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Debunking the Published Griffin Family Myths:

Edward Griffin of Flushing was not Edward Pengruffwnd (Pengriffin)

of Walton West, Pembrokeshire, Wales

 

Summary

 

The following work details the results of eleven years of research on the life and times of Edward Griffin who was born about 1602, somewhere in Britain, who arrived in Virginia late in 1635 or early in 1636 aboard the vessel Abraham, and who died after 1698, in Flushing, New York.

 

For those simply interested in the outcome of this research, I offer the following four assertions; the remainder of this account reveals the circumstances which lead to my conclusions, as well as a list of my supporting references.  The sources are bracketed [ ] and the notes are braced { } for convenience.

 

Please cite my work if you use it.  You are welcome to use any of the information here for your personal use; commercial use is not granted.  

 

1.      Neither Edward Griffin nor Sgt. John Griffin of Simsbury, Connecticut, was related to the Pengruffwnd/Pengriffin family of Walton West, Pembrokeshire, Wales.  The man who was born Edward Pengruffwnd (Griffith/Griffin) was dead by 1622, and his brother, John Griffith, died in 1624. [1] [2]

 

2.     Edward Griffin of Flushing, and Sgt. John Griffin of Simsbury, were not brothers and did not share a common blood relative within the past 10,000 years.  There is solid DNA evidence (12 samples) that not only disproves their relationship, but clearly shows they had different haplogroups. [3]

 

3.     Jasper Griffing of Southold, also did not share a common blood relative with Edward Griffin within the past 10,000 years.  There is solid DNA evidence to prove this assertion, though I have not thoroughly investigated his potential relationship with Sgt. John Griffin of Simsbury. [4]

 

4.     The coat of arms attributed to the descendants of Edward Griffin, Sgt. John Griffin, and Jasper Griffing, was actually awarded to Griffin Appenreth, of Calais, who died in 1553, leaving no male heirs.  No American or Canadian Griffins have rights to the following coat-of-arms, family crest, or motto: 

 

Gu[les] on a fesse betw[een] three lozenges or, each charged with a fleur-de-lis of the first, a demi-rose betw[een] two griffins, segreant of the field/ of the first

Crest – A griffin segreant

Motto – Semper paratus [5] [6] [7] [8]

 

I welcome any additions, corrections, questions and alternative theories.  This is an ongoing project, and will be amended as new information is found.  Despite my best efforts to accurately record my findings, I realize I may have made errors and welcome your comments.  Before contacting me, I ask only that you read the following rationale, as your questions may have been answered below.

 

Theresa Griffin

20746 Bentley Drive

Perris, CA 92570

dosgriffins@earthlink.net

September, 2009

 

The Elusive Pengruffwnd Family

 

There are more than twenty Griffin family histories that merge the Edward Pengruffwnd [Pengriffin] of Walton West, son of John Pengriffin and Ann Langford (daughter of Edward Llangffort) with the Edward Griffith who arrived in Virginia in 1635, and who ended his days as Edward Griffin Sr., in Flushing, New York.  Almost all of these publications cite the work of Zeno T. Griffen of Chicago, Illinois, or can be traced back to his research. [9] [10] [11] [12]  

 

 

Zeno Griffen offered the above visitation pedigree of Richiart Pengruffwnd, recorded by Lewys Dwnn (pronounced Lewis Dunn) in his 1613 Heraldic Visitation of Wales, as evidence that this person was his ancestor, Edward Griffin, who died after 1698, in Flushing. [13]  To date, this statement has neither been authenticated nor challenged, though it is not surprising that Griffen’s assertions went unquestioned.  It is not only notoriously difficult for Americans to search and translate Welsh records, but the variant spellings of Pengruffwnd (hereafter Pengriffin) and the Griffin and Griffith surname variations make the workload overwhelming. {14}  Consequently, American and Canadian descendants of Edward Griffin have used Dwnn’s pedigree as the starting point of their family histories for over 100 years.  It appears, however, that in his zeal to find a family for his ancestor, Zeno made several incorrect assumptions, which resulted in the above-mentioned pedigree being published in the “New York Genealogical and Biographical Record” in 1906 and 1912. {15}

 

It is not my intention to condemn the work of Zeno T. Griffen, or any Griffin family historian.  According to Zeno, he had relied upon his father’s unpublished, handwritten manuscript which was written circa 1830. [16]    The fact that Zeno was able to locate as much correct information as he did, without the use of the computer, Internet, easy travel, or on-demand access to documents from all over the world, is to be admired.  I do not believe Zeno intended to deceive anyone with his suppositions, only that he had access to a small pool of documents and he drew his conclusions solely from that pool.  It is my assertion that he based most of his opinions upon the published abstracts listed in the Calendars of State Papers Domestic of England.  Although Zeno often gave specific dates for the events he reported, which was probably enough to convince early 20th century readers of his conclusions, with few exceptions he did not accurately cite his references.  Because the current conventions for documenting sources are much more rigorous than they were in 1906, and access to ancient documents is on the rise, it is time to authenticate the facts presented in previous Griffin family histories. 

 

In 1998, I began working on what was to be my husband Dale’s Christmas gift, his family history.  Eleven years and thousands of hours later it is still incomplete.  Several years after I began working on his genealogy, I found myself questioning the accuracy of the information that had been published regarding the pre-America history of the Griffin family.  In reading the works of Edmund Cleveland, Charles F. Griffin, Rev. Duane N. Griffin, Justus A. Griffin, Paul Jennings Griffin, Robert F. Griffin, Robert P. Griffing, Jordan T. Jack, Donald L. Jacobus, Suzanne S. Kulp, Barbara R. Kupac, Robert B. Miller, Elaine W. Olney, Edith R. Redman, Howard E. Staples, and Mavis Van Peenen, I found that most of their sources for Edward’s ancestry were those originally cited by Zeno. [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31]  With the support and encouragement of Paul Jennings Griffin and my husband Dale Griffin, who are both Edward Griffin’s seventh great grandsons, I began the long process of authenticating the assertions made in the various Griffin family histories.

 

While at the University of California Riverside’s Tomas Rivera Library in 2005, I came upon an entire aisle of books in the Great Britain section that housed the Calendars of State Papers both Domestic and Foreign (hereafter Calendars) containing abstracts of letters to and from the Secretaries of State or the Privy Council, acting on behalf of the Kings and Queens of England, categorized by the years of their reign (regnal years).  Over the next four months I read through each abstract beginning in 1400, through to the end of the reign of King Charles I, in 1649.  Although I was searching for the variants of the surname Pengriffin, I kept a list of every document that referenced a Richard, John or Edward Griffin (the names from the Dwnn pedigree) including all permutations of these names.  This exercise paid off because in 2007, after I had finished reading all of Zeno’s works, including his personal letters, I was astonished to find that every single document on my list had been cited in one of Zeno’s four manuscripts or referenced in his letters.  He had linked every document reported in the abstracts which were tied to an Edward, Richard, or John Griffin or Griffith into Edward Griffin’s family and ancestry.

 

It appeared that Zeno had cobbled together a life for Edward straight out of the Calendars.  All of the activities that he and others attributed to Edward prior to his crossing the Atlantic were in these published Calendars.  Certainly, this was where he got the story of Constable Edward Griffin who was pardoned by King James I, on January 7, 1625, for killing a man in the line of duty.  It was also how he determined that Edward Griffith was a servant of Lady Anna Wake (the wife of the British Ambassador to France, Sir Isaac Wake, and the half-sister of Edward 2nd Viscount Conway). [32] [33]  It seemed that Zeno had, as my British friend Brian Swann said, “Hoovered up all Griffin documents in the [Newberry] library and attributed them to your Griffins.”

 

However, it wasn’t only Zeno who attributed events to Edward that were not confirmed by the source documents.  One long held assertion, repeated in many Griffin manuscripts, including Suzanne’s Kulp’s, was that Constable Edward Griffin, while in service to the King, was granted a pardon by King James I in January of 1625, for killing a man in a London tavern in the line of duty. {34}  Here is the document referred to in those family histories.  It is from the Calendar of State Papers of King James I 1625, 1626:

 

Jan 7 (1625)

Grant to Edw. Griffin of pardon for manslaughter, commetted in self-defence. [Docquet]  [33]

 

This abstract did not provide enough information, so I ordered the original docket from the British National Archives:

 

07 Jan 1624 [/25]

A pardon to Edward Griffin for the killing of C----  Snelgrave w[hi]ch by the Coroner’s Inquest was found to be done in his owne defence; not[wi]thstanding, his Majesty doth hereby pardon him for manslaughter, and doth remit all forfeitures of his goods and chattels thereupon. Subscri[bed] by Mr. Sollicitor, according to warrant under his Majesty’s signe.  Mannell. 

Processed by  [/s/] J. Kirkham. [35]

 

Clearly, nothing in this document, which I transcribed with Brian Swann’s help, established the subject as our Edward Griffin of Virginia.  Further, there is no mention that this man was a constable, was in London, was in a tavern, or that he killed Snelgrave (or - Snelgrove) in the line of duty.  It is possible that the original lawsuit may provide more information.  I recently obtained a copy from Cambridge University from the Cholmondeley (Houghton) Papers which was catalogued by TNA as dealing with this lawsuit but the document was mistakenly identified; it was dated 1715 and dealt with a request by a Edward Griffin, Esq., son of Lord Edward Griffin, to Queen Anne regarding an offence he committed in France during the reign of William the III.  I’ll continue to search for a document to explain the 1624 pardon.  

 

Another event Zeno attributed to Edward Griffin was his position as a financial servant to Lady Anna (née Bray) Wake, and on page one of Barbara Kupec’s manuscript, she referred to him as Lady Anna’s “financial agent.”  I reviewed the Calendar abstracts and most telling was one written from Berwick in early January, 1633/34.  Sir Isaac Wake had died in 1632, and left Lady Anna destitute. [36]  Her half-brother was responsible for distributing her annuity twice a year and this entry acknowledges delivery of an acquittance (receipt) by Lady Wake’s servant, Edward Griffith:

 

1633-34. Jan. 6

19. Anna Lady Wake to William Weld.  Has sent an acquittance  drawn by Mr. Malet according to my Lord’s [Lord Conway’s] desire.  Begs him not to let her servant see it. [One page.] 

 

Inclosed, 19.1. I. Acquittance by Lady Wake to Lord Conway for 100 £ for half a year’s payment of an annuity of 200£ per annum issuing out of his lands in Ireland, granted to Richard Moore and Grimbald Pauncefoot for the life of Lady Wake, and in trust for her, 6th January 1633-34.  [Indorsed, “Receipt of Edward Griffith, servant to Lady Wake for the 100£. above-mentioned.  5th [sic] January 1633-34.”  One page.]  [32]

 

Zeno cited this source on page 17 of the Ancient Welsh Pedigree of the Griffin Family as proof of Edward’s occupation, but once again, there is nothing in this entry to indicate this is our Edward or that he was a financial agent - or advisor, as has been reported in several family histories subsequent to Zeno’s.

