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Introduction

List of Routes

Image Gallery

Internet Resources

 

 

Introduction

 

     Historians generally view the process of Westward movement as having its genesis in the spread of settlement away from the Atlantic Coast, a process that removed the frontier at places up to two hundred miles inland by the mid-eighteenth century. Despite significant variances in economics and political orientation within the American Colonies, the first phase of westward migration exhibited the same trait that permeates American continental expansion during the 18th and 19th centuries that being the pursuit of inexpensive land suitable for farming.

    Although conflicts with Native-American inhabitants sporadically interrupted early migrations, by the first decades of the 18th century many colonists had used conveyances such as the Pennsylvania Road and the Cumberland Road to successfully establish settlements well into the interiors of the Middle Colonies, and were poised to cross the Appalachian Mountains into the vast interior of the continent.

     In Pennsylvania, Virginia and Maryland, colonists initiated westward migrations that were greatly assisted by two military roads left over from the war: the Braddock Road, which carried migrants from the headwaters of the Potomac River in western Maryland to Pittsburgh; and the Forbes Road, which ran from eastern Pennsylvania to also arrive at Pittsburgh.  Not surprisingly, Pittsburgh became the launching point from which thousands of settlers migrated farther west down the Ohio River to settle portions of what are now West Virginia and eastern Ohio.

     Westward migration from the New England colonies occurred in a similar fashion, although other factors besides securing land for export crops were at work. The strict religious requirements imposed by the Puritan-led Congregational Church alienated many New England colonists, and spurred them to move west in pursuit of religious moderation. Environmental conditions were also an important consideration, as the rocky soil of tidewater New England was poorly suited for farming. Beginning in 1636 with the Reverend Thomas Hooker and his followers, New Englanders moved into the lush Connecticut River Valley via the Old Connecticut Path and spread out into other fertile regions of New England.  Indian resistance to colonial encroachment in New England was fierce, but by 1676 most native resistance was eliminated thereby opening the interior of New England to migrant farmers.  By 1750 New Englanders had reached west to Albany, New York through the widening of the old Mohawk Trail that ran from Boston through Deerfield, Massachusetts.

     Settlement and migration patterns in New England differed in the Middle Colonies of New York and Pennsylvania. While the desire for land was no less fierce, powerful Indian groups managed to blunt much of the early westward flow of American colonists. The powerful Iroquois nations, who inhabited the rich lands from the Mohawk River in northeastern New York to the upper Allegheny watershed in northwestern Pennsylvania, checked colonial expansion into their territory by maintaining a system of satellite tribes who occupied the border region between the Iroquois and the colonials.  All land sales or political treaties between these dependent peoples and the Americans required Iroquois approval. This system worked remarkably well until the mid-eighteenth century, when increasing pressure for land in south-central Pennsylvania forced some of the aforementioned satellite tribes, such as the Lenapes and Shawnees, to migrate across the Appalachian Mountains into eastern Ohio.  A flood of colonial migrants, led by fur traders and land speculators, used the Iroquois (Mohawk) Trail to follow on the heels of these retreating Native-American peoples.

Source: http://www.answers.com/topic/westward-migration

List of routes

 

Generally these routes are defined as having their terminus in present day Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland.

 

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Info. Link = link to a webpage containing additional facts about this route

NAME (A)

FROM / TO

DESCRIPTIVE  INFORMATION

Albany Post Road

From: New York City 

To: Albany, NY

This historical colonial road was used for mail delivery.  It ran along the east side of the Hudson River, a service now performed by U.S. Route 9.

Info. Link: (1)

Albany and Schenectady Turnpike

From: Albany, NY

To: Schenectady, NY

An improved eastern portion of the Mohawk Turnpike undertaken in 1797 with the establishment of the Albany and Schenectady Turnpike corporation.  This road continued to be profitable until the opening of the Erie Canal in 1823. Today this historic road follows NY Route 5.

 Info. Link: (1)

Allegheny Path

From: Philadelphia, PA

To: Pittsburgh, PA

This Native-American route ran from the Delaware River at Philadelphia, through Morgantown and Paxtang (Harrisburg), to various points on the Allegheny River.  West of Harrisburg the route followed the Frankstown Path, the Raystown Path, and the New Path.

Ancram Turnpike

From: Springfield, MA

To: Catskill, NY

Originally called to Catskill Road by 18th century New Englanders moving west into New York State. The road was incorporated as a turnpike in 1804. Info. Link: (1);(2)

Appian Way

 

See, Cochecton – Newburgh Turnpike

Assunpink Trail

Topo Map

 

From: New Brunswick, NJ

To: Trenton, NJ

A Native American trail in that connected the Raritan River in the north and the Delaware River at it southern terminus. The trail followed along portions of the Old Dutch Trail, Lincoln Highway, and King’s Highway.

