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CANTEEN MILL

Lydgate

Todmorden

Map Ref. SD 921255

 

Known occupiers

 

1833

Small building on site on Stansfield Township map

1848

Several building on site on OS 6” map

1860-1867

MITCHELL William

1866-1868

SUTCLIFFE John & HOLLINRAKE Thomas

1868-1899

HOLLINRAKE Robert  & Thomas

1875-1887

ROBERTS John & Son

1875-1883

WEST Martin & Thomas

1879-1887

DEARDEN John & Bros.

1879-1908

SUTCLIFFE Jackson & GREENWOOD James

1887

PICKLES Thomas

1893-1897

ASHWORTH Thomas

1893-1908

NUTTALL Bros.

STANSFIELD John & Fred

1897-1908

NEWELL Bros.

1897

GREENWOOD & ORMEROD

1899

SUTCLIFFE Joseph E.

STANSFIELD Thomas

1950's

demolished and replaced with modern units

 

Illustrated history

 

Situated in the Burnley Valley at Lydgate, Canteen Mill is really an Industrial Estate comprising many small businesses. The name of Canteen apparently arose from it being the name of a beerhouse, the Old Canteen Inn, which stood by the side of the road facing the river in the first part of the 19th century. The inn gave way to progress when a small weaving shed was built on its site about 1830.

   

Lydgate and Canteen Mill about 1885

by kind permission of Roger Birch

By 1848 there were several buildings on the site, each housing differing businesses, and by 1850, the whole area was becoming a hive of industrial activity. From this, a large residential population developed, with rows of streets of small houses for the factory workers, plus a plentiful supply of shops and public houses
   

In 1860, William Mitchell, a prominent local stonemason and building contractor, took out a lease on the land at Lydgate. He cleared away the old buildings and erected a large weaving shed and warehouse, which became known as Canteen Mill. The two storey warehouse fronted the road, whilst the sheds extended back as far as the river. The chimney and boiler houses were towards the back of the site, and rows of terraced houses formed the boundaries on the other two sides. This arrangement can be seen clearly in the above photograph.

   
William Mitchell lived in the beautiful Hartley Royd Farm on the Stansfield hillside above Lydgate. The house dates from 1617 and was the home of Yeoman Clothiers in the Cottage Industry days .

Hartley Royd

   

William built the mill as a "room and power" concern, whereby would-be manufacturers with less money than they would like, could rent space and power within the mill, buy and install their own looms, and run their own business alongside other similar concerns. This allowed entrepreneurs with limited means to become their own masters and gave them the opportunity of building up a business in the hope of making enough profit to eventually build their own factory. The mill filled with tenants and prospered. William later added a warp-sizing place and made other improvements. Two of his early tenants were Thomas Hollinrake and John Sutcliffe who each lived at Lineholme along the valley with their respective families.

   
Thomas Hollinrake was of humble beginnings and is one who benefited greatly from the "room and power" system. He was born in 1835, the third son of John Hollinrake and Hannah Haigh of Sourhall. His father was an agricultural labourer and Thomas' first job was as a throstle doffer in a mill at Gorpley, Dulesgate. Before he was 25, he rose to become a mill manager and moved to live in the Burnley Valley at Lineholme with his wife Grace Mitchell. In 1861, Thomas and his wife shared a house with his older brother Robert and his wife, also Grace. Robert was a loom jobber, and both Graces worked in the mill as weavers.

Thomas Hollinrake about 1870. Photo kindly sent by Rosemary Stevenson

   

About 1866, Thomas Hollinrake and John Sutcliffe, his neighbour, were in partnership, having acquired the tenancy of space and power at Canteen Mill. Thomas was beginning to seriously prosper. Meanwhile, William Mitchell was working himself in to the ground. Apart from building Canteen Mill and making additions and improvements, he also farmed several acres of Hartley Royd land, and continued with his own stone merchant and contracting businesses. He died somewhere around 1867 in his early 60's. Canteen Mill was put up for auction and sold to brothers Thomas and Robert Hollinrake.

