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Trails, Roads and

Migration Routes

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·              Introduction

·              Major Frontier Regions Between the 17th and 19th Centuries

·              U.S. Migration Research:  Resources & Strategies

·              More Resources About This Topic

·              INDEX of Roads,Trails, Paths and Migration Routes

·              STATE GAZETTEERS of Physical, Cultural and Historical  Geographical Features

·              IMAGE GALLERIES About This Topic

·              About This Webpage


     Finding your American ancestors can sometimes be difficult because they may have moved so frequently. You might begin your search by asking yourself why your ancestors migrated from one locality to another. Some possible reasons for migration may have included: opportunity to obtain land, crop failures, military bounty land, follow a religious leader, religious persecution, follow relatives or friends, economic reasons, change of climate, improve social and poverty conditions, political reasons, military transfer, wars, follow construction projects (such as canals and railroads), and other reasons

Understanding migration trails in the localities where your ancestors resided may help to trace their migration to a previous place of residence. Travel in America was usually along existing trails and roads, such as the National Road that extended from Maryland to Illinois, or along rivers, lakes, and canals, such as the Erie Canal, Hudson River, Ohio River, or Mississippi River.

     Roads and river travel improved throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The Boston Post Road was used by many people and extended from the New England states to New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, and into the Southern states.

The westward migration that resulted in the rapid settlement of the continental United States is perhaps the most compelling and important theme in American history. In no other  place  or  time have  individuals  settled  such an   immense  region  so  quickly  and small groups

of settlers who operated independent of, and at times in direct violation of, governmental policy. Usually considered the area where the settled portions of civilization meet the untamed wilderness, the frontier moved west over time with the migrations of American settlers. The improvement of existing Native-American  trails  as well as  the  development of   new roads was  of  great   importance   in  determining the relocation and redefinition of the frontier thus in many ways came to define the process of westward migration, both as a delineating marker between settlement and wilderness and as a gateway to the "West."  

      Tracing your own family’s paths of migration can prove crucial in identifying previous generations and eventually, figuring out where and how they arrived in the “New World” as well as where they eventually settled.  Knowing the network of trails American pioneers traveled can help you guess where to start looking.  The trail descriptions provided on these pages will assist you in understanding the routes your ancestors may have taken to find new homes and opportunities in the vast area now encompassed by the United States.   

     What we hope to accomplish with this resource is to provide the researcher with some of the basic facts of the major routes that were created and utilized during the 18th and 19th centuries.  The routes are generally grouped according to the area of the United States to which our migrating ancestors were heading.  Of primary importance is information regarding where the trails began and ended, as well as other names by which they were also known. 

Major Frontier Regions Where American Migration

Occurred Between the 17th and 19th Centuries

This website has been divided into nine regions of the United States where migrations occurred between the 17th and 19th centuries.  The historic American roads trail and paths shown in the index of this database have been categorized by where the route terminated.   For example to find what historic migratory routes went to Kentucky look in region 3 Trans-Appalachian Roads, Trail and Paths, or if your ancestors migrated to a county in eastern Texas take a look at the routes listed in region 5 entitled Routes to the Southeastern Gulf Plains.  

USA - Migration areas.jpg


Northeastern U.S. Roads, Trails & Paths


Routes to Virginia, Carolinas, & Georgia


Trans-Appalachian Roads, Trail, & Paths


Routes to the North Central Plains States


Routes to the Southeastern Gulf Plains


Routes to the Central Plains States


Routes to the American Southwest


Routes to the Western Mountain States


Routes to the Pacific Coast


Index of Roads, Trails, Paths and Migration Routes

The following named routes are linked to the page which provides information about  the region of the United States in which they are primarily found.        Many early American roads are known by several names.  As such it may be confusing as to which route is being discussed.  In an effort to clarify this problem we are listing all names as they are identified though our on-going research.  With regard to routes with the same name a numerical suffix such as (6) has been included to designate the area of the United States, see list 1-9 above, in which the route is included.    Any additional information concerning this topic would be most welcome.



























