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Introduction

Road Trip

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Introduction

 

     It is important to note that the name “Old Federal Road” refers to two entirely different routes in the Southeastern part of the United States. One is the Federal Road through the lands of the Cherokees in Georgia and Tennessee, and the other of the Federal Road through the lands of the Creeks. The subject of this webpage is the Old Federal Road through Creek territory. 

     The beginnings of this important east-west thoroughfare started in 1805 when the Creek Indians gave a permission for the development of a "horse path" through their nation for more efficient mail delivery between Washington City (D.C.) and New Orleans, Louisiana.  Thus the Federal Road, was originally referred to as known by several names such as the “Federal Horse Path” or “Federal Post Road”.  Later after it was well established many called it “Traveler’s Road”. 

The Federal Road covered the first days of mail delivery, the widening of itself into a war road during 1811, and the use of the road during the Creek Indian War of 1812 and the part that played in the removal of Creek Indians to the West.

     The Federal Road started at Augusta, Georgia where it connected with the Fall Line Road.  From Augusta the Road followed along today’s Georgia Route 16 to Milledgeville where it connected with Georgia Route 22 to Macon.  This portion of the road followed the Native-American footpath known as the Lower Creek Trading Path. From Macon to Montgomery, Alabama the Federal Road generally followed the Native-American trail known as the Augusta, Macon, Montgomery

Click on the map to view a full-sized image

and Mobile Trail. This part of the route approximates present day U.S. Route 80.  The route from between Montgomery, Alabama and Fort Stoddart on the Mobile River has recently, (2012), been well documented.  As such our maps of the Alabama part of the route show the original road as well as the thoroughfares utilized for our “Road Trip”.

     We believe that a branch of the Federal Road, known as the “Greenville Branch” followed U.S. Route 31 from Montgomery to Mobile, Alabama.  This part of the route is also known as the Alabama and Mobile Road.

Road Trip

If you have traced your 18th or 19th century ancestors to any of the counties listed below it is quite possible that they traveled to that location along this migration route.  Therefore you may find additional relevant information about your ancestral lineages by taking the following road trip through these localities.

COUNTY (Road Trip Segment)

COUNTY (Road Trip Segment)

COUNTY (Road Trip Segment)

Baldwin County, GA (2)

Baldwin County, AL (9)

Bibb County, GA (3)

Butler County, AL (7)

Chattahoochee County, GA (4,5)

Columbia County, GA (1)

Conecuh County, AL (8)

Crawford County, GA (3)

Escambia County, AL (8)

Hancock County, GA (2)

Jones County, GA (3)

Lowndes County, AL (7)

Macon County, GA (5,6)

Marion County, GA (4)

McDuffie County, GA (1)

Mobile County, AL (9)

Monroe County, AL (8)

Montgomery County, AL (6,7)

Muscogee County, GA (5)

Richmond County, GA (1)

Russell County, AL (5)

Taylor County, GA (4)

Warren County, GA (1)

 

Genealogy Road Trip

This “Family History Road Trip” is divided into segments that require between 1 and 2 hours of driving time.  The entire 470 mile journey should take approximately 9.5 hours to drive at 50 miles per hour.  Within each segment you will find links to resources that will assist you in planning a successful and enjoyable experience.  The following maps are designed to show a close-up view of the counties and communities along this historical route. 

 

SEGMENT 1

From: Augusta, GA

To: Mayfield, GA

SEGMENT 2

From: Mayfield, GA

To: Greenberry

Crossroads, GA

SEGMENT 3

From: Greenberry

Crossroads, GA

To: Fickling Mill, GA

SEGMENT 4

From: Fickling Mill, GA

To: Fort Benning, GA

SEGMENT 5

From: Fort Benning, GA

To: Tuskegee, AL

SEGMENT 6

From: Tuskegee, AL

To: Pintlata, AL

SEGMENT 7

From: Pintlata, AL

To: Midway, AL

SEGMENT 8

From: Midway, AL

To: Jack Springs, AL

SEGMENT 9

From: Jack Springs, AL

To: Mobile, AL

 

Segment 1

From: Augusta, GA

To: Mayfield, GA

Driving Distance = 53 miles;   Driving Time = approximately 1.25 hours

Start this road trip on the old Federal Road in the historic city of Augusta, Georgia.  A good place to begin is at the Augusta Museum of History, which is located near the site of old Fort Augusta at 560 Reynolds Street.

The Augusta Museum of History contains 12,000 year old prehistoric artifacts of the local Native Americans as well as, a full-scale diorama of Stallings Island culture.  Slave-made pottery and other artifacts explore the Antebellum era.  The CSA Second National Flag that flew over the Augusta Arsenal and a 12-pounder bronze Napoleon Cannon tube manufactured at the Augusta foundry highlight Civil War history.  A reconstructed, 56-foot Petersburg Boat speaks to river and commercial activities.  The devastation of the 1916 fire is told by an 1869 steam fire engine and historical photographs.  More recent history, including World War II, the construction of the Savannah River Plant, the Civil Rights Movement, and Astronaut Susan L. Still.

