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Introduction

List of Trails, Paths,

Roads & Routes

Directory of Historic

 Fords and Ferries

Image Gallery

Internet Resources

About This Webpage

 

 

Introduction

 

               The first migrants to cross the Appalachian Mountains soon discovered that the mountains were not the only obstacles to westward settlement. The migration of British colonists beyond the mountains into what was to become Ohio was a principal cause of the French and Indian War (1754-1761).  In the early 1740s, migrants from the Province of Pennsylvania and the Colony of Virginia aggressively advanced claims to the Ohio River valley, a territory the French in Canada considered their own.  In 1753 the French launched an initiative to block further American expansion by erecting a line of forts along the upper Ohio River corridor.  American colonial efforts to stop the French from building Fort Duquesne at the forks of the Ohio River (present Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) precipitated the final contest between France and Great Britain for control of North America. The war's effect on the westward movement of American colonists was profound, as nearly all westward migration during the conflict came to abrupt halt when the Indian peoples living in the vicinity of present-day Ohio allied with the French and attacked the western fringes of colonial settlement in Pennsylvania, Virginia, and the Province of Maryland. In some places the frontier of settlement was driven eastward for several hundred miles as Indian warriors chased settlers towards the Atlantic Coast. Only the capture of Fort Duquesne in 1758 and the subsequent defeat of the local Native-American tribes by 1763-1764 reopened the Northwest Territory to American settlement.

     In 1790 the population of the trans-Appalachian region was estimated at more than 120,000. The large number of Americans living west of the Appalachian Mountains made the management of westward migration a top priority for the new Federal  government, which hoped to peaceably maintain political authority over its western citizens and allow the settlers to extend the political boundaries of the young nation with their movements. The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 offered a solution by creating a model for managed expansion. The legislation provided for the organization of the Northwest Territory into new states by creating a defined set of conditions that assured the creation of civilian government in the newly settled regions and prepared the new territories for statehood. The system successfully managed the steady migration of settlers into the Old Northwest Territory, which eventually became the states of Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, and Wisconsin.

     Technological advances in transportation made a more organized, manageable westward advance possible, and contributed to the rapid settlement of the Midwest.  The completion of the Erie Canal in 1825 provided convenient access for thousands of New England migrants who eventually settled in Michigan, northern Illinois, and Wisconsin.              Source: http://www.answers.com/topic/westward-migration

 

List of routes

 

Generally these routes are defined as having a place of termination in present day Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, or Wisconsin.

Use the “Find” function in the Edit pull down menu.  You can also access this function by holding down the Control key while pressing the F key (Ctrl+F) on your keyboard. 

 

 

Road Trip= link to the “Road Trip” page of this route.

Image Gallery= link to the “Image Gallery” for this route.

Map = link to a map of this route.  These maps have been developed from accounts found in various research sources.  The route lines, on each map, have been linked to the current modern roads found to be the closest to the original route descriptions.  Locations marked along the route are usually places named within the aforementioned research sources.

Info. Link = link to a webpage containing additional facts about this route.

If you encounter a broken information link Cut & Paste the entry to your browser’s search component.

NAME (A)

 

PLACES OF TERMINATION

DESCRIPTIVE  INFORMATION

Ashtabula Trail

Map: (1)

Ashtabula, Ohio

and

Leavittsburg, Ohio

This early colonial route was first established by Frenchmen and their allies. During the second half of the 18th century this route became a wagon road used from settlers to move into the interior of the Connecticut Western Reserve. SOURCE: Wilcox, Frank N. Ohio Indian Trails, pgs. 115-116

Auglaize Trail

Map: (1)

Fort Loramie, Ohio

and

Defiance, Ohio

This trail to the Maumee River ran due north along the Auglaize River.  It ran through the old Indian town of Charloe then continued to the confluence of the Auglaize with the Maumee Rivers.  Along this route are many points of interest going back to the War of 1812 and General Anthony Wayne’s campaigns in 1794.

SOURCE: Wilcox, Frank N. Ohio Indian Trails, pgs. 37, 227-228.

NAME (B)

PLACES OF TERMINATION

DESCRIPTIVE  INFORMATION

Belpre Trail

Map: (1)

Belpre, Ohio

and

Circleville, Ohio

This Native-American footpath connected the Shawnee towns around present day Lancaster and Circleville, Ohio with the Kanawha River and the interior of West Virginia.  SOURCE: Wilcox, Frank N. Ohio Indian Trails, pgs. 34, 187-188.

Black Swamp Trail

Map: (1)

Defiance, Ohio

and

Upper Sandusky, Ohio

The Black Swamp Trail was used by the Native-Americans living around Defiance and Fort Wayne, Indiana to travel from the mouth of the Auglaize River to Sandusky, Ohio region.  SOURCE: Wilcox, Frank N. Ohio Indian Trails, pgs. 36, 231-232.