 

While these two findings were disturbing, and confirmed Brian’s and my suspicions that a family history may have been created for Edward out of random documents, the fact that in nine years of searching, I had not been able to find the surname Pengriffin in any document before or after Dwnn’s 1613 visitation was more troubling, and caused me to doubt other parts of the Griffin family lore, which I began to tackle.  

 

The Myth about the Griffin Family Coat of Arms

 

Lewys Dwnn was a Deputy Herald at Arms for Wales from 1586.  His visitation was a census, of sorts, of those entitled to bear arms or who were considered to be of “noble stock”.  Those with a coat of arms were often required to provide him with the documents which demonstrated how and when they or their ancestors had been granted their coats of arms. [37]  This visitation was available for Zeno and others to consult because it was published in 1848 by the historian and antiquarian Sir Samuel Rush Meyrick and was in the Newberry Library in Chicago Illinois in the late 1800s.  It should be mentioned that it has been recognized that there were some serious errors made by Rush Meyrick in his transcription of Dwnn’s visitation.

 

Based upon this published visitation, Zeno and several others claimed that the Richard Griffith, who was listed first on Dwnn’s pedigree, had been given a coat of arms as a reward for his delivery of Welsh troops to Henry Tudor in August of 1485, just days before the Battle of Bosworth Field. [11]  The victory at Bosworth resulted in Henry Tudor taking the crown from Richard III and becoming King Henry VII.

 

Here, in Zeno’s own words from page 7 of the Lineage of Richard Griffith, is his assertion: 

 

As RICHARD GRIFFITH was a very important personage, in the greatest of wars in the English realm, and one, whose Lineage is the subject of this history, it is necessary to give a short account of the War of the Red and the White Rose, which cost the lives of a million men, and about all of the nobility of England.  It was a struggle for the English crown, between the House of Lancaster, which had for its emblem, the Red Rose, and the House of York, the White Rose.

 

Over the next eight pages Zeno details the events leading up to the Battle of Bosworth Field between Richard III of the House of York and Henry Tudor, of the House of Lancaster.  He continues on page 15:     

 

In this battle, there is no record of the participation, (sic) of Sir Walter Herbert, the brother-in-law of RICHARD GRIFFITH, although the Herberts, after that victory, were men of prominence in South Wales.  But Sir Rhys was suitably honored, and lavishly given position, honors and possessions by Henry VII.

 

GRIFFITH, of (sic) GRIFFIN, Coat of Arms, of Penrith, Wales.

 

In tracing lineage genealogists claimed that Coats of Arms are the best evidence, where there is no direct record; that they are more reliable than pedigrees.  There are about fifty “Coats” recorded in the Heraldic books, of Griffith, Griffen and Griffin, granted in England and Wales.  Written in Welsh is a grant to what is obviously RICHARD GRIFFITH, about the date of Henry’s coronation, as Henry VIIth.  But there is an authentic record [in] all the Heraldic books of the following, which is undoubtedly his;

 

GRIFFIN, (Penrith, Wales)

Gu[les] on a fesse betw[een] three lozenges or, each charged with a fleur-de-lis of the first, a demi-rose betw[een] two griffins, segreant of the field.

Crest – A griffin segreant

Motto – Semper paratus

In a French book of Heraldry, the motto is “Toujours prêt”, which being translated is “Always ready.”

Zeno continued with this rationale to back up his claim that the above arms were awarded to Richard Griffith:

 

The demi-rose on this shield, indicates exactly, RICHARD GRIFFITH’S change of sovereignty from the White Rose, under which emblem he had fought for the House of York, with both his relatives, the Herberts and Rhys ap Thomas ap Griffith, to the cause of Henry Tudor, at Cardigan, in August, 1484[1485], and fought under the Red Rose at Boswerth [Bosworth] for him.  He was an old man when Henry Tudor obtained the crown, and did not obtain the favors that Sir Rhys ap Thomas did, in lands, grants, and honors, and probably settled at Penrith, on a manor, located near the boundary between Cardigan and Pembroke chires, [shires] which had been granted to his ancestors, June 16, 1290, by Edward I, of England.

 

I have found seven sources which credit “Richard Griffith, an old solider of nobility,” or “a local gentleman named Griffith, a friend of Rhys ap Thomas, who was accompanied by Evan [John] Morgan of Gwent,” with assistance in the delivery of Welsh troops, formerly loyal to Richard of York, to Henry Tudor.  However, there are at least as many sources which attribute this act to solely to Rhys ap Thomas ap Griffith. [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50]  It should be noted that one of the most regarded authorities on this time period is Dr. Ralph Alan Griffiths.  In an email to me, he wrote that he had worked to identify this particular Richard Griffith and directed me to a particular source. [51]  From page 186 of his book, Sir Rhys ap Thomas and his Family, there is this footnote:

 

16 The identification of Richard Griffith is uncertain, but he may have been the younger brother of Sir Walter Griffith (c. 1431-81), lord (sic) of Llangybi, Betws Bledrws and Llanrhystud (Cards.), as well as of more extensive estates in Yorkshire and Staffordshire. . . . This would make him the brother of Elizabeth, Rhys ap Thomas’s mother . . .[43]

 

As to the land grant of June 16, 1290, to which Zeno referred, I was unable to find it, but I knew he must have seen the date written somewhere.  I examined the Calendar of Close Rolls of King Edward I, and found neither a grant to the ancestors of the Griffiths, nor any document recorded on that date.  I reviewed all entries for 1290, but could not find what Zeno might have seen to give him this impression.  Because Zeno asserted that Richard Griffith was from Cardigan (Cards., above ) I began to suspect that he had merged the activities and land grants of the family of Sir Rhys ap Thomas ap Griffith with the Pengriffins.  His justification, which must have lead him to conclude that these two families were one, is found on page 8 of the Lineage of Richard Griffith.

 

RICHARD GRIFFITH, alias, RICHIART PENGRUFFWND,  of [or] Chief Griffith, was one of [the] old and experienced soldiers, and a man of great nobility, according to the various references to him in the Welsh histories.  He was a relative, either by blood or marriage, of Sir Rhys ap Thomas ap Griffith, who was much younger than RICHARD, and a brother-in-law of Lord, Sir William Herbert, the most powerful and wealthy man of South Wales . . .

 

I wasn’t convinced that the two families were related, and made a concerted effort to find another instance of the Pengriffin name.  That it did not appear in any of the volumes of the Calendars wasn’t too surprising; the family may not have had occasion to interact with the Crown, but the fact that the name was missing from the preeminent authority on Welsh surnames: the 1985 edition of T.J. and Prys Morgan’s Welsh Surnames, concerned me.  In March of 2006, I wrote to Dr. Prys Morgan and inquired about the Pengriffin family, to which he responded that his father and he had “missed this family” while researching their book. [52]  His opinion was that the family members probably changed their name to make it less cumbersome, something that turned out to be correct. 

 

It was also disconcerting that the Pengriffins did not appear in Peter Bartrum’s seminal Welsh Genealogies, which span the years AD 300-1500. [53] [54]  I did, however, find the purported Pengriffin coat of arms attributed to a Griffith Appenreth in Dr. Michael Powell Siddons’ authoritative work, The Development of Welsh Heraldry, [5] and on the Parry Family History website as well. [55]  In April 2006, I emailed Ms. Barbara Griffiths, owner of the site, who over the next several months helped me understand the rudimentary rules of British heraldry.  She explained that a coat of arms was generally not inheritable without permission; it was awarded to one man for an act.  Barbara, and later Brian Swann, alerted me to the possibility that the pre American Griffin family histories may have been fabricated, a conclusion that I was starting to consider because I still hadn’t found the Pengriffin name in over 250 sources.

 

At this point, it made sense to return to the only place I had ever seen the Pengriffin name in a British document:  Meyrick’s printed version of Dwnn’s visitation.  I obtained an original edition from the University of Minnesota and combed the two volumes for any other mention of the Pengriffin family.  There wasn’t one.  I noticed that Dwnn had not recorded a coat of arms for this family, yet most other families enumerated had descriptions of their arms shown along with their pedigrees.  In his introduction, Meyrick stated that Dwnn, who was Welsh, had written the original in an odd combination of English and Welsh, so it was plausible that the names and places recorded in the visitation might have been incorrectly spelled.  I was hoping to locate this family in Pembrokeshire, where Syr Richart, Edward’s purported uncle, was living in 1613, and follow it into present times.  For assistance with the difficult Welsh place names, in May of 2006, I posted an inquiry on Rootsweb’s Pembrokeshire message board and received a response from Dr. Brian Picton Swann, a native of England (but not a Griffin) who had over 30 years of experience in genealogy on both sides of the Atlantic.  With his generous help, research tools, guidance, assistance, and transcription expertise, I began to make progress on the Pengriffin family.  While Brian always says that I did most of the work, I would never have had the tools, knowledge or courage necessary to undertake this effort without his guidance and support, and for this I am so very grateful. 

 

Brian strongly urged me to contact the current Wales Herald of Arms Extraordinary, Dr. Michael Powell Siddons, at the College of Arms in London, to understand why the coat of arms that Zeno had attributed to the Pengriffin family was shown in his book as belonging to Griffith Appenreth.  In his letters, Dr. Siddons confirmed that the coat of arms which had been displayed by descendants of Edward Griffin of Flushing, Jasper Griffing of Southold, and Sgt. John Griffin of Simsbury, had been awarded to Griffin Appenreth (also Appenrith, Appenrithe, Ap Penrith), by Christopher Barker, Knight of the Garter.  Griffith Appenreth, he wrote, had died in Calais on September 3, 1553, leaving only two daughters; therefore, there was no male line of descent.  Dr. Siddons added that the Parry family may have been entitled to the coat of arms through the marriage of Griffith Appenreth’s daughter Margaret to Sir Richard Windebank [6]  What’s more, he said that he “had never met the name Pengruffwnd or Pengriffin.”  This was significant as now I had confirmation from two recognized experts that they had never seen the name Pengriffin. {56}   

 

While rereading Dr. Morgan’s letter, I focused on his note that “Syr is a sixteenth century title like our Reverend,” which meant that Richart Pengriffin was probably a cleric, not a member of the gentry as Zeno had assumed. [52]  This realization lead me to an article entitled “Lewys Dwnn and the Parsons” at the University of Wales at Bangor, and on page 39 I found another piece of the puzzle: 

 

163. WALTON WEST Syr Richart Pengrffwnd Person o Walton yn Rows yn Sir Benfro, son of Gruffyff Pengruffwnd son of Richard Pengruffwnd; married Agnes, daughter of Martin O'Reily of Ireland, esquire, and had four children. He signed his pedigree for Dwnn in 1613, as Richard Pengriffin. (i, 244).  [57]

 

Roughly translated this says Cleric Richard Pengriffin Parson of Walton in Rhos in Pembrokeshire son of Griffin Pengriffin, son of Richard Pengriffin; married Agnes, daughter of Martin O’Reily of Ireland, Esquire, and had four children.  This article explained the Pengriffin family’s inclusion in the visitation:  Richart was the head of the church (the Parson) at Walton West.  It also explained why there were no arms associated with this family:  Richard Pengriffin was not a member of the gentry. 