Leave Augusta by travelling west on 9th Street continue on this route as it transitions to Twiggs Street and the Milledgeville Road (Martin Luther King Blvd.). Eventually this route will transition into US Route 78 (Gordon Hwy.).  Just west of Dearing turn left onto Old Wire Road  then branch left onto Old Milledgeville Road (CR 115) then

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(CR164) which will intersect with US 278 just east of Warrenton.  Continue on US Route 278 through Warrenton the seat of Warren County, Georgia.  Just west of Warrenton turn left onto Mayfield Road (CR 165) and continue on to Mayfield.

Use the following LINKS to find information about the counties and localities found along this segment of the Route.

General Profile

Genealogy & History Resources

Historical Sites

Segment 2

From: Mayfield, GA

To: Greenberry Crossrds, GA

Driving Distance = 53 miles;   Driving Time = approximately 1.25 hours

Leave Mayfield and turn left onto Sam Hill Road.  Follow to the Augusta Highway (SR 16) and proceed through Sparta the seat of Hancock County, Georgia.  When in the center of the town across from the courthouse is an historical marker for the Old Eagle Tavern, a stagecoach stop on the Augusta to Macon line.  Leave Sparta on State Route 22 (Sparta Highway) to Milledgeville the county seat of Baldwin County. 

Milledgeville was the capital of Georgia from 1804 to 1868, notably during the American Civil War.  Old Fort Wilkinson, another important waypoint along the old Federal Road was located on the Oconee River 3 miles south of Milledgeville.  To visit this historic site turn left onto S. Elbert Street (GA 112) and drive 2.6 miles turn left on to Ft. Wilkinson Road. The site is at the end of this road GPS coordinates 293816E 3658443N. 

At Milledgeville continue straight through on Hancock Street which will turn into State Route 49 (Old Garrison Road).  Continue on this route towards Macon.  The end of this segment is at the Greenberry Crossroads where SR 49 intersects with SR 18.

Click on the map to view a full-sized image

Use the following LINKS to find information about the counties and localities found along this segment of the Route.

General Profile

Genealogy & History Resources

Historical Sites

Segment 3

Fr: Greenberry Crossrds, GA

To: Fickling Mill, GA

Driving Distance = 52 miles;   Driving Time = approximately 1.25 hours

Continue on SR 49 and just before Macon, GA take the left fork onto Millerfield Road, then a right onto Jeffersonville Road.  Jeffersonville Road will merge right onto US 129/23 (Emery Hwy.) near the entrance to the Ocmulgee National Monument.   Continue on Emery Highway past the site of Fort Hawkins at Maynard Street.   Turn left on Coliseum Drive over the Ocmulgee River on US 80 into Macon. 

Macon, the county seat of Bibb County, developed at the site of Fort Benjamin Hawkins, built from 1806–1809 at the fall line of the Ocmulgee River to protect the new frontier and establish a trading post with Native Americans.  Fort Hawkins guarded the Lower Creek Pathway, an extensive and well-traveled American Indian network later improved by the United States as the Federal Road.

Leave Macon via US Route 80 (Eisenhower Parkway) to

Knoxville the seat of Crawford County, Georgia.  Here look for the Federal Wire Road WPA Historical Marker located at the old Crawford County Courthouse.  Continue into  Roberta and turn left onto US Route 341 then a right turn onto State Route 128 (W. Agency St.).  West of Roberta, go through Francisville just prior to crossing the Flint River look for the Creek Indian Agency historical marker. On the west side of the river you will enter Taylor County, Georgia.  The site of old

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Fort Lawrence is located on the west side of the river.   From here continue take right fork onto GA Rt. 137.  About 1.5 miles west of the junction with GA Rt. 263 is another historical marker pertaining to the Federal Road. This segment ends as the the junction of GA Routes 208 and 137 in Fickling Mill.

Use the following LINKS to find information about the counties and localities found along this segment of the Route.

General Profile

Genealogy & History Resources

Historical Sites

Segment 4

From: Fickling Mill, GA

To: Fort Benning, GA

Driving Distance = 56 miles;   Driving Time = approximately 1.25 hours

From Fickling Mill continue south on GA Rt. 137 to Butler the county seat of Taylor County, Georgia.   Leave Butler via  GA Rt. 137.  A few miles out of town cross Big Whitewater Creek, then take the right fork onto CR 30.  Continue on this route to Mauk.  Leave Mauk on CR 35 west.  Continue on CR 35 then take right fork onto CR 49 and follow to the site of Fort Perry.  Continue a short distance to the junction with GA Rt. 41 here you will see an historical marker about the site.