We have 772 names in this INDEX as of  01 April 2014


Abeyta Pass Toll Road;   Abilene & Fort Dodge Trail;   Abilene Cattle Trail;   Abo Pass Trail;   Acoma-Zuni Trail;   Adobe Walls Trail;   Alabama-Chickasaw Trail;   Alabama, Choctaw & Natchez Trail;   Alabama-Mobile Road;   Alachua-Tampa Bay Trail;   Alamosa & Pagosa Springs Wagon Road;   Albany Post Road;   Albany and Schenectady Turnpike;   Allegheny Path;   Ancient Way;   Ancram Turnpike;   Apache Pass Trail;    Apache Trail;   Appian Way;   Applegate Trail:   Applegate-Lassen Cutoff;   Arkansas Road;   Armijo’s Route;   Arrowhead Trail;   Assunpink Trail;   Ashtabula Trail;   Atascosita Road;   Aubrey’s Cut-Off Trail   Auburn Emigrant Road Auglaize Trail;   Augusta and Cherokee Trail;   Augusta, Macon, Montgomery and Mobile Trail;   Augusta Road;   Augusta-Savannah Trail;   Augusta-St. Augustine Trail;   Aurora & Terra Alta Turnpike;   Avery’s Trace;


Bald Eagle Creek Path;   Bank Road;   Barlow Road;   Bay Path;   Bay Road;   Bayley–Hazen Military Road:   Beale Wagon Road;   Beckwourth Trail;   Bellamy Road;   Belpre Trail;   Berkeley & Hampshire Turnpike;   Bermuda Hundred-Amelia Trail;   Berryville & Charles Town Turnpike;    Bethlehem Pike;   Beverly & Fairmont Road;   Bidwell-Bartleson Trail;   Big Trees Road;   Bishop Creek Route;   Black Dog Trail;   Black Fox Trail;   Black Swamp Trail;   Blue Rock Path;   Bolivar & Memphis Trail;   Boone’s Lick Road;   Boone’s Trail;   Boone’s Trail to Boonesborough;   Boone’s Trail (Yadkin to Kentucky);   Boston Post Road;   Boston Turnpike;   Bozeman Trail;   Braddock’s Road;   Bradshaw Trail;   Brandonville & Fishing Creek Turnpike;   Brandonville, Kingwood & Evansville Turnpike;   Buckhannon & Little Kanawha Turnpike;   Buffalo Trace;   Bullskin Road;   Buncombe Turnpike;   Burd’s Road;   Burlington–St. Francisville Stagecoach Route;   Burnett Cutoff;   Butterfield Overland Dispatch (KS/CO),   Butterfield Overland Trail


Cacapon & North Branch Turnpike;   California Road;   California Trail;   Camden-Charleston Path;   Camino Real de los Tejas;   Camp Supply-Fort Reno Road;   Camp Supply - Fort Sill Road;   Camp Supply Road;   Canada Road;   Cannon Ball Route;   Cannonball Stage Route;   Canon City, Grand River, and San Juan Road;   Capon & North Branch Turnpike;   Carolina Road;   Carp River Trail;   Carroll Trail;   Carson Route;   Castroville Cattle Trail;   Catawba Path;   Catawba Path (PA);   Catawba Road;   Catawba & Cherokee Trading Path;   Catawba and Northern Trail Catawba Path;   Catawba Trail(3);   Catawba Trail(4);   Catawissa Path;   Catskill Turnpike;   Central Nevada Route;   Central Overland Route;   Central Overland Trail;    Centre Turnpike;   Chagrin Trail;   Chakchiuma Trails;   Charles Town Path;   Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail;   Charleston-Savannah Trail;   Charleston-Winyah Bay Trail;   Charleston & Point Pleasant Turnpike;   Charleston & Ravenswood Turnpike; Chattanooga-Willstown Road;   Chávez Trail