 Info. Link: (1)

NAME (B)

FROM / TO

DESCRIPTIVE  INFORMATION

Bald Eagle Creek Path

From: Lock Haven, PA

To: Frankstown, PA

This Native American footpath was one of the several routes that made up Great Indian Warpath in Pennsylvania. Info. Link: (1)

Bank Road

From: Baltimore, MD

To: Cumberland, MD

Built by state funds in 1820 to link existing unimproved roads with the National Road. Info. Link: (1)

Bay Path

Image Gallery; Topo Map

From: Boston, MA

To: Springfield, MA

Originally the Native-American long path from the Bay to the Hudson River, a distance of about 160 miles.  The Bay Path was first used by John Oldham in 1633.  On today’s roads it is about 92 miles from Jamacia Pond to Springfield. Info. Link: (1)

Bay Road

Topo Map

 

From: Sharon, MA

To: Taunton, MA

A 17 mile north-south road in southeastern Massachusetts.

 Info. Link: (1)

Bayley–Hazen Military Road

From: Newbury, VT

To: Hazens Notch, VT

This road was constructed between 1776 and 1779 during the American Revolutionary War. The road is named for Jacob Bayley and Moses Hazen.  The idea for the road was proposed to George Washington and the Second Continental Congress for invasions of Quebec by Continental Army forces following the failed 1775 invasion. Portions of the road's route are used by modern roads today. Info. Link: (1)

Bethlehem Pike

 

From: Philadelphia, PA

To: Bethlehem, PA

This historic 41 mile road began as a Native American path called the Minsi Trail which evolved into a colonial highway called the King's Road in the 1760s. Info. Link: (1)

Blue Rock Path

From: Phoenixville, PA

To: Washington Boro, PA

Also known as the Blue Rock Road this route connected paths from the Schuylkill River Valley with the Susquehanna River and the Monocacy Path in York County.   Info. Link: (1)

Boston Post Road

Image Gallery

From: Boston, MA

 To: New York, NY

A segment of the King’s Highway from MA to SC. Essentially a system of post roads containing some of the first major highways in the U.S.  The three major alignments were the Lower Post Road, the Upper Post Road, and the Middle Post Road.   Info. Link: (1)

Boston Turnpike

From: Boston, MA

To: Hartford, CT

This 19th century turnpike was chartered in 1797 and ran mostly along modern US 44 as the direct route from Hartford to Boston.

Info. Link: (1);(2)

Braddock’s Road

Image Gallery;  Road Trip

From: Cumberland, MD

To: Braddock, PA

A 1752 wagon road to the Youghiogheny River in western Pennsylvania.  In 1755 it was improved and extended to the Monongahela River by British General Edward Braddock. Info. Link: (1);(2)

Burd’s Road

Image Gallery

From: Brownsville, PA

To: Cumberland, MD

James Burd probably travelled this route to the Redstone Creek where he oversaw the erection, of Fort Burd. The eastern portion of this road was the Native-American Turkeyfoot Path.  This route is also known as the Glade Road.  Info. Link: (1);(2)

 

NAME (C)

FROM / TO

DESCRIPTIVE  INFORMATION

Canada Road

From: Reading, PA

To: Halton Co., Ontario

A north-south trail along the Susquehanna River used by German Mennonites to migrate Ontario, Canada after the King of Great Britain opened up settlement in this area in 1800. Info. Link: (1)

Catawba Path (PA)

Topo Map

 

From: Nichols Run, NY

To: Point Marion, PA

The Catawba Path through Pennsylvania was a section of the great Native-American footpath that started at the Iroquois lands in New York State and ran through to Morgantown, WV and on to the Carolinas, Kentucky and Tennessee. A part of the system of travel routes known as the Great Indian War and Trading Path It was one of the most important paths in North America and was known by many names.  Its extensions served from Florida to Canada and the Mississippi Valley.  Info. Link: (1)

Catawissa Path

Image Gallery; Topo Map

From: Catawissa, PA

To: Sunbury, PA

Named after the Indian town of Catawissa, which was situated at the mouth of the Catawissa Creek, the Catawissa path ran from Catawissa to Sunbury (then known as Shamokin). The path was also used by settlers who came into the Susquehanna River valley from the east. Info. Link: (1)

Catskill Road

From: Springfield, MA

To: Catskill, NY  

See Ancram Turnpike  Info. Link: (1) 

Catskill Turnpike

Image Gallery;  Road Trip

From: Catskill, NY

To:  Bath, NY

Catskill Turnpike is a general term used for the 200-mile-long route completed 1806.  The eastern portion was known as the Susquehanna Turnpike.  The route was of great importance in connecting New England with the Great Lakes in the Midwest. Info. Link: (1)