 

With the help of Dr. Morgan and Dr. Swann, and the generous assistance of Dr. Siddons, the question of the Appenreth coat of arms passing via recorded documents to the descendants of Edward Griffin, Sgt. John Griffin or Jasper Griffing, has been unequivocally answered: they did not.  In his letter of July 6, 2006, Dr. Siddons said this,

 

[Griffith Appenrith]  was perhaps Griffith ap Henry, since I have never come across the personal name Penrith.  I am unable to place him in any family.

 

 It is probable that Burke assumed wrongly that he was Griffith (surname) of a place called Penrith. There is a parish of Pen-rhydd (English Penrith) in north Pembrokeshire, and I believe that the Griffins understood Burke's entry to mean that this was a family called Griffith of this parish. Burke is clearly referring to Griffith (Christian name) Appenrith of Calais, mentioned above. As is well known, the use of a coat of arms, while it may be a signpost, does not always prove a descent, and people often use a coat of arms on a mistaken assumption.

 

Dr. Siddons’ contention was borne out on page 15 of Zeno’s manuscript The Lineage of Richard Griffith, which was taken directly from Burke’s book:

 

Griffin (Penrith, Wales) Gu. on a fess betw. three lozenges or, each charged with a fleur-de-lis of the first, a demi-rose, betw. two griffins segreant, of the field. [58]

 

How did this coat of arms come to be part of the Griffin family lore?  I have been advised by many genealogists that it was not uncommon for those who immigrated to the colonies to bring coats of arms and family crests with them to elevate themselves in society.  This subject and its importance was particularly prevalent in the early years of the twentieth century, where social status was far more important than today.  It was clear that not all Griffin historians were convinced about the ownership of these arms.  As early as 1924, Justus Griffin voiced his doubts about his family’s ownership of this coat of arms.  On page 10 of his book, after discussing a silver plate engraved with the coat of arms described above, which was owned by a descendant of Jasper Griffing, he wrote:

 

Some of the descendants of Edward Griffin, of Flushing, have convinced themselves that he also was of the family which bore those arms, and made use of them.  Whether that is a fact or not is of little consequence now, and the arms are shown here as an interesting relic.  [19]

 

At this point, we have substantial proof that the coat of arms which William Crozier attributed to Sgt. John Griffin of Simsbury, belongs to the Parry family, and therefore, the descendants of Edward Griffin in America and Canada cannot rightfully claim or use these arms. [55] {59}

 

The Myth about Narberth Castle

 

I remember a phone conversation I had with Paul Jennings Griffin in early 2005, about a 1998 trip he had taken to Wales, to work on the Pengriffin family.  Paul told me that while he was at the National Library of Wales in Aberystwyth, he asked the librarian for help with the Pengriffin family.  She pointed to “a distinguished professor” (name unknown - possibly Dr. Prys Morgan) and said he was the person to ask.  Paul showed him page 244 of Dwnn’s pedigree, and the professor responded that he had been studying the family names of Wales all of his life and never heard of Pengriffin as a Welsh name.  Paul said he was speechless.  Paul also said that when he visited the village of Narberth, the town historian informed him that there was no connection between a Richiart Pengriffin and Narberth Castle because he never owned it.

 

Zeno, however, maintained that Richart Pengriffin was a knight and had ownership of Narberth Castle, because on page 18 of the Lineage of Richard Griffith, he stated,

 

At the time Sir Richard Griffith, the Grand Son (sic) of RICHARD GRIFFITH, on May 8, 1609, was attained [attainted] he owned Narberth Castle and Woods, which is yet in existence, situated about ten miles north of Tenby. 

 

I began reading histories of Wales during the time of the Tudors to see if I could understand Zeno’s assertion about the ownership of Narberth.  On page 246 of Dr. Ralph Alan Griffiths’ book, Sir Rhys ap Thomas and his Family, I found a clue.  A portion of Narberth Castle and its lands was given to Sir Rhys ap Thomas ap Griffith, (aka Rice ap Thomas) who fought alongside Henry Tudor at Bosworth and who was knighted in early 1486, about the time of King Henry VII’s coronation.  Sir Rhys’ grandson and heir, Rice Griffith, had been attainted by Henry VIII in 1531, on the charge of conspiracy, whereby he lost all rights to Narberth. [43]  In Volume 8 of the Calendar of Correspondence of King James I at page 510, I found the abstract which probably lead to Zeno’s conclusion about the ownership of Narberth:

 

1609 May 8.  32. Memorandum by Auditor Grofton of the town, castle, and forest of Norbertes [Narberth] co. Pembroke, and other possessions of Rich. Griffith, attainted. 

 

Even if Zeno had not merged the Griffith and Rhys ap Thomas ap Griffith families, here was “Rich. Griffith” listed as the former owner of Narberth. 

 

For clarification, I wrote again to Dr. Ralph Griffiths, who was not only the Professor Emeritus of Medieval History of the University of Wales at Swansea, but also the Chair of the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales.  Certainly, Dr. Griffiths, who is not a relative, was the expert in his field and I was so fortunate to have been the beneficiary of his kindness.  He worked with me over the balance of 2006 to clear up the mystery:  Sir Rhys ap Thomas’ son was Gruffydd ap Rhys ap Thomas [Griffith Rhys] and it was his son, Rhys ap Gruffydd [Rice Griffith] who was attainted for treason by King Henry VIII in 1531 (not 1609, as suggested by Zeno).  Rice not only lost his possessions, he lost his life.  In his email, Dr. Griffiths said that many English transcribers had misinterpreted “Rhys” as “Richard.” [51]  Dr Siddons concurred when he wrote on July 6, 2006:

 

I wonder if there has been confusion with Sir Rhys ap Thomas, who undoubtedly took an important contingent to help Henry Tudor at Bosworth. Sir Rhys's father was Thomas ap Gruffudd ap Nicolas, that is, his grandfather's Christian name was Gruffudd. [6]

 

 The descendants of Rice Griffith are now known by the surnames Rice, Reese and Royce, but not Griffith, Griffin or Griffing.

 

The Myth of the Pengruffwnd Family

 

Zeno’s family histories continue with the assertion that Edward Pengriffin and his brother John, were born in the parish of Walton, in the Hundred of Rhos, in the County of Pembrokeshire, Wales, in 1602 and 1608, respectively.  Meyrick’s transcription of Dwnn’s pedigree, however, gave no dates.  At my request, Dr. Siddons reviewed his microfilmed copy of the original 1613 pedigree and confirmed that there were no birthdates on Dwnn’s handwritten document. [8]

 

Zeno’s likely source for these dates was the “Licenses to Go Beyond the Seas” from J. C. Hotten’s 1874 edition of The Original Persons of Quality which was available in the Newberry Library in Chicago, when Zeno was researching.  On page 27 of the Lineage of Richard Griffith, Zeno transcribed Hotten’s list of passengers aboard the Abraham of London on October 24, 1635, headed for Virginia.  He also copied the passenger list for the Constance, which showed a 26-year-old John Griffin departing on the same date, also bound for Virginia.  It became apparent that Zeno calculated Edward and John’s birthdates from these licences to emigrate which meant there wasn’t any proof that Dwnn’s pedigree contained the family of our Edward Griffin.  The original source of these pages in Hotten is in the Records of the Exchequer, Class E 157/20/58, in the National Archives at Kew, England.

 

I should say that by this time both Brian and I were operating under the assumption that our Edward Griffin was not Edward Pengriffin.  In reviewing Zeno’s conclusions, we had found no documented proof for continuing to believe that the Edward and John listed at the bottom of Dwnn’s pedigree of 1613, were our Edward and John Griffin.  Nevertheless, it was necessary to research this family with the hope that we would find wills which would lead us to the Edward and John who were listed on the visitation document to furnish unambiguous proof of this hypothesis.  I soon realized that a trip to Wales was going to be necessary to solve this puzzle.

 

The key to deciphering this impasse was to try and understand the locations being talked about in Dwnn’s visitation pedigree of 1613.  The title of the pedigree mentioned not only Walton in the Hundred of Rhos in Pembrokeshire, but also the county of Shropshire, although under its old-fashioned name of S. Moethig, which meant Sir Amwythig, which is Welsh for Shropshire.  Brian then realized that Bwknil or Biganell could be the parish of Bucknell in south Shropshire.  Michael Powell Siddons had suggested that Koksol, mentioned in the context of Griffith Pengruffwnd who had married Joan, daughter of Selmont David of Koksol, Gent., was a phoenetic transcription of Coxall [7].  Brian was able to locate a farmstead of that name in the parish of Bedstone, the neighboring parish to Bucknell.  And then it dawned on us that Bedstone was actually mentioned in the title line of the pedigree, but as Bedson.  The only other location mentioned in the visitation pedigree and the families therein was a daughter Margery marrying Ieuan ap Stephen of Gasgob.  Gascob is a parish in Radnorshire, very close to the parishes of Bedstone and Bucknell in Shropshire.  So we seemed to have found the family home of the Pengriffin/Griffithes/Griffin family at last.

 

Meanwhile, I had managed to locate the will of a John Griffithes, dated May 3, 1614, who seemed to be the father of Edward Pengruffwnd and who was shown as John Pengruffwnd on Dwnn’s pedigree.  He had died in 1616, at Bedstone in the county of Shropshire; his wife had, apparently, predeceased him.  His sons Edward and John were mentioned in the will, along with their sisters Jowan [Johan/Joan], who married Richard Marston [Mason]; Katrin [Katherine], who married Charles Maklon [Makelyn and Maclen], and their families. [60].  This provided good additional evidence we were looking at the right Griffith family in the right place because the names and locations were matching up with those given in the visitation pedigree.

 

Further evidence was provided by Brian’s examination of the parish registers of Bedstone and Bucknell.  Unfortunately the parish registers of Bedstone do not survive before 1719, but those of Bucknell start in 1598.  The registers of Bucknell had baptism entries for 1605 [Thomas Mason] and 1606 [Priscilla Mason] as the two youngest children of Joan Pengriffin/Griffith who had married Richard Mason.  They correspond to the two youngest children given in the visitation pedigree, and Priscilla is an unusual Christian name at this time.  The registers also mention the Davies family living at Coxall, e.g. the burial of John Davies of Coxall, Gent., on 31 May 1608.  The significance of this Davies family will become clear in the paragraph regarding the will of Edward Griffth, below.

 

In looking back over some notes I had made years prior, I found a notation about a will of a John Griffithes from Clunbury.  With Brian’s transcription help we found that we had the will of John, Edward Griffith’s older brother, who had died in 1624, in the parish of Clunbury in the Diocese of Hereford, where he, like his uncle Richard Pengriffin of Walton West, was a cleric.  Clunbury is not far away from the parishes of Bedstone and Bucknell.  His will, dated February 1, 1623/24, revealed he was unmarried and had no children.  He left his estate to his nieces and nephews, including the children of his late brother Edward, as well as the children of his sisters Joan and Katherine. [2]  This will suggested that his brother, Edward Pengriffin/Griffith had died before 1624.  Both of these wills were online from the probate records of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury at the National Archives website.

