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KNOWLWOOD BOTTOM MILL

(GAUXHOLME MILL)

Walsden

Map Ref. SD930229

 

 

Known occupiers

1786 – 1817

CROSSLEY & Co.

CROSSLEY Abraham

1817-1834

CROSSLEY Abraham & Bros.

1834-1840

CROSSLEY William

CROSSLEY & ASHTON

1842-1854

ROBERTSHAW Abraham

1860-1883

Bacup Cotton Mill & Mining Co. Ltd.

1883

FIELDEN Eli & Co.

1883-1888

STARKIE Smith

1885-1907

STUTTARD Matthew & Bros.

1907Cotton mill on 25” OS map

Demolished
   

Illustrated history

 

Before cotton, Knowlwood was a community of rural inhabitants who kept bees and grew fruit trees, flowers and vegetables in their gardens. They sold their produce, mainly honey, in the local shops. There were butchers who reared their own pigs for slaughter, saddlers, blacksmiths and carters. Indeed, there were so many butchers that the road through the hamlet later became known as Butcher Hill. The Lord family owned the Estate. Thomas Lord was born there in 1733. He later became the farmer at LITTLE KNOWL FARM. His land reached down to the valley below.

Meanwhile, a young man was making his mark on the world. He was Abraham Crossley and he lived in Knowlwood. His best friend was Moses Dawson, also of Knowlwood. It was round about the year 1786. Moses was still a bachelor and Abraham had a new bride, Sarah. Abraham and Moses were celebrated members of the choir at St. Mary's Church in Todmorden. The choirmaster, Jeremy Howarth, also lived in Knowlwood, and it was at his home where the troops would gather for rehearsals. The men supped plenty of ale on these occasions, and maybe it was during a break in the singing that Abraham and Moses decided to approach Thomas Lord with their plan to build a cotton-spinning mill.

 

Abraham, Moses and Thomas were all aware of the potential in the newly emerging cotton spinning industry. Now there was a half decent road through to Manchester, passing through the middle of Knowlwood, raw cotton and finished cloth could be carted with much less difficulty than the previous pack horse method. In the valley, at the bottom of Knowlwood on Little Knowl land, the river ran swiftly and there was a fall of about 6 or 7 yards. This was sufficient for powering a water wheel.

   
The three men formed a partnership, Abraham Crossley & Co., and built one of the first ever cotton-spinning mills in the area on this spot, calling it Knowlwood Bottom Mill. It was a small affair, and was powered by water wheel for the next 45 years. Part of this original mill still stands today, converted in to a pair of semi detached houses by the riverside.
   

Thomas Lord died in 1790, aged 57. Moses Dawson married Hannah Tattersall. They moved to Newbridge in Walsden and then went to live at Todmorden Edge and gave up any interest he had in the mill. Moses continued in the choir, moving to the new church after it was built. By then he was quite old and frail, but insisted on singing, having to prop himself up on a pillar to avoid falling over. His wife always attended the services with him, dressed in a red cloak. Moses sang to the end of his days. He was an old man of 74 when he died in 1835.

 

Abraham Crossley remained in Knowlwood with Sarah. In 1791, he appears to have bought the land at Knowlwood Bottom on which the mill lay, presumably on the death of his partner, Thomas Lord. He built his own house on the land. The tax was 4s.9d per annum on this house.

In 1791, Abraham insured his mill with Royal Exchange Insurance. He is described as a cotton carder and spinner. His dwelling house and adjoining mill, including the gears, waterwheel and shafts were insured for £120. The mill furniture and utensils were insured for £280, total £400. By 1792, the insurance cover was for £700, and his premium was £2.3s.6d.

   
Spinning mills were just that. The spun cotton was put out to local hand weavers, and then the woven cloth had to be finished by fulling, dyeing and printing. Abraham saw the potential in the dyeing industry, and built a small factory at the far end of his land where he manufactured a substance known as copperas. This is a bluish green vitriol used for dyeing and tanning amongst other things. The area is still known as Copperas House today.

