Search billions of records on Ancestry.com
   

This website best viewed with Internet Explorer Browser

Migration Home button3 134x67.jpg

Historical American
 Trails, Roads, and 
Migration RoutesTop of page

Madonna of the Plains (logo).png

Introduction

Major Frontier Regions Between the 17th & 19th Centuries

U.S. Migration Research: Resources & Strategies

More Resources About This Topic

INDEX of Roads,Trails, Paths and Migration Routes

About This Webpage

STATE GAZETTEERS of Physical, Cultural, Historical, and Geographical Features

 

Introduction

     Finding your American ancestors can sometimes be difficult because they may have moved so frequently.  You might begin your search by asking yourself why your ancestors migrated from one locality to another.  Some possible reasons for migration may have included: opportunity to obtain land, crop failures, military bounty land, follow a religious leader, religious persecution, follow relatives or friends, economic reasons, change of climate, improve social and poverty conditions, political reasons, military transfer, wars, follow construction projects (such as canals and railroads), and other reasons.  Understanding migration trails in the localities where your ancestors resided may help to trace their migration to a previous place of residence. Travel in America was usually along existing trails and roads, such as the National Road that extended from Maryland to Illinois, or along rivers, lakes, and canals, such as the Erie Canal, Hudson River, Ohio River, or Mississippi River.

     Roads and river travel improved throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The Boston Post Road was used by many people and extended from the New England states to New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, and into the Southern states.  The westward migration that resulted in the rapid settlement of the continental United States is perhaps the most compelling and important theme in American history. In no other place or time have individuals settled such an immense region so quickly and small groups of settlers who operated independent of, and at times in direct violation of, governmental policy.  Usually considered the area where the settled portions of civilization meet the untamed wilderness, the frontier moved west over time with the migrations of American settlers.  The improvement of existing Native-American trails as well as the development of new roads was of great importance in determining the relocation and redefinition of the frontier thus in many ways came to define the process of westward migration, both as a delineating marker between settlement and wilderness and as a gateway to the "West."

     Tracing your own family’s paths of migration can prove crucial in identifying previous generations and eventually, figuring out where and how they arrived in the “New World” as well as where they eventually settled.  Knowing the network of trails American pioneers traveled can help you guess where to start looking.  The trail descriptions provided on these pages will assist you in understanding the routes your ancestors may have taken to find new homes and opportunities in the vast area now encompassed by the United States.

     What we hope to accomplish with this resource is to provide the researcher with some of the basic facts of the major routes that were created and utilized during the 18th and 19th centuries.  The routes are generally grouped according to the area of the United States to which our migrating ancestors were heading.  Of primary importance is information regarding where the trails began and ended, as well as other names by which they were also known.

Major Frontier Regions Where American Migration

Occurred Between the 17th and 19th Centuries

This website has been divided into nine regions of the United States where migrations occurred between the 17th and 19th centuries.  The historic American roads trail and paths shown in the index of this database have been categorized by where the route terminated.  For example to find what historic migratory routes went to Kentucky look in region 3 Trans-Appalachian Roads, Trail and Paths, or if your ancestors migrated to a county in eastern Texas take a look at the routes listed in region 5 entitled Routes to the Southeastern Gulf Plains.

USA - Migration areas.jpg

Index of Roads, Trails, Paths and Migration Routes

The following named routes are linked to the page which provides information about the region of the United States in which they are primarily found.  Many early American roads are known by several names.  As such it may be confusing as to which route is being discussed.  In an effort to clarify this problem we are listing all names as they are identified though our on-going research.  Any additional information concerning this topic would be most welcome.

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

X

Y

Z

We have 884 names in this INDEX as of 12 December 2015

A

1

Northeastern U.S. Roads, Trails & Paths - Albany Post Road;   Albany and Schenectady Turnpike;   Allegheny Path;   Ancram Turnpike;   Appian Way;   Assunpink Trail

2

Routes to Virginia, Carolinas, & Georgia- Augusta Road;   Augusta and Cherokee Trail;   Augusta-Savannah Trail

3

Trans-Appalachian Roads, Trail, & Paths - Aurora and Terra Alta Turnpike;   Avery’s Trace 

4

Routes to the North Central Plains States - Ashtabula Trail;   Auglaize Trail

5

Routes to the Southeastern Gulf Plains - Alabama-Chickasaw Trail;   Alabama, Choctaw & Natchez Trail;   Alabama Mobile Road;   Alachua-Tampa Bay Trail;   Arkansas Road;   Atascosita Road;   Augusta, Macon, Montgomery and Mobile Trail;   Augusta-St. Augustine Trail

6

Routes to the Central Plains States - Abilene and Ft. Dodge Trail;   Abilene Cattle Trail;   Adobe Walls Trail;   Aubrey’s Cut-Off Trail

7

Routes to the American Southwest - Abeyta Pass Toll Road;   Abo Pass Trail;   Acoma-Zuni Trail;   Alamosa and Pagosa Springs Wagon Road;   Ancient Way;   Apache Pass Trail;   Apache Trail;   Arrowhead Trail

8

Routes to the Western Mountain States - Alma and Breckenridge Road;  Armijo’s Route;  Aspen and Grand River Road;  Aspen, Hunter Creek, and Leadville Road;  Aspen, Maroon Creek, and Gothic Road

9

Routes of the Pacific Coast States - Applegate Trail (Entire Route);   Applegate Trail in California;   Applegate Trail in Oregon;   Applegate-Lassen Cutoff;   Auburn Emigrant Road

B

1

Northeastern U.S. Roads, Trails & Paths - Bald Eagle Creek Path;   Bank Road;   Bay Path;   Bay Road;  

Bayley–Hazen Military Road;   Bethlehem Pike;   Blue Rock Path;   Boston Post Road;   Boston Turnpike;   Braddock’s Road;   Burd’s Road

2

Routes to Virginia, Carolinas, & Georgia - Buncombe Road;   Buncombe Turnpike;   Bermuda Hundred-Amelia Trail