;   Cheboygan Trail;   Cherokee Path;   Cherokee Trace;   Cherokee Trail;   Cherry Valley Turnpike;   Chicago - Detroit Post Road;   Chicago-Dubuque Highway;   Chicago Road;   Chickasaw Trace;   Chickasaw Trail;   Chickasaw-Tunica Old Fields Trail;   Chihuahua Trail;   Child’s CutoffChisholm Trail;   Choctaw–Mobile Bay Middle Route;   Choctaw-Chickasaw Trail;   Choctaw–Mobile Bay Middle Route;   Cimarron Cutoff;   Cisca–St. Augustine Trail;   Cisca Road;   Cisco & Middle Tennessee Trail;   Clarksburg & Buckhannon Turnpike;   Clarksburg & Philippi Turnpike;   Clarksburg & Wheeling Turnpike;   Clarksville Trace;   Cobblestone Path;   Columbia-Liberty Trail;   Columbia River Highway;   Conestoga-Newport Path;   Conestoga Path;   Conewago Path;   Conoy Path;   Cooke’s Wagon Trail;   Coos Bay Wagon Road;   Coosa-Tugaloo Indian Warpath;   Coshocton Trail;   Cotton Gin Port, St. Stephens, and Mobile Bay Trail;   Council Bluffs-Old Fort Kearney Road;   Coushatta Trace;   Coushatta-Nacogdoches Trace;   Crook Road;   Cross Roads & Summit Point Turnpike;   Crow Wing Trail;   Cucharas & Moreno Valley Wagon Road;   Cucharas & Sangre de Cristo Wagon Road;   Culbertson’s Path;   Cumberland & Great Lakes Trail;   Cumberland & Ohio Falls Trail;   Cumberland Road;   Cumberland Trace (KY);   Cumberland Trace (TN);   Cumberland Turnpike;   Cuyahoga-Muskingum Trail Cuyahoga War Trail


Daggett Pass Trail;   Daniel Boone’s Trail;   Darien Road;   Dawson Trail;   Day's Route;   De Anza Trail;   Delaware Trail;   Delaware Indian Road;   Denver and San Luis Valley Wagon Road;   Dodge City Trail;   Dominguez-Escalante Trail;   Don Juan de Onate Trail;   Douglas Highway;   Drovers’ Road;   Dubuque-Iowa City Military Road;   Dubuque-Osage Road;   Duck River and Northeast Mississippi Trail;   Dunkard Creek Turnpike


East Plains Trail;   East Shawnee Trail;   Ebbetts Pass Route;   Egan Trail;   Ehrenberg–Prescott Road;   El Camino Del Diablo;   El Camino Real;   El Camino Real (MO);   El Camino Real de los Tejas;   El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro;   El Camino Viejo;   Elliot Cutoff;   Ellsworth Cattle Trail;   Elwood-Marysville Road;   Emery Road;   Emigrant Trail;   Esopus Turnpike


Fairmont & Wheeling Turnpike;   Fall Line Road;   Fallen Ash Military Road;   Fayetteville Road;   Fayetteville Emigrant Trail;   Fayetteville–Salem Plank Road;   Fayetteville & Western Plank Road;   Federal Road (Creek Lands);   Federal Road (Cherokee lands);   Federal Horse Path;   Federal Post Road;   Foote's Crossing Road;   Forbes Road;   Forbidden Path;   Fort Bascom - Fort Dodge Road;   Fort Charlotte & Cherokee Old Path;   Fort Dodge-Camp Supply Road;   Fort Garland, Summit & Decatur Toll Road;   Fort Gibson - Fort Smith Road;   Fort Griffin Trail;   Fort Griffin–Fort Dodge Trail;   Fort Harker-Fort Gibson Road;   Fort Hays-Fort Dodge Trail;   Fort Kaskaskia Road;   Fort Kearney Road;   Fort Kearney, South Pass & Honey Lake Wagon Road;   Fort Leavenworth-Fort Scott-Fort Coffey Military Road;   Fort Leavenworth-Fort Kearney Road;   Fort Miami Trail;   Fort Moore-Charleston Trail;   Fort Riley-Fort Kearney Road;   Fort Scott and Ottawa State Road;   Fort Sill - Fort Smith Military Road;   Fort Sill - Fort Towson Road;   Fort Smith-El Paso Trail;   Fort Smith - Fort Towson Military Road;   Fort Smith-Santa Fe Trail;   Fort Snelling-Lake Superior Road;   Fort Washington-Tennessee Road;   Fort Zarah-Harker Mill Road;   Frankstown Path;   French Creek Path;   French Road;   French-Indian Trail;


Gaines Trace;   Galena–Chicago Trail;   General Carroll’s Military Road;   General Crook Road;   Georgetown Trail;   Georgetown-Dagget Pass Trail;   Georgia Road;   Georgia–Tennessee River Road;   Gila Trail;   Giles, Fayette & Kanawha Turnpike;   Gist’s Trace;   Glade Road;   Glenville, Ripley & Ohio Turnpike;   Glocester Turnpike