Both Hollinrake families lived at Lineholme Villas, where Robert lost his wife in 1868. She was only 34 and left him with a young son, Edwin. Within a couple of years, he married a widow, Sarah, who had two sons and a daughter from her first marriage to William Crowther.

   

The Bay Horse, Cross Stone.

By kind permission of Roger Birch

Robert and Sarah moved to live in Cross Stone where he became "Mine Host" at the old Bay Horse Inn, leaving the cotton manufacturing business to be supervised by brother Thomas. They had a daughter, Hannah, born in 1871, followed by Robert junior two years later. At some point, the family returned to Lineholme Villas, which is where Robert senior died in 1878 at the early age of 47. He is buried at St. Paul's, Cross Stone.
   

Following the death of Robert, Messrs. J. Gledhill & Son, auctioneers and valuers, produced a valuation report on his assets. The report, dated 9th April 1878, includes:

Lot 1

All that Leasehold stone built Weaving Shed and Size House known as Canteen Shed situate at Lydgate ... together with the engine, boiler, shafting & gearing throughout the premises, at 11 years purchase on £530, the property tax assessment ........................

Deduct amount owing on mortgage of property ........

5830

2000

0

0

0

0

 
3830
0
0
Add sizing plant and machinery in size house
500
0
0
 
4330
0
0
Robert Hollinrake's interest as half owner ..........
2165
0
0

 

Lot 2

All those three leasehold stone built dwelling houses called Lineholme Villas situate in Lydgate ...

.

description

dwelling house

dwelling house

dwelling house

Total

tenant

J. Sanderson

Thomas Hollinrake

Sarah Hollinrake

annual rent

25.0.0d

20.0.0d

20.0.0d

65.0.0d

.

Deductions

Annual Chief Rent ...   9.19.6d

Annual Repairs .......   3.05.6d

Total .................... 13.15.0d

.
£51.15.0d at 17 years purchase 
879
15
0
Robert Hollinrake's interest as half owner ............
439
17
6

Robert's other assets included fifty shares in the Barewise Mill Company Ltd., a leasehold beerhouse known as the Rose and Crown at Lydgate with six tenanted cottages, a half interest in a Policy of Assurance in the Scottish Equitable Life Assurance Society, and household furniture and goods at Lineholme Villas.

The above information is provided by Robert's descendant, Rosemary Stevenson, who tells us that following Robert's death and the sale of his assets, there were the usual family arguements between the relatives of his first wife and those of his second wife, and maybe an odd scandal or two. What is known is that his widow, Sarah, moved out of Lineholme Villas with her children to live at Kitson Wood. However, she did return to the Villas sometime before 1891, possibly after the death of her brother-in-law, Thomas Hollinrake. It is also known that Thomas continued in sole ownership of Canteen, still trading as Robert and Thomas Hollinrake. He died suddenly at Lineholme Villas on 27th November 1890 whilst still a working manufacturer. He is also buried at St. Paul's, Cross Stone.

 

The 1870's saw several firms using the facilities at Canteen, some of them for many years. One such firm, who occupied premises at Canteen for about 12 years from 1875 was John Roberts and Son, who ran a cotton manufacturing concern. John was born in Halifax in 1818, and lived on nearby Lily Street in 1881.

   
Then along came father and son Martin and Thomas West who ran another cotton manufacturing business trading as M. and T. West. In 1871, Martin West was living with his family at Ing Bottom, and is recorded as being a manufacturer employing 16 hands. His son Thomas was living on Knotts Road employing 18 hands. He became a local councillor in the first municipal elections held in Todmorden, in 1896. He was elected to represent the Central Ward with 292 votes. He died in 1900. The following obituary has been transcribed and sent to us by Ann Miller.

Councillor Thomas West

   

Extract from The Todmorden News – 14th September 1900

Death of Councillor Thomas West

 

After a somewhat lengthy illness, Councillor Thos. West, cotton manufacturer, 42 Stansfield Road, Todmorden, breathed his last early on Saturday morning, the first public intimation of his death being the hoisting of flags half-mast at the Town Hall and the Liberal Club. He had not been in good health for about three years, since an accident set up blood poisoning in his finger: for many months back he suffered from nervous debility which ultimately affected his heart. Dr. Thorn, his medical attendant, advised a visit to Colwyn Bay, and after a six weeks stay Councillor West returned home a fortnight ago, unfortunately the improvement sought for was not attained. N the contrary, Councillor West had become worse, and the end came as stated above.