Buffalo Trace

Info. Link: (1), (2), (3);  Map: (1)

Clarksville, Indiana

and

Vincennes, Indiana

The Buffalo Trace was a Native-American trail that started at the Ohio River, near Clarksville and ran north to Vincennes.  The later Louisville–Vincennes Road intersected this trail at Floyd’s Knob, Indiana.

Bullskin Road

Info. Link: (1);     Map: (1)

near Utopia, Ohio

and

Detroit, Michigan

This major north-south route began at Bullskin Landing on the Ohio River and ran to the major Shawnee center, Old Chillicothe (Oldtown, at Xenia).  From Xenia north to Detroit, it is U.S. Route 68.  The Bullskin Road is also known by many other names, including: Bullskin Trail/Trace, Xenia Trail/Trace, or Xenia State Road.  aka. Shawnee Indian Road;  Xenia State Road

NAME (C)

PLACES OF TERMINATION

DESCRIPTIVE  INFORMATION

Cannon Ball Route

Info. Link: (1)    

Kansas City, Missouri

and

Chicago, Illinois

An historic auto trail that ran east-northeast through Hannibal, Missouri and Quincy, IL. A branch of the route connected the Missouri section of the highway to Des Moines, Iowa by way of Leon, Iowa.  The route was included in the 1917 “Map of Marked Routes” provided by the Illinois State Highway Department. This highway routing closely parallels the Hannibal-Quincy to Chicago branch of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad.

Carp River Trail

Map: (1)

L’Anse Indian Res.,

  Baraga Co., Michigan

and

Rapid River, Michigan

This trail is located on the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. It runs from the L’Anse Indian Reservation on Huron Bay, in Baraga County, along Lake Superior, to Marquette.  From Marquette it follows US Route 41 southeast to join the Green Bay-Sault Trail at Rapid River, Michigan.  

Catawba Trail

Info. Link: (1)    

The Carolinas

and

 Ohio, Indiana

The Catawba Trail is a part of the complex of Native- American paths know commonly as the Great Indian Warpath.  The trail leads from the Carolinas northerly into Ohio, Indiana and Pennsylvania.

Chagrin Trail

Map: (1)

Chagrin Harbor, Ohio

and

Sandyville, Ohio

This north-south footpath departed the Lake Shore Trail at the mouth of the Chagrin River.  It followed along the river to near Chagrin Falls, where it ran along the Aurora Branch to Aurora, Ohio.  Then on south to Streetsboro and Kent, Ohio where it joined the Mahoning Trail.  The final segment followed the Middle Nimishillen Creek past Canton and the Nimishillen Creek south to its junction with the Great Trail.  SOURCE: Wilcox, Frank N. Ohio Indian Trails, pgs. 119-120

Cheboygan Trail

Alger, Michigan

and

Cheboygan, Michigan

Today this Native-American path generally follows Michigan Route 33 north into the “mitt” of Michigan’s Lower Peninsula, where it ends at the present city of Cheboyan.  It ran parallel and to the east of the Mackinac Trail to which it joined near Alger, Michigan.

Chicago Road

Info. Link: (1);  Map: (1)

Image Gallery: (1);  Road Trip: (1)   

Detroit, Michigan

and

Chicago, Illinois

This important east-west route follows general course of the  Native-American Sauk Trail. Later white settlers created the Chicago-Detroit Post Road to carry mail between the two locations. Today this route is approximately represented by the former route of US 112 (now US 12).  

Chicago - Detroit Post Road

Info. Link: (1)    

Detroit, Michigan

and

Chicago, Illinois

This road was cleared from Detroit to Fort Dearborn [Chicago] in 1831. Up to 1836 it was the only route to carry mail between the aforementioned locations. By 1833 stage coaches ran over this line three times a week.  This route later became known as the Chicago Road.

Chicago-Dubuque Highway

Chicago, Illinois

and

Dubuque, Iowa

This 19th century thoroughfare is now U.S. Route 20.  Prior to 1938, US 20 continued east on Lake Street east of Mannheim Road (U.S. Routes 12/45).  It ran through downtown Chicago and exited Chicago south on what is now Torrence Avenue.  In 1955, the entire 294 miles of US 20 in Illinois was designated as the "U.S. Grant Memorial Highway".

Chicago-Galena State Road

Info. Link: (1),(2)     Map: (1)

Image Gallery: (1)    Road Trip: (1)   

Chicago, Illinois

and

 Galena, Illinois

Connecting to the Chicago Road, the State Road extended west from Chicago through Elgin and Rockford to Galena, Illinois. Today this historic route follows U.S. Route 20.  Also known as the State Road.