 

In July of 2007, Brian invited Dale and me to join him and his wife, Eirwen, in Wales in late September to attend a talk he was giving on DNA and Welsh Family History at the Montgomeryshire Family History Society.  He also offered an insider’s tour of Wales and England, and a promise to familiarize me with The National Archives at Kew.  Brian had been working with me on the Griffin family history for about a year at this time and it was our goal to find the ancestral home of Edward Pengriffin’s family.  Brian proposed we travel to Walton West, Pembrokeshire, where we knew his uncle, Richard Pengriffin, had been living in 1613, and also to Shropshire, where it now seemed clear that Dwnn was stating in his visitation that members of the family were living both in 1613 and prior to this date.

 

On October 4, 2007, the moment we walked into All Saints’ Church in Walton West, Pembrokeshire, we saw Richard Pengriffin’s name listed on a document entitled “The Rectors of All Saints’, Walton West,” posted on the back wall of the church. It told us that Richard’s tenure as parson was 1613- 1619.  To finally see the Pengriffin name somewhere other than in Dwnn’s document was enormously gratifying, and I could not have done this without Brian’s help.  It was an incredible moment for both of us, and one that we caught on camera and later celebrated with a champagne toast.

 

 

                                                                                    

                  All Saint’s Church, Walton West, Pembrokeshire, Wales

 

The source of this information in the church may well not have been due to diligent effort by the rectors of Walton West, but taken from the research and article by Francis Green, “Pembrokeshire Parsons”, in Volume 2 of West Wales Historical Records, 1911/12.  This volume includes the parish of Walton West.  Green recorded Richard Pengriffin in the list of incumbents of Walton West from 1613 until William Ormond was appointed on November 2, 1619.  It is not clear where Francis Green obtained his information but he was a diligent antiquarian and the foremost Pembrokeshire historian of his day.  He may well have collected information from the archives of the Bishops of St. Davids, now at the National Library of Wales.

 

With Richard Pengriffin/Griffith located, our next task was to find the rest of the family.  As mentioned above, during the five months prior to my visit, Brian and I had been working to update and correct the transcription of Dwnn’s original 1613 visitation.  After visits to the parish churches of Bedstone, Bucknell and the farm at Coxall in the parish of Bedstone, Brian suggested a visit to the Hereford Record Office, where the ecclesiastical documents for this area were housed.  The Diocese of Hereford included parishes in south Shropshire as well as the county of Hereford for the time period we were researching.  It was there, on October 6, 2007, that I found the will of Edward Pengriffin, known then as Edward Griffith.  As explained above I had already found the wills of John Griffithes (his father) and Edward’s brother John Griffithes; all that had been missing was Edward’s will.  We managed to locate this document in the surviving probate records for the Archdeaconry of Shropshire in the Diocese of Hereford.  We tackled the challenging handwriting in the will together and managed to unearth the following information about this family, who were using the spellings Griffithes, Griffiths and Griffith interchangeably.

 

Edward Griffith, a Yeoman of Bedstone, Shropshire, was dead by June 1622.  In his will dated April 14, 1622, he provided for an unnamed wife, sons Thomas (the eldest) and Richard, a daughter Anne, who was under twenty-one, his brother John and a cousin, Thomas Davies. [1]    

 

Here we have unequivocal evidence that this Pengriffin family cannot possibly be the ancestors of our Edward Griffin of Flushing or of Sgt. John Griffin of Simsbury.  The men in question had been dead for more than ten years before the Abraham or the Constance departed London in October of 1635.

 

To answer the often-asked question as to how this pedigree became to be accepted as the ancestry of Edward Griffin, I offer this quote from Zeno’s letter written to Justus Griffin, Andrew W., and his brother, Morganza Griffin, on June 6, 1912:

 

Gentlemen:-

You three, with myself have for years been searching the records and gathering the traditions of our great family, and it is now about complete and as correct as can be from the present “lights” of the late published histories and records, particularly gathered from our greatest genealogical and historical - Newbury [Newberry] Library, of Chicago- and I say this not from my own investigation in it, but from other genealogical students, who have used the genealogical libraries, in Boston, New York, and other great cities - and they have to come here for final investigation.  It was in this Library that I first discovered the line of our family in England and Wales, and which was published in the N.Y. Genealogical and Historical Record, in 1905, and my discovery of Richiart Pengruffwnd, was so important that it is noticed in the proceedings of the American Genealogical Association, the next year, and published to the world.  I don’t want to extol myself at all, but just state the fact, that in several years after 1880, I gleaned everything in Great Britain, bearing on the Welsh people, and became quite interested in that ancient race, and a little educated in the old language, for instance, I found that “Edward” was in Welsh, “Iorwerth”.  Gruffydd, could only be translated into “Griffith”, Pengriffin was the title of “Head of the Griffins” etc. [61]

 

As to the coat of arms, Zeno had this to say in his letter dated September 15, 1912,

 

". . . with the help of records, and Coat of Arms sent me by Mr. Justus A. G. of Hamilton, Ont, I think that we have discovered the correct Coat of Arms of our great ancestor, Richard Griffith, the powerful, aged and noble Welsh chieftain, who so ably assisted Henry Tudor to obtain the Crown of England, as Henry VIIth, at the battle of Bosworth Field, in 1485.  This Richard Griffith has the same ancestor that the sovereigns of England are proud to have." [62]

 

This idea may have originated when Zeno saw page 65 of Crozier's General Armory,

 

“GRIFFIN.  Connecticut

Sergeant John Griffin, Windsor, 1646.

(Yorkshire.)

Gules, on a fesse or between three fusils, charged with fleurs-de-lis a demi-quatrefoil between two gryphons segreant.

CREST - A gryphon segreant.

MOTTO - Semper paratus.”

 

Because Zeno wholeheartedly believed that Edward and John were brothers, it would follow that he would link the arms to his Edward Griffin family. [62]

 

With these admissions from Zeno, any lingering questions about the Pengruffwnd family connection and the coat of arms are now finally put to rest.

 

 

The Myth about the Brothers, Edward and Sgt. John

 

The next area to tackle was the purported relationship between our Edward and Sgt. John Griffin of Simsbury.  In ten years of examining documents from Virginia, New England and New York, I have never found any evidence that Edward and John were together in the same place, which seemed unusual for brothers who were thousands of miles from their homeland.  In fact, the only mention of them in the same city was when they were departing London on October 24, 1635. 

 

Although Edward Griffin’s name was listed as one of the servants who was taken hostage June 20, 1638, on orders of Governor Leonard Calvert, from William Claiborne’s outpost on Palmer’s Island (renamed Watsons Island and is now Garrett Island) by Sheriff Robert Vaughn, John Griffin was not mentioned.  John Griffin was not listed as an occupant of Kent Island in the lists I found in the Virginia State Library, either. [63]  It is telling that most family histories written by descendants of Sgt. John begin with his activities in Simsbury in 1642, and mention nothing of his life before then.  After reading Zeno’s letters, I can see that he tried to make the connection, but the relatives of Sgt. John with whom he was corresponding were skeptical, as was Justus Griffin, Edward’s descendant.

 

It is important to understand that the Constance, according to the following depositions relating to a lawsuit brought by some of the passenger of the Constance and taken by the High Court of Admiralty, got only as far as the Downs due to high winds; what’s more, it never made it to Virginia.  From the deposition of Henry Morrell,

 

All the passengers were landed at Ilfracombe, Devon, where the deponent and others stayed for 3 months until the ship’s voyage was quite given up.” 

 

In his deposition, George Taylor said,

 

He was a passenger in the Constance, whose purser, Jeffrey Gough, informed him that the ship was forced to put into Ilfracombe in January 1635/6 because of her leakiness.

 

It is my belief that the John Griffin listed on the passenger list was most likely the “___ Griffith, a servant of Thomas Palmer,” mentioned by Edmond Porter in his deposition.  More than likely, the reason John Griffin’s name never appeared in the Kent Island records from 1636 through 1640, was that he was not there, or even in Virginia. [64]

 

The question of John’s whereabouts became moot in early 2008, after we received the results of twelve DNA tests which proved that our Edward Griffin was not remotely related to Sgt. John Griffin.  Out of a possible 12/12 marker match, the four descendants of John who were tested against the eight descendants of Edward, scored a 0/12 match.  This means they did not have one genetic marker out of twelve in common!  More importantly, the haplogroup for Edward Griffin is 12b1 whereas Sgt. John Griffin’s is R1b1b2, which means these two men could not have shared a common blood relative within 10,000 years!

 

As of today, Edward Griffin is without a homeland, parents or siblings.  Although Zeno made some errors in logic regarding Edward’s ancestry, he did create a credible history for Edward Griffin in America, with only a few errors. 

 

The Truth about Edward Griffin, born circa 1602

 

With all of this said, what do we actually know about the life of Edward Griffin from documented evidence?  What is the truth about our Edward Griffin?

 

According to the Registers of Licenses to Go Pass Beyond the Seas, the original of which I received as an Easter present from Brian in 2007, Edward was 33 when he boarded the Abraham, which would mean, if his age was correctly recorded, he would most likely have been born in 1602, or the last quarter of 1601. [65] 

 

                                                                                                              

 

We do not have any evidence which even hints at where or to whom he was born.  It may take years, even decades, to find Edward’s origins.  As Brian once told me, “This task may just see you out;” he truly knows the enormity of the job ahead.  Not only are the British records difficult to locate, they must also be transcribed, and sometimes translated.

 

Without Brian’s unrelenting help, I could never have gotten this far and although I have his promise of help for just a few more years, I hope that those of you reading this will be inspired to work with us to find a home and family for Edward.  During my visit to London in 2007, I saw parish records which showed that there were hundreds of Griffiths (Edward’s name as recorded on the port register) and Griffins living in and around London in 1635.  As this was Edward’s point of departure, we must begin looking for him there. 

 

We must also consider that by the age of 33, Edward may have had already been married and had children.  The most compelling question for me has been, and still is, “why would a 33 year-old man leave his homeland and family and willingly put himself into servitude?”  I first explored the possibility that he was forced to leave the country in lieu of serving time in prison.  I located the lists of prisoners sent to Virginia from England in the 1630s and although there were a few Griffins and Griffiths shown, none was named Edward, (or John). [66] [67] [68] 

 

Recently, Brian wrote that in 1625, there was a plague in Stepney, a parish less than two miles from the center of London.  In fact, Stepney is reported to have been “one of the worst plague districts in London,” and from December 23, 1624, through December 15, 1625, there were 35,417 deaths in the London area due to the plague. [69]  Could Edward have lost his family to the plague?  If so, this may have been a reason for his emigration and indenture. 