               

Deceased, who was 56 years of age, was the son of Mr. Martin West. After being brought up as a weaver, he and his father entered the cotton manufacturing business at Canteen shed, Lydgate, nearly 30 years ago. Mr. Martin West ultimately withdrew from the concern, which was carried on by Mr. Thos. West until about the year 1883, when he obtained possession of Vale Mills, Stansfield Road, sub-letting such portions as he did not require for his own purposes. He has carried on a successful business there ever since.

               

In religious matters, Mr. West was a non-conformist: he was brought up a Primitive Methodist, attending Knowlwood School, but of late years his children have been connected with Bridge-street United Methodist Free Church.

               

Politically he was a Liberal, and it was largely due to the influence of the Liberal organisation that he began to take part in local public matters. He served a short term on the Urban District Council, then when the district was incorporated, in 1896, he was put forward as one of the Liberal nominees for the Central Ward. At the first election he was unsuccessful, but two vacancies immediately arose by the selection of Aldermen, and Mr. West, along with Mr. Robt. Gibson, were returned. Last year he was re-elected, without opposition, for a further term of three years. He was a member of five committees of the Town Council, viz: Highway, Gas, Watch, Technical Instruction and Finance. Quiet and unostentatious in his manner, he was a man of few words. At one period he also served for a little while as a manager of Roamfield Board School.

Mrs. West died about six years ago. There are four sons and two daughters left to mourn the loss of their father. Of course, the business has latterly been conducted by the sons, the youngest of whom has just attained his majority and it is thought that they will continue to carry the concern on.

               

The funeral took place on Wednesday afternoon at Cross-stone cemetery. Rev. J. Longden conducted a short service at the house, and the Rev Dr. Lightfoot officiated at Cross-stone. The following members of the Town Council attended: the Mayor Alderman Wm. Jackson, S. Sutcliffe, Abm. Crossley and F. Ashworth, Councillors Robt. Gibson, Jas. Bracewell, Jas. Dugdale, Jno. Dugdale and Fielden Holt; also the Town Clerk (Mr. Dan Sutcliffe). These, together with a deputation from the Liberal Club (including Mr. Lord Fielden, the president) about 30 workpeople, walked in front of the hearse. Six coaches followed, containing the mourners and deceased’s tenants. Among the wreaths was a very large one from the workpeople showing their respect and esteem for the deceased.

   

Another firm, run by John Dearden and his brother, rented space in the mill between 1879 and 1887 working as fustian manufacturers.

 

On 5th May 1884, there was a major incident at the mill when a steam cylinder connected to a slashing machine exploded. A youth named Robert Crabtree was killed. At this time, Thomas Hollinrake was the owner of the site.

   

Councillor Jackson Sutcliffe

During the 1880's and 90's, further manufacturing businesses opened on the estate. The first was Jackson Sutcliffe and his partner James Greenwood. Jackson Sutcliffe, born in 1850, employed 32 hands in 1881 at Canteen Shed as it was sometimes known. He was also a local politician, winning the Cornholme Ward in the very first municipal elections in Todmorden in November 1896. He received 327 votes and the other councillors elected him to be an Alderman, although he never made it to be Mayor. He died at Lineholme Villas on 23rd December 1917 and is buried at St. Paul's, Cross Stone.
   

In 1896, Pike wrote in his "Views and Reviews":

Messrs Sutcliffe and Greenwood

(Jackson Sutcliffe and James Greenwood)

Canteen Mills, Cornholme, and Hollins Bottom Mill, Walsden

In a delightful stretch of very undulating country, bordering on Yorkshire but still within the County Palatine of Lancashire, whose staple industry is here carried on, lies Cornholme, a village in the immediate vicinity of Todmorden. Cotton spinning and manufacturing give employment to the natives of the place. The establishment of Messrs. Sutcliffe and Greenwood of the Canteen Mills is recognised as one of the important industrial concerns in Cornholme.