Clarksville Trace

 

Another name for the Buffalo Trace.

Coshocton Trail

Circleville, Ohio

and

Coshocton, Ohio

This ancient Native-American footpath led from the Shawnee capital at Circleville, Ohio to the Delaware center at Coshocton. The segment from Circleville to Lancaster, Ohio later became a part of Zane’s Trace.  

SOURCE: Wilcox, Frank N. Ohio Indian Trails, pgs. 34, 173-175.

Cuyahoga War Trail

Map: (1)

Delaware, Ohio

and

Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio

 

This historic path begins at Delaware, Ohio, a place where war parties were joined for forays into Iroquois country.   The trail follows a northeasterly direction and passed through several Mohican towns along the way.  It also merged with a connecting trail to Mohican towns to the southwest around present day Loudensville, and intersected with the Great Trail near Wooster, Ohio.  West of Akron it connected with the Muskingum Trail. At its eastern terminus Cuyahoga Falls it probably connected with the Mahoning Trail.  SOURCE: Wilcox, Frank N. Ohio Indian Trails, pgs. 33, 141-144

Cuyahoga-Muskingum Trail

Info. Link: (1), (2)    

Cleveland, Ohio

and

Marietta, Ohio

This Native-American trail extended from the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, at Cleveland, Ohio, south along the aforementioned river. It crossed a portage in Summit County then descended the Tuscarawas and Muskingum Rivers to the Ohio River.  This route is also known as the Muskingum Trail.

NAME (D)

PLACES OF TERMINATION

DESCRIPTIVE  INFORMATION

Delaware Indian Road

Info. Link: (1)    

Hamilton, Ohio

and

Muncie, Indiana

Early settlers used this route to travel from old Fort Hamilton, on the Great Miami River to the interior of the Indiana Territory.  Early migrants used extensions of this road from Muncie going northwest to Kokomo, west to the Wildcat Creek which flowed into the Wabash River at Lafayette, and northward into the Michigan Territory.

NAME (E)

PLACES OF TERMINATION

DESCRIPTIVE  INFORMATION

 

 

 

NAME (F)

PLACES OF TERMINATION

DESCRIPTIVE  INFORMATION

Fort Kaskaskia Road

Info. Link: (1)    

Old Shawneetown, Illinois

and

Cahokia, Illinois

This was a French and Indian trail which ran between Old Shawneetown located on the Ohio River, near the mouth of the Wabash River, and Cahokia, Illinois located across the Mississippi River from St. Louis.  It was utilized as a migration route by settlers during the early part of the 19th century.

Fort Miami Trail

Info. Link: (1)    

Lower Shawnee Town, KY

and

Maumee, Ohio

This Native-American footpath was a major route to the Old Northwest Territory as well as lakes Michigan and Superior.  It crossed Ohio in a northwest direction along the watershed of the Little Miami and Scioto Rivers and led to Fort Miami, the oldest fortification in the State of Ohio.

French-Indian Trail

Info. Link: (1);  Image Gallery: (1)

Detroit, Michigan

and

Toledo, Ohio

A section of the Native-American Lake Shore Trail, this route ran along the west bank of the Detroit River and through the swamps to the vicinity of Toledo, Ohio.

NAME (G)

PLACES OF TERMINATION

DESCRIPTIVE  INFORMATION

Galena–Chicago Trail

Info. Link: (1);  Map: (1)

Galena, Illinois

and

Chicago, Illinois

This 19th century thoroughfare was a stagecoach route located in northern Illinois that ran from the mid-to-late 1830s until 1854. This road ran in an east-west direction across the northern part of the State. The Chicago-Galena Trail includes the Stagecoach Trail that runs between Galena and Lena, Illinois.  Most of this route later became Illinois State Routes 72, 73, and 78. 

Grand River Trail

Info. Link: (1);  Map: (1)

Detroit, Michigan

and

Lansing, Michigan

A Native-American trail that crossed the Lower Peninsula of Michigan. As with other "Indian trails," the Grand River Trail was used by the European settlers arriving in the area during the 1830s and '40s. The original footpath was gradually improved until, around 1850, two plank roads were constructed linking Detroit and Lansing. The route was known as the Grand River Road prior to it designation as US Route 16 in 1926.  This portion of US 16 has been superseded by I-96 and a segment of Grand River Avenue in Detroit ultimately became M-5.