The Copperas Works

   
Construction on the Rochdale Canal began in 1794. The canal ran immediately behind Abraham's land, parallel to the river. The area must have been a hive of activity during the construction stages. Many labourers and navvies arrived from other parts of Lancashire to work on the canal, and many of these men and their families lived in shanty huts, particularly at Gauxholme, close by to Knowlwood Bottom. The area became renowned as a place of mysterious deaths and disappearances.
   

The original mill in 2005

By the time he died in 1817, Abraham had his spinning mill and copperas works, plus his own dwelling house, 4 other houses, a smithy at Knowlwood, a field at Smithyholme along the road and an interest in a coal pit at Midgelden, Dulesgate. Abraham was keen to protect his businesses even after his death. His will ensured that nothing would be sold until at least 1819 when his youngest son attained the age of 21 years.
   
In the meantime, he directed that his son Abraham should run the businesses on behalf of his widow and children. With certain provisos, each of his 5 children and his widow was to receive equal shares of the business once they had all reached 21.
   
A reconstruction of how the original mill would have been. The drawing is reproduced with the generous permission of the widow of Lawrence Greenwood.
   

Abraham junior took over immediately and then took his brothers into the firm with him. They traded as Abraham Crossley & brothers until about 1834 when brother William took sole charge. Eldest brother Abraham concentrated on the COPPERAS WORKS built by their father. It was still a spinning mill at this time, and the weaving was farmed out.

The age of steam power had arrived and it was time to modernise. William built a shed on a small piece of land between the mill and his house, which he then filled with powered weaving looms. He later altered the old mill by building a long, narrow, 3-storey extension alongside the main road. He installed power looms in two of the long rooms, and used the top room for throstle spinning, winding and warping. He was doing well in a competitive world. However, he needed a partner, and engaged a Mr. Ashton in the business.

 

They arched over a dam behind the mills and erected new engine and boiler houses, and a new warehouse and offices over the dam space. They also made a new road down to the back portion of the premises from near the canal bridge at Copperas House.

William and his partner branched out by building a new iron and brass foundry on the premises near the canal bridge. A new flue was carried under the main road, and a brick chimney built on land taken on lease on the other side of the turnpike road. Two new boilers were also put in and a high pressure engine of 40 horse power, indicating that the partners were embarking in a new business in addition to extending the old one. For several years, the masons and tradesmen were never away from the premises. There was plenty of work coming in from a new firm of machine makers, MESSRS. JOHN LORD & SONS, who had commenced business at CLOUGH MILL, Walsden.

 

Jeremiah Crossley (no known relation) and his sons of Knowlwood were moulders, and had the management of the iron and brass business, having previously been employed at one of the Salford foundries in Todmorden. The workshop and the foundry were not far apart, and it was a common sight to see 6 or 8 men carrying a large iron scutcher along the road from one place to the other.

 

The mill and iron foundry gave work to many people, including Joseph Dawson, a nephew of one of the founders, Moses Dawson. Joseph was a carter. He had stables at Knowlwood where he kept several of his own horses, employing lads to help with the business. He carried coals, cotton, and anything else that needed moving from one place to another. In particular, he carried cotton to and from Manchester for William Crossley.

Not only did he carry goods, but also branched out in to carrying people. He and his brother James bought a very special carriage with steps up to a seating area where 3 persons could sit on each side and facing each other, with a further two next to the driver, running a successful business for many years with this carriage, as it became popular for wedding parties and Sunday picnics. Joseph was a favourite driver for Sunday jaunts as he had a wealth of gossip and information in his head, gleaned from years as a traveller on the roads. He was never at a loss for words and was kind and jovial throughout the journeys, and usually in very good humour. He became known as a great wit and with a little education or training could have become a genius. However, that option had not been available to him. Joseph had done the work for a long time for William Crossley and then the factory grew larger and turned out more work and required more materials, so Joseph's business had gone on increasing in a corresponding degree all the time.