Fort Perry was a stockade fort, defended by block houses.  Built along the Old Federal Road it was completed in October 1813.  It was named in honor of Commandant Oliver Hazard Perry, Naval hero of the War of 1812, whose message from the Battle of Lake Erie that "We have met the enemy and they are ours" gave him immortal fame.

From this point take GA Rt. 41 south about 12 miles to Buena Vista, Georgia the county seat of Marion County.  From Buena Vista take GA Rt. 26 west past Cusseta  the seat of Chattahoochee County, to the intersection with US Rt. 27. Turn right and enter the U.S. Army installation at Fort Benning.  An historical marker along US Rt. 27

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near 8th Division Road cites the Old Federal Road at this location.

Use the following LINKS to find information about the counties and localities found along this segment of the Route.

General Profile

Genealogy & History Resources

Historical Sites

Segment 5

From: Fort Benning, GA

To: Tuskegee, AL

Driving Distance = approximately 55 miles;   Driving Time = approximately 1.25 hours

From 8th Division Road proceed on US Route 27 into the center of Columbus, Georgia the seat of Muscogee County.

Founded in 1828, Columbus was situated at the beginning of the navigable portion of the Chattahoochee River and on the last stretch of the Federal Road before entering Alabama. 

From downtown Columbus take the US Route 280 bridge across the Chattahoochee River into Phenix City, the seat of Russell County, Alabama.  Leave US Rt. 280 at its intersection with US Route 431 and travel south  to its intersection with SR 165 turn left here and follow SR  165 to the Fort Mitchell Historic Site.

The site of Fort Mitchell is now an outstanding historic park what features a reconstruction of the 1813 fort, historic burial grounds, a museum housing a fascinating collection of historic carriages, a restored 19th century log home and an impressive visitor center that offers exhibits, a film and a walk through the history of the site.

From Fort Mitchell  proceed south in SR 165 and turn right at CR 24 and follow to CR 137 where a left hand turn will take you onto US Rt. 431. Continue a short distance on US Route 431 to its intersection with AL Route 169.  Turn right then a quick left onto CR 31 which will eventually transition into CR 22.  Less than a mile along this route you will come to Sand Fort.  See the historical marker for this site, as well as for Royston’s Tavern.

The Sand Fort, built by the Georgia militia in 1814 and used by U.S. Troops in 1836. Strategically located on the Federal Road, it served as a defense against the uprisings of the Creek Indians and protected Royston's Inn, a stop on the road. 

Continue along CR 22 and look for other historical markers at Uchee about the settlement as well as the Good Hope Baptist Church and the Uchee Chapel Methodist Church.  West of Uchee turn left onto State Route 51.  Soon thereafter turn right onto Boromville Road and follow to Boromville  where you will pass the site of old Fort Bainbridge.

Fort Bainbridge was built in 1814 as a military outpost for the Georgia state militia as well as a supply post along the trail that would become the Old Federal Road through Creek

Click on the map to view a full-sized image

Lands. It is located Macon County, Alabama 17 miles southeast of Tuskegee. The Lewis’ Tavern was later built at this location.Continue west on Boromville Road and it will transition into CR 10 near Creek Stand.  Continue on CR 10 until it transitions to US Rt.  29 just south of  Tuskegee the seat of Macon County, Alabama. 

Tuskegee has been an important site in various stages of African American history. It is where, in 1881, Booker T. Washington founded the Tuskegee Normal School for Colored Teachers on a former plantation. It was later named the Tuskegee Institute and then Tuskegee University, with the mission of educating freedmen for self-sufficiency.  The heart of the university has been designated a National Historic District.  One of the most famous teachers at Tuskegee was George Washington Carver, whose name is synonymous with innovative research into Southern farming methods and products developed from a variety of crops. Tuskegee and Tuskegee Institute were also home to the famed Tuskegee Airmen, the first squadron of African-American pilots trained in the U.S. Military. The town was the birthplace of civil rights activist Rosa Louise Parks. 

Use the following LINKS to find information about the counties and localities found along this segment of the Route.

General Profile

Genealogy & History Resources

Historical Sites

Segment 6

From: Tuskegee, AL

To: Pintala, AL

Driving Distance = approximately 55 miles;   Driving Time = approximately 1.25 hours

Leave Tuskegee going west on US Route 80.   Along this part of the route you will pass the site of the 1814 Battle of Calabee Creek.  Continue on this route through Mount Meigs toward Montgomery. 

It was at Mount Meigs that the Old Federal Road bypassed Montgomery and travelled in a southwesterly direction.  The route cannot followed by current roadways because it has been obliterated by the suburbs of Montgomery.  Also much of the original route ran through areas where there are now no passable thoroughfares.  