;   Goodale’s Cutoff;   Goodnight-Loving Trail;   Gold Road;   Goshen Turnpike;   Grand River Trail;   Grayback Toll Road;   Great Coast Road;   Great Genesee Road;   Great Emigrant Road to Ohio;   Great Indian War & Trading Path;   Great Indian War & Trading Path (GA);   Great Indian War & Trading Path (AL)Great Indian War & Trading Path (MD);   Great Indian War & Trading Path (NC);   Great Indian War & Trading Path SC;   Great Indian War & Trading Path (NY);   Great Indian War & Trading Path (PA);   Great Indian War & Trading Path (TN);   Great Indian War & Trading Path (VA);   Great Indian War & Trading Path (WV);   Great Indian Warpath;   Great Island Path   Great Minquas Path;   Great Osage Trail;   Great Osage Indian Trail;   Great Path;   Great Philadelphia Wagon Road;   Great Shamokin Path;   Great South Trail;   Great Stage  Road;   Great Trail;   Great Valley Road;   Great Wagon Road;   Great Warrior Path;   Great Warrior’s Trail;   Great Western Cattle Trail;   Great Western Trail;   Green Grass Trail;   Greenhorn Cutoff;   Greenwood Road;   Greenwoods Turnpike;   Gregg’s Route;   Grizzly Flat Road Guyandotte & Charleston Turnpike


Hardy & Winchester Turnpike;   Hardyville–Prescott Road;   Helena Road;   Helena-Carroll Road;   Hinman Settler Road;   Honey Lake Wagon Road;   Honeymoon Trail;   Hopewell-Chillicothe-Marietta Road;   Hudspeth's Cutoff;   Hudson River Road;   Huerfano County Territorial Road;   Hundred (100) Mile Route;   Huntersville & Warm Springs Turnpike;   Huntington Turnpike;   Huntington Wagon Road;   Hull’s Trace;   Huron Trail;   Huttonsville & Huntersville Road;


Ioway Road;   Iroquois (Mohawk) Trail;


Jacksonport Road;   Jackson’s Military Road;   Jacksonville-Apalachee Bay Trail;   Jacksonville-St. Augustine Trail;   James River-Kanawah Turnpike;   Janos Trail;   Jericho Turnpike;   Johnson Cutoff;   Jones and Plummer Trail;   Jonesborough Road;   Juniata Path


Kanawah Trace;   Kanawha Trail;   Kanawha Turnpike;   Kaw Trail;   Kearny Trail;   Kellogg Trail;   Kelton Road;   Kennebunk Road;   Kentucky Road;   Kentucky Stock Road;   Keowee Path;   Killbuck Trail;   Kingwood & Brandonville Turnpike;   Kingwood & Terra Alta Turnpike;   Kingwood & West Union Turnpike;   Kiowa Trail;   King’s Highway(2);   King’s Highway(1);   King’s Road(1);   King’s Road(5);   Kingston Pike;   Kittanning Path;   Knoxville Road;   Koncow Trail of Tears


La Bajada Hill Wagon Road;   La Bahía Road;   Lackawanna Path;   Lac Vieux Desert Trail;   LaJunta & New Mexico Road;   Lake Tahoe Route;   Lampasas Cattle Trail;   Lander Road;   Lane’s Trail;   Laredo Road;   Las Animas City & Fort Union Wagon Road;   Lassen Trail;   Lafayette Road;   Lake Shore Path;   Leading Creek & Buffalo Turnpike;   Leavenworth-Pike’s Peak Express Route;   Lee Highway;   Lehigh Path;   Lewis & Clark Trail;   Lexington Spur;   Liberty-Nacogdoches Road;   Limestone Road:   Limestone and Chillicothe Road;   Lincoln Highway;   Logan Trace;   Lolo Pass Trail;   Lost Creek Toll Road;   Louisville Trace;   Louisville- Vincennes Road;   Lower Cherokee Traders' Path;   Lower Creek Trading Path;   Lower Harpeth & West Tennessee Trail;   Lower Post Road;   Lower Road of Texas;   Luther Pass Trail;