Great Emigrant Road to Ohio

Info. Link: (1);  Image Gallery: (1)

 

Philadelphia, PA

and

Cincinnati, Ohio

A term used by Brethren Church researchers to show the migration route taken by 18th century members to Virginia, Kentucky and Ohio.  The route commenced in eastern Pennsylvania and ran south on the Great Wagon Road to Fort Chiswell in Virginia where it apparently branched to northwest through the Cumberland Gap along the Wilderness Road into Kentucky.  It then ran in a northerly direction, probably on the Tennessee, Ohio, and Great Lakes Indian Trail to the Ohio River at Cincinnati, Ohio.

Great Hopewell Road

Info. Link: (1)    

Chillicothe, Ohio

and

Newark, Ohio

The Great Hopewell Road is thought to connect the Hopewell culture (100 BCE-500 CE) monumental earthwork centers located at Newark and Chillicothe, a distance of 60 miles (97 km).   The Newark complex was built 2,000 to 1800 years ago.

Great Path

 

see, Great Trail

Great Trail

Info. Link: (1), (2);  Map: (1)   

 

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

and

Detroit, Michigan

 

This route was the most important trail west of the Ohio River during the Revolutionary War era. It was an extension of Nemacolin’s Path (i.e. Braddock’s Road).  The Great Trail followed the north bank of the Ohio River from Fort Pitt to the mouth of the Beaver River.  From there it went to present day, Bolivar, Ohio, through Wooster, Ohio, and Fremont, Ohio to the mouth of the Maumee River where it joined the French-Indian Trail to Fort Detroit.  SOURCE: Wilcox, Frank N. Ohio Indian Trails, pgs. 32, 83-88.

NAME (H)

PLACES OF TERMINATION

DESCRIPTIVE  INFORMATION

Hopewell-Chillicothe-Marietta Road

Info. Link: (1)    

Chillicothe, Ohio

and

Marietta, Ohio

This ancient footpath and early road had been the most dry, level and direct route and was the easiest way to travel on foot for thousands of years between the Hopewell Indian principal earthworks, now near the City of Chillicothe and approximately 100 miles eastward to yet another Hopewell earthwork at the confluence of the Muskingum and the Ohio Rivers, now the City of Marietta.

Hull’s Trace

Info. Link: (1)    

Urbana, Ohio

and

Detroit, Michigan

In June and July 1812, troops under the command of General William Hull constructed what became known as "Hull's Trace," a 200-mile military road running from Urbana, Ohio to Fort Detroit.  Hull's Trace was the first military road and first federal road in the United States.

Huron Trail

Upper Sandusky, Ohio

and

near Fitchville, Ohio

This Native-American path ran in a general northeasterly direction from the springs at Upper Sandusky.   It crossed the Great Trail at Plymouth, Ohio and intersected with the Watershed Trail near Fitchville.  Col. William Crawford utilized this route after his battle with the Indians In 1782.    SOURCE: Wilcox, Frank N. Ohio Indian Trails, pgs. 34, 169-170

NAME ( I )

PLACES OF TERMINATION

DESCRIPTIVE  INFORMATION

 

 

 

NAME (J)

PLACES OF TERMINATION

DESCRIPTIVE  INFORMATION

 

 

 

NAME (K)

PLACES OF TERMINATION

DESCRIPTIVE  INFORMATION

Kanawha Trail

Kanauga, Ohio

and

Pickaway Plains, Ohio

This trail probably led from the Native-American settlement of Kanauga, located on the Ohio River opposite the mouth of the Kanawha River.  In 1774, this route was followed by Colonel Andrew Lewis, after the Battle of Point Pleasant to join Lord Dumore at the famous conference at the Logan Elm on Congo Creek.  SOURCE: Wilcox, Frank N. Ohio Indian Trails, pgs. 35, 191-193.

Kellogg Trail

Info. Link: (1), (2), (3), (4)    

Peoria, Illinois

and

Galena, Illinois

 

This Native American footpath between Peoria and Prairie du Chien, was used by early fur traders.  It became a wagon trail during the 1820s when people began to move from southern Illinois into the lead producing areas in and around Galena, Illinois in the far northwestern corner of the state. The route between Galena and Peoria was named for Oliver W. Kellogg. See also Peoria-Galena Road.

Killbuck Trail

Map: (1)

near Randle, Ohio

and

near Madison Hill, Ohio

The original trail followed along the Killbuck Creek from its junction with the Wahonding River. Today the path may be retraced along SR 234, US 62, and SR 76.  At its northern terminus the thoroughfare connected with the Great Trail.  SOURCE: Wilcox, Frank N. Ohio Indian Trails, pgs. 153-154.