Continue on US Route 80 as it proceeds through the southern areas of Montgomery the capital of Alabama, and the county seat of Montgomery County. 

The first group of European-American settlers to come to the Montgomery area around 1816. The group founded Alabama Town about 2 miles downstream on the Alabama River from present-day downtown. In 1819, this area was incorporated as the city of Montgomery. Montgomery grew quickly northward and in 1822, it became the county seat.  This explains why the original route of the Old Federal Road ran south of the center of Montgomery.

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Eventually US Route 80 will join with US Route 31 for a short distance.  Stay on US Route 31 south to the historic community of Pintala, Alabama. 

Use the following LINKS to find information about the counties and localities found along this segment of the Route.

General Profile

Genealogy & History Resources

Historical Sites

Segment 7

From: Pintala, AL

To: Midway, AL

`

Driving Distance = 64 miles;   Driving Time = approximately 1.50 hours

From Pintlala continue south on US Route 31.  This route is was also a part of the Old Federal Road that was known as the “Greenville Branch” which ran between Montgomery and Greenville, Alabama.  About 11 or 12 miles south of Pintlala turn right onto Juliantown Road. Where the road branches take the left fork and continue west under Interstate 69 and then on through Calhoun, in Lowndes County, to the intersection with CR 37.   It is at this point that you will re-join the original route of the Old Federal Road. Turn left onto CR 37 and proceed to Fort Deposit.

The original Fort Deposit was built under the order of General Andrew Jackson, as a supply depot to serve the Army during the Creek Indian War.

At Fort Deposit turn right onto CR 185 and continue on this road.  Along this part of the Old Federal Road are the historical sites of the Oak Grove Church and Fort Dale.  Shortly after passing the Fort Dale Cemetery you will turn right onto CR 44.  At CR 54 turn left take the right fork as it transitions into CR 54/42.  At the intersection with State Route 10 turn right.  After a short distance take the left fork onto CR 38.  Soon this

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road will transition with CR 29.  Continue on CR 29 to CR 106 where you will turn left and proceed to Midway in Monroe County, Alabama. 

Use the following LINKS to find information about the counties and localities found along this segment of the Route.

General Profile

Genealogy & History Resources

Historical Sites

Segment 8

From: Midway, AL

To: Jack Springs, AL

Driving Distance = 52 miles;   Driving Time = approximately 1.00 hours

At Midway turn left onto State Route 47 then another left onto State Route 83. Follow SR 83 south for about 8 or 9 miles then take the right onto CR 1 to Skinnerton then another right  at CR 5.  Continue on CR 5 to Pine Orchard where the site of Fort Warren is located.

Fort Warren, also known as Fort Burnt Corn, was a settlers' stockade built in 1817 by Richard Warren. The "Battle of Burnt Corn"  was fought just north of here in July, 1813..

From Pine Orchard south along CR 5 there are several other historical sites of the Old federal Road. They are Longmire’s Inn, the Dr. Watkins House as well at the community of Burnt Corn, Alabama.

Garrett Longmire ran a tavern along the Old Federal Road north of Burnt Corn, in connection with the post office opened at his store in 1817. At Burnt Corn a branch of the Old Federal Road ran west along what was originally a Native-American footpath which extended to St. Stephens, Alabama and on further to Natchez, Mississippi.

From Burnt Corn continue south along CR 5.  Along this part of the route you will pass the site of James Cornell’s House, as well as McMillian’s Inn that was located near the present community of Mous.

One story about how Burnt Corn obtained its unusual name relates to James Cornell.  According to the tale a party of Indians on their way to Pensacola, stopped at James Cornell’s' trading house, burned his corncribs, took his new wife, and brought her to Pensacola where she was traded for an Indian blanket, The creek where Cornell’s settled took the name "Burnt Corn" because of the destruction of Cornell’s' barn and his supply of corn.

Click on the map to view a full-sized image

From Mous continue on CR 5 crossing US Route 84.  South of the intersection with CR 34 this part of the route is generally called the “Old Stage Road” and is marked as CR 45.  Along this part of the road you will cross the Big Escambia Creek at what was known as the Hollinger (Peebles) Bridge. Other historical sites are the Downey Inn, and further south the Stewart Inn near the locale of Vocation.  A short distance past Vocation turn right onto CR 30 and go through Huxford in Escambia County, Alabama and continue on this route to Jack Springs.

Use the following LINKS to find information about the counties and localities found along this segment of the Route.

General Profile

Genealogy & History Resources

Historical Sites

Segment 9

From: Jack Springs, AL

To: Mobile, AL

Driving Distance = 59 miles;   Driving Time = approximately 1.25 hours

From Jack Springs continue south on CR 1 for a few miles then turn right at Three Mile Road which will become Redtown Road. At the junction with CR 61 turn right and proceed through