Austria.  Styria developed culturally and economically under Archduke John between 1809 and 1859. In 1918, after World War I, it was divided into a northern section (forming what is the current Austrian state), and a southern one, called Lower Styria, inhabited mostly by ethnic Slovenians, and which was annexed to Yugoslavia, and later in Slovenia.  Modern: Styria is a state or Bundesland, located in the southeast of Austria. It borders Slovenia as well as the other Austrian states of Upper Austria, Lower Austria, Salzburg, Burgenland, and Carinthia. The capital city is Graz.

Suède

Sweden

Historical:  The state of Sweden started out of the Kalmar Union formed in 1397 and by the unification of the country by King Gustav Vasa in the 16th century. In the 17th century Sweden expanded its territories to form the Swedish empire.  Most of these conquered territories were given up during the 18th century. In the early 19th century Finland and the remaining territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost. After its last war in 1814, Sweden entered into a personal union with Norway which lasted until 1905. Since 1814, Sweden has remained the same. Modern: Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. Sweden borders Norway and Finland, and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Øresund.

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French Name Abbreviation

English Name

Historical Entity / Modern Entity

Touraine

Tour.

Touraine

Historical: In 1205, Touraine was made into a royal duchy of France.  In 1584 the royal duchy became one of the traditional provinces of France with its capital at Tours. During the political reorganization of French territory in 1790 Touraine was divided into departments.  Modern: Today to area of Touraine is found in the departments of Indre-et-Loire, Loir-et-Cher and Indre.

Tirol

Tyrol

Historical: Tyrol was a Princely County from 1504 and a State of the Holy Roman Empire.  From 1814 it was a province of the Austrian Empire and from 1867 a Cisleithanian crown land (Kronland) of Austria-Hungary. In 1918 it was divided into several separate entities.   Modern: Today the former territory of Tyrol located the Italian region of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, a small part of the Italian region of Veneto (Cortina d'Ampezzo and other villages) and the Austrian state of Tyrol.

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V

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Westphalie

Westphalia

Historical:  From 1180 – 1803 this area was known as the Duchy of Westphalia. For most of its history, the duchy was held by the Archbishop and Electorate of Cologne.  In 1807 the newly created Kingdom of Westphalia was created although it did not include the Duchy and had its capital in Hesse at Kassel. The Congress of Vienna awarded the Duchy of Westphalia to Prussia and the Duchy was incorporated into the Province of Westphalia in 1815. The present state of North Rhine-Westphalia was created World War II from the former Prussian province of Westphalia, the northern half of the former Prussian Rhine Province, and the former Free State of Lippe.  Modern: North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen). Its capital is Düsseldorf; the biggest city is Cologne.

Wurtemberg

Wurt.

Württemberg

Historical:  The Duchy of Württemberg, which came into existence in 1495 was followed by the Kingdom of Württemberg a state in Germany that existed from 1806 to 1918. Bavaria bordered the Kingdom on the east and Baden on the other three sides, with the exception of a short distance on the south, where Württemberg bordered Hohenzollern and Lake Constance.  Modern: After World War II, Württemberg was divided between the United States and French occupation zones and became part of two new states: Württemberg-Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern. After the Federal Republic of Germany was formed in 1949, these two states merged with Baden in 1952 to become the modern German state of Baden-Württemberg.

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Y

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Z

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Zélande

Zél.

Zeeland

Historical:  In 1432 Zeeland became part of the Low Countries possessions of Burgundy, the later Seventeen Provinces. The Seventeen Provinces became property of the Habsburgs in 1477. As a result of the Eighty Years' War, Zeeland was became one of the United Provinces, in 1648. After the French occupation (see département Bouches-de-l'Escaut) and the formation of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815, the present province Zeeland was formed.  Modern: Zeeland also called Zealand in English, is the westernmost province of the Netherlands. The province, located in the south-west of the country, consists of a number of islands (hence its name, meaning "sea-land") and a strip bordering Belgium. Its capital is Middelburg.

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