Centre Turnpike

From: Reading, PA

To: Sunbury, PA

Completed around 1814 this roadway was 75 miles in length. It was also known as the Reading-Sunbury Road. Info. Link: (1)

Cherry Valley Turnpike

From: Albany, NY

To: Cazenovia, NY

This road from Albany heading west to the town of Cherry Valley was first constructed in 1799 as a toll road. In 1803, an extension to Cazenovia was authorized, and completed by 1811. This route was heavily used by people trying to establish new settlements in central New York.  Info. Link: (1)

Cochecton – Newburgh Turnpike

From: Newburgh, NY

To: Cochecton, NY

Completed in 1808 this road connected the Hudson and the Delaware rivers and went from Newburgh on the Hudson, over the Shawangunk ridge at Bloomingburg and through the Catskill Mountains to Cochecton on the Delaware. This roadway was also known as  the Appian Way. Info. Link: (1)

Conestoga - Newport Path

 

From: Washington Boro, PA

To: Newport, DE

This Native-American footpath followed the Great Minquas Path to Gap, PA where it branched off and led southeast to Newport, Delaware (on the Christina River). Today Pennsylvania Route 41 and State Route 41 (Delaware) follow the route of the path from Gap southeast to Newport, Delaware. Info. Link: (1)

Conestoga Path

 

Another name for that section of the  Monocacy Path  in Pennsylvania.

Conewago Path

 

 See Conoy Path

Conoy Path

From: Bainbridge, PA

To: Carlisle, PA

This historic trail, also known as the Conewago Path, was named for a band of Conoy Indians who lived from about 1718 to 1743 at Conoy Town (Bainbridge) at the mouth of the Conoy Creek. At Carlisle it connected to the east-west Allegheny Path. The part of the path in Lancaster County is sometimes seen as an extension of Old Peter's Road. Info. Link: (1)

Culbertson’s Path

From: Allenwood, PA

To: Williamsport, PA

A Native-American trail in north central Pennsylvania, which connected the Great Island Path with the Sheshequin Path. The southeastern terminus was on the West Branch Susquehanna River.  The northwestern end was north of the city of Williamsport.  Info. Link: (1)

 

 

 

NAME (D)

FROM / TO

DESCRIPTIVE  INFORMATION

 

 

 

NAME (E)

FROM / TO

DESCRIPTIVE  INFORMATION

Esopus Turnpike

 

Another name for the Ulster and Delaware Turnpike.

 

 

 

NAME (F)

FROM / TO

DESCRIPTIVE  INFORMATION

Forbes Road

Image Gallery;  Road Trip

From: Carlisle, PA

To: Pittsburgh, PA

The Forbes Road stretched about 200 miles from Carlisle to the Forks of the Ohio. It was named for Brigadier General John Forbes, the commander of the 1758 British expedition that built it. Originally a part of the Raystown Path it later it became the western portion of the Pennsylvania Road.

Info. Link: (1);(2)

Forbidden Path

From: Athens, PA

To: Salamanca, NY

The name of this Native-American trail comes from the Seneca tribe who were the Keepers of the Western Door of the Six Iroquois Nations.  It was Iroquois national policy that white men were forbidden to traverse the path as it was the gateway to Seneca country.  In 1767 and 1768 David Zeisberger travelled this route from the Susquehanna River to the Allegheny River where he established several missions.  Info. Link: (1);(2)

Frankstown Path

From: Harrisburg, PA

To: Kittanning, PA

This ancient Native-American route was often referred to as the Alleghany Path or Ohio Path.  It became the most import route across Pennsylvania during colonial times.  Branches of this trail also lead to Tarentum, PA and Pittsburgh, PA.  Info. Link: (1)  

French Creek Path

From: Conestoga, PA

To: Phoenixville, PA

The French Creek Path led northeast from the Susquehanna River along the Conestoga River to Lancaster, then east into Chester County to the Schuylkill River.  Pennsylvania Route 999 follows the course of this path to Lancaster, and Pennsylvania Route 23

 continues from there to Phoenixville. Info. Link: (1)

French Road

 

See Portage Road

NAME (G)

FROM / TO

DESCRIPTIVE  INFORMATION

Gist’s Trace

Image Gallery;  Road Trip

From: Cumberland, MD

To: Brownsville, PA

Named after Christopher Gist this early route began as a wagon road around 1782. It followed the Native-American footpath known as Nemacolin's Trail.  Sixty miles in length, this road formed a means of passage between the Potomac and Ohio rivers. Info. Link: (1)

Glade Road

From: Bedford, PA

To: Washington, PA

A name for a section of the Raystown Path, and Forbes Road as well as the later Pennsylvania Road.  Info. Link: (1)

Glocester Turnpike

From: Chepachet, RI

To: Smithfield, RI

This 19th century turnpike was chartered in 1804. It follows along US Route 44 in Rhode Island.  Info. Link: (1)