3

Trans-Appalachian Roads, Trail, & Paths - Berkeley and Hampshire Turnpike;   Berryville and Charles Town Turnpike;   Beverly and Fairmont Road;   Black Fox Trail;   Bolivar and Memphis Trail;   Boone’s Trail (Yadkin to Kentucky);   Boone’s Trail to Boonesborough;   Brandonville and Fishing Creek Turnpike;   Brandonville, Kingwood and Evansville Turnpike;   Buckhannon and Little Kanawha Turnpike

4

Routes to the North Central Plains States - Belpre Trail;   Black Swamp Trail;   Buffalo Trace;   Bullskin Road

5

Routes to the Southeastern Gulf Plains - Bellamy Road

6

Routes to the Central Plains States - Black Dog Trail;   Boone’s Lick Road;   Burlington–St. Francisville Stagecoach Route;   Butterfield Overland Dispatch (KS/CO)

7

Routes to the American Southwest - Beale Wagon Road;   Bradshaw Trail

8

Routes to the Western Mountain States - Bakerville and Leadville Road;  Bidwell-Bartleson Route in Idaho & Utah;  Bidwell-Bartleson Route in Nevada;  Birds Eye and Leadville Road;  Bishop Creek Route;  Blue River, Black Lake, & Mount Powell Rd.;  Bozeman Trail;  Breckenridge, Buckskin Joe Gulch, & Hamilton Wagon Road;  Bridger Trail;  Bryan-South Pass Road;  Buena Vista, Aspen City, & White River Road

9

Routes of the Pacific Coast States - Barlow Road;   Beckwourth Trail;   Big Trees Road & Ebbetts Pass Road;   Bidwell-Bartleson Trail;   Burnett Cutoff;   Butterfield Overland Mail

C

1

Northeastern U.S. Roads, Trails & Paths - Canada Road;   Catawba Path (PA);   Catawissa Path;   Catskill Road;   Catskill Turnpike;   Centre Turnpike;   Cherry Valley Turnpike;   Cochecton–Newburgh Turnpike;   Conestoga - Newport Path;   Conestoga Path;   Conewago Path;   Conoy Path;   Culbertson’s Path

2

Routes to Virginia, Carolinas, & Georgia - Camden-Charleston Path;   Carolina Road;   Catawba & Cherokee Trading Path;   Catawba and Northern Trail;   Catawba Path;   Catawba Road;   Charles Town Path;   Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail;   Charleston-Savannah Trail;   Charleston-Winyah Bay Trail

3

Trans-Appalachian Roads, Trail, & Paths - Cacapon & North Branch Turnpike;   Capon and North Branch Turnpike;   Catawba Path;   Catawba Trail;   Charleston and Point Pleasant Turnpike;   Charleston and Ravenswood Turnpike;   Chattanooga-Willstown Road;   Cherokee Path;   Cisca Road;   Cisca - St Augustine Trail;   Cisco and Middle Tennessee Trail;   Clarksburg and Buckhannon Turnpike;   Clarksburg and Philippi Turnpike;   Clarksburg and Wheeling Turnpike;   Cobblestone Path;   Cross Roads and Summit Point Turnpike;   Cumberland and Great Lakes Trail;   Cumberland and Ohio Falls Trail;   Cumberland Road;   Cumberland Trace (KY);   Cumberland Trace (TN);   Cumberland Turnpike

4

Routes to the North Central Plains States - Cannon Ball Route;   Carp River Trail;   Catawba Trail;   Chagrin Trail;   Cheboygan Trail;   Chicago Road;   Chicago - Detroit Post Road;   Chicago-Dubuque Highway;   Chicago-Galena State Road;   Clarksville Trace;   Coshocton Trail;   Cuyahoga War Trail;   Cuyahoga-Muskingum Trail

5

Routes to the Southeastern Gulf Plains - Camino Real de los Tejas;   Chakchiuma Trails;   Cherokee Trace;   Chickasaw Trace;   Chickasaw Trail;   Chickasaw-Tunica Old Fields Trail;   Choctaw-Bay St. Louis Trail;   Choctaw-Chickasaw Trail;   Choctaw–Mobile Bay Middle Route;   Columbia-Liberty Trail;   Congress Trace;   Coosa-Tugaloo Indian Warpath;   Cotton Gin Port, St. Stephens, and Mobile Bay Trail;   Coushatta-Nacogdoches Trace;   Coushatta Trace

6

Routes to the Central Plains States - Camp Supply-Fort Reno Road;   Camp Supply-Fort Sill Road;   Camp Supply Road;   Cannonball Stage Route;   Castroville Cattle Trail;   Chisholm Trail;   Council Bluffs-Old Ft. Kearny Road;   Crow Wing Trail

7

Routes to the American Southwest - Canon City, Grand River, and San Juan Road;   Chávez Trail;   Chihuahua Trail;   Cimarron Cutoff;   Cimarron Route;   Cimarron Trail;   Cooke’s Wagon Trail;   Crook Road;   Cucharas ­- Elizabethtown Wagon Road;   Cucharas & Moreno Valley Wagon Road;   Cucharas & Sangre de Cristo Wagon Road

8

Routes to the Western Mountain States - California Trail in Idaho & Utah;  California Trail in Nevada;  Carbonateville Road to White River Agency;  Carroll Trail;  Carson Route in Nevada;  Central City and Montgomery Wagon Road;  Central Overland Route;  Chalk Creek and Elk Mountain Road;  Chalk Creek Ranch, Carbonateville, Ten Mile, and Kokomo Road;  Cherokee Trail;  Child's Cutoff;  Colorado and California Wagon Road;  Copper Creek and Maroon Road;  Crystal River Road

9

Routes of the Pacific Coast States - California Road;   California Trail (Entire Route);   California Trail in California;   Carson Route in California;   Columbia River Highway;   Coos Bay Wagon Road

D

1

Northeastern U.S. Roads, Trails & Paths

2

Routes to Virginia, Carolinas, & Georgia - Darien Road;   Drovers’ Road

3

Trans-Appalachian Roads, Trail, & Paths - Daniel Boone’s Trail;   Dunkard Creek Turnpike

4

Routes to the North Central Plains States - Delaware Indian Road

5

Routes to the Southeastern Gulf Plains - Dubuque-Osage Road;   Duck River and Northeast Mississippi Trail