The firm has been in existence for the past 22 years, and besides their cotton mill in Cornholme, they have another establishment at Walsden, also in the vicinity of Todmorden. Both these mills are favourably situated, being within easy reach of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Company’s goods depot, by which means coals as well as raw material are conveyed to the neighbourhood. Both mills occupy large spaces of ground and are well constructed. In addition to the extensive weaving sheds, there are suitable warehouses, offices and conveniences for the preparatory processes.

The interior of the works is fitted up with a complete equipment of the latest mechanical appliances, including at Cornholme 210 looms and at Walsden 350 looms. Indeed, in speaking of the machinery employed by Messrs. Sutcliffe and Greenwood, it is only necessary to say that the entire establishments present examples of systematic organisation, which clearly indicate effective and diligent supervision, and that the working facilities are such as to enable the firm to keep pace with the heaviest demands of an increasing trade, and to fully maintain the excellent reputation they have gained.

Special branches of cotton manufacturing, in which Messrs. Sutcliffe and Greenwood engage, include the production of wigans, domestics, twills and sheetings, for which they have gained a good provincial reputation, their productions on these lines being unsurpassed in the Manchester markets at the present day, equally as regards quality and finish.

Throughout both establishments the most perfect organisation and order prevails, and in meeting the demands of buyers neither pains nor expense is spared.

The members of the firm are gentlemen well known in the industrial and commercial world, enjoying the confidence and esteem of all who know them, and a cotton manufacturing concern of higher repute or more honourable business antecedents will not be found in the Todmorden district. The senior partner, Mr. Sutcliffe, takes an active part in the public affairs of the parish, and very capably fills the position of an alderman of the Town Council.

   

Then came the Ashworth Brothers, (tanners), the Nuttall Brothers, John and Fred Stansfield, and the Newall Brothers.

The mill, or estate, continued to prosper, with a variety of concerns renting space. On 15th April 1899, another major incident occurred. Early that morning, a fire broke out at the mill, completely demolishing two places of work; one occupied by Joseph E. Sutcliffe as a joiner's shop and the other being Messrs. Greenwood & Co. Shuttle Makers. There was also serious damage done to a tannery belonging to Thomas Stansfield, a picker maker. The total damage to stock and buildings was estimated to be about £800.

The following obituary appeared in the local press on 1st August 1902:

Mr. Edward Barker of Mitchell Street Lydgate, a person well known throughout the Burnley valley, died very suddenly, 71 years of age. Deep regret at his death was general amongst those who knew him, and it was rendered more acute by the alarming brevity of his illness. Deceased had been engineer at Canteen Shed for 35 years .

   

In 1928, the mill chimney received some attention as the photograph on the right shows. Rosemary Stevenson sent the picture, which was taken in 1928 and shows her father, Harold Hollinrake, at the top of it. Harold is descended from Robert Hollinrake who prospered so well from the room and power innovation.

All that remains of the old weaving sheds

   

These photos were taken in the weaving shed at Canteen Mill, possibly about the time of the Queen's Coronation in 1953, at a time when the sheds were known locally as Newells Mill. It was common practice to refer to a mill by the name of its owner.

 

 

The lady on the right is Phyllis Sutcliffe (1906 to 1973), daughter of Albert and Alice Ann Sutcliffe.

The photos were kindly sent by Karen Greenwood of Toronto, whose mother Glenda worked in these sheds as a cotton beamer during the 1950's and 1960's.

   
The management of the sheds allowed a local man by the name of John Greenwood (known as Johnny Gay) to sell his ice-cream to the workers during the afternoons. Photo of John, who is the man on the left, was sent in by his adoptive granddaughter, Karen Greenwood.
   
Much of the old estate is now demolished, with new units in place. A Working Men's Club was there for a long time, but this is now a curtain and blind shop. Many of the surrounding streets have either gone or been shortened, but the site remains a multi-use industrial estate to this day, and some of the original buildings are there.

 

With grateful thanks to Rosemary Stevenson for information, photographs and the valuation report, and also to Karen Greenwood for her photos and details.