NAME (L)

PLACES OF TERMINATION

DESCRIPTIVE  INFORMATION

Lac Vieux Desert Trail

Info. Link: (1);  Map: (1);  Image Gallery: (1)   

L’Anse, Michigan

and

Lac Vieux Desert, Michigan & Wisconsin

This 80+ mile trail played a significant role in the culture of the Ojibwe people prior to the 17th and 18th century. This trail crossed the interior of the Michgan’s Upper Peninsula and provided access to the major water routes connecting Lake Superior in the north to the Mississippi via the Wisconsin River and Lake Michgan to the east. This route was also known as L’Anse-Lac Vieux Desert Trail, and Lac Vieux Desert – L’Anse Trail.

Lafayette Road

Info. Link: (1);  Map: (1)  

Indianapolis, Indiana

and

 Lafayette, Indiana

The route was chosen because it was the most traveled horse trail between Indianapolis and Lafayette. Lafayette Road was surveyed and cleared in 1831 and the construction costs were covered by toll collections along the finished route.  Today this route approximates U.S. Route 52  and runs in a northwest-southeast direction and is considered an alternative route to, Interstate 65.

Lake Trail

 

See Lake Shore Path.  SOURCE: Wilcox, Frank N. Ohio Indian Trails, pgs. 31-32, 59-65.

Lake Shore Path

Info. Link: (1), (2), (3)    

Youngstown, New York

and

Detroit, Michigan

This heavily used Native-American footpath, was also known as the Lake Trail and Shore Trail.  It was originally used by the Iroquois and later by European settlers as access to the Ohio country.  The path followed the southern shore of Lake Erie, westward along Sandusky Bay and then joined the French-Indian Trail north to the site of Detroit, and continued on up the Lower Peninsula of Michigan.

Limestone Road

Wheeling, West Virginia

and

Aberdeen, Ohio

Another name for Zane’s Trace as the southwestern terminus was Limestone, Kentucky (present-day Maysville). People who traveled the road began to refer to it by a number of different names, rather than Zane's Trace.

Limestone & Chillicothe Road

 

Another name for Zane’s Trace.

Louisville Trace

 

Another name for the Buffalo Trace.

Louisville - Vincennes Road

Info. Link: (1);  Map: (1), (2)

Louisville, Kentucky

and

Vincennes, Indiana

A route used by early migrants who moved up into Indiana as it was opened for settlement following the War of 1812. This migration route follows U.S. Route 150 to Shoals Indiana, then US 50 on west, to Vincennes, on the Wabash River. The original path is identified as the Buffalo Trace as well as other localized names.

NAME (M)

PLACES OF TERMINATION

DESCRIPTIVE  INFORMATION

Mackinac Trail

Info. Link: (1);  Image Gallery: (1)    

Saginaw, Michigan

and

Mackinaw City, Michigan

This historical route was originally a military road established as a link between Saginaw and Fort Mackinaw.  Surveyed in 1835 the route closely followed the Indian path known as the Mackinaw trail. The trail did not become passable for vehicles until several decades later. aka. Mackinaw Trail .

Mackinaw Trail

 

See Mackinac Trail.

Mahoning Trail

Info. Link: (1), (2)    

Beaver, Pennsylvania

and

Sandusky, Ohio

This Native-American path, also known as the Mahoning Trace, ran from the mouth of the Beaver River and followed the Mahoning River into Ohio. Its westward course led through Portage and Summit counties to Sandusky Bay. SOURCE: Wilcox, Frank N. Ohio Indian Trails, pgs. 32, 69-74.

Mahoning-Beaver Trail

 

Another name for the Mahoning Trail.

Marquette Trail

Marquette, Michigan

and

U.S. Routes 141 & 41

The Marquette Trail is located in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan.  U.S. Route 41 generally follows the old path which connects with the Lac Vieux Desert–L’Anse Trail on its west end and the Carp River Trail on the east at the City of Marquette on Lake Superior.

Maumee Trail

Toledo, Ohio

and

Fort Wayne, Indiana

This ancient footpath was used by early European traders and explorers to enter the Ohio region prior to the use of routes that crossed the Allegheny Mountains in Pennsylvania. This trail was traveled by General Anthony Wayne after the  Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794, and by General William Henry Harrison during the War of 1812.  SOURCE: Wilcox, Frank N. Ohio Indian Trails, pgs. 37, 235-237.

Maysville Pike

 

Another name for Zane’s Trace.

Maysville Road

 

Another name for Zane’s Trace.

Miami Trail  

Info. Link: (1),(2)     Map: (1)

Cincinnati, Ohio

and

Dayton, Ohio

This Native-American trading and war path was part of the great trunk trail which ran from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico, see Tennessee River, OH and Great Lakes Trail.  From the Ohio River, at the mouth of the Licking River, northward the trail is called the Miami Trail and it had several branches the culminated in the valleys of the Little Miami and Great Miami Rivers.   In later times it became a military trail between the northern and southern Ohio and was used by General Wayne during his Indian Campaign of 1793-94, see Wayne’s Trace.  SOURCE: Wilcox, Frank N. Ohio Indian Trails, pgs. 36, 215-217.