In 1836 Ashton & Crossley had 70 power looms in operation. The average weekly wages paid by the firm were: ages 9 to 10 years, 2 to 3 shillings; ages 12 to 18, 4 to 9 shillings; ages 18 and over, 9 to 18 shillings.

William Crossley was now a man of substance. He was a member of the town's SELECT VESTRY, the forerunner of the Local Council, and spent some time as the Overseer. He held this position during the POOR LAW RIOTS of 1838. During the riots, some cloth was stolen from his mill and was later offered for sale on Todmorden Market. That same year, 1838, the assets of Knowlwood Mill were examined for the purpose of a Poor Rate Assessment. The assessment, issued to the Crossley Brothers of Knowlwood Mill, was as follows:  

   

Factory and waterfall

Engine House

New room over old road

Houses and conveniences

Widow Highley's cottage

Robert Smith's cottage

Gauxholme Stones Farm (Abraham Crossley)

Copperas Works

Law Hey Farm (Ely Crossley)

£2.19.7d

      3.0d

      9.0d

     17.0d

      3.6d

      4.0d

£1.04.8d

     16.0d

£1. 09.8d

   

From this assessment, it is evident that GAUXHOLME STONES and Law Hey Farms belonged to the mill.

 

On a personal level, William married Mary Stansfield in 1817, but sadly, she died in childbirth with their fifth child. She was buried the same day the child was baptised at St. Mary's Church in Todmorden, 8th November 1825. The child was buried 2 days later. William was left with 4 children under the age of 7 years. Not surprisingly, he married again within the year. His second wife was Jane Wilkinson, a daughter of a calico manufacturer from Downham, Lancashire. Jane gave him 5 more children in a short space of time.

 

A period of bad trade combined with overstretching in the expansion of the business left William and his partner in a financial mess. They were forced to cease trading and became bankrupt. They had even failed to slate the roof of the new factory extension, although it had been open for business for some time. This brought great hardship to many people, not just the employees who had the difficulty of finding work elsewhere, but to many small firms to whom they owed money, and to people such as Joseph Dawson, whose own business depended heavily on the success of the mill. He was very badly affected, left the area and set up in Whitworth as a horse breaker. There was a lot of discontent in the area, which was never fully mended.

In 1840 the mill and contents were put up for auction, including the waterwheels, and steam engines. William was forced out of the vicinity, whether in shame or in fear is not recorded. Initially he moved to Manchester where he ran a beerhouse on Hanover Street with his wife and second set of children. Interestingly, his first set of children remained behind but all ties with the mill and foundry were cut. In 1842, William, Jane and their children sailed from Liverpool on the Packet Ship 'Sheridan', arriving in New York on August 16th 1842.

The machinery was sold off, Abraham Robertshaw buying the plant, engines and other fixtures from the assignees. Abraham had started out as a poor man, but by stealth and bending several rules, he rose to prosperity to become a successful home manufacturer under the old cottage industry sytem.

Ten years later Abraham, was still the man in charge at the mill. He was an elderly man by this time but this didn't stop him from marrying for a second time, to widow Jane Midgley, landlady of the Sportmans Arms at Kebcote, as the following newspaper report confirms:

Manchester Times(Manchester, England), Saturday, August 28, 1852;

Treat to Work People

The work people of Abraham Robertshaw esq. of Knowlwood, Todmorden, cotton spinner and manufacturer, near 200 in number, were treated by him to a repast in the true old English style, of good roast beef and plum pudding, on Saturday last, on the occasion of the second marriage of their employer (who is upwards of 70 years of age) on Thursday last. The dinner, which was provided by Mrs. Crossley of the Bull Inn, Gauxholme, was prepared in a manner that did great credit to the hostess and which gave great satisfaction to her guests, who with cheerful faces and sharpened appetites, had assembled to partake of the good cheer provided. Each person was allowed a shilling’s worth of liquor, in which to drink long life, health and much happiness to their employer and his new bride, which was done with great cordiality. The company separated at an early hour in the evening, all being well pleased with their treat.