6

Routes to the Central Plains States - Dawson Trail;   Dodge City Trail;   Douglas Highway;   Dubuque-Iowa City Military Road

7

Routes to the American Southwest - Denver and San Luis Valley Wagon Road;   Dominguez-Escalante Trail;   Don Juan de Onate Trail

8

Routes to the Western Mountain States Daggett Pass Road;  Deep Creek and White River Road;  Denver, Bradford, & Blue River Wagon Road;  Dotsero Toll Road

9

Routes of the Pacific Coast States -  Day's Route;   De Anza Trail;   Death Valley Emigrant Trail in California

E

1

Northeastern U.S. Roads, Trails & Paths - Esopus Turnpike

2

Routes to Virginia, Carolinas, & Georgia

3

Trans-Appalachian Roads, Trail, & Paths - Emery Road

4

Routes to the North Central Plains States

5

Routes to the Southeastern Gulf Plains - El Camino Real de los Tejas

6

Routes to the Central Plains States - East Shawnee Trail;   East Plains Trail;   El Camino Real (MO);   Ellsworth Cattle Trail;   Elwood-Marysville Road

7

Routes to the American Southwest - Ehrenberg – Prescott Road;   El Camino Del Diablo;   El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro

8

Routes to the Western Mountain States - Eagle City and Leadville Road;  Eagle City & White River Toll Road;  Eagle River & Gunnison Valley Wagon Road;  Eagle River Road;  Empire and Grand River Wagon Road;  Empire and White River Wagon Road;  Empire City, New Pass (Loveland Pass), Breckenridge and Montgomery City Road

9

Routes of the Pacific Coast States - El Camino Viejo;   Elliott Cutoff

F

1

Northeastern U.S. Roads, Trails & Paths - Forbes Road;   Forbidden Path;   Frankstown Path;   French Creek Path;   French Road

2

Routes to Virginia, Carolinas, & Georgia - Fall Line Road;   Fayetteville–Salem Plank Road;   Fayetteville & Western Plank Road;   Ft. Charlotte & Cherokee Old Path;   Fort Moore-Charleston Trail

3

Trans-Appalachian Roads, Trail, & Paths - Fairmont and Wheeling Turnpike;   Federal Road (Cherokee lands);   Fort Washington-Tennessee Road

4

Routes to the North Central Plains States - Fort Kaskaskia Road;   Fort Miami Trail;   French-Indian Trail

5

Routes to the Southeastern Gulf Plains - Fallen Ash Military Road;   Fayetteville Road;   Federal Horse Path;   Federal Post Road;   Federal Road (Creek Lands)

6

Routes to the Central Plains States - Fayetteville Emigrant Trail;   Fort Bascom - Fort Dodge Road;   Fort Dodge - Camp Supply Road;   Fort Gibson - Fort Smith Road;   Fort Griffin Trail;   Fort Griffin – Fort Dodge Trail;   Fort Harker - Fort Gibson Road;   Fort Hays - Fort Dodge Trail;   Fort Leavenworth - Fort Kearney Road;   Fort Leavenworth – Fort Scott – Fort Coffey Military Road;   Fort Riley - Fort Kearney Road;   Fort Scott and Ottawa State Road;   Fort Sill - Fort Smith Military Road;   Fort Sill - Fort Towson Road;   Fort Smith - Fort Towson Military Road;   Fort Snelling - Lake Superior Road;   Fort Zarah - Harker Mill Road

7

Routes to the American Southwest - Fort Garland, Summit & Decatur Toll Road;   Fort Smith-El Paso Trail;   Fort Smith-Santa Fe Trail

8

Routes to the Western Mountain States - Fort Kearny Road;  Frémont Cutoff

9

Routes of the Pacific Coast States - Foote's Crossing Road;   Fort Kearney, South Pass & Honey Lake Wagon Road;   Fort Walla Walla–Fort Colville Military Rd.;   Free Emigrant Road

G

1

Northeastern U.S. Roads, Trails & Paths - Gist’s Trace;   Glade Road;   Glocester Turnpike;   Goshen Turnpike;   Great Genesee Road;   Great Indian War & Trading Path (MD);   Great Indian War & Trading Path (NY);   Great Indian War & Trading Path (PA);   Great Island Path;   Great Minquas Path;   Great Path;   Great Shamokin Path;   Great Trail;   Great Warriors Path;   Greenwood Road;   Greenwoods Turnpike

2

Routes to Virginia, Carolinas, & Georgia - Great Coast Road;   Great Indian Warrior and Trading Path;   Great Indian Warrior and Trading Path (GA);   Great Indian Warrior and Trading Path (NC);   Great Indian Warrior and Trading Path (SC);   Great Indian Warrior and Trading Path (VA);   Great Indian War PathGreat Philadelphia Wagon Road;   Great Valley Road;   Great Wagon Road;   Great Warrior’s Trail

3

Trans-Appalachian Roads, Trail, & Paths - Georgia Road;   Giles, Fayette & Kanawha Turnpike;   Glenville, Ripley & Ohio Turnpike;   Great Indian War & Trading Path (TN);   Great Indian War & Trading Path (WV);   Great Stage Road;   Guyandotte & Charleston Turnpike

4

Routes to the North Central Plains States - Galena–Chicago Trail;   Grand River Trail;   Great Emigrant Road to Ohio;   Great Hopewell Road;   Great Path;   Great Trail

5

Routes to the Southeastern Gulf Plains - Gaines Trace;   Georgia–Tennessee River Road;   General Carroll’s Military Road;   Great Indian War & Trading Path (AL);   Great Osage Trail;   Great South Trail;   Green Grass Trail

6

Routes to the Central Plains States - Great Osage Trail;   Great Western Cattle Trail;   Great Western Trail

7

Routes to the American Southwest - General Crook’s Road;   Gila Trail;   Gold Road;   Grayback Toll Road;   Gregg’s Route

8

Routes to the Western Mountain States - Georgetown and Breckenridge Wagon Road;  Georgetown and Ten Mile Road;  Glenwood Springs, Carbonate, and Eagle River Wagon Road;  Goodale's Cutoff;  Goodnight-Loving Trail;  Grand and White River Road;  Grand River and Carbonate Road;  Greenhorn Cutoff