Goshen Turnpike

Topo Map

From: Goshen, NY

To: Wallkill, NY

The entire length of this early American road is about 12 miles.  The oldest section of the route, from the village of Goshen to Mount Joy Road and the Wallkill River, was probably built by the families who had settled the frontier lands of Goshen Township about 1720.  Info. Link:

Great Genesee Road

Image Gallery;  Road Trip

From: Utica, NY

To: Buffalo, NY

This historic American road is recognized as the western 200 miles of the Native-American foot path known as the Iroquois Trail. A later improvement to this route became known as the Seneca Turnpike.  Info. Link: (1);(2)

Great Indian War & Trading Path (MD)

From: State Line,

Franklin Co., PA

To: Williamsport, MD

A segment of the Great Indian War and Trading Path called the Virginia Path that ran through the Great Appalachian Valley in Maryland. The routing of this ancient trail approximates present U.S. Route 11 and runs for 12 miles through Washington Co., MD. Info. Link: (1);(2);(3)

Great Indian War & Trading Path (NY) 

 

The segment of the Native-American footpaths that ran through the Great Appalachian Valley in New York State. This route was also known as the Great Indian War and Trading Path, as well as the Seneca Trail.

 Info. Link: (1);(2)

Great Indian War & Trading Path (PA) Topo Map:(1);(2); Image Gallery

From: Athens, PA

To: State Line,

Franklin Co., PA

The segment of the Native-American footpaths that ran through the Great Appalachian Valley in Pennsylvania.  From Athens to Sunbury it was primarily known as the Great Warriors Path and from Harrisburg to State Line it was called the Virginia Path.  This entire route was also known as the Great Indian War Path.  Info. Link: (1)

Great Island Path

Image Gallery

From: Sunbury, PA

To: Lock Haven, PA

A major Native American trail along the right bank of the West Branch Susquehanna River north and then west to the Great Island (near modern day Lock Haven).  Info. Link: (1);(2);(3)

Great Minquas Path

From: Conestoga, PA

To: Philadelphia, PA

Also known by European colonists as The Great Trail this trail was a 17th-century trade route that ran through southeastern Pennsylvania from the Susquehanna River, to the Schuylkill River, The 80-mile (130 km) east-west trail was the primary route for fur trading with the Minquas (or Susquehannock) people. Info. Link: (1);(2)

Great Path

 

see Great Trail

Great Shamokin Path

Image Gallery

From: Sunbury, PA  

To: Kittanning, PA

Native-American Trail that connected the Susquehanna River with the Allegheny River,(and the Ohio River downstream of Kittanning). aka. Shamokin Path. Info. Link: (1);(2);(3);(4);(5)

Great Trail

 

A network of footpaths, created by Native-Americans, that connected the Great Lakes to New England and the mid-Atlantic Regions. aka. Great Path. Info. Link: (1)

Great Warriors Path

From Athens, PA

To: Sunbury, PA

The name for the northern portion of the Great Indian War and Trading Path in Pennsylvania.

Greenwood Road

Image Gallery;  Topo Map

From: Hartford, CT

To: Albany, NY

This route was a 100 mile long western extension of the Old Connecticut Path. It was extensively utilized by New Englanders to move west into New York State and beyond during the 18th and 19th centuries. The route is generally replicated on US Route 44, between Hartford and Caanan, CT., US Route 7 to Pittsfield, MA and US Route 20 from there to Albany, NY.  

Greenwoods Turnpike

From: North Canaan, CT

To: New Hartford, CT

A 19th-century turnpike, now US Route 44, in Connecticut that was in operation from about 1799 to 1872.  Originally a part of the Greenwood Road.  Info. Link: (1)

NAME (H)

FROM / TO

DESCRIPTIVE  INFORMATION

Hinman Settler Road

From: Greensboro, VT

To: Derby, VT

The Hinman Settler Road was constructed by former Revolutionary War veteran Timothy Hinman from 1791-1795. The road is 30 miles (48 km) long. Info. Link: (1)

Hudson River Road

From: New York City, NY

To: Albany, NY

This route follows present day U.S. Route 9 to Albany and the Mohawk River Valley.  It began as the land route alternative for travel up the Hudson River Valley.  The Hudson River Road was only a horse path in the early 1700’s, but became a wagon trail by the 1750’s.  Info. Link: (1)

Huntington Turnpike

From Bridgeport, CT

To: Shelton, CT

This toll road was chartered in 1828 and operated until 1886. The northern portion followed current Route 108.  The southern end of the Turnpike is now designated as SR 730 (East Main Street to Route 8) in Bridgeport and SR 711 (Route 8 to Route 108) in Trumbull. Info. Link: (1)

NAME ( I )