Michigan Road

Info. Link: (1), (2), (3), (4);  Image Gallery: (1)    Road Trip: (1),(2) 

Madison, Indiana

and

Michigan City, Indiana

One of most important transportation routes in the fledgling State of Indiana. It was the first road commissioned by the Indiana State Legislature in 1826. This road became a key thoroughfare in opening up the state to settlement.  It is about 268 miles long.

Mingo Trail

Fairview, Ohio

and

Zanesville, Ohio

During the construction of Zane’s Trace the Mingo Trail was one of several existing Native American trails used for some of the route.  SOURCE: Wilcox, Frank N. Ohio Indian Trails, pgs. 33, 125-128

Mohican Trail

Map: (1)

Huron, Ohio

Vermilion, Ohio

Walhonding, Ohio

The Mohican Trail branched from the Walhonding Trail in Coshocton County to traverse to the Mohican villages in present day Ashland County, Ohio, as well as to reach the headwaters of streams leading down to Lake Eire.

SOURCE: Wilcox, Frank N. Ohio Indian Trails, pgs. 34, 163-165.  Do Wahonding Trail First

Moravian Trail(s)

Map: (1)

Lisbon, Ohio

East Liverpool, Ohio

Wellsville, Ohio

Shoenbrunn, Ohio

Gnadenhutten, Ohio

The Moravian missionaries and subsequent settlers began to follow these routes into Ohio as early as the 1760’s and 70’s.  One trail branched off the Great Trail near present day Lisbon, Ohio.  A second route began on the Ohio River at East Liverpool, and a third and most prominent route began at Wellsville also on the Ohio.  Each led to the Moravian settlements of Shoenbrunn and Gnadenhutten on the Tuscarawas River.  SOURCE: Wilcox, Frank N. Ohio Indian Trails, pgs. 32, 101-104

Moxahala Trail

Zanesville, Ohio

and

 Chillicothe, Ohio

The Moxahala Trail was one of several traditional Native American trails incorporated into the construction of Zane’s Trace during 1796 and 1797. Chillicothe was the only settlement already existent along the route before the Trace was constructed.

Muskingum Trail

Cleveland, Ohio

and

Marietta, Ohio

 

As early as 1750 Christopher Gist explored the part of this trail that ran from Bolivar, OH to Coshocton, OH.  Fort Laurens was built to guard the intersection of this trail with the Great Trail.  See Cuyahoga-Muskingum Trail for more information.   SOURCE: Wilcox, Frank N. Ohio Indian Trails, pgs. 33, 91-97

NAME (N)

PLACES OF TERMINATION

DESCRIPTIVE  INFORMATION

Nashville-Saline River Trail 

Map: (1), (2)

Nashville, Tennessee

and

near Pankeyville, Illinois

and

East Cape Girardeau, IL

·         This ancient Native-American footpath ran northwest from the ancient salt lick at the present site of Nashville, Tennessee to a fork a few miles beyond Princeton, Kentucky.  One prong crossed the Ohio River at Ford’s Ferry, (Cave-In-Rock), and lead to the prehistoric salt works on the Saline River in Illinois. The other fork or the “Golconda Prong” led to the crossing of the Ohio River at Golconda, Illinois and then west to the Mississippi River.  Later this trail was followed by white settlers as they traveled from Kentucky and Tennessee to Illinois and points farther north and west.  SOURCE: Meyer, William. E., Indian Trails of the Southeast,  Trail 40, p.810.

National Road

Info. Link: (1), (2);  Map: (1)

Image Gallery: (1), (2);  Road Trip: (1)   

Baltimore, Maryland

and

Vandalia, Illinois

This historic American thoroughfare was the first major improved highway in the United States to be built by the federal government.  This route includes portions of the Cumberland Road and Braddock’s Road in the east. By 1825, it had reached Vandalia, Illinois and eventually stretched to St. Louis, Missouri.  Most of the route follows east-west U.S. Route 40.

New Albany-Paoli Pike

Louisville, Kentucky

and

Vincennes, Indiana

Another name for the Louisville-Vincennes Road after it became a turnpike in the 19th century.