9

Routes of the Pacific Coast States - Georgetown Trail;   Georgetown-Dagget Pass Trail;   Greenhorn Cutoff;   Grizzly Flat Road

H

1

Northeastern U.S. Roads, Trails & Paths - Hinman Settler Road;   Hudson River Road;   Huntington Turnpike

2

Routes to Virginia, Carolinas, & Georgia

3

Trans-Appalachian Roads, Trail, & Paths - Hardy and Winchester Turnpike;   Huntersville and Warm Springs Turnpike;   Huttonsville and Huntersville Road

4

Routes to the North Central Plains States - Hopewell-Chillicothe-Marietta Road;   Hull’s Trace;   Huron Trail

5

Routes to the Southeastern Gulf Plains -

6

Routes to the Central Plains States

7

Routes to the American Southwest - Hardyville – Prescott Road;   Honeymoon Trail;   Huerfano County Territorial Road

8

Routes to the Western Mountain States - Hamilton and Breckenridge Wagon Road;  Hamilton and Montgomery Wagon Road;  Hastings Cutoff;  Helena Road;  Helena-Carroll Wagon Road;  Honeymoon Trail;  Hudspeth's Cutoff;  Hundred (100) Mile Route

9

Routes of the Pacific Coast States - Henness Pass Road;   Huntington Wagon Road

I

1

Northeastern U.S. Roads, Trails & Paths - Iroquois (Mohawk) Trail

2

Routes to Virginia, Carolinas, & Georgia

3

Trans-Appalachian Roads, Trail, & Paths

4

Routes to the North Central Plains States

5

Routes to the Southeastern Gulf Plains

6

Routes to the Central Plains States - Ioway Road

7

Routes to the American Southwest

8

Routes to the Western Mountain States

9

Routes of the Pacific Coast States

J

1

Northeastern U.S. Roads, Trails & Paths - Jericho Turnpike;   Juniata Path

2

Routes to Virginia, Carolinas, & Georgia

3

Trans-Appalachian Roads, Trail, & Paths - James River-Kanawha Turnpike;   Jonesborough Road

4

Routes to the North Central Plains States

5

Routes to the Southeastern Gulf Plains - Jacksonport Road;   Jackson’s Creek Country Invasion Route;   Jackson's Military Road;   Jacksonville-Apalachee Bay Trail;   Jacksonville-St. Augustine Trail

6

Routes to the Central Plains States - Jones and Plummer Trail

7

Routes to the American Southwest - Janos Trail

8

Routes to the Western Mountain States

9

Routes of the Pacific Coast States - Jackass Mail;   Johnson Cutoff

K

1

Northeastern U.S. Roads, Trails & Paths - Kennebunk Road;   King’s Highway (ME);   King’s Road;   Kittanning Path

2

Routes to Virginia, Carolinas, & Georgia - Keowee Path;   King’s Highway (MA/SC)

3

Trans-Appalachian Roads, Trail, & Paths - Kanawha Trace;   Kanawha Turnpike;   Kentucky Road;   Kingston Pike;   Kingwood & Brandonville Turnpike;   Kingwood and Terra Alta Turnpike;   Kingwood & West Union Turnpike;   Knoxville Road

4

Routes to the North Central Plains States - Kanawha Trail;   Kellogg Trail;   Killbuck Trail

5

Routes to the Southeastern Gulf Plains - Kaw Trace;   Kentucky Stock Road;   King’s Road

6

Routes to the Central Plains States - Kaw Trail,   Kiowa Trail

7

Routes to the American Southwest - Kearny Trail

8

Routes of the Western Mountain States - Kelton Road;  Kinney Cutoff

9

Routes of the Pacific Coast States - Kingston Cutoff;   Koncow Trail of Tears

L

1

Northeastern U.S. Roads, Trails & Paths - Lackawanna Path;   Lehigh Path;    Lower Post Road

2

Routes to Virginia, Carolinas, & Georgia - Lower Cherokee Traders' Path

3

Trans-Appalachian Roads, Trail, & Paths - Leading Creek & Buffalo Turnpike;   Lexington-Limestone Road;   Lexington Spur;   Logan’s Trace;   Lower Harpeth and West Tennessee Trail

4

Routes to the North Central Plains States - Lac Vieux Desert Trail;   Lafayette Road;   Lake Trail;   Lake Shore Path;   Limestone Road;   Limestone & Chillicothe Road;   Louisville Trace;   Louisville - Vincennes Road

5

Routes to the Southeastern Gulf Plains - La Bahía Road;   Liberty-Nacogdoches Road;   Lower Creek Trading Path;   Lower Road

6

Routes to the Central Plains States - Lampasas Cattle Trail;   Lane’s Trail;   Lost Creek Toll Road

7

Routes to the American Southwest - La Bajada Hill Wagon Road;   Laredo Road;   LaJunta & New Mexico Road;   Las Animas City & Fort Union Wagon Road;   Lee Highway;   Lower Road of Texas

8

Routes of the Western Mountain States - Lander Road in Idaho;  Lander Road in Wyoming;  Leadville, Hunter Creek, and Aspen Road;  Leadville, Roaring Fork, & Grand River Rd.;  Leadville & Soda Springs Toll Road; 

Leadville and Ten Mile Road;  Leadville and Carbonateville Wagon Road;  Leadville, Frying Pan, Roaring Fork Road;  

Leadville, Malta, and Soda Springs Road;   Leadville, Massive City, & Roaring Forks Rd.;   Leadville, Roaring Fork, and Gunnison Road;  Leavenworth- Pike’s Peak Express Route

9

Routes of the Pacific Coast States - Lake Tahoe Route;   Lassen Trail;   Lewis & Clark Trail (Entire Route);   Lewis & Clark Trail in WA/OR;   Lincoln Highway (Entire Route);   Lincoln Highway in California;   Lolo Pass Trail

M

1

Northeastern U.S. Roads, Trails & Paths - Middle Post Road;   Minsi Trail;   Mohawk Trail;   Mohawk Turnpike;   Monocacy Path;   Mount Hope-Lumberland Turnpike