 

Brian often points out that people do not migrate into a vacuum and so we are working on a looking for a motive to explain why and how Edward Griffin left London.  One connection may be between the owners of the vessel Abraham and the merchants of Cloberry & Company, William Claiborne’s London partners in the Virginia venture.  The evidence suggests that Edward Griffin was more likely an indentured servant, but at an age of thirty-three he would have been old enough to have had a trade.  The processes by which indentured servants were recruited in London at this particular time are not well documented.  There was clearly an agreement between the owners of the vessel and the ship’s captain, John Barker, and it must have made more economic sense to recruit people locally from London and its surrounding counties than from the more distant counties of England and Wales.  The population of London was increasing by very significant numbers during the first half of the seventeenth century. [70]

 

Nothing very much at all is known about the captain of the Abraham, John Barker.  All the early vessels bound for Virginia left from the parish of Stepney, which before the 1650s, was a huge parish covering almost all of London outside the city walls along the north bank of the Thames as far as the county boundary with Essex. [68] [71] [72]

 

Once in Virginia, Edward Griffeth (sic) was indentured to “Colo.” Wm Claiborne, Secretary of State of the Virginia Colony. [73]  I have found no proof that Edward Griffin was on Kent Island, a “fact” often reported in the Griffin family histories.  He was certainly on Palmer’s Island in July of 1638, when he and three other servants were taken prisoner by Sheriff Robert Vaughn, an agent of Lord Baltimore. {74}  According to numerous depositions, Edward Griffin, William Jones, William Freeman, who may have been aboard the Abraham with Edward, and Richard Reymond were captured and taken to Maryland on orders from Governor Calvert who disregarded the time the men had served with Claiborne and put them into the service of his brother, Cecil, the second Lord Baltimore. {75} [76] Edward, unfortunately, had gotten caught in the middle of a land battle between Lord Baltimore and Captain William Claiborne.  Claiborne, who had first come to Virginia as a surveyor, had seen the fur-trading potential and been granted a license to trade with the Indians in the Chesapeake Bay area by the King of England, where he set up a colony at Kent Island and an outpost at Palmers Island.  Later, the King granted Maryland to George Calvert, the first Lord Baltimore and the boundaries of Claiborne’s license overlapped with Calvert’s grant.  A land war ensued.[Ibid]    

 

Somehow Edward turned up in the court at Fort Amsterdam on 23 August 1640.  He testified that he “ran away” from Maryland because he didn’t have a master in Maryland and his master in Virginia was Captain Claiborne. [77]  Several Griffin family histories claim that Captain Thomas Gems/Games/James, who was reported by Zeno to have been Welsh, helped him to escape.  I have seen over fifteen documents concerning Games and none of them support this allegation.  It appears that Zeno may have connected Thomas Games to the prominent Games family from Brecknockshire, Wales, also enumerated in Lewys Dwnn’s 1613 visitation document, to establish him as Welsh, but there is no proof that he was related to that family.

 

In the colonial documents there was a mariner, Thomas Games, who lived in Kent County, Maryland, and who had licenses in 1638 and 1640, to trade with the Dutch and Indians in the Hudson Bay area, as well as in New England.  It is interesting to note that Games made a trip to New England in 1639, about the time Edward Griffin would have escaped from Lord Baltimore’s plantation in Maryland. [78]  There is also evidence that Games was in at court in Fort Amsterdam on 30 August 1639, and again in court in New Haven, Connecticut on 5 August 1640, over a dispute with John Moody.” [79] [80]  So, he was in the area at the time and it is possible he could have assisted Edward, but to date I have not found proof.  

 

It isn’t clear if Edward sought asylum from the Dutch owners of New York, or was arrested by them, but on August 27, 1640, he stood trial at Fort Amsterdam, New Netherland, which resulted in a decision stating that although Governor Calvert had sent Peter Draper, his attorney, to apprehend Edward Griffins, a runaway servant, Griffins provided evidence from Henry Pennington of Hackemac that he was not a fugitive servant but had been a prisoner in Maryland. {81}  Pennington testified that he didn’t know if Edward

 

“. . . voluntarily bound himself a servant to any person, but he, Henry Pennington, well knows that he was Captain Claver’s [Claiborne’s] servant in Virginia.[77]  

 

As a result, on August 23, 1640, the Dutch court ordered that,

 

Peter Draper shall agree with the above-named Griffins for his freedom, and said Draper shall be bound to give good security that said Griffins shall not be molested by Captain Claber, or anyother [any other] person, who may exhibit his articles of indenture, and shall remain undisturbed.

 

Eight days later, a document entitled, “Bond of Thomas James of Maryland as surety, for the freedom of Edward Griffins” was recorded.  Although I have a copy of the original Dutch court order, the original Dutch bond was destroyed in the 1911 fire of the New York Capitol building.  This means we must rely upon the first and only translation of the ancient Dutch document, which reads, [82]

 

I, the undersigned, Thomas Gems, an inhabitant of Maryland, bind myself as surety and principal for Edward Griffins, who has agreed and contracted for the sum of five pounds sterling with Peter Draper, who also acknowledges in the presence of the underwritten witnesses that he has received the money, for the freedome of said Griffins; and if it happens that he should exhibit Captain Claver’s indenture and molest him, Griffin, I substitute my person and property as aforesaid in place of the principal, Edward Griffins.

 

Thomas James

 

Tho: Wilett, witness

John Hampton, witness

To my knowledge,

Cornelius van Tienhoven, Secretary

 

Zeno, Jordan Jack Thurlow, and other Griffin family historians have proposed that Edward may have been aboard Thomas Games’ ship during the time his bond was active.  The suggestion is a good one, and makes sense if Games would have had to surrender himself and his property in place of Edward if he disappeared and William Claiborne showed up claiming that Edward still owed him time on his indenture.

 

There is no term shown on the bond translation, but based upon Edward’s age, his time of service would have likely been completed by 1640. [83]  I have not been able to find the name of Games’ ship, or any other documentation to further clarify the bond.  The relationship between Thomas Games and Edward Griffin is a mystery.  It is possible that Games, who owned property in Kent County, Maryland, was loyal to the Calverts and did not assist Edward in escaping.  A possibility is that Edward stowed away on Game’s ship, but this is certainly conjecture on my part.  It may be that Governor Calvert ordered Games take Draper to the court at New Amsterdam.  Games may have accompanied Draper to court because Draper was expecting to take Edward into custody and return him to Maryland, via Games’ ship. 

 

From here the Griffin family histories lose track of Edward until he purchased what was most likely his first piece of land, from Gerrit Bicker [Stryker] on February 25, 1653, in Mid(e)wout or Middle Woods, (Flatbush) Long Island; however, I found an earlier document that may refer to our Edward:

 

[172] On the 2d of July anno 1643

Edwardt Griffis, plaintiff, vs. Jan Celes, defendant, for fl. 187 and a pair of shoes earned by the plaintiff in working [for the defendant].  The defendant promises to pay within two months.  The defendant is condemned to pay within six or eight weeks.  [84]

 

Anthony Jansen Van Seles (aka Anthony Jansen, aka Anthony Johnson from Salee) was a half Dutch, half Moroccan settler and the holder of the first patent in Gravesend, later known as the Old Bowery.  If the Edwardt Griffis mentioned in the lawsuit was our Edward, this would mean that he was on Long Island in 1643, ten years earlier than has been previously reported.  This is not a stretch to believe as I have found no other Edward Griffin or any Griffis in the early New Amsterdam colonial records.

 

The Griffin family histories indicate that Edward’s first residence was in Gravesend.  Edward was not listed as a freeholder of Gravesend in 1650, but he did appear in the 1655 list of inhabitants and freeholders. [85]  On January 27, 1658, he bought half of plantation lot 14 and half the housing in Lady Deborah Moody’s Gravesend patent from Walter Wall. [85]  Between 1653 and 1661, Edward participated in seven land transactions in Flatbush and Gravesend.  There had to have been more transactions, because many of the documents I have found are sales, but I have not yet located them.  We don’t know where his home was situated during this time, but there is proof that he was subdividing and selling land.  To some, it may have appeared that Edward was a land speculator. [86]

 

In 1657, Edward was a resident of Flushing, an English town under Dutch rule.  On the days around December 27, 1657, Edward and 29 other freeholders signed The Flushing Remonstrance, protesting Governor-Director Peter Stuyvesant’s persecution of the Quakers as well as his policies of intolerance towards Jews, Turks, Egyptians, and others. [87] [88]  The Flushing Remonstrance was the first religious freedom document in America, and was the precursor to our First Amendment to the Bill of Rights.

 

Dale and I were invited to participate in the 350th anniversary celebration of the signing of The Flushing Remonstrance from December 6-9, 2007.  As pointed out by Tabetha Garman, M.A., in her Master’s thesis on the Flushing Remonstrance, it is the only religious freedom document to be signed by men who did not have a stake in the outcome.  In the past, religious protest documents were written for the purpose of giving relief to those signing the document.  None of the 30 signers were Quakers, Jews, Turks or Egyptians.  They were simply honorable men who believed that people should be able to worship their God in their own manner, unmolested.  Here is the text of the document which was addressed to Peter Stuyvesant, the Director-General of New Amsterdam:

 

  Right Honorable

 

    You have been pleased to send unto us a certain prohibition or command that we should not receive or entertain any of those people called Quakers because they are supposed to be, by some, seducers of the people. For our part we cannot condemn them in this case, neither can we stretch out our hands against them, for out of Christ God is a consuming fire, and it is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God.

    Wee [We] desire therefore in this case not to judge least we be judged, neither to condemn least we be condemned, but rather let every man stand or fall to his own Master. Wee [We] are bounde [bound] by the law to do good unto all men, especially to those of the household of faith. And though for the present we seem to be unsensible [insensible] for the law and the Law giver, yet when death and the Law assault us, if wee have our advocate to seeke [seek,] who shall plead for us in this case of conscience betwixt God and our own souls; the powers of this world can neither attach us, neither excuse us, for if God justifye [justify] who can condemn and if God condemn there is none can justifye [justify].

And for those jealousies and suspicions which some have of them, that they are destructive unto Magistracy and Ministerye [Ministry,] that cannot bee [be,] for the Magistrate hath his sword in his hand and the Minister hath the sword in his hand, as witnesse [witnesses] those two great examples, which all Magistrates and Ministers are to follow, Moses and Christ, whom God raised up maintained and defended against all enemies both of flesh and spirit; and therefore that of God will stand, and that which is of man will come to nothing. And as the Lord hath taught Moses or the civil power to give an outward liberty in the state, by the law written in his heart designed for the good of all, and can truly judge who is good, who is evil, who is true and who is false, and can pass definitive sentence of life or death against that man which arises up against the fundamental law of the States General; soe  [so] he hath made his ministers a savor of life unto life and a savor of death unto death.

    The law of love, peace and liberty in the states extending to Jews, Turks and Egyptians, as they are considered sons of Adam, which is the glory of the outward state of Holland, soe [so] love, peace and liberty, extending to all in Christ Jesus, condemns hatred, war and bondage. And because our Saviour [Savior] sayeth [said] it is impossible but that offences will come, but woe unto him by whom they cometh, our desire is not to offend one of his little ones, in whatsoever form, name or title hee [he] appears in, whether Presbyterian, Independent, Baptist or Quaker, but shall be glad to see anything of God in any of them, desiring to doe unto all men as we desire all men should doe unto us, which is the true law both of Church and State; for our Saviour [Savior] sayeth [said] this is the law and the prophets.