NAME (O)

PLACES OF TERMINATION

DESCRIPTIVE  INFORMATION

Ohio Trail

Kanauga, Ohio

and

Belpre, Ohio

 

This trail ran along the north side of the Ohio River between the mouth of the Little Kanawha River and where the Kanawha River flows into the Ohio River. At its southern terminus it connected with the Kanawha Trail, and at the north end it intersected with the Belpre Trail.  A branch of this trail also led south, along present day US Route 33 to the area of the “Great Bend” in Meigs County, Ohio.   SOURCE: Wilcox, Frank N. Ohio Indian Trails, pgs. 35, 183-184.

Ohio River-Wills Town Trail

Info. Link: (1)    

Steubenville, Ohio

and

Wills Town, Ohio

This trail was used extensively by the first white settlers as they pushed into eastern Ohio after the American Revolution.  The trail extended from Crow's town on the Ohio River near the present city of Steubenville to Wills Town, a former Native-American settlement now located in Madison Twp., Muskingum County, Ohio.

Old Indian Road

Louisville, Kentucky

Vincennes, Indiana

Another name for the Buffalo Trace as well as the later Louisville-Vincennes Road.

Olentangy River Road

Franklinton, Ohio

and

Delaware, Ohio

The Olentangy River Road was constructed in 1828 was about 30 miles long. It connected the area to Franklinton now a neighborhood in Columbus, Ohio and Delaware in Delaware County.

Orchard Lake Trail

Info. Link: (1);  Map: (1)    

Farmington, Michigan

and

Pontiac, Michigan

This ancient Native-American footpath ran through Farmington, Michigan on present-day Farmington Road (previously Collins Road, which was built on the old Orchard Lake Trail). It then continued by Orchard Lake to Pontiac, Michigan.  The southern terminus of this trail is not known.

Owl River Trail

Mount Vernon, Ohio

and

Wyandot, Ohio

The Owl River Trail led in a north-westerly direction and is considered a part of the Walhonding Trail. This route was extensively used as a war path during the American Revolution.   SOURCE: Wilcox, Frank N. Ohio Indian Trails, pgs. 157-159

NAME (P)

PLACES OF TERMINATION

DESCRIPTIVE  INFORMATION

Paoli Pike

Louisville, Kentucky

Vincennes, Indiana

Another name for the Louisville-Vincennes Road.

Pecatonica Trail

Info. Link: (1), (2)    

Rockton, Wisconsin

and

Freeport, Illinois

This Native-American footpath followed much of the Pecatonica River through Stephenson County and Winnebago County in Wisconsin. The Pecatonica River is a tributary of the Rock River, 194 miles (312 km) long, in southern Wisconsin and northern Illinois.  The specific places of termination for this route are not known.

Peoria-Galena Road

Info. Link: (1);  Map: (1)

Peoria, Illinois

to

Galena, Illinois

This road was an important stage, mail and shipping road going from the Illinois River at Peoria to Galena. The route went due north on Illinois Route 88, crossing the Rock River at Rock Falls and Sterling Illinois.  Near Brookville, in Ogle County, it turned north-west and headed for Galena. See also Kellogg Trail.

Pickawillany Trail

Alexandria, Ohio

and

near Lockington, Ohio

 

The Pickawillany Trail begins at the confluence of the Scioto and Ohio Rivers and ends on the prairies of the upper Great Miami River near the Miami Indian village and trading post named Pickawillany, now the present-day city of Piqua, Ohio.  This route was followed by General Anthony Wayne in 1794, from the Native-American towns on the Mad River, in his expedition against Little Turtle.  SOURCE: Wilcox, Frank N. Ohio Indian Trails, pgs. 36, 201-205.

NAME (Q)

PLACES OF TERMINATION

DESCRIPTIVE  INFORMATION

Quaker Trace

Info. Link: (1), (2)  

Richmond, Indiana

and

Fort Wayne, Indiana

This south-north road was built in 1817 to give early settlers north of Wayne County, Indiana a trade outlet to old Fort Wayne.  The route is about 124 miles in length and generally follows present day U.S. Route 27. 

NAME (R)

PLACES OF TERMINATION

DESCRIPTIVE  INFORMATION

 

 

 

NAME (S)

PLACES OF TERMINATION

DESCRIPTIVE  INFORMATION

Saginaw Trail

Info. Link: (1)    

Saginaw, Michigan

and

Detroit, Michigan

Saginaw Trail is the collective name for a set of connected roads in Southeastern Michigan that run from Detroit to Saginaw through Pontiac and Flint. It was originally a foot trail created by the Sauk Indian tribe.  The building of a road from Detroit to Saginaw along the trail was authorized in 1818.  Today this route generally follows roads bearing the designations M-1, US Highway 24 and M-54.