2

Routes to Virginia, Carolinas, & Georgia - Monacan Trail

3

Trans-Appalachian Roads, Trail, & Paths - Maysville–Lexington Turnpike;   Martinsburg and Potomac Turnpike;   Martinsburg & Winchester Turnpike;   McCulloch’s New Path;   McCulloch’s Old Path;   Middletown and Wheeling Turnpike;   Mississippi and Tennessee River Trail;   Moorefield and North Branch Turnpike;   Morgantown and Beverly Road;   Morgantown and Bridgeport Turnpike;   Morgantown & Kingwood Turnpike;   Morgantown, Kingwood and West Union Turnpike

4

Routes to the North Central Plains States - Mackinac Trail;   Mackinaw Trail;   Mahoning Trail;   Mahoning-Beaver Trail;   Marquette Trail;   Maumee Trail;   Maysville Pike;   Maysville Road;   Miami Trail;   Michigan Road;   Mingo Trail;   Mohican Trail;   Moravian Trail(s);   Moxahala Trail;   Muskingum Trail

5

Routes to the Southeastern Gulf Plains - Macon-Montgomery Trail;   McCreay’s Road;   Memphis, Pontotoc & Mobile Bay Trail;   Middle Creek Trading Path;   Middle Memphis–Pontotoc Trail;   Middle Tennessee Chickasaw Trace;   Mobile and Natchez Trail;   Mobile–Lower Creeks Trail;   Mountain Leader’s Trace

6

Routes to the Central Plains States - Magdalena Trail;   Magraw Cutoff;   Mason Cattle Trail;   Matamoros Trail;   McCoy’s Cattle Trail;   Midland Trail;   Military Road;   Mount Jesus Trail

7

Routes to the American Southwest - Mackenzie Trail;   Main Street of America;   Middle Creek Pass Toll Road;   Midland Trail;   Mojave Road;   Mormon Trail (UT/CA);   Mosca Pass Wagon Road;   Mother Road;   Mountain Monarch Wagon Road;   Mountain Route;   Music Pass Toll Road

8

Routes of the Western Mountain States - Malta and Twin Lakes Toll Road;   McAuley’s Cut-Off;   Montana Trail;   Mormon Trail;   Mormon Wagon Road;   Montgomery and Gertrude Wagon Road;   Mosquito Pass Wagon Road

9

Routes of the Pacific Coast States - Macy Cutoff;   Meek-Elliott-Macy Trails;   Meek Cutoff;   Midland Trail;   Millerton Road;   Mission Trail;   Mount Hood Road;   Mullan Road (Entire Route);   Mullan Road in Washington State

N

1

Northeastern U.S. Roads, Trails & Paths - Nanticoke Path;   Naraticong Trail;   Nemacolin's Path;   New Path;   New Castle Path;   New Haven & Milford Turnpike;   New London & Lyme Turnpike;   New Milford & Sherman Turnpike

2

Routes to Virginia, Carolinas, & Georgia

3

Trans-Appalachian Roads, Trail, & Paths - Nashville Road;   Nashville-Lexington Road;   New River and Southern Trail;   Nickajack Trail;   North Carolina Military Trace;   North Carolina Road;   Northwestern Turnpike

4

Routes to the North Central Plains States - Nashville-Saline River Trail;   National Road;   New Albany-Paoli Pike

5

Routes to the Southeastern Gulf Plains - Nacogdoches-Neches Saline Road;   Natchez Trace;   Natchez-Atchafalaya Trail;   Natchez-Lake Ponchartrain Trail;   Natchez-Lower Creeks Trail;   Natchez-New Orleans Trail Natchez-Texas Trail;   Natchitoches Trace;   National Road;   Notchey Trace

6

Routes to the Central Plains States -

7

Routes to the American Southwest - National Old Trails Road

8

Routes of the Western Mountain StatesNevada Emigrant Trail;  Nez Perce Trail

9

Routes of the Pacific Coast States - Nevada City Road;   Nevada Emigrant Trail;   Nobles Emigrant Trail;   Nobles Road;   Nome Cult Trail

O

1

Northeastern U.S. Roads, Trails & Paths - Ohio Path;   Old Connecticut Path;   Old Dutch Trail;   Old Mine Road;   Old Peter's Road;   Old Province Road;   Old Roebuck Road;   Old York Road;   Onaquaga Path;   Ontario & Genesee Turnpike;   Opuaga Path

2

Routes to Virginia, Carolinas, & Georgia - Occaneechi Path;   Oceechee Road;   Old Carolina Wagon Road;   Old Cherokee Path to Virginia;   Old Cherokee Trading Path;   Old South Carolina State Road

3

Trans-Appalachian Roads, Trail, & Paths - Ohio River and Maryland Turnpike;   Ohio River Connection Trail;   Old Walton Road

4

Routes to the North Central Plains States - Ohio Trail;   Ohio River-Wills Town Trail;   Old Indian Road;   Olentangy River Road;   Orchard Lake Trail;   Owl River Trail

5

Routes to the Southeastern Gulf Plains - Oakfuskee Trail;   Okfuskee Path;   Old Alabama Road;   Old Military Road;   Old Preston Road;   Old San Antonio Road;   Old Trading Path of the South;   Old Wire Road;   Old Wolf Path;   Opelousas Road;   Osage Trace

6

Routes to the Central Plains States - Oketo Cutoff;   Old Doan Trail;   Old Military Road;   Old Texas Trail;   Osage Trace in Missouri;   Osage Trace in Oklahoma

7

Routes to the American Southwest - Ocean-to-Ocean Highway;   Old Spanish Automobile Trail;   Old Spanish Trail;   Old Trader’s Trail;   Ozark Auto Trails

8

Routes of the Western Mountain States - Old Arizona Road;  Oregon Trail in Idaho;  Oregon Trail (South Alternate);  Oregon Trail in Wyoming;  Overland Trail;  Overland-Cherokee Trail

9

Routes of the Pacific Coast States - Old Los Angeles Trail;   Old Plank Road;   Old Santa Susana Stage Road;   Old Spanish Trail (Entire Route);   Old Spanish Trail in California;   Oregon Central Military Wagon Road;   Oregon Trail in Oregon;   Oxbow Route