Mackenzie Trail;   Mackinac Trail;   Macon-Montgomery Trail;   Magdalena Trail;   Magraw Cutoff;   Mahonig Trail;   Main Street of America;   Marquette Trail;   Martinsburg & Potomac Turnpike;   Martinsburg & Winchester Turnpike;   Mason Cattle Trail;   Matamoros Trail;   Maumee Trail;   Maysville Pike;   Maysville Road;   Maysville-Lexington Turnpike;   McAuley Cutoff;   McCreay’s Road;   McCoy’s Cattle Trail;   McCulloch’s New Path;   McCulloch’s Old Path;   Meek Cutoff;   Meeteetsee Trail;   Memphis, Pontotoc & Mobile Bay Trail;   Miami Trail;   Michigan Road;   Middle Creek Pass Toll Road;   Middle Creek Trading Path;   Middle Memphis–Pontotoc Trail;   Middle Post Road;   Middle Tennessee Chickasaw Trace;   Middletown & Wheeling Turnpike;   Midland Trail (6);   Midland Trail (7);   Military Road (6);   Millerton Road;   Mingo Trail;   Minsi Trail;   Mississippi & Tennessee River Trail;   Mojave Road;   Mohawk Trail;   Mohawk Turnpike;   Mohican Trail;   Monacan Trail;   Mobile and Natchez Trail;   Mobile–Lower Creeks Trail;   Monocacy Path;   Moorefield & North Branch Turnpike;   Moravian Trail(s);   Morgantown & Beverly Road;   Morgantown & Bridgeport Turnpike;   Morgantown & Kingwood Turnpike;   Morgantown, Kingwood & West Union Turnpike;   Mormon Trail (8);   Mormon Trail (7);   Mosca Pass Wagon Road;   Mother Road;   Mount Hood Road;   Mount Hope & Lumberland Turnpike;   Mount Jesus Trail;   Mountain Leader’s Trace;   Mountain Monarch Wagon Road;   Mountain Route;   Moxahala Trail;    Mullan Road;   Music Pass Toll Road;   Muskingum Trail


Nashville Road;   Nashville-Lexington Road;   Nashville-Saline River Trail;   Natchez-Atchafalaya Trail;   Natchez-Lake Ponchartrain Trail;   Natchez-Lower Creeks Trail;   Natchez-New Orleans Trail;   Natchez-Texas Trail;   Natchez Trace;   Nacogdoches-Neches Saline Road;   Nanticoke Path;   Naraticong Trail;   Natchitoches Trace;   National Old Trails Road;   National Road(4);   National Road(5);   Nemacolin’s Path;   Nevada City Road;   Nevada Emigrant Trail;   New Albany-Paoli Pike;   New Path;   New Castle Path;   New Haven & Milford Turnpike;   New London & Lyme Turnpike;   New Milford & Sherman Turnpike New River & Southern Trail;   Nickajack Trail;   Nobles Emigrant Trail;   Nobles Road;   Nome Cult Trail;   North Carolina Military Trace;   North Carolina Road;   North Side Alternate (Oregon Trail) Northwestern Turnpike;   Notchey Trace


Oakfuskee Path;   Okfuskee Trail;   Occaneechi Path;   Ocean-to-Ocean Highway;   Oceechee Road;   Ohio River and Maryland Turnpike;   Ohio Connection Trail;   Ohio Path;   Ohio Trail;   Ohio River-Wills Town Trail;   Oketo Cutoff;   Old Alabama Road;   Old Carolina Wagon Road;   Old Cherokee Path to Virginia;   Old Cherokee Trading Path;   Old Connecticut Path;   Old Doan Trail;   Old Dutch Trail;   Old Indian Road;   Old Los Angeles Trail;   Old Military Road (5);   Old Military Road (6);   Old Mine Road   Old Peter's Road;   Old Plank Road;   Old Preston Road;   Old Province Road;   Old Roebuck Road;   Old San Antonio Road;   Old Santa Susana Stage Road;   Old South Carolina State Road;   Old Spanish Automobile Trail;   Old Spanish Trail;   Old Texas Trail;   Old Traders Trail;   Old Trading Path of the South;   Old Walton Road;   Old Wire Road;   Old Wolf Path;   Old Yankton Road;   Old York Road;   Olentangy River Road;   Onaquaga Path;   Ontario and Genesee Turnpike;   Opelousas Road;   Opuaga Path;   Orchard Lake Trail;   Oregon Central Military Wagon Road;   Oregon Trail;   Osage Trace(5);   Osage Trace in Missouri;   Osage Trace in Oklahoma;   Overland-Cherokee Trail;   Overland Trail;   Owl River Trail;   Oxbow Route;   Ozark Auto Trails; 