Abraham flourished for many years at Knowlwood Bottom, but not without falling foul of his workforce on more than one occasion, none more so than towards the end of 1851. On 1st November 1851, the Halifax Guardian reported:

On Wednesday last, the powerloom weavers in the employ of Mr. A. Robertshaw of Gauxholme turned out, and walked in procession to several places in this neighbourhood. The cause of a turnout is a reduction of half pence per pound weight. The strike is likely to continue as the weavers have been promised support.

8th Nov. 1851:

The weavers of Mr. Robertshaw are still out and their looms are likely to stand for some time as Mr. Robertshaw has begun to sell his wefts and warps.

22nd. Nov. 1851

The weavers recently in the employ of Mr. Robertshaw of Gauxholme are still on the turn out; and it appears from their last report that there is no sign of reconciliation as they have not received any reply to their request. It appears also that the weavers are liberally supported, having received six shillings each for the week.

6th Dec. 1851

Mr. A. Robertshaw's weavers are still out; but it seems there is some appearance of an adjustment as Mr. Robertshaw has placarded the town stating that he will give the old price for 36" and 48" weft, and an advance of 1.5d. per pound weight on 24" weft. The weavers have some other grievances they wish to have redressed before they resume work, such as paying for broken machinery, and being subject to unknown abatements. The turn outs are liberally supported, having received 7 shillings per week each, a large sum remains in the treasurer's hands.

 

20th Dec. 1851

Mr. A. Robertshaw's weavers are still walking the roads and singing hymns. They have posted a bill in answer to the one which appeared from Mr. Robertshaw, and in which they accuse their late employer with some of the most tyrannical acts ever practiced, and challenge him to appear at a public meeting where they will provide their statements. The turn outs are still liberally supported by a sympathising public.

17th Jan. 1852

The weavers of A. Robertshaw of Gauxholme resumed their work as was agreed on the first Monday in the New Year, but on going to their looms they discovered the hard brushes had been removed, and on making inquiry respecting them they were informed that, as they had stated in their hand bills when out, how little the brushes cost, they must purchase the brushes themselves. This was in reverse of their agreement, but they worked on until Thursday night without brushes. On Friday morning they did not appear at their work. During the day, Mr. Robertshaw sent for them several times, and again promised to supply them with brushes, which was done on resuming their work on Saturday morning. They remained at their work from Saturday morning until last Monday night, but on Tuesday morning last they again turned out, no-one being left at the place but the overseer and two of his children. Mr. Robertshaw again sent for his weavers and promised to "clip the wings" of his overseer if they would return to their work. On these conditions they resumed their work on Thursday morning.

Abraham Robertshaw died in 1854 and the mill and property were later put up for sale. The Todmorden and Hebden Bridge Advertiser carried the following advert on 25th September 1858:

To be sold by auction, cotton mill (Knowlwood Mill), late in the occupation of Abraham Robertshaw, deceased, and building heretofore used as an iron foundry. Waterfall 10hp, wheel 14 feet diameter, 12 feet 4 inches wide in good repair, 2 steam engines 8hp and 40hp. Mill, foundry, and outbuildings 3149 square yards. Turnpike Road divides property.

The Bacup Cotton Mill and Mining Company bought the premises and ran the mill with varying success for many years. In 1861 they built a row of terraced houses along the roadside. The row was known as Little Knowl Terrace and belonged to mill. The following advert appeared in the Todmorden Advertiser on 5th Jan 1861:

Notice to let by tender for erection of 20 dwellings at Knowlwood Bottom. Plans available at Bacup Cotton Mill and Mining Co. mill.

   

These were double-decker houses; each house having 2 storeys, with 10 dwellings underneath, and 10 above. Access to the upper houses was from the road behind. The mill chimney stood at the Todmorden end of this particular row.

In 1871 all 20 houses were occupied, and mainly by the workforce at the mill. Amongst the occupants were: Edmund Clegg (weaver), Young Pickles (weaver), William Marshall (twister), Thomas Clayton (mechanic), Edmund Fielden (overlooker) and Thomas Mitchell (carder).