P

1

Northeastern U.S. Roads, Trails & Paths - Paoli Pike;   Paxtang Path;   Peach Bottom Path;   Penns Creek Path;   Pennsylvania Road;   Pequot Path;   Philadelphia - Lancaster Turnpike;   Philipstown Turnpike;   Pomfret & Killingly Turnpike;   Portage Road;   Powder Hill Turnpike

2

Routes to Virginia, Carolinas, & Georgia - Path to the Catawba;   Petersburg-Saponi Trail;   Pioneer Road to Albemarle Sound;   Pioneer Road to Roanoke River;   Pioneer Road to Tar River;   Pioneer’s Road;   Potomac Path

3

Trans-Appalachian Roads, Trail, & Paths - Pamunkey-New River Trail;   Pioneer Road: Harrodsburg - Falls of the Ohio;   Pioneer Road: Lexington - Falls of the Ohio;   Princeton & Red Sulphur Turnpike

4

Routes to the North Central Plains States - Pecatonica Trail;   Peoria-Galena Road;   Pickawillany Trail

5

Routes to the Southeastern Gulf Plains - Palatka–Jacksonville Trail;   Path to the Choctaw Nation;   Preston Trail

6

Routes to the Central Plains States - Palo Doro Trail;   Parallel Road;   Pawnee Trail;   Pembina Cart Trail;   Pembina Trail;   Point Douglas to Superior Military Road;   Point Douglas to St. Louis River Military Road;   Ponca Trail;   Potter-Bacon Cutoff;   Potter-Blocker Trail;   Preston Road

7

Routes to the American Southwest - Parkview & Fort Garland Freight Road;   Pass Creek Toll Road;   Pueblo & San Juan Wagon Road

8

Routes of the Western Mountain States - Park Range Road;  Pitkin and Virginia City (Tincup) Toll Road;  Point of Rocks-South Pass Stage Road

9

Routes of the Pacific Coast States - Placerville Route;   Pony Express Trail

Q

1

Northeastern U.S. Roads, Trails & Paths -

2

Routes to Virginia, Carolinas, & Georgia

3

Trans-Appalachian Roads, Trail, & Paths

4

Routes to the North Central Plains States - Quaker Trace

5

Routes to the Southeastern Gulf Plains

6

Routes to the Central Plains States

7

Routes to the American Southwest

8

Routes of the Western Mountain States

9

Routes of the Pacific Coast States

R

1

Northeastern U.S. Roads, Trails & Paths - Raystown Path;   Reading-Sunbury Road;   Rensselaer & Columbia Turnpike;   Rice Road

2

Routes to Virginia, Carolinas, & Georgia - Richmond Road;   Richmond-Williamsburg Road;   Rutherford’s Trace

3

Trans-Appalachian Roads, Trail, & Paths - Ravenswood & Spencer Turnpike;   Red and Blue Sulphur Springs Turnpike;   Russellville-Shawneetown Trail

4

Routes to the North Central Plains States

5

Routes to the Southeastern Gulf Plains - Red River Road;   River Road

6

Routes to the Central Plains States - Red River Trail (TX/KS);   Red River Trails (ND/MN)

7

Routes to the American Southwest - Raton Wagon Road;   Route 66

8

Routes of the Western Mountain States - Rawlins-Fort Washakie Stage Road;  Red Canon Toll Road;  Red Cliff and Gore Creek Wagon Road;  Red Mountain and Ashcroft Toll Road

9

Routes of the Pacific Coast States - Rincon Sea Level Road;   Roller Pass-Truckee Trail;   Roosevelt Midland Trail;   Ruckles Road

S

1

Northeastern U.S. Roads, Trails & Paths - Salisbury & Canaan Turnpike;   Seneca Road;   Seneca Trail;   Seneca Turnpike;   Sepasco Trail;   Shamokin Path;   Sheshequin Path;   Susquehanna Path;   Susquehanna Turnpike

2

Routes to Virginia, Carolinas, & Georgia - Saluda Gap Road;   Saura-Saponi Trail;   Secondary Coast Road;   South Carolina State Road;   Southern Road

3

Trans-Appalachian Roads, Trail, & Paths - Salt River Road;   Seneca Trail;   Shawnee Trail (WV);   Shepherdstown and Smithfield Turnpike;   Skaggs Trace;   Smithfield, Charles Town and Harper's Ferry Turnpike;   Staunton - Parkersburg Turnpike;   Sweet Springs and Price's Mountain Turnpike

4

Routes to the North Central Plains States - Saginaw Trail;   Salt Springs Trail;   Sauk Trail;   Sault-Green Bay Trail;   Scioto Trail;   Scioto–Beaver Trail;   Scioto–Monongahela Trail;   Shawnee Indian Road;   Shawnee-Miami Trail;   Shiawassee Trail;   Shore Trail;   St. Joseph Trail;   Stagecoach Trail;   Standing Stone Trail;   State Road  

5

Routes to the Southeastern Gulf Plains - San Antonio–Laredo Road;   Savannah-Jacksonville Trail;   Savannah-Pensacola Trading Path;   Selma–Mobile Trail;   Southern St. Augustine-Appalachee Trail;   Southwest Trail;   Springfield Road;   St. Augustine-Jacksonville-Apalachee Trail;   St. Augustine-Flint River Trail;   St. Augustine-Savannah Road

6

Routes to the Central Plains States - Saint Louis Trace;   Saint Louis-Vincennes Trace;   Saint Paul-Pembina Road;   Saint Paul Trail;   San Angelo - Coleman Cattle Trail;   San Angelo - Fort Griffin Cattle Trail;   San Saba Cattle Trail;   Santa Fe Road;   Sedalia Trail;   Shawnee Trail;   Shoo Fly Trail;   Smoky Hill Trail;   Starvation Trail

7

Routes to the American Southwest - Saguache & Medano Pass Wagon Road;   San Antonio - El Paso Road;   Sangre de Cristo Wagon Road;   Santa Fe Trail;   Silver Cliff & San Luis Valley Toll Road;   Skeleton Canyon Road;   South Texas Trail;   Southern Emigrant Trail;   Southern California Emigrant Trail;   Southern Trail;   Summit Creek & Wagon Creek Toll Road