Palatka–Jacksonville Trail;   Palo Doro Trail;   Pamunkey-New River Trail;   Paoli Pike;   Parallel Road;   Parkview & Fort Garland Freight Road;   Pass Creek Toll Road;   Path to the Catawba;   Path to the Choctaw Nation;   Pawnee Trail;   Paxtang Path;   Peach Bottom Path;   Pecatonica Trail;   Pembina Cart Trail;   Pembina Trail;   Penns Creek Path;   Peoria-Galena Road;   Petersburg-Saponi Trail;   Pickawillany Trail;   Pioneer Road: Harrodsburg - Falls of the Ohio;   Pioneer Road: Lexington - Falls of the Ohio;   Pioneer Road to Albemarle Sound;   Pioneer Road to Roanoke River;   Pioneer Road to Tar River;   Pioneer’s Road;   Placerville Route;   Point Douglas to Superior Military Road;   Point Douglas to St. Louis River Military Road;   Ponca Trail;   Portage Road;   Potomac Path;   Potter-Bacon Cutoff;   Potter-Blocker Trail;   Pennsylvania Road;   Pequot Path;   Philadelphia-Lancaster Turnpike;   Philipstown Turnpike;   Pomfret & Killingly Turnpike;   Pony Express Trail;   Powder Hill Turnpike;   Preston Road;   Preston Trail;  Princeton & Red Sulphur Turnpike;   Pueblo and San Juan Wagon Road;


Quaker Trace;


Raton Wagon Road;   Ravenswood & Spencer Turnpike;   Raystown Path;   Red & Blue Sulphur Springs Turnpike;   Red River Road;   Red River Road(TX/KS);   Red River Trails(ND/MN);   Rensselaer & Columbia Turnpike;   Rice Road;   Richmond Road;   Richmond-Williamsburg Road;   Rincon Sea Level Road;   River Road;   Roller Pass-Truckee Trail;   Roosevelt Midland Trail;   Route 66;   Ruckles Road;   Russellville - Shawneetown Trail;   Rutherford’s Trace;   


Sacramento-Coloma Road;   Saginaw Trail;   Saguache & Medano Pass Wagon Road;   Saint Augustine-Jacksonville-Apalachee Trail;   Saint Augustine-Flint River Trail;   Saint Augustine-Savannah Road;   Saint Joseph Trail;   Saint Louis Trace;   Saint Louis-Vincennes Trace;   Saint Paul-Pembina Road;   Saint Paul Trail;   Salisbury & Canaan Turnpike;   Salt Lake Cutoff;   Salt River Road Salt Springs Trail;   Saluda Gap Road;   San Angelo - Coleman Cattle Trail;   San Angelo - Fort Griffin Cattle Trail;   San Antonio - El Paso Road;   San Antonio-Laredo Road;   San Saba Cattle Trail;   Sangre de Cristo Wagon Rd;   Santa Fe RoadSanta Fe Trail;   Santa Susana Wagon Road;   Santiam Wagon Road;   Sauk Trail:   Sault-Green Bay Trail;   Saura-Saponi Trail;   Savannah-Jacksonville Trail;   Savannah-Pensacola Trading Path;   Scioto–Beaver Trail;   Scioto–Monongahela Trail;   Scioto Trail;   Secondary Coast Road;   Sedalia Trail;   Selma–Mobile Trail;   Seneca Road;   Seneca Trail;   Seneca Turnpike;   Sepasco Trail;   Shamokin Path;   Shawnee Indian Road;   Shawnee-Miami Trail;   Shawnee Trail (6);   Shawnee Trail (WV);   Shepherdstown & Smithfield Turnpike;   Sheshequin Path;   Shiawassee Trail;   Shoo Fly Trail;   Shore Trail;   Silver Cliff & San Luis Valley Toll Road;   Simpson’s Route;   Siskiyou Trail;   Skaggs Trace;   Skeleton Canyon Road;   Smithfield, Charles Town & Harper's Ferry Turnpike;   Smoky Hill Trail;   Snake River Cutoff;   Sonora Route;   South Carolina State Road;   South Pass Road;   South Side Alternate (Oregon Trail);   South Texas Trail;   Southern California Emigrant Trail;   Southern Emigrant Trail;   Southern Road;   Southern St. Augustine–Appalachee Trail;   Southern Trail;   Southwest Trail;   Springfield Road;   Stagecoach Trail;   Standing Stone Trail;   Starvation Trail;   Staunton-Parkersburg Turnpike;   State Road;   Sublette-Greenwood Cutoff;   Summit Creek & Wagon Creek Toll Road;   Susquehanna Path;   Susquehanna Turnpike;   Sweet Springs & Price's Mountain Turnpike;  