 

Additional information

researched, recorded and referenced by Mrs Sheila Wade

Hebden Bridge WEA Local History Group

 

Stansfield Rates Book 1860

Occupier William Mitchell; owners William Mitchell and James Astin & Co. assignees; Canteen; mill and power; rateable value £164.11s.0d.

White 1866

Sutcliffe & Hollinrake, Canteen Mill, cotton manufacturers

Stansfield Rates Book 1867 (January)

Occupied by trustees of William Mitchell; owners assignees of William Mitchell; Commercial Street; mill and power; rateable value £287.19s.8d.

Stansfield Rates Book 1867 (August)

Owned and occupied by Sutcliffe and Hollinrake; Canteen; mill and power; rateable value £287.19s.8d. New warehouse £5.10s.0d.

Fielden papers 27th January 1868

Letter to Messrs Sutcliffe and Hollinrake, Canteen Mill. We are not in the habit of accepting prices 1d. per pound lower than we ask.

Stansfield Rates Book 1868-99

Owners and occupiers Hollinrake & Co; Canteen; mill and power; rateable value £295.7s.8d.

1873 – new size house £171.

1876 – additions to size works £3.10s.0d.

1880 – re-valued £422.10s.0d.

1881 – re-valued £376

1890 – re-valued £319.

1891 – part picker works £4.15s.0d.

Census 1871

Thomas Hollinrake, 2 Lineholme Villas, aged 35, cotton manufacturer employing 70 people.

Martin West, Ing Bottom, aged 56, cotton manufacturer employing 16 hands.

Thomas West, Knott Road, aged 27, cotton manufacturer employing 18 hands.

Kelly 1871

Robert and Thomas Hollinrake, Lydgate, cotton manufacturers

Todmorden Rates Book 1876-81

Owned and occupied by R. and T. Hollinrake; part size works; Lineholme; rateable value £17.

1880 – rateable value £15.5s.0d.

Todmorden and Hebden Bridge Advertiser 1st August 1879

Hollinrake, Canteen, 130 looms.

John Roberts & Son, Canteen, 358 looms running full time.

West, Canteen Mill, 79 looms, running full time.

Dearden, Canteen, 40 looms, running 4 days.

Sutcliffe & Greenwood, Canteen, 48 looms, running full time.

Halifax Courier 23rd August 1879

Sutcliffe & Greenwood, Canteen Shed, running full time, reduced weavers wages 2.5%.

Factory Inspectors prosecutions

11th August 1881

John Roberts & Son, Canteen Mill, Todmorden cotton manufacturers

Case heard before Abraham Ormerod and G. Riley Esqrs. at Todmorden

Employing 4 women after 5.30 p.m.

Penalty of £4 and costs of £2.8s.0d – Two cases withdrawn on payment of costs.

Halifax Courier 2nd June 1883

Todmorden trade bad. T. West of Lydgate removing looms from Canteen to Stansfield Road.

Halifax Courier 10th May 1884

Accident at size works of R. and T. Hollinrake of Canteen Shed. Boy killed.

Halifax Courier 5th April 1884

Strike at Canteen Shed Todmorden continues.

Halifax Courier 12th April 1884

Work to be resumed on Monday at Canteen Shed, dispute referred to arbitration.

Halifax Courier 3rd May 1884

J. C. Fielden of Manchester (for weavers) and Joshua Rawlinson of Blackburn (for masters) arbitrators, attended at Canteen Shed for particulars of late strike of weavers employed by J. Roberts & Son. Decision expected soon.

Halifax Courier 28th June 1884

Owing to depressed state of trade, J. Roberts & Son, Canteen, to stop about 60 looms.

Todmorden Rates Book 1885-90

Owned and occupied by R. and T. Hollinrake; part loom shed etc; Canteen; rateable value £12.15s.0d.

1888 – rateable value £11.10s.0d.

Halifax Courier 30th April 1887

Sutcliffe & Greenwood of Lineholme and Canteen Sheds – weavers seeking increase. 310 looms.