FROM / TO

DESCRIPTIVE  INFORMATION

Iroquois (Mohawk) Trail

Image Gallery: (1); (2);  Road Trip

From: Albany, NY

To: Fort Niagara, NY

This Native-American footpath extended east-west from the Hudson River to Niagara River.  A branch of the trail extended from Utica to Fort Oswego, NY. Early colonists used this route to penetrate the New York wilderness and beyond into Ohio and the Old Northwest Territory.  As improvements were made to the route the eastern portion to Utica, NY became known as the Mohawk Turnpike and from Utica it was called the Great Genesee Road. Info. Link: (1); (2)

NAME (J)

FROM / TO

DESCRIPTIVE  INFORMATION

Jericho Turnpike

From: Kingston, NY

To: Bainbridge, NY

Named after to town of Jericho, now Bainbridge, NY. The portion of the Ulster and Delaware Turnpike constructed after 1800 to connect the Hudson Valley with the Susquehanna River. Info. Link: (1);(2)

Juniata Path

Image Gallery; Topo Map

From: Dalmatia, PA

To: Huntingdon, PA

This native-American footpath began at McKee’s Upper Trading Post (Dalmatia) then forded the Susquehanna River at McKee’s Half Falls.  It ran to Thompsontown on the Juniata River then through Lewistown to near Mt. Union where it joined the Frankstown Path.  Much of the path follows modern U.S. Route 22 ( William Penn Highway).  

NAME (K)

FROM / TO

DESCRIPTIVE  INFORMATION

Kennebunk Road

From: Boston, MA

To: Augusta, ME

A coastal trail used from 1630-1761 as a migration route for settlers from Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New Hampshire into Maine.  Info. Link: (1)

King’s Highway (ME)

Image Gallery; Topo Map

From: Kittery, ME

To: Calais, ME

The first section was built 1653 in order to connect Kittery and York to Boston. The road was soon extended to Portland. Over the next century, the route was expanded and upgraded to a military road in 1761. Today this historic road approximates U.S. Route 1. Info. Link: (1);(2)

King’s Road

From: Philadelphia, PA

To: Bethlehem, PA

See Bethlehem Pike.

Kittanning Path

From: Frankstown, PA

 To: Kittanning, PA

A local name for the western section of the Frankstown Path a major east-west Native American trail in western Pennsylvania used during the 18th century. Info. Link: (1);(2)

NAME (L)

FROM / TO

DESCRIPTIVE  INFORMATION

Lackawanna Path

From: Pittston, PA

To: Windsor, NY

This Native-American trail ran from the Lackawanna River to the North Branch of the Susquehanna River. It is also known as the Opuaga Path or the Onaquaga Path.

Lehigh Path

From: Easton, PA

To: Wilkes-Barre, PA

A Native-American footpath that ran from the Forks of the Delaware by way of Fort Allen (Weissport) to the Nanticoke Creek.

Lower Post Road

From: Boston, MA

To: Greenwich, CT

This road generally corresponds to the original alignment of U.S. Route 1 in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and eastern Connecticut. This is now the best-known of the Boston Post Road routes. Info. Link: (1)

 

 

 

NAME (M)

FROM / TO

DESCRIPTIVE  INFORMATION

Middle Post Road

From: Dedham, MA

To: Hartford, CT

This Boston Post Road route split off from the Upper Post Road in Hartford, and generally ran along current U.S. Route 44  to Mansfield, Connecticut. From Mansfield, it headed into Massachusetts and progressed along sections of modern Route 16 and Route 109 to Dedham where it meets with the Lower Post Road (old U.S. Route 1) heading into Boston. Info. Link: (1)

Minsi Trail

 

See Bethlehem Pike.

Mohawk Trail

Image Gallery;  Road Trip

From: Boston, MA

To: Albany, NY

Began use as an improved path in 1753.  It followed the Millers River, Deerfield River and crossed the Hoosac Range into the Hudson River Valley of New York State. Aka. Rice Road. Info. Link: (1)

Mohawk Turnpike

Image Gallery: (1); (2);  Road Trip

From: Albany, NY

To: Utica, NY

Chartered in 1800 this historic road follows the Iroquois Trail to Utica were it joins with Great Genesee Road. Info. Link: (1);(2);(3)

Monocacy Path

Topo Map

From: Lancaster, PA

To: Frederick, MD

This ancient native-American footpath became a migration route used by early German pioneers as they moved out of Pennsylvania into Maryland, and finally as they settled the Valley of Virginia. Aka. Monocacy Road.