Salt Springs Trail

Map: (1)

Lisbon, Ohio

and

near Niles Ohio

The “Great Salt Lick” near Niles was important to the pioneers as a preservative for their food as well a favorite spot for hunting the deer who had a fondness for salt.  This trail led north to the Mahoning River from the Great Trail at the location where the Moravian Trail branched off to the south.  SOURCE: Wilcox, Frank N. Ohio Indian Trails, pgs. 111-112

Sauk Trail 

Info. Link: (1), (2);  Image Gallery: (1)   

Rock Island, Illinois

and

Detroit, Michigan

A Native-American trail that ran easterly across Illinois near US Route 6  from Rock Island to the Illinois River at about where Peru is now located and then to Detroit via US Route 12.  See also Chicago Road.

Sault-Green Bay Trail

Info. Link: (1)    

Sault Ste. Marie, MI

and

Green Bay, Wisconsin

Today this old Native American path  follows along part of the modern US Route 2 and MI 35 between Menominee and Escanaba. This trail continued eastward from Escanaba to Sault Ste. Marie and southerly to Green Bay, Wisconsin.

Scioto Trail

Info. Link: (1), (2)

Portsmouth, Ohio

and

Sandusky, Ohio

This important south-north route was extensively used by the first whites who pushed their way into the country north and west of the OH, after the Revolutionary War.    The trail ran from the mouth of the Scioto river where it joins the Ohio River north to the Sandusky river an on to the Sandusky bay.

SOURCE: Wilcox, Frank N. Ohio Indian Trails, pgs. 33, 131-138

Scioto–Beaver Trail

Info. Link: (1), (2)

Portsmouth, Ohio

and

Dungannon, Ohio

 

This trail was almost as important as the Great Trail because it was the main thoroughfare from the country of the Shawnees to that of the Delawares as well as those to the east.  It traveled up the Scioto River Valley to about Circleville, Ohio then east over the headwaters of the Hocking River to near Zanesville where it probably followed that Walhonding River north to Coshocton then led in a northeasterly direction where at Painted Post, (Dungannon, OH), it intersected with the Great Trail which led east into Pennsylvania to the mouth of the Beaver River.

Scioto–Monongahela Trail

Info. Link: (1);  Map: (1)

Portsmouth, Ohio

and

Fairmont, West Virginia

This was one of the more important routes of war and trade which connected the Scioto country in the west with the Iroquois to the east.  The route crossed the Ohio River from Lower Shawneetown and from the mouth of the Scioto River ran northeasterly to Roxbury, Ohio.  From there it led to the Muskingum River at Roxbury, Ohio.  Then down that river to its confluence with the Ohio River at Belpre.  Crossing the river here it ran east over the “dry ridges” that now carries modern US Route 50.  It then traveled down Ten Mile Creek to the Monongahela River. 

Shawnee Indian Road

 

see Bullskin Road

Shawnee-Miami Trail

Circleville, Ohio

and

Russells Point, Ohio

This trail was basically a Native-American highway that connected the Shawnee and Miami confederacies.   Its course ran in a northwesterly direction from the Scioto River Valley to the headwaters of the Great Miami River at Indian Lake in Logan County.  SOURCE: Wilcox, Frank N. Ohio Indian Trails, pgs. 35, 197-198.

Shiawassee Trail

Image Gallery: (1)   

Saginaw, Michigan

and

Detroit, Michigan

This major Native-American path is over 100 miles in length. It ran from the Saginaw Trail in the north through Shiawasseetown in Shiawassee County to the Rogue River in Detroit where it intersected with the Grand River Trail. 

Shore Trail

 

Another name for the Lake Shore Trail.

St. Joseph Trail

Benton Harbor, Michigan

and

near East Rockwood, MI

This Native-American canoe trail lead up the St. Joseph River from Lake Michigan and overland via several portages between Jackson and Ann Arbor, Michigan to the Huron River and along the Huron River to Lake Erie.  It was one of two principal routes used by the Iroquois to go to Fort Malden to receive their annual presents from the British.

Stagecoach Trail

Info. Link: (1);  Image Gallery: (1)   

Galena, Illinois

and

 Lena, Illinois

An historic route through northern Jo Daviess County and western Stephenson County, in the northwest of Illinois.  The trail was a part of the larger Galena–Chicago Trail that crossed the entire state.

Standing Stone Trail

Map: (1)

Lancaster, Ohio

and

Portsmouth, Ohio

This trail led from the  mouth of the Scioto River northeast to Sciotoville where it followed the Little Scioto River north.  West of Minford it left the river and led to Jackson. Then through Byer, and South Bloomington to Standing Stone (now Lancaster), on the Hocking River.  SOURCE: Wilcox, Frank N. Ohio Indian Trails, pgs. 35, 179-180.

State Road  

See Chicago-Galena State Road.