    Therefore if any of these said persons come in love unto us, we cannot in conscience lay violent hands upon them, but give them free egresse [egress] and regresse [regress] unto our Town, and houses, as God shall persuade our consciences, for we are bounde by the law of God and man to doe good unto all men and evil to noe [no] man. And this is according to the patent and charter of our Towne, given unto us in the name of the States General, which we are not willing to infringe, and violate, but shall houlde [hold] to our patent and shall remaine [remain,] your humble subjects, the inhabitants of Vlishing [Flushing].

 

Written this 27th of December in the year 1657, by mee.

Edward Hart, Clericus [Clerk]  [89]

 

The document was not signed in Edward Griffin’s home, as Zeno claimed on page 40 the Lineage of Richard Griffith.  According to the deposition of Edward Hart, the town clerk and author of the Remonstrance, the document was signed in various places; Edward Griffin, he testified, signed the document at Edward Hart’s house.  [77] 

 

After Tabetha Garman’s speech on December 8, 2007, I asked her about the inconsistencies I noticed with the signatures on the document when I saw the original on display at the Queens’ Library two days before.  While six men had signed with their mark, it seemed clear that the man who wrote the names after the marks of William Thorne, Jr., William Pidgion, George Clerke, Henry Townsend and Michael Milner had the same handwriting as the man who wrote Edward Griffine’s signature.  Ms. Garman pointed out that while the original had been lost, there were two originals made and both were originally signed.  She said that it was likely that several of the men who could only sign by mark may have felt so strongly about the significance of the Remonstrance that they wanted their full name to be written on the document.  She added that the names of those who made their marks were later added by Edward Hart prior to submitting it to Stuyvesant. {90}  Perhaps this is how Edward Griffin’s name became Griffine in the transcribed copies of the Remonstrance.  If he couldn’t write his own name, Hart would have spelled Edward’s name the way he thought it should have been spelled.  It is interesting that Edmund O’Callaghan in his 1855 history of New Netherland, called him Edward Griffin when referring to his signing of the Remonstrance. [91] 

 

On 11 Mar 1661/62, Edward was deposed as a witness for the plaintiff in Richbell v. Revell regarding ownership of Mamaroneck, New York.  John Richbell, whose family later intermarried with the Griffins, purchased the property from Wappaquewan and his brother Matheutson with the help of Indian language interpreters Edward Griffin and John Finch.  After collecting a down-payment, Wappaquewan resold the property to Mr. Revell without his brother’s knowledge. [92]

 

There are many other documents recorded in Queens’ and Kings’ counties which are attributed to our Edward:  In 1667, Edward presented himself to the Governor, “and gave [his] name to be ready to serve his Majesty under his honors Command upon all occasions.” [93]  At this point, Edward could not have been a Quaker, as their beliefs did not allow them to submit to any authority.  In 1676, he served on several juries in the Court of Assizes; [94] in 1680, Edward was listed as an Overseer of Flushing where he objected to lessening the amount of property required to owned in order to be called a freeman; [77] in 1681, he gave testimony as a Constable of Flushing; [95] in 1683, Edward Griffing of Flushing sold property in Occubank [Aquebogue] [96] and was listed in a tax rate schedule of Flushing for 1683 and 1688; [97] also, in 1688, Edward Griffin was listed in an “Order Removing From Office Several Town Assessors in Queens County, Nullifying Their Rates, and Requiring Their Replacement.”  Edward and seven other assessors were subsequently summoned before the New York Council for refusing to take the oath of office and a trial was set; the council required the towns to elect new assessors. [93] [98] 

 

The Edward Griffin who refused to submit to the authority of Queens in the late 1680s may have become a Quaker.  Although I spent many hours reading both the transcribed and handwritten meeting minutes for the Society of Friends, I never saw Edward or Mary Griffin’s names mentioned in any of the documents, and they were not listed in the New York state Quaker histories. [99] [100] [101] [102] [103] [104] [105] [106] [107] [108]  There is confirmation that Edward’s son John, was a Quaker. [105] [106]

 

It is important to understand that there is no verification that the documents immediately above were referring to our Edward Griffin, born 1602.  It may have been his son Edward, who was the subject of some of these documents.  This is an area that needs further study and I will revise this document if I am able to find proof which distinguishes the two Edwards.

 

Teunis Bergen may have been the originator of the assertion that Edward was aboard the Blossom December 14, 1678, en route to London, another error that has been carried forward in many Griffin family histories. [109]  In fact, the man who was on the Blossom was Edward Griffith, (sometimes Griffeth) a London merchant who made many crossings to London during this time; oddly the Blossom passage was the only one reported in the family histories.  The story of this Edward Griffith is interesting and the case was important because Governor Andros, who was accused of interfering with the free trade of British citizens, was recalled by the Duke of York as a result of Edward’s lawsuit. 

 

Griffeth had complained about preferential treatment for the Dutch, an inability to trade at Albany, and, in general, being denied the rights of an Englishman. For acting in "derogation and contempt of the Kings (sic) Authority," he was fined 20 [pounds].  Outraged by his treatment, he sought revenge.  Unwilling, or perhaps unable, to attack Andros in New York, Griffeth had his family begin a court case against Andros when he returned to England during the winter of 1677-78 to receive his knighthood and attend to family business. [110]  

 

Nevertheless, it was not our Edward Griffin aboard the Blossom and it appears he never left America after his arrival in 1635. 

 

From the 1698 Flushing census we know that our Edward, his wife Mary, presumed daughter Deborah and “a Negro” Jack were listed in the 1698 census of Flushing. {111}  Edward’s three sons, Richard, Edward and John were also enumerated with their wives and children living nearby in their own households. [112]  Several Griffin family historians have contended that the fact that Edward had a slave living with him means he could not have been a Quaker in 1698, as Quakers believed in equality for all human beings.  However, there were many slave-owning Quakers in the period before the Revolutionary War. [113] [114] [115]

 

The final document that has been attributed to our Edward Griffin is from 1708, wherein “Edw’d Griffin sr” and several other men opposed a survey of land granted to a Wm Peartree in Westchester County.  We have evidence that Edward, Jr. moved to Westchester, and it is my hypothesis that this document refers to our Edward’s son, Edward who may have taken the title Senior after his father’s death, which I believe was around 1699.  I also believe that Edward, Jr.’s son, Edward III, who died early in his life, assumed the title of Edward Jr. when his father became Edward Sr.  Although Zeno reported on page 52 of the Lineage of Richard Griffith, that Edward, Jr. died without leaving a male heir, he cites as his source Edward’s will, which showed he had no male heir.  However, Edward, Jr. did have a son, Edward, who, according to Justus Griffin, died young.  This is probably the Edward the Younger mentioned in the 1734 will of Edward Jr. [116]   I have just begun working on this issue and will supplement this document as I gather evidence to clarify the persons mentioned in the documents. 

 

The Missing Pieces of Edward’s Life

 

As of September, 2009, we do not have an exact date of birth for Edward.

We do not know the name of Edward’s parents.

We do not know where Edward was born.

We do not know when Edward married.

We do not know the maiden name of Edward’s wife Mary, or if she was his only wife. {117}

We do not know the dates of birth of his children, or if he, had four children.

We do not know Edward’s exact date of death.

We do not have a will for Edward, although Van Peenen’s family history asserts his will was probated in November, 1691. I have spent hundreds of hours trying to locate one and have been unsuccessful. [31] {118}

 

These items are yet to be discovered, if such documents survive, and I hope that those of you who have read this document to the very end will join me in the hunt for the missing information.

 

Acknowledgments

 

This document would not have been possible without the kind and unyielding help of the following people:  Paul Jennings Griffin, who was determined to help me correct previously published Griffin family histories, provided copies of over 60 of Zeno T. Griffen’s letters as well as several manuscripts, gave me unlimited access to his knowledge stores, and entertained numerous theories of mine.

 

Dr. Brian Picton Swann, who is not a Griffin relative but saw an American floundering in the morass of British documents and generously stepped in with tutelage, hours upon hours of research, collaboration on this document, a wealth of experience, transcriptions, incisive editing, a tour of England and Wales which resulted in finding Richard Pengriffin’s name on the wall of All Saints Church in Walton West, the homeland of the Pengriffin family, the will of Edward Griffith in the Hereford Records Office, a trip to the National Archives at Kew where he orchestrated a photo of Dale holding the original London Port Register for the ship Abraham, which had Edward Griffith’s name written as a passenger, and most importantly a lifelong friendship.

 

Eirwen Swann, who endured the aforementioned trip.

 

Barbara Griffiths, a Parry, and not a Griffin relative, who first mentioned in April of 2006, that the early Griffin family histories might have been fabricated, and whose help with the laws of British heraldry and the Appenreth family has been invaluable; Dr. Prys Morgan who took time out of his spring holiday to share his thoughts on the  Pengruffwnd family with me

 

Dr. Ralph Alan Griffiths, the Guardian of the Records of Wales, who graciously corresponded with me throughout 2006, and helped me with the Richard Griffith who was incorrectly shown in the Griffin family histories as the recipient of the Appenreth arms

 

Dr. Michael Powell Siddons, Wales Herald of Arms Extraordinary, whose kindness and generosity cannot be repaid in this lifetime.

 

Anna Rose LeBlanc, Dale’s third cousin and newfound relative, who took the time to review this very long document in its infancy.

 

Nancy Griffin, who also waded through an early version of this document and gave me her comments.

 

And finally, my wonderful husband, Dale, who selflessly went many nights without a proper dinner so that I could stay on course, and who endured years of lonely “vacations” while I hunted in dusty libraries, courthouse basements and genealogy society stacks. 

 

Thank you all so very, very much; I am truly grateful to all of you for your help, kindness, encouragement and inspiration.

 

Bibliography and Notes

 

1.         Griffith, Edward, Will of Edward Griffith, Yeoman of Bedstone, Shropshire, in Hereford Wills. 1622, Hereford Record Office: Herefordshire, 31/32/32.

 

2.         Griffithes, John, Will of John Griffithes, Clerk of Clunbury, Shropshire, in Records of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury. 1624, The National Archives, UK: Kew, PROB 11/143.

 

3.         DNA, Family Tree, DNA Test Results for Descendants of Edward and John Griffin. 2008, Family Tree DNA: www. familytreedna.com.

 

4.         Griffing, William, Personal Correspondence to Griffin, Theresa, 17 Sep 2007.

 

5.         Siddons, Michael Powell, The Development of Welsh Heraldry. Vol. II. 1991, Aberystwyth, Wales: National Library of Wales, 197.

 

6.         Siddons, Michael Powell, Dr., Your Letter of May 24 to Griffin, Theresa, July 6, 2006; 5:23 PM.

 

7.         Siddons, Michael Powell, Dr., Help with Welsh Place Names to Griffin, Theresa, August 7, 2006; 7:38 AM.

 

8.         Siddons, Michael Powell, Dr., Lewys Dwnn's Original Manuscript to Griffin, Theresa, August 3, 2006; 12:46 AM.

 

9.         Griffen, Zeno T., Account of the Griffen Family of Flushing, L.I. New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, 1905. 36(3) 197-199.

 

10.       Griffen, Zeno T., Richiart Pengruffwnd. New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, 1906. 37(1) 54-55.

 

11.       Griffen, Zeno T., Lineage of Richard Griffith, of Cardigan, Wales, and Some of His Descendants in America. 1912.