   

The Bacup Cotton Mill and Mining Company improved the mill and put in new machinery. They used the old 40hp engine and water wheel and made warps and wefts. They also built a new shed for 300 looms and a new spinning mill on land leased from Dr. Hardman of Todmorden. This was part of the old Kay Cotton Mill dam. They dispensed with the dam and added a 60hp condensing steam engine to replace the old one. The engine house was converted to a stairway leading to 3 sets of rooms. They also installed a new sizing plant in the old foundry near the bridge at a cost of £1500.

Almost immediately after this latest addition, the company ceased trading.

   

Photo by kind permission of Frank Woolrych

Little Knowl Terrace and the mill chimney can be seen centre left, with the mill and works occupying the land on the left of the canal between the two bridges.
   

On 11th April 1883 the mill and appurtenances came under the hammer at the Queens Hotel, the auctioneer being Joseph Crowther of Bacup. The Lot included the carding and spinning machinery, the new sizing plant, 300 power looms, the 2 good houses near Kilnspring complete with gardens, and the 20 dwelling houses at Little Knowl Terrace. The whole property was mortgaged to the Co-operative Society, which was pressing for repayment of its loans, and had repossessed the place.

   

The highest bid for the whole Lot was £3000 despite a large company of people present. Only 3 persons bid, and none of these was intent on working the mill. The property was valued at £18,606, although the reserve price was later declared to be just £6000. The Lot was withdrawn.

 

However, after some discussion, the Lot was divided. The 2 houses at Kilnspring were offered and knocked down to John Stevenson of the NAVIGATION INN for about £250. The 20 houses on Little Knowl Terrace were then offered, but as they were subject to ground rent and a mortgage of some £1,100, there were no buyers.

   

Councillor Smith Starkie

On hearing of the above, brothers Samuel and Smith Starkie bought the remainder of the property for £4,500 subject to certain conditions. Their purchase was speculative as they intended to sell on the property, which eventually they did, and successfully.

Some of the machinery was sold off, and the mill with a steam engine, the large chimney and boiler rooms were sold on to Messrs. Matthew Stuttard and Brothers, warp sizers of the adjoining COPPERAS HOUSE MILL, who ran the mill successfully for a number of years. Samuel Starkie took over the leasehold of Little Knowl Terrace whilst his brother Smith had a free hand as to the sale and/or running of the rest.

   

Stuttards sold the 60-horse engine, made alterations to the floor and roof of the old mill, and installed a new engine for the weaving shed, then let the concern off to tenants.

In May 1889 Matthew Stuttard and Bros Ltd. was registered as a Limited Company with a capital of £50,000 in £100 shares to acquire the Size Works and Cotton Mills known as the Bridge Mill Size Works (Whitworth), Knowlwood Mill (Todmorden), the Bridgefield Mill (Rochdale) and the Underbank Mills (Whitworth).

 

Letter Head kindly submitted by Geoff Stuttard

   
The mill was still noted as a cotton mill on the OS map of 1907, although it has since been demolished and replaced by a modern bungalow and gardens.
   
The base of the chimney is visible between the trees and shrubbery that once was Little Knowl Terrace, the houses having been demolished in the 1960s, although the floors and parts of the walls are there still.
 
 

A transcript of a report by the Committee of the 1851 strike by the weavers:

 

“The Labourer is the upholder of capital as well as the producer of all wealth”

 

THE SEVENTH REPORT AND 8TH WEEK OF THE STRIKE

of Mr. Robertshaw’s Weavers, Gauxholme, near Todmorden

 

To the operatives of Todmorden, Walsden, Littleborough, Bacup and the surrounding Districts,

Friends, Fellow Workmen, and the Public generally.