Todmorden and Hebden Bridge Advertiser 20th May 1887

Wages dispute settled at Greenwood & Sutcliffe of Canteen. Masters accepted terms by the Todmorden Power Loom Weavers Association.

Manchester Examiner 22nd July 1887

Hollinrake, Canteen, 200 looms running full time.

John Roberts & son, Canteen, 360 looms running full time.

Sutcliffe & Greenwood, Canteen Shed, 310 looms running full time.

Slater 1887

John Roberts & son, Canteen Shed, Lineholme, manufacturers of cotton goods

Dearden Bros. Canteen Shed, manufacturers of cotton goods.

Thomas Pickles, Canteen Shed, manufacturer of cotton goods.

Sutcliffe & Greenwood, Canteen Shed, manufacturers of cotton goods.

 

Factory Act prosecutions

December 1888

Sutcliffe and Greenwood, Canteen Shed, near Todmorden

Case heard before J.A. Ingham, D.J. Crossley and G. Sutcliffe Esqrs. at Todmorden Petty Sessions.

Employing a child without a certificate of due attendance at school.

Penalty 5s – costs 9s.

 

Factory Act prosecutions

3rd January 1889

Sutcliffe and Greenwood, Lineholme Shed, near Todmorden

Case heard before J. A. Ingham, D. J. Crossley and G. Sutcliffe Esqrs. at Todmorden Petty Sessions.

Allowing a child to clean machinery whilst in motion

Penalty 5s – costs 9s

 

Factory Act prosecutions

26th September 1889

Sutcliffe and Greenwood, Canteen Shed, Todmorden

Case heard before Rev. T. Sutcliffe, J. A. Ingham and D.J.Crossley Esqrs at Todmorden Police Courts.

Employing a child without having obtained a certificate of attendance at school for the previous week.

Penalty 7s.6d – costs 13s.6d.

 

Todmorden Rates Book 1891

Owned and occupied by R. and T. Hollinrake; picker works; Canteen; rateable value £4.15s.0d.

Worrall 1891

Thomas Hollinrake, Canteen Mill, 197 looms, drills, pay day every Tuesday in Manchester.

Sutcliffe & Greenwood, Canteen Mills, 560 looms, twills, wigans, sheetings etc. also Hollins Mill Walsden.

Kelly 1893

Robert and of Thomas Hollinrake executors, Canteen Shed, Lineholme, manufacturers of cotton goods, mill owners.

Sutcliffe & Greenwood, Canteen Shed, cotton manufacturers.

Thomas Ashworth, Canteen Shed, tanner

Nuttall Bros. Canteen Shed, cotton manufacturers

John and Fred Stansfield, Canteen Shed, cotton manufacturers.

Kelly 1895

Thomas Ashworth, buffalo hide and sizing manufacturer, Canteen Shed.

Views and Reviews 1896

Sutcliffe and Greenwood, Canteen Mills, Cornholme and Hollins Mill Walsden, manufacturers of wigans, domestics, twills, sheetings etc.

Kelly 1897

Robert and Thomas Hollinrake executors, Canteen Shed, Lineholme, manufacturers of cotton goods, mill owners.

Greenwood and Ormerod, Canteen Sheds, Lineholme, picker manufacturers.

Sutcliffe & Greenwood, Canteen Shed, cotton manufacturers

Thomas Ashworth, Canteen Shed, tanner.

Nuttall Bros. Canteen Shed, cotton manufacturers

John and Fred Stansfield, Canteen Shed, cotton manufacturers

Newell Bros. Canteen Shed, cotton goods manufacturers, stripes and checks.

Fielden papers 15th April 1899

Fire at R. and T. Hollinrake, Canteen Shed, Fielden’s fire engine attended.

1901 census

Joseph E. Sutcliffe, Church Street, Cornholme; aged 24, joiner working on his own account.

Kelly 1908

Sutcliffe & Greenwood, Canteen Shed, cotton manufacturers

Nuttall Bros. Canteen Shed, cotton manufacturers

John and Fred Stansfield, Canteen Shed, cotton manufacturers

Newell Bros. Canteen Shed, cotton goods manufacturers, stripes and checks.

 
 

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