Tahoe Wagon Road;   Tallapoosa Trail;   Talcott Mountain Turnpike;   Taos Mountain Trail  Tascosa-Dodge City Trail;   Telegraph Road;   Tenaha Trail;   Tennessee River, Ohio & Great Lakes Trail(3);   Tennessee River-Ohio-Great Lakes Trail(4);   Texas Cattle Trail;   Texas Road;   Thomas and Ruckle Road;   Three Chopt Road;   Three Notch'd Road;   Tod's Trace;   Tombigbee-Arkansas River Trail;   Topeka and Eskridge State Road;   Topeka and Ottawa State Road;   Trading Path;   Trail of the Sac and Fox;   Trails of Tears;   Trammel’s Trace;   Trapper’s Trail;   Traveler’s Road;   Trickham Cattle Trail;   Trinidad & Costilla Road;   Trinidad & Moreno Valley Wagon Road;   Trinidad, New Mexico & San Juan Road;   Trinidad- Raton Wagon Road;   Truckee Route;   Tugaloo-Apalachee Bay Trail;   Tulpehocken Path;   Tunica-Lake Pontchartrain Trail;   Turkeyfoot Path;   Tuscarawas Trail;   Tuscarora Path


U.S. Road;   Ulster and Delaware Turnpike;   Ulster and Salisbury Turnpike;   Unicoi Road;   Upper Creek Trading Path;   Upper Creeks-Pensacola Trail;   Upper Post Road;   Upper Road;   Upper Road (Texas);


Valley Pike;   Valley Turnpike;   Venango Path;   Vincennes-St. Louis Trace;   Vincennes Trace:   Virginia Path;   Virginia Road;   Virginia Turnpike;   Volcano Road;


Wabash Way;   Wabash Trail;   Walhonding Trail; Walker River-Sonora Route;   Walton Road;   Wappatomica Trail;   Warrior’s Path;   Watershed Trail;   Wayne Trace;   Wellsburg and Bethany Turnpike;   Wellsburg & Washington Turnpike;   West Glocester Turnpike;   West Plains Trail;   West Shawnee Trail;   West Tennessee Chickasaw Trail;   Western Cattle Trail;   Western Road;   Western Trail;   Weston and Fairmont Turnpike;   Weston & Gauley Bridge Turnpike;   Wetzel Trace;   Wheeling Road:   Wheeling-Limestone Road;   Wheeling, West Liberty and Bethany Turnpike;   White &Salt Sulphur Springs Turnpike;   Whitman Trail;   Wilderness Road;   Will Rogers Highway;   Willamette Valley and Cascade Mountain Wagon Road;   Wilmington, Highpoint, and Northern Trail;   Woods Trail;   Wyalusing Path;   Wynah Bay to Cheraw Trail;  


Xenia State Road;


Yreka Trail;


Zane’s Trace;   Zanesville Pike;   Zuni-Acoma Trail;   Zuni Trail

U.S. Migration Research: Resources and Strategies


Migration Maps

A number of Internet sites contain maps showing migration routes in America. maintains a “Map Center” which features several hundred historical maps of interest to genealogists and historians. See especially the heading “Migration.”

“The American Migrations Web Site” attempts to have an online database of immigration and migration records.

“Cyndi’s List: Migration Routes, Roads & Trails” identifies westward migration routes, trails, roads, mailing lists, newsgroups, maps, gazetteers, publications, and more.


Migration Sources

Federal census schedules and state census records after 1850 are useful in tracing migration. The 1880 U.S. Census was the first to show the parent’s birthplace (state or country). Sometimes church records show where an individual or family migrated, or a notation may have been made in the church records in the new locality showing where they came from (previous place of residence). Land records sometimes will show a previous place of residence. Gravestones sometimes show where a person was born. Military records are very useful in tracing migration. Printed sources, such as biographies and compiled genealogies are useful as a beginning source. Computer databases, such as the International Genealogical Index, should be used as a first step in the research process (see “Search for Ancestors” at FamilySearch Internet).