Info. Link: (1);(2);(3)

Mount Hope – Lumberland Turnpike

From: Mount Hope, NY

To: Narrowsburg, NY

This route was started in 1812.  It traveled over the Shawangunk Mountain, past present day Cuddebackville and up the Oakland Valley corridor, ultimately reaching Narrowsburg on the Delaware River. Info. Link: (1)

 

 

 

NAME (N)

FROM / TO

DESCRIPTIVE  INFORMATION

Nanticoke Path

From: Calvert, MD

To: Nanticoke, PA

At its southern terminus this route converged with other paths to places on the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay. From there it followed the ridge between the Susquehanna and Delaware (Brandywine Creek) watersheds thus seldom did it cross streams.  By the early 1800’s much of this route was incorporated into the old Limestone Road.  Today routes PA 10 and PA 309 approximate parts this ancient footpath. Info. Link: (1)

Naraticong Trail

 

See Old York Road

Nemacolin's Path

From: Cumberland, MD

To: Brownsville, PA

Nemacolin's Path, was an ancient Native American trail that crossed the great barrier of the Allegheny Mountains via the Cumberland Narrows Mountain pass and connected the Potomac River and the Monongahela River watersheds on either side of the Allegheny range of the present-day southern Pennsylvania. Also known later as Gist’s Trace.  Info. Link: (1)

New Path

From: Middlesex, PA

To: Shirleysburg, PA

This trail was a short cut on the Frankstown Path between Paxtang (Harrisburg) and Aughwick (Shirleysburg).  It was well used by European traders after 1749.  Info. Link: (1);(2)

New Castle Path

From; Peach Bottom, PA

To: New Castle, DE

The New Castle Path ran from the Susquehanna River east to the Delaware River.  It was sometimes known as the Susquehanna Path.  Info. Link: (1)

New Haven & Milford Turnpike

From: New Haven, CT

To: Milford, CT

This road was chartered in 1802 to the New Haven and Milford Turnpike Company, which was allowed to build a road from the courthouse in New Haven to the meeting-house in Milford. Info. Link: (1)

New London & Lyme Turnpike

From: New London, CT

To: Lyme, CT

This road was chartered in 1807 to the New London and Lyme Turnpike Company for the purpose of making improvements to a section of the Boston Post Road that ran between New London and Killingworth through Waterford and Lyme. The westerly terminus of the turnpike was at the Connecticut River.  Info. Link: (1)

New Milford & Sherman Turnpike

Topo Map

From: New Milford, CT

To: Sherman, CT

Established in 1818 this toll road ran from New Milford to Sherman to the state line in Pawling, New York where it connected with the Phillipstown Turnpike. Today much of the old turnpike is designated ast CT Route 37. 

Info. Link: (1);(2)

NAME (O)

FROM / TO

DESCRIPTIVE  INFORMATION

Ohio Path

 

See Alleghany Path and Frankstown Path

Old Connecticut Path

From: Cambridge, MA

To: Hartford, CT

In the 1630’s colonists began using this Native-American Trail which extended westward to the Connecticut River. Info. Link: (1)

Old Dutch Trail

From: New Brunswick, NJ

To: Trenton, NJ

Originally the Native-American footpath known as the Assunpink Trail.  This trail roughly corresponds with today's NJ Route 27 and was used during colonial times by Dutch fur traders and other early travelers.  Info. Link: (1)

Old Mine Road

From: Delaware Water Gap

To: Kingston, New York

A 104 mile road in New Jersey and New York said to be one of the oldest continuously-used roads in the United States of America. Info. Link: (1)

Old Peter's Road

From: Downingtown, PA

To: Bainbridge, PA

 

The name of this route comes from Peter Bezaillon, who had a trading post at the village of Conoy (now Bainbridge).  The road was laid out in 1718 on Bezaillon's bridle path, which followed an old Native-American path. U.S. Route 30, as well as Pennsylvania Routes 340, 897, 283, and  230 all follow parts of Old Peter's Road. For a time it was "the main artery between Philadelphia and the western frontier of Pennsylvania. Info. Link: (1)

Old Province Road

From: Durham, NH

To: Coos County, NH

One of the earliest highways in New Hampshire, it was authorized in 1765 as a supply route from the tidewater port of Durham to the colony's northern settlements in Coos County. The section of the road through Gilmanton was built in 1770.  Info. Link: (1)

Old Roebuck Road

Topo Map

From: Boston, MA

To: Providence, RI

This early colonial route was one of the principal roads that came out of Boston. At Providence it connected with the Pequot Path to form a link in the chain of paths which reached from Boston to New York, over which a monthly post was established about 1690. This later became known as the Lower Post Road.  Info. Link: (1)

Old York Road

From: Elizabeth, NJ

To: Philadelphia, PA

Also known as the York Road or King's Highway this roadway was built in the 18th century through New Jersey. It followed along the Lenni-Lenape path known as the Naraticong Trail. Info. Link: (1)

Onaquaga Path

 

See Lackawanna Path

Ontario & Genesee Turnpike

From: Canandaigua, NY

 To: Buffalo, NY

The western extension of the Great Genesee Road that follows NY Route 5.  Info. Link: (1)