In presenting to you our seventh report, we have to express our sincere and hearty thanks for the liberal support which you have tendered to us up to the present time; and we hope that you will still feel and see it to be your duty to continue to assist us in the struggle in which we are at present engaged. As regards the grievances existing betwixt us and our late employer, they still remain unsettled; neither have we received anything from him since the last that we reported. We feel that to be engaged in a struggle like ours in the present season of the year is very trying, as it respects our health; but not withstanding this, we still feel as united and determined as ever to preserve our present struggle, until our grievances are fully redressed.

If that piece of dirty suet, “Old Robertshaw’s engine tenter”, do not mind his own business, and let alone ours, we will shortly ask him how long it is since he received a gill of ale for running ten minutes over time; and how many gills for similar tricks.

Also one of our late Overlookers, Thomas Horsfall by name, has offered during the past week to go in and weave up the work in the looms, if one of the other Overlookers would go in with him; but the others absolutely refused to do so, and therefore things remain as they were in that respect. But we think that such a disposition manifested by him indicates something similar to the disposition of a knobstick.

A Delegate Meeting will be held at the Hop Tree and Barleycorn Tavern, Todmorden Road, Bacup, every Thursday evening, to commence at half past 8 o’clock, when delegates from every factory are requested to attend. The Committee will also sit at the above place every Saturday from 4 to 7 o’clock in the evening to receive subscriptions.

 

He is a tyrant – that is true!

But he was once as poor as you.

He went about a selling print;

But now his heart is hard as flint.

Be firm, and then we’re not too poor

To send the tyrant back to Shore.

 

A very small selection of the subscribers to the strike fund

  

  £ s. d.
picking bands     4
a relieving officer   1 0
one who is sorry to see a man crowned with the silver mantle of time corroborate the truths of Soloman, Prov 17th. Verse 22nd.   2 6
a salt chap with an ass     2
stand true     6
Waterside weavers 2 5 6
one with a grey head and an old man     8
Helliwells Dulesgate   10 3.5
Ormerods Dulesgate   17 5.5
Lords Roomfield Lane   4 4
Waterside sizers   3 3
a poor woman     4
W. & R. Robinsons shop Todmorden   3 10.5
J.C. Ready made clothing establishment   2 6
Bill at box     6
Betty Barker Dulesgate     6
Stand Hard     4
Doctor Whild   1 0
Hare & Hounds Inn     6
Hang th'old chap     2
Jam o'Tum's wife     2
cobbler's sister     2
Masons Arms     4
I wish I could afford to give you more     5
Old Martin     2
Royal George Inn   1 0
Low Moor   2 0
D. & J. Lacy's factory   2 7
Tell old Robertshaw to read the 13th verse in the 22nd chapter of Jeremiah     6
Stand him out and bury him when you have done     4
A widow woman on 6d a week     6
Inghams Castle Street   9 0
Ramsden Wood, Spring Mill weavers and mill hands   15 10.5
Right against Might   6 6.5
James Sutcliffe Cross Stone   1 0
Sun Vale Roller Works   11 3.5
If Dick o'Jos wife dussent give over burning the reports, Old Thunderbout Clogs will tell about her wearing half a crown of a Sunday bustle   4 3.5
Tom Dawson, good fellow, Thistle Hall, he'll do old Robertshaw a bit o'good     6
A chap bout jacket     2
Cut his tail off and sew it on again for punishment     4
Twopence for ginger to get his tail up     2
A horse muck gatherer     6

 

Additional information

researched, recorded and referenced by Mrs Sheila Wade

Hebden Bridge WEA Local History Group

 

1788 Colquoun’s Census

Crossley & Co. Todmorden: 1 – from S.D. Chapman, The Arkwright Mills, App. A.

1794 HAS 1954 page 5..

Knowlwood Cotton Mill, owner and occupier Abraham Crossley supported the bill for the Rochdale Canal in 1794.