 

12.       Griffen, Zeno T. and Rev. Duane N. Griffin, The Ancient Welsh Pedigree of the Griffin Family:  Edward Griffin of Flushing, L.I. And Sergeant John Griffin of Simsbury, Conn., Brothers, and Genealogy of John's Descendants. Also Brief Notes on Other Pioneer Griffin Families in Wales and America, Especially Thomas Griffin of Virginia, Richard Griffin of Concord, Mass, and Jasper Griffin(G) of Southold, L.I. 1918.

 

13.       Dwnn, Lewys, Samuel Rush Meyrick, and Society for the Publication of Ancient Welsh Manuscripts Abergavenny., Heraldic Visitations of Wales and Part of the Marches; between the Years 1586 and 1613, under the Authority of Clarencieux and Norroy. Vol. 1. 1846, Llandovery,: W. Rees, Published for the Welsh MSS. Society, 244.

 

14.       I have found the name written Griffin(s),Grifin, Giffin Griffine, Greffin, Griffen(s), Griffith(s), Griffithes, Griffeth(s), Griffing, Griven, etc.

 

15.       I intended to publish this article in the NYGBR, however the editor required exclusive publication rights and because Paul Jennings Griffin, my husband Dale’s sixth cousin, and I were determined to make this information available to Edward’s descendants for free, we decided to publish it here.

 

16.       Griffen, Joseph, Account of the Griffen Family. 1830.

 

17.       Cleveland, Edmund J., Jasper Griffin of Southhold, N.Y., and Some of His Descendants. New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, 1891. 22(4) 191-204.

 

18.       Griffin, Charles, A Partial History of the Griffin Family in Massachusetts : Being a Genealogy of the Descendants of Lieut. Joseph Griffin of Methuen.. 1888, Lowell, Mass: Campbell & Hanscom, Printers.

 

19.       Griffin, Justus A., Ancestors and Descendents (Sic) of Richard Griffin of Smithville, Ont:  A Pioneer Family with a Brief Account of Some Related Griffin Families in Canada. 1924, Hamilton, Ontario: The Griffin & Richmond Co.

 

20.       Griffin, Paul Jennings. Annotated Bibliography of the Griffin/Griffen Family. [Web page] 1997 2004; 2nd:[Available from: http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~griffingriffenfamily/Griffin.html.

 

21.       Griffin, Robert F. The Griffin and Burtner Families. [Photocopy of manuscript online] 1919  [cited 2006 September 26]; Available from: http://www.lib.byu.edu/fhc/index.php.

 

22.       Griffing, Robert Paul, Griffing, Griffin: A Single Family 325 Years in America. 1993, Medinah, Illinois: Self-published.

 

23.       Jack, Jordan Thurlow, From Edward Griffin Our First Griffin (Griffen) Ancestor in America and His Descendants 1602-1995.  Information on the Direct Line of Descent from Edward Griffin of Virginia in 1635 to William J. Griffen and His Heirs Down to 1995. 1995, Leicester, North Carolina: Self-published.

 

24.       Jacobus, Donald Lines, M.A., The Griffin Family of Long Island. New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, 1935. 66(4) 327-330.

 

25.       Kulp, Suzanne S., The Griffin Family. 1995: Orchard Park, New York.

 

26.       Kupec, Barbara Rich, Norma Charlotte White, and Ann Forner Roy, A Family Tree, Eighteen Generations of One Branch of the Griffin Family Ca 1460-1997. 1997.

 

27.       Miller, Robert B. and Charles Field Griffen, Archives of the Griffen Family 1900: Self-published, 62.

 

28.       Olney, Elaine Washburn, Gershom & Phoebe Griffin:  Their Ancestors and Descendants. 1976, Kansas: Self-published.

 

29.       Redman, Edith Read, Giffen - Griffith Progenitors, 1635-1775. 1984, Chicago: Self-published.

 

30.       Staples, Howard Elmer, Genealogical Notes on Griffen-Griffin-Griffing. 1940, U.S.: Self-published.

 

31.       Van Peenen, Mavis, Edward Griffin(E) of Flushing, Long Island, N.Y., 1602-1691, and Some of His Descendants. 1971, Salt Lake City: Genealogical Society of Utah.

 

32.       Great Britain. Public Record Office., John Bruce, et al., Calendar of State Papers, Domestic Series, of the Reign of Charles I, 1625-[1649]. 1858, London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans, & Roberts, 398.

 

33.       Great Britain. Public Record Office. and Mary Anne Everett Wood Green, Calendar of State Papers, Domestic Series, of the Reign of James I, 1603-1625 : Preserved in the State Paper Department of Her Majesty's Public Record Office. 1857, London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans & Roberts, 439.

 

34.       Unfortunately, Suzanne Kulp did not list any references in her manuscript so I could not determine where she found this information.  When I spoke to her about her sources in August of 2004, she told me that she had taken her information from various sources but hadn't recorded them.

 

35.       Great Britain. State Record Office., Pardon of Edward Griffin, in Subject and Miscellaneous, Signet Office: Docquets. 1625, The National Archives: Kew, England.

 

36.       Matthew, H. C. G., Brian Howard Harrison, et al., Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. 2004, Oxford University Press: Oxford ; New York.

 

37.       Griffiths, Barbara, British History Online to Griffin, Theresa, June 3, 2009.

 

38.       Bennett, Michael J., The Battle of Bosworth. Paperback ed. 1993, New York: St. Martin's Press, 87.

 

39.       Chrimes, Stanley Bertram, Fifteenth-Century England, 1399-1509. 1972, Manchester: Manchester University Press.

 

40.       Ellis, Sir Henry K. H., Three Books of Polydore Vergil's English History, Comprising the Reigns of Henry VI., Edward IV., and Richard III: From an Early Translation, Preserved among the Mss. Of the Old Royal Library in the British Museum. Vol. 29. 1884, London: John Bower Nichols and Son for The Camden Society.

 

41.       Evans, Howell T., Wales and the Wars of the Roses. 1998, Stroud, Gloucestershire: Alan Sutton, A Sutton Publication, 129.

 

42.       Grafton, Richard, Grafton's Chronicle; or, History of England: To Which Is Added His Table of the Bailiffs, Sheriffs, and Mayors, of the City of London from the Year 1189 to 1558, Inclusive. Vol. II. 1809, London: Sir Henry Ellis, 147.

 

43.       Griffiths, Ralph A., Sir Rhys Ap Thomas and His Family: A Study in the Wars of the Roses and Early Tudor Politics. 1993, Cardiff, Wales: University of Wales Press, 186.

 

44.       Griffiths, Ralph Alan, The Making of the Tudor Dynasty. 1998, Burton-on-Trent, England: Wrens Park Publishers, 161.

 

45.       Hutton, William  F.A.S.S., The Battle of Bosworth Field, between Richard the Third, and Henry Earl of Richmond, August 22, 1485 Wherein Is Described the Approach of Both Armies, with a Plan of the Battle, Its Consequences, the Fall, Treatment, and Character of Richard to Which Is Prefixed, by Way of Introduction, a History of His Life Till He Assumed the Regal Power. 1813, Birmingham, England: Pearson and Rollason, 35, 73.

 

46.       Nicholas, Thomas, Annals and Antiquities of the Counties and County Families of Wales, Containing a Record  of All Ranks of the Gentry, Their Lineage, Alliances, Appointments, Armorial Ensigns, and Residences, with Many Ancient Pedigrees and Memorials of Extinct Families; Accompanied by Brief Notices of the History, Antiquities, Physical Features, Chief Estates, Geology, and Industry of Each County; Rolls of High Sheriffs from the Beginning; Members of Parliament; Magistrates of Boroughs, Etc., Etc. 1872.

 

47.       Ross, Charles, The Wars of the Roses: A Concise History. 1976, London: Thames and Hudson, 101.

 

48.       Rowse, Alfred Leslie, Bosworth Field:  From Medieval to Tudor England. The Crossroads of World History Series, ed. Prescott, Orville. 1966, Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 215.

 

49.       Seward, Desmond, The Wars of the Roses and the Lives of Five Men and Women in the Fifteenth Century. 1995, London: Constable.

 

50.       Wagner, John A., Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Roses. 2001, Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 225-226.

 

51.       Griffiths, Ralph Alan, The Griffin Family in the U.S. to Griffin, Theresa, March 8, 2006.

 

52.       Morgan, Prys, Personal Correspondence to Theresa Griffin to, 13 April 2006.

 

53.       Bartrum, Peter C., Welsh Genealogies, Ad 1400-1500. 1983, Aberystwyth: National Library of Wales.

 

54.       Bartrum, Peter C., Welsh Genealogies, A.D. 300-1400; Additions Corrections, Fourth List. 1988, Aberystwyth: National Library of Wales.

 

55.       Griffiths, Barbara. Parry Surname Research Family History and the One-Name Study.  2006  [cited 2006,2008,2009; Available from: http://homepage.ntlworld.com/im.griffiths/parryfamilyhistory/parrytrnscrptns/heraldry.htm.

 

56.       Zeno contended Richard Griffith was the brother-in-law of Sir Walter Herbert, something that Dr. Siddons also kindly corrected.  In his letter of 6 July 2006, he stated, “According to the pedigrees, none of his [Herbert’s] brothers or sisters married a Griffith.”

 

57.       Jones, Francis, Lewys Dwnn and the Parsons. Journal of the Historical Society of the Church in Wales, 1990. 29 39.

 

58.       Burke, John and Bernard Burke, Encyclopaedia of Heraldry, or General Armory of England, Scotland, and Ireland, Comprising a Registry of All Armorial Bearings from the Earliest to the Present Time, Including the Late Grants by the College of Arms. 3rd ed. 1844, London,: H. G. Bohn, GRI.

 

59.       In light of the fact that the descendants of Sgt. John have not located a homeland or parents for him, and I have not worked on Sgt. John’s ancestry, I cannot state unequivocally that there is not a Parry connection there, but the likelihood is very, very slim.

 

60.       Griffithes, John, Will of John Griffithes of Bedstone, Shropshire, 1616, in Records of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury. 1616, The National Archives: Kew, PROB 11/127.

 

61.       Griffen, Zeno T., Personal Letter to Justus A. Griffin, Andrew W. Griffen, Morganza Griffen, June 6, 1912.

 

62.       Griffen, Zeno T., Personal Letter to Mr Charles Griffen, Mr Justus A. Griffin, Mr Charles Field Griffen, September 15, 1912.

 

63.       Fleet, Beverly, Virginia Colonial Abstracts. 1988, Genealogical Publishing Company: Baltimore, 44-50.

 

64.       Coldham, Peter Wilson, English Adventurers and Emigrants, 1609-1660:Abstracts of Examinations in the High Court of Admiralty with Reference to Colonial America. 1984, Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 56-59.

 

65.       TNA, Registers of Licenses to Pass Beyond the Seas, in Exchequer:Records of the King's Remembrancer. 1635, The National Archives: Kew, England, Class E/157/120.