Opuaga Path

 

See Lackawanna Path

 

 

 

NAME (P)

FROM / TO

DESCRIPTIVE  INFORMATION

Paxtang Path

From: Conestoga, PA

To: Sunbury, PA

This ancient Native-American footpath went north from Conestoga along the Susquehanna River to Paxtang (modern Harrisburg), then mostly followed the river north to the village of Shamokin at modern Sunbury, where the Susquehanna River forks. Info. Link: (1)

Peach Bottom Path

From: Hayesville, PA

To: Peach Bottom, PA

 

This Native-American footpath led west and slightly south from Chester County to the Susquehanna River. At its eastern terminus it connected to the Nanticoke Path.  Info. Link: (1)

Penns Creek Path

From: Sunbury, PA

To: Frankstown, PA

The Penns Creek Path began on the Susquehanna River at the Native-American town of Shamokin (now Sunbury).  This route is now closely approximated on PA Routes 304, and 45, as well as US 22 to Frankstown. Info. Link: (1)

Pennsylvania Road

Image Gallery;  Road Trip

From: Harrisburg, PA

To: Pittsburgh, PA

In 1785 the State of Pennsylvania authorized this new route from Harrisburg to Pittsburgh following the old Forbes Road. By its completion in 1818 this newer route changed the old road in many ways. It now ran through Greensburg rather than Hannastown and took a south branch through Wilkinsburg. See Forbes Road  Info. Link: (1)

Pequot Path

From: Providence, RI

To: New London, CT

A Native-American trail that traversed south and westward to the lands of the Pequots.  It was the earliest traveled highway used by the English settlers of Rhode Island. See Upper Post Road. Info. Link: (1)

Philadelphia - Lancaster Turnpike

From: Philadelphia, PA

To: Columbia, PA

Originally a segment of the Great Wagon Road.  The 62 mile improved turnpike road opened in 1795 as the first long-distance, paved road built in the United States according to engineered plans and specifications.

Info. Link: (1)

Philipstown Turnpike

Topo Map

From: Cold Spring, NY

To: Pawling, NY

In 1815, the Philipstown Turnpike Company was organized to improve upon a road from Cold Spring to the Connecticut border to overcome a lack of transportation when the Hudson River froze during the winter months.  East of the Connecticut border, the turnpike continued as the New Milford and Sherman Turnpike. Info. Link: (1);(2);(3)

Pomfret & Killingly Turnpike

Topo Map

From: Int. of US 44 & CT 101

41.86166, -71.96561

To: Rhode Island Line

41.8497, -71.7942

This 8.5 mile long road was formally established in 1802. It ran east-west from the intersection of US Route 44 (Boston Turnpike) and CT Route 101 through the Town of Killington to the Rhode Island state line. 

Info. Link:  (1);(2)

Portage Road

Image Gallery

From: Westville, NY

To: Mayville, NY

Circa 1755 the French constructed a portage road between Lake Erie and the head of Chautauqua lake. Later this became one of the first routes in Chautauqua county over which, much merchandise, including large amounts of salt from Onondaga county, were annually transported to Pittsburgh, and places on the river below. Aka Old Portage Road or French Road. Info. Link: (1);(2);(3);(4)

Powder Hill Turnpike

From: Johnston, RI

To: Providence, RI

This 19th century turnpike follows along US Route 44 (Smith Street)  through North Providence and Providence, Rhode Island.  This road was named for a Revolutionary War powder mill that was located in the town of Johnston. Info. Link: (1)

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Raystown Path

From: Harrisburg, PA

To: Pittsburgh, PA

A Native-American trail that was a section of the Allegheny Path from Philadelphia to Pittsburg and Kittanning. It later became a part of the Forbes Road, and eventually the Pennsylvania Road. Info. Link: (1)

Reading-Sunbury Road

From: Reading, PA  

To: Sunbury, PA

see Centre Turnpike

Rensselaer & Columbia Turnpike

From: Rensselaer, NY

To: Brainard, NY

This historic roadway was chartered in 1799.  It is 28 miles long and runs in a southeasterly direction following modern day US Route 20 through Nassau to the Massachusetts state line. Info. Link: (1);(2)

Rice Road

 

see Mohawk Trail

 

 

 

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Salisbury & Canaan Turnpike

Topo Map

From: Huntsville, CT

To: Millerton, NY

Chartered in 1801, this private toll road was s created from the Native-American Sepasco Trail.  The turnpike ran from Huntsville along modern CT Routes 63 and  126 to Falls Village, then it proceeded west through the town of Salisbury and on into the village of Lakeville. From there, the turnpike used modern Route 44 to reach the village of Millerton, New York, where the road connected with the Ulster and Delaware Turnpike. Info. Link: (1);(2)