8

Routes of the Western Mountain States - Salt Lake Cutoff;  Seminoe Cutoff[  Slate Creek Cutoff;  Snake River Cutoff;  South Park, Alma, and Leadville Toll Road;  South Park, Alma, and Ten Mile Toll Road;  South Pass Road;  Sublette-Greenwood Cutoff;  Sweetwater and White River Toll Road

9

Routes of the Pacific Coast States - Sacramento-Coloma Road; San Antonio-San Diego Mail Line;   Santa Susana Wagon Road;   Santiam Wagon Road;   Simpson's Route;   Siskiyou Trail;   Sonora Route;   Sonora-Mono Toll Road;   Stockton-Los Angeles Road

T

1

Northeastern U.S. Roads, Trails & Paths - Talcott Mountain Turnpike;   Tulpehocken Path;   Turkeyfoot Path;   Tuscarora Path

2

Routes to Virginia, Carolinas, & Georgia - Three Chopt Road;   Three Notch'd Road;   Trading Path

3

Trans-Appalachian Roads, Trail, & Paths - Tennessee River, Ohio and Great Lakes Trail 

4

Routes to the North Central Plains States - Tennessee River, Ohio and Great Lakes Trail;   Todd's Trace;   Tuscarawas Trail

5

Routes to the Southeastern Gulf Plains - Tallapoosa Trail;   Tenaha Trail;   Three Chopped Way;   Tombigbee-Arkansas River Trail;   Trails of Tears;   Trammel's Trace;   Traveler’s Road;   Tugaloo-Apalachee Bay Trail;   Tunica-Lake Pontchartrain Trail

6

Routes to the Central Plains States - Tascosa-Dodge City Trail;   Telegraph Road;   Texas Cattle Trail;   Texas Road;   Topeka and Eskridge State Road;   Topeka and Ottawa State Road;   Trail of the Sac and Fox;   Trickham Cattle Trail

7

Routes to the American Southwest - Taos Mountain Trail;   Temple Trail;   Trinidad & Costilla Road;   Trinidad & Moreno Valley Wagon Road;   Trinidad, New Mexico & San Juan Road;   Trinidad- Raton Wagon Road

8

Routes of the Western Mountain States - Ten Mile Wagon Road;  Tennessee Pass & Red Cliff Wagon Road;  Trapper’s Trail;  Truckee Route in Nevada;  Twin Lakes and Arkansas Toll Road;  Twin Lakes, Roaring Forks, & Grand River Rd.

9

Routes of the Pacific Coast States - Tahoe Wagon Road;   The Dalles Military Road;   Thomas and Ruckle Road;   Truckee Route;   Truckee Route in California

U

1

Northeastern U.S. Roads, Trails & Paths -  Ulster and Delaware Turnpike;   Ulster and Salisbury Turnpike;   Upper Post Road

2

Routes to Virginia, Carolinas, & Georgia - Upper Road

3

Trans-Appalachian Roads, Trail, & Paths - Unicoi Road 

4

Routes to the North Central Plains States

5

Routes to the Southeastern Gulf Plains - U.S. Road;   Upper Creek Trading Path;   Upper Creeks-Pensacola Trail

6

Routes to the Central Plains States

7

Routes to the American Southwest - Upper Road (Texas)

8

Routes of the Western Mountain States - Ute Pass Trail

9

Routes of the Pacific Coast States

V

1

Northeastern U.S. Roads, Trails & Paths - Venango Path

2

Routes to Virginia, Carolinas, & Georgia - Valley Pike;   Valley Turnpike;   Virginia Path;   Virginia Road

3

Trans-Appalachian Roads, Trail, & Paths - Virginia Turnpike

4

Routes to the North Central Plains States - Vincennes Trace

5

Routes to the Southeastern Gulf Plains

6

Routes to the Central Plains States - Vincennes-St. Louis Trace

7

Routes to the American Southwest

8

Routes of the Western Mountain States - Virginia and Roaring Fork Toll Road

9

Routes of the Pacific Coast States - Victory Highway;   Volcano Road

W

1

Northeastern U.S. Roads, Trails & Paths - West Glocester Turnpike

2

Routes to Virginia, Carolinas, & Georgia - Warrior’s Path;   Wilmington, Highpoint, and Northern Trail;   Wynah Bay to Cheraw Trail

3

Trans-Appalachian Roads, Trail, & Paths - Walton Road;   Wellsburg and Bethany Turnpike;   Wellsburg & Washington Turnpike;   Weston and Fairmont Turnpike;   Weston & Gauley Bridge Turnpike;   Wheeling, West Liberty and Bethany Turnpike;   White and Salt Sulphur Springs Turnpike;   Wilderness Road

4

Routes to the North Central Plains States - Wabash Trail;   Wabash Way;   Walhonding Trail;   Wappatomica Trail;   Watershed Trail;   Wayne’s Trace;   Wetzel’s Trace;   Wheeling Road;   Wheeling-Limestone Road

5

Routes to the Southeastern Gulf Plains - West Tennessee Chickasaw Trail

6

Routes to the Central Plains States - West Plains Trail;   West Shawnee Trail;   Western Trail;   Western Cattle Trail;   Woods Trail

7

Routes to the American Southwest - Will Rogers Highway

8

Routes of the Western Mountain States - Whitman Trail

9

Routes of the Pacific Coast States - Walker River-Sonora Route;   Willamette Valley & Cascade Mountain Wagon Road