Crompton’s spindle enquiry 1811

Knowlwood Factory, 1296 mule spindles

1814 and 1816

Abraham Crossley, Knowlwood, shown in accounts book of Jeremiah Jackson

Pigot and Deane 1824-25

Abraham Crossley, Knowlwood Bottom

Baines 1825

Abraham Crossley, cotton spinners

Pigot 1828-29

Abraham Crossley & Bros. Knowlwood, cotton spinners

Parson and White 1830

Abraham Crossley & Bros. Knowlwood, cotton spinners

Pigot 1834

William Crossley, Knowlwood Bottom, cotton spinners and manufacturers

Halifax Guardian 14th March 1840

To be sold by auction 2nd April 1840, Walsden, 2 cotton spinning mills, waterwheels, steam engines, now or late in the occupation of Ashton and Crossley and undertenants, near Knowlwood Bottom.

White 1842-3

Abraham Robertshaw, cotton spinners and manufacturers

List of Todmorden voters 30th July 1842

Abraham Robertshaw, living at Knowlwood Mill, freehold house and mill.

Halifax Guardian 15th January 1848

Abraham Robertshaw, cotton manufacturer, Gauxholme, dismissed two men, powerloom weavers, for refusing to rent a hut called “the Last Shift” in Knowlwood.

Halifax Guardian 29th January 1848

Abraham Robertshaw, manufacturer, Gauxholme, advanced wages of day hands in the mills.

White 1853

Abraham Robertshaw, Knowlwood Mill, cotton spinners and manufacturers.

Todmorden and Hebden Bridge Advertiser 17th July 1858

Sell by auction at Gauxholme Mill near Todmorden, formerly occupied by Mr. Abraham Robertshaw deceased, machinery for preparing cotton, spinning and weaving.

Todmorden and Hebden Bridge Advertiser December 10th 1859:

Bacup Cotton Mill Co. Public meeting, lecture hall, Mechanics Institute, Bacup. The features of the company were explained and there was a general scramble for shares. Secretary attended the following night because of demand. 500 shares were taken out. All correspondence addressed to Richard Barker, Co-operative store, Bacup.

Todmorden and Hebden Bridge Advertiser February 25th 1860

Bacup Cotton Mill Co. Issuing of shares closed this day. Installments can be paid at mill, Knowlwood, Gauxholme, on last Saturday of each month 8am to 4pm.

 

Walsden Rates Book 1860-1881

Owned and occupied by Bacup Cotton Mill and Mining Co. Ltd.; Knowlwood Mill; loomshop. (part empty)

1860 -  mill, shed, 17hp rateable value £231.13s.4d. 3,900 throstle spindles and 1,936 mule spindles = 17hp.

1861 – 200 looms = 19hp

1862 – shed at 18hp rateable value £71.15s.0d.

1866 – rateable value £217.16s.0d.

1868 – additions to mill and shed 30hp rateable value £112.18s.0d.

1880 – rateable value £419.15s.0d.

1881 – rateable value £367.5s.0d.

 

Fielden family documents 1861

3rd June 1861: Fielden Bros. letter to Bacup Cotton Mill and Mining Co. Ltd. asking when they intend to clear out their head goit at Knowlwood Mill, “as the delay is a serious injury to us.”

3rd July 1861: Fielden Bros. letter to Mr. John Travis, architect, Knowlwood Mill, re. clearing out the head goit.

 

White 1866

Bacup Cotton Mill and Mining Co. Ltd. (John Whitworth manager), cotton spinners and manufacturers

Kelly 1871

Bacup Cotton Mill and Mining Co. Ltd. (Thomas Fielden secretary), cotton spinners and manufacturers.

Halifax Guardian 28th March 1874

Bacup Cotton Mill and Mining Co. Ltd. half-year report, net gain £901.15s.3d.

Slater 1875

Bacup Cotton Mill and Mining Co. Ltd., cotton spinners and manufacturers.

Kelly 1877

Bacup Cotton Mill and Mining Co. Ltd., cotton spinners and manufacturers.

Halifax Guardian 10th May 1879

Fire at Bacup Cotton Mill and Mining Co. mill at Gauxholme, not much damage.

Halifax Courier 11th October 1879

Bacup Cotton Mill and Mining Co. now working 5 days.