Seneca Road

From: Utica, NY

To: Buffalo, NY

A major part of the Great Genesee Road,  also known as the Seneca Trail.  Info. Link: (1)

Seneca Trail

 

see Seneca Road

Seneca Turnpike

From: Utica, NY

To: Canandaigua, NY

This 160 mile road was chartered in 1800 as an improved portion of the Great Genesee Road that ran along modern NY Route 5.  Also known as the Seneca Road, or Seneca Trail. Info. Link: (1);(2)

Sepasco Trail

From: Rhinebeck, NY

To:  Sepasco Lake, NY

 

Named for the Native-American Sepasco people this trail ran eastward roughly following current day Route 308.  It was used by European settlers as early as 1685. Later became a segment of the Salisbury & Canaan Turnpike. Info. Link: (1)

Shamokin Path

 

see Great Shamokin Path.

 

Sheshequin Path

From: Williamsport, PA

To: Ulster Township, Bradford Co., PA

This Native American trail that was a shortcut between the west and north branches of the Susquehanna River and was used by early settlers. 

Info. Link: (1);(2)

Susquehanna Path

 

Another name for the Maryland portion of the Monocacy Path.

Another name for the New Castle Path.

Susquehanna Turnpike

Image Gallery: (1);(2)   

Road Trip

From: Catskill, NY

To: Unadilla, NY

The original portion of the Catskill Turnpike that ran from Catskill, NY to Unadilla, NY (Wattles Ferry).   Link: (1);(2);(3)

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Talcott Mountain Turnpike

From: New Hartford, CT

To: Hartford, CT

A 19th-century turnpike, now US Route 44, in Connecticut that was incorporated in 1798.  It connected with the Greenwoods Turnpike and was originally a part of the Greenwood Road.  Info. Link: (1),

Tulpehocken Path

Image Gallery; Topo Map

From: Sunbury, PA

To: Womelsdorf, PA

The Tulpehocken Trail from Shamokin (Sunbury) to the Tulpehocken Creek at Womelsdorf was used by the Iroquois coming from Onondaga (Syracuse) and parts of the Six Nations to the Tulpehocken Creek and Philadelphia region. Info. Link: (1);(2);(3);(4)

Turkeyfoot Path

From: Cumberland, MD

To: Confluence, PA

This Native-American trail connected the Potomac River to junction of three waterways: the Youghiogheny River, the Casselman River, and Laurel Hill Creek.  Here also was the junction of several other paths.  Also known as the Glade Road, as well as the Turkey Foot Road. 

Info. Link: (1);(2)

Tuscarora Path

Image Gallery;

From: Bertie Co., NC

To: Sunbury, PA

This ancient footpath began in the ancestral home of the Southern Tuscarora Indian Nation in northeastern North Carolina. It was created as a route to connect the Tuscaroras with the Iroquois Confederacy.   

Info. Link: (1);(2);(3)

 

 

 

NAME (U)

FROM / TO

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Ulster and Delaware Turnpike

Image Gallery;

From: Kingston, NY

To: Bainbridge, NY

This historic roadway was also called the Jericho Turnpike or Esopus Turnpike was begun in 1802 and chartered in 1806.  It ran for 25 miles from Kingston via Delhi to Bainbridge (then called Jericho) on the Susquehanna River. To the east it connected to the Salisbury and Canaan Turnpike in Connecticut via a section that crossed the Hudson at Rhinebeck.

 Info. Link: (1); (2)

Ulster and Salisbury Turnpike

From: Salisbury, CT

To: Kingston, NY

another name for the Salisbury and Canaan Turnpike

Upper Post Road

From: Boston, MA

To: New Haven, CT

A part of the Boston Post Road that was originally a Native-American called the Pequot Path. Starting in 1673 Colonists used this route to deliver mail Info. Link: (1)

 

 

 

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Venango Path

Image Gallery

From: Pittsburgh, PA

To: Presque Isle, PA

A Native American trail that was named after the Native American village of Venango where French Creek empties into the Allegheny River. The village is now the site of the small city of Franklin, Pennsylvania. Shortly after the Revolutionary War, the Venango Path was replaced by the Franklin Road, the first wagon road in the region. Info. Link: (1);(2);(3)

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FROM / TO

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West Glocester Turnpike

From: West Glocester, RI

To: Chepachet, RI

This 19th century turnpike ran along the alignment of modern US Route 44 from the Connecticut state line to Chepachet, RI where it connected with the Glocester Turnpike. Info. Link: (1)

 

 

 

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Image Gallery

During our research we have collected images and photographs that are of general interest to a variety of historic American roads, trails and migration routes.  Some of them are presented on this website because we believe they tend to provide the reader with additional information which may aid in the understanding of this topic as well as our ancestors past lives.