The following list of sources may be useful in tracing migration of individuals and families in America (listed alphabetically, not in order of priority):

·         Bible records and home sources

·         Biographical works (sometimes known as “mug books”)

·         Census schedules (federal, state, and local census records, especially after 1850)

·         Church records

·         Compiled genealogies and family histories

·         Court records

·         DAR genealogical collections (Bible records and other transcriptions)

·         Divorce records

·         Gravestone inscriptions and cemetery records

·         Land and property records (land grants, patents, deeds, bounty lands, etc.)

·         Local histories (town, county, regional, and other histories)

·         Manuscript collection (may include unpublished compiled genealogies)

·         Military service and pension records, unit histories, other military records

·         Mortality schedules, 1850, 1860, 1870, 1880 (some records are incomplete)

·         Naturalization and citizenship records (since 1790)

·         Newspapers (obituaries, marriage notices, biographies, local news, etc.)

·         Passport applications (since 1795)

·         Passenger lists and immigration records (since 1820; many earlier records published and indexed by P. William Filby)

·         Patriotic and lineage society records (DAR, SAR, Mayflower Society, etc.)

·         Periodicals (genealogical and historical periodicals and newsletters)

·         Probate records (wills, administrations, probate case files)

·         Tax lists (Kentucky tax records are one of the best examples)

·         Vital records (births, marriages, and death records)

·         Voting registers


Selected Bibliography

·         Atlas of American History. 2nd ed. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1984.

·         Billington, Ray Allen and Martin Ridge. Westward Expansion: A History of the American Frontier. 5th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing, 1982.

·         Condon, George E. Stars in the Water: The Story of the Erie Canal. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Co., 1974.

·         Holbrook, Stewart H. The Yankee Exodus: An Account of Migration from New England. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1968.

·         Merk, Frederick. History of the Westward Movement. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978.

·         Steckmesser, Kent L. The Westward Movement: A Short History. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1969.

·         Unruh, John D., Jr. The Plains Across: The Overland Emigrants and the Trans-Mississippi West, 1840-60. Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1979.

·         Western Writers of America. Water Trails West. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Co., 1978.


More RESOURCES About This Topic

Resources at Other Websites

·        American Migration Patterns

·        Migration Routes, Roads & Trails

·        Brethren Life: Migrations

·        Trails West - TNGenWeb

·        Historical U.S. roads and trails - Wikipedia

·        U.S. Historical Maps - Perry-Castañeda Collection

·        Early American Roads and Trails

·        Frontier Trails: A Brief History



·        American Migration Fact Sheets

·        Map guide to American migration routes,1735-1815

·        Migration Book Store

·        Early Migration Routes

·        The Overland Trail Links--Ancient Indian Trails

·        American Westward Expansion

·        Migration Message Boards –

·        The African-American Migration Experience 

·        Migration Trails – map of many U.S. trails

·        Migration Information & Maps By Ethnic Group

Resources at Our Genealogy Reference Library

This Link will take you to our library of genealogy reference books.   Here you will find books about historic American roads, trails, and paths.  In addition, there are texts that pertain to ethnic and religion groups, history, geography as well as other books that will assist you with your research.


Our Galleries of Images

During our research we have collected images and photographs that are of general interest to a variety of American migration routes, roads and trails.  Some of them are presented on this website because we believe they tend to provide the reader with additional information which may aid in the understanding of this topic as well as our ancestors past lives.

Use this LINK to see the “Image Gallery” that pertains to this topic.

Google Images Search

Use the power of Google™ to find more interesting images about this topic. A Click on this LINK  to go to the “Google Images Search” page.    Enter the topic you are searching for in the box and click “Search Images”.  At the images” display page you will see the images, as well as the website of hich it is associated.

About This Webpage


Mail1B0-- Email us with your comments or questions.

We do like to hear from others who are researching the same people and surnames.

We need your help to keep growing!  So please Email coolmailus your

photos, stories, and other appropriate information about this topic.


You are welcome to download any information on this page that does not cite a copyright.

We only ask that if you have a personal website please create a link to our Home Page.

-- This webpage was last updated on --

20 September  2014

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