Half-year report, loss of £791.2s.10d. deficiency to carry forward £3706.19s.1d. Share capital £20,710.

Todmorden and Hebden Bridge Advertiser 20th March 1880

Manager wanted for Bacup Cotton Mill & Mining Co. Knowlwood Mill.

Todmorden and Hebden Bridge Advertiser 24th Sept 1880

Half-year balance sheet. Deficiency to carry forward £4868.11s.9d. Knowlwood Mill; 11,200 spindles, 286 looms, working 3 days a week.

 

Halifax Courier 26th March 1881

Half-year report, gain £116.17s7d. Deficiency to carry forward £4751.14s.2d.

Halifax Courier 30th July 1881

Strike, weavers say being paid 3d. per cut of 90 yards less than other places in town. Now back at work at old rates.

Halifax Courier26th March 1881

Half-year report: gain £116.17s.7d.  Deficiency to carry forward £4751.14s.2d.

Halifax Courier 24th September 1881

Half-year report: loss £424.14s.9d.  Increase adverse balance to carry forward to £5176.8s.11d.

Halifax Courier 25th March 1882

Half-year report: loss £497.11s.9d.  Increase adverse balance to carry forward to £5674.0s.8d.

Halifax Courier 28th September 1882

Half-year report: loss £833.14s.2d.  Increase adverse balance to carry forward to £6507.14s.11d.

 

Halifax Courier 1st Dec 1883

Part of mill used for spinning by Bacup Cotton Mill Co. has been rented by Fielden Bros. manufacturers of Salem Mill, Hebden Bridge. (Ely Fielden & Co.)

Walsden Rates Book 1883

Owners Starkie Bros., mill and power, Knowlwood Bottom.

Walsden Rates Book 1884

Owners and occupiers Starkie Bros. mill and 40hp steam, Knowlwood Bottom, rateable value £287.5s.0d.

Todmorden Advertiser 30th May 1884

To let: 300 looms and preparing machinery at Knowlwood Mill. Terms 38 shillings per loom including use of machinery. Apply Pickles Bros. Nelson.

Todmorden Advertiser 30th May 1884

To let at Knowlwood Mill, 250 to 300 looms. Apply S. and S. Starkie

Todmorden Advertiser 25th July 1884

Auction 6th and 7th August by Smith Starkie, machinery at Knowlwood Mill, including 20 carding engines, 1 grinding frame, 1 drawing frame, 1 slubbing frame, 2 intermediate frames, 4 roving frames, 1 pair stripping mules 1600 spindles, 2 pairs of mules 2064 spindles each, 44 looms, bobbins etc., mechanics, smiths and joiners tools etc.

Todmorden Advertiser 1st August 1884

Tenders wanted for alterations to Gauxholme Mill, Henry Varley, architect, Whitworth

Halifax Courier 28th November 1885

Stuttard Bros. of Gauxholme are preparing for running the shed and looms being put in.

 

Walsden Rates Book 1885-1888

Owners and occupiers Starkie Bros. mill and steam power, Knowlwood Bottom, rateable value £208.15s.0d.

Owners and occupiers Stuttard Bros. size works and power, Knowlwood Bottom, rateable value £121.

Manchester Examiner 22nd July 1887

M. Stuttard & Bros. (Gauxholme) 200 looms running full time

Walsden Rates Book 1888-89

Owned and occupied by Stuttard Bros. shed and steam power, Knowlwood Bottom, rateable value £203.15s.0d.

Walsden Rates Book 1890

Empty

Walsden Rates Book 1892

Owned and occupied by Stuttard Bros., mill and power, Knowlwood Bottom, rateable value £59.10s.0d. Rooms barricaded up and engine demolished.

Kelly 1893

Matthew Stuttard & Bros. Knowlwood Mill, cotton manufacturers and warp sizers.

Walsden Rates Book 1897

Owned and occupied by Stuttard Bros., mill and power, Knowlwood Bottom, rateable value £146.

 

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