X

1

Northeastern U.S. Roads, Trails & Paths

2

Routes to Virginia, Carolinas, & Georgia

3

Trans-Appalachian Roads, Trail, & Paths

4

Routes to the North Central Plains States - Xenia State Road

5

Routes to the Southeastern Gulf Plains

6

Routes to the Central Plains States

7

Routes to the American Southwest

8

Routes of the Western Mountain States

9

Routes of the Pacific Coast States

Y

1

Northeastern U.S. Roads, Trails & Paths

2

Routes to Virginia, Carolinas, & Georgia

3

Trans-Appalachian Roads, Trail, & Paths

4

Routes to the North Central Plains States

5

Routes to the Southeastern Gulf Plains

6

Routes to the Central Plains States

7

Routes to the American Southwest

8

Routes of the Western Mountain States

9

Routes of the Pacific Coast States - Yellowstone Trail;   Yreka Trail

Z

1

Northeastern U.S. Roads, Trails & Paths

2

Routes to Virginia, Carolinas, & Georgia

3

Trans-Appalachian Roads, Trail, & Paths

4

Routes to the North Central Plains States - Zane’s Trace;   Zanesville Pike

5

Routes to the Southeastern Gulf Plains

6

Routes to the Central Plains States

7

Routes to the American Southwest - Zuni-Acoma Trail;   Zuni Trail

8

Routes of the Western Mountain States

9

Routes of the Pacific Coast States

Back to Top of Page

U.S. Migration Research: Resources and Strategies

Migration Maps

A number of Internet sites contain maps showing migration routes in America. Ancestry.com maintains a “Map Center” which features several hundred historical maps of interest to genealogists and historians.  See especially the heading “Migration.” <www.ancestry.com/search/rectype/reference/maps/main.asp>

 The American Migrations Web Site” attempts to have an online database of immigration and migration records at: <members.aol.com/gedsearch/migrate.htm>.

“Cyndi’s List: Migration Routes, Roads & Trails” identifies westward migration routes, trails, roads, mailing lists, newsgroups, maps, gazetteers, publications, and more at www.cyndislist.com/migration.htm.

Migration Sources

Federal census schedules and state census records after 1850 are useful in tracing migration. The 1880 U.S. Census was the first to show the parent’s birthplace (state or country). Sometimes church records show where an individual or family migrated, or a notation may have been made in the church records in the new locality showing where they came from (previous place of residence). Land records sometimes will show a previous place of residence. Gravestones sometimes show where a person was born. Military records are very useful in tracing migration. Printed sources, such as biographies and compiled genealogies are useful as a beginning source. Computer databases, such as the International Genealogical Index, should be used as a first step in the research process (see “Search for Ancestors” at FamilySearch Internet). <www.familysearch.org>.

The following list of sources may be useful in tracing migration of individuals and families in America (listed alphabetically, not in order of priority):

·          Bible records and home sources

·          Biographical works (sometimes known as “mug books”)

·          Census schedules (federal, state, and local census records, especially after 1850)

·          Church records

·          Compiled genealogies and family histories

·          Court records

·          DAR genealogical collections (Bible records and other transcriptions)

·          Divorce records

·          Gravestone inscriptions and cemetery records

·          Land and property records (land grants, patents, deeds, bounty lands, etc.)

·          Local histories (town, county, regional, and other histories)

·          Manuscript collection (may include unpublished compiled genealogies)

·          Military service and pension records, unit histories, other military records

·          Mortality schedules, 1850, 1860, 1870, 1880 (some records are incomplete)

·          Naturalization and citizenship records (since 1790)

·          Newspapers (obituaries, marriage notices, biographies, local news, etc.)

·          Passport applications (since 1795)

·          Passenger lists and immigration records (since 1820; many earlier records published and indexed by P. William Filby)

·          Patriotic and lineage society records (DAR, SAR, Mayflower Society, etc.)

·          Periodicals (genealogical and historical periodicals and newsletters)

·          Probate records (wills, administrations, probate case files)

·          Tax lists (Kentucky tax records are one of the best examples)

·          Vital records (births, marriages, and death records)

·          Voting registers

Selected Bibliography

·          Atlas of American History. 2nd ed. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1984.

·          Billington, Ray Allen and Martin Ridge. Westward Expansion: A History of the American Frontier. 5th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing, 1982.

·          Condon, George E. Stars in the Water: The Story of the Erie Canal. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Co., 1974.

·          Holbrook, Stewart H. The Yankee Exodus: An Account of Migration from New England. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1968.

·          Merk, Frederick. History of the Westward Movement. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978.

·          Steckmesser, Kent L. The Westward Movement: A Short History. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1969.

·          Unruh, John D., Jr. The Plains Across: The Overland Emigrants and the Trans-Mississippi West, 1840-60. Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1979.

·          Western Writers of America. Water Trails West. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Co., 1978.

More RESOURCES About This Topic

Resources at Other Websites

·         American Migration Patterns

·         Migration Routes, Roads & Trails

·         Brethren Life: Migrations

·         Trails West - TNGenWeb

·         Historical U.S. Roads and Trails - Wikipedia

·         U.S. Historical Maps - Perry-Castañeda Collection

·         Early American Roads and Trails

·         MIGRATIONS.org

·         ROOTS / MIGRATIONS

·         American Migration Fact Sheets

·         Map guide to American migration routes,1735-1815

·         Migration Book Store

·         Major Historic Trails & Roads of U.S. Settlement

·         The Overland Trail Links--Ancient Indian Trails

·         Migration Message Boards – Ancestry.com

·         The African-American Migration Experience 

Resources at Our Genealogy Reference Library

This Link will take you to our library of genealogy reference books.  Here you will find books about historic American roads, trails, and paths.  In addition, there are texts that pertain to ethnic and religion groups, history, geography as well as other books that will assist you with your research.

Back to Top of Page

IMAGE GALLERIES About This Topic

Our Galleries of Images

During our research we have collected images and photographs that are of general interest to a variety of American migration routes, roads and trails.  Some of them are presented on this website because we believe they tend to provide the reader with additional information which may aid in the understanding of this topic as well as our ancestors past lives.

Use this LINK to see the “Image Gallery” that pertains to this topic.

Google Images Search

Use the power of Google™ to find more interesting images about this topic.  A Click on this LINK to go to the “Google Images Search” page.  Enter the topic you are searching for in the box and click “Search Images”.  At the “images” display page you will see the images, as well as the website with which it is associated.

Back to Top of Page

About This Webpage

CONTACT INFORMATION

http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~waldron/Mail1B0.gif-- Email us with your comments or questions.

We do like to hear from others who are researching the same people and surnames.

We need your help to keep growing!  So please Email coolmailus your

photos, stories, and other appropriate information about this topic.

 

RULES OF USE
You are welcome to download any information on this page that does not cite a copyright.

We only ask that if you have a personal website please create a link to our Home Page.

 

-- This webpage was last updated on --

12 December 2015

Back to Top of Page