 

66.       Coldham, Peter Wilson English Convicts in Colonial America. 1974, New Orleans: Polyanthos.

 

67.       Coldham, Peter Wilson Emigrants in Chains:  A Social History of Forced Emigration to the Americas of Felons, Destitute Children, Political and Religious Non-Conformists, Vagabonds, Beggars and Other Undesirables, 1607-1776. 1992, Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company.

 

68.       Games, Alison, Migration and the Origins of the English Atlantic World. 1999, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

 

69.       Creighton, Charles, M.A. M.D., A History of Epidemics in Britain from Ad 664 to the Extinction of Plague. 1891: Cambridge University Press, 508-511.

 

70.       Finlay, Roger, Population and Metropolis: The Demography of London 1580-1650. 1981, Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

 

71.       Horn, James, Adapting to a New World: English Society in the Seventeenth-Century Chesapeake. 1994, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

 

72.       Horn, James, Tobacco Colonies: The Shaping of English Society in the Seventeenth-Century Chesapeake, in The Origins of Empire, Canny, Nicholas, Editor. 1998, Oxford University Press: Oxford, 170-192.

 

73.       Greer, George Cabell, 1623-1660 Early Virginia Immigrants. Early Virginia Immigrants. 1982, Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.

 

74.       According to Bernard Steiner at page 85, "By grant from the King of the Susquehannoughs, Claiborne claimed title to Palmer's Island, and in the spring of 1637 sent William Jeanes, one of his servants, to establish a settlement there, believing it to be above the 40 degrees parallel."  This Jeanes may be the same William Joanes who was captured along with Edward Griffin.   It is probable that Edward was with Joanes on Palmer's Island in the spring of 1637.

 

75.       This is from Thomas Sturman's deposition, taken on May 1640,  “And this deponent knoweth that the said Governor (Calvert) tooke diverse servants and imploied [employed] them, and disposed of theire [their] times of service, who did belong to the said Claborne, [Claiborne] the names of which servants this deponent well remembereth not, saveing [saving] that he remembereth that Thomas Youall, Robert Cooper, Robert Lake, John Glantam, John Russell, William Tawbott, [Talbott] Willoam [Wiliam] Jaxson, [Jackson] Thomas Kidds, Nicholas Pawthampton, Edward Hall, Mathew Preist, Richard Raymond, Richard Smith, William Freeman, William Jones and Edward Griffin being the said Capt: Claiborne’s servants were all taken and disposed by the said Governor to the use of the said Lord Baltimore.”  [70]

 

76.       Browne, William Hand, Clayton Colman Hall, et al., Claiborne's Petition and Accompanying Papers 1676-7, in Archives of Maryland. 1887, Maryland Historical Society, 172, 188-189, 210.

 

77.       Fernow, Berthold, Early Colonial Settlements, in Documents Relating to the History of the Early Colonial Settlements Principally on Long Island with a Map of Its Western Part, Made in 1666. Translate, Compiled and Edited from the Original Records in the Office of the Secretary of State and the State Library, under the Direction of the Honble [Sic] Joseph B. Carr, Secretary of State, Fernow, B., Editor. 1883, Weed, Parsons and Company: Albany, New York, 32-33, 402-409, 598, 750

 

78.       Archives of Maryland, Proceedings of the Council of Maryland 1636-1647. 1636-1647, State of Maryland, 68, 90-91.

 

79.       Hoadley, Charles Jeremy, in Records of the Colony and Plantation of New Haven, from 1638 to 1649; Transcribed and Edited in Accordance with a Resolution of the General Assembly of Connecticut. 1857, Case, Tiffany and Company: Hartford, 39.

 

80.       Holland Society of New York, New York Historic Manuscripts, Dutch. 1974, Genealogical Pub. Co.: Baltimore, 219.

 

81.       This is most likely Accomac, Virginia, the county in which Palmer’s and Kent Islands were located.  Pennington was living there at one point.

 

82.       Van  Laer, Arnold, J.F., New York Historical Manuscripts, Dutch, Scott, Kenneth and Kenn Stryker-Rodda, Editors. 1974, Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.: Baltimore, 293.

 

83.       Morgan, Kenneth, Slavery and Servitude in Colonial North America : A Short History. 2001, New York University Press: Washington Square, N.Y., 8.

 

84.       Van  Laer, Arnold, J.F., New York Historical Manuscripts: Dutch, Scott, Kenneth and Kenn Stryker-Rodda, Editors. 1974, Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.: Baltimore, 198.

 

85.       Thompson, Benjamin F., History of Long Island; Containing an Account of the Discovery and Settlement; with Other Important and Interesting Matters to the Present Time. 1839, New York: E. French, 442.

 

86.       Ross, Peter, Chapter XXVIL Flatbush, in A History of Long Island : From Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time. 1902, Lewis Pub. Co.: New York, 317.

 

87.       Trebor, Haynes, The Flushing Remonstrance; the Origin of Religious Freedom in America. 1957, Flushing, New York Bowne House.

 

88.       Ecclesiastical Records of the State of New York. Vol. 1. 1901, Albany: James B. Lyon, State Printer.

 

89.       Garman, Tabetha, Designed for the Good of All: The Flushing Remonstance and Religious Freedom in America, in Department of History. 2006, 110.

 

90.       In his deposition, Hart claimed that he wrote the names of Townsend and Milner.

 

91.       O'Callaghan, E. B., History of New Netherland, in History of New Netherland. 1855, Appleton & Company: New York, 351.

 

92.       Scharf, J. Thomas, History of Westchester County, New York Including Morrisania, Kings Bridge, and West Farms. Vol. 1. 1992, Camden, Maine: Picton Press, 849-50.

 

93.       Christoph, Peter R. and Florence A. Christoph, New York Historical Manuscripts: English; Books of General Entries of the Colony of New York, 1664-1673  Orders, Warrants, Letters, Commissions, Passes and Licenses Issued by Governors Richard Nicolls and Francis Lovelace. 1982, Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.: Baltimore, 152.

 

94.       Christoph, Peter R. and Florence A. Christoph, New York Historical Manuscripts: English  Records of the Court of Assizes for the Colony of New York, 1665-1682. 1983, Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc.: Baltimore, 221-222; 283.

 

95.       Frost, Josephine C., Records of the Town of Jamaica Long Island, New York. 1914, Long Island Historical Society: Brooklyn, 206-207.

 

96.       Case, J. Wickham, Southold Town Records. 1882-84, S.W. Green's son, printer, etc.: New York, 401.

 

97.       Cristoph, Peter R. [ed.], in The Dongan Papers; 1683-1688, Part 2: Files of the Provincial Secretary of New York During the Administration of Governor Thomas Dongan. 1993, Syracuse University Press: Syracuse, New York, 155-156, 295.

 

98.       New York (State) Council, Berthold Fernow, and A.J.F. VanLaer [preface], Calendar of Council Minutes 1668-1783, Bulletin (New York State Library); 58, March 1902, Editor. 1902, University of the State of New York: Albany, 89.

 

99.       Ancestry.com. Dutchess County, New York, Quaker Records. [Online transcribed records]  [cited 2004.

 

100.     Cox, John, New York Friends Records, 1671-1703, Salt Lake: Genealogical Society.

 

101.     Cox, John Jr. Dutchess County, New York Quaker Records: Nine-Partners Monthly Meeting, Dutchess Co., N.Y. [Database online] 2000  [cited 2004 June 10].

 

102.     Frost, Jerry William, The Quaker Family in Colonial America; a Portrait of the Society of Friends. 1973, New York: St. Martin's Press.

 

103.     Holder, Frederick, The Quaker in Great Britain and America.

 

104.     Jones, Rufus Matthew, The Quakers in the American Colonies. 1962, New York: Russell & Russell.

 

105.     Society of Friends, Flushing Monthly Meetings. 1640-4796, Salt Lake: Genealogical Society, 57, 149, 156.

 

106.     Society of Friends, [First Register]: Marriages 1658 [1663]-1761; Births 1640-1796 (Includes Deaths of Children); Marriages, 1762, 1766; Deaths 1669-1796; Births 1725-1731. This Record Was Copied from Original by Isaac Horner to 1685. And Epistles, Instructions, George Fox's Advice, Memorials to the Governor, Minutes of the Quarterly and Monthly Meetings Down to 1685 [Copied from the Original by Isaac Horner]; Acknowledgements 1697-1730; Certificates of Removal [to 1722; None Recorded Again until 1778], of Clearness of Marriage Engagements, of Unity with Ministering Friends from 1676; Epistles Issued by Yearly Meeting Mainly to London Y.M. 1708-1731 and 1759-1760. 1658-1761: Salt Lake City [Utah] : Filmed by the Genealogical Society of Utah, 1950, 59.

 

107.     Society of Friends, Men's Monthly, Quarterly, and Yearly Meetings 1671-1703 [Summary of Contents and Index Made in 1871by William Wood]; Original Record [Found in 1868 in the Garret of a Friends House in Flushing; and Bound] and Men's Monthly, Quarterly, and Yearly Meetings 1671-1703 ("First, the Minutes of What Is Now Called Westbury Quarterly Meeting from Third Month 23d, 1671 ... To Twelfth Month 27th 1702. Second, the Minutes Down to Third Month 6th 1703 of What Became Flushing Monthly Meeting, and Later New York Monthly Meeting, Held Regularly from About 1685. Third, the Minutes of Flushing Yearly Meeting, Later Called New York Yearly Meeting, from Its First Session in 1696 to 1702 Inclusive; Copied from the Original Record by John Cox Jr. And George Cocks and Engrossed by James Close 1895-1898"). Includes Detailed Index. 1671-1703.

 

108.     Society of Friends, Minutes of Monthly, Quarterly and Yearly Meetings Held on Long Island 1671-1703 AKA Flushing Monthly Meeting Vol. 214 1671-1703. 1671-1703, LDS.

 

109.     Bergen, Teunis G., Register in Alphabetic Order, of the Early Settlers of King's County, Long Island, N. Y., from Its First Settlement by Europeans to 1700; with Contributions to Their Biographies and Genealogies, Compiled from Various Records. 1973, Polyanthos: Cottonport, 125.

 

110.     Ritchie, Robert C., The Duke's Province:  A Study of New York Politics and Society 1664-1691. 1977, University of North Carolina Press: Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 115-117

 

111.     Because the children were listed after the parents, it is possible that Deborah could have been Edward's spinster daughter, perhaps named for Lady Deborah Moody.  The other consideration is that she may have been a sister of Mary’s; this is more conjecture, but we must consider all options as we have no ages listed for the residents.

 

112.     Waller, Henry D., History of the Town of Flushing Long Island, New York. 1899, J. H. Ridenour: New York, 237.

 

113.     Hinks, Peter P., John R. McKivigan, and R. Owen Williams, Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition, Hinks, Peter P., Editor. 2007, Greenwood Publishing Group.

 

114.     Singer, Alan J., New York and Slavery: Time to Teach the Truth. 2008, New York: SUNY.

 

115.     Wills, Gary, Head and Heart: American Christianities. 2007: Penguin Group.

 

116.     Bristol, Theresa Hall, Westchester County Miscellanea. New York Genealogical and Biographical Record, 1922. 53(3) 272.

 

117.     My search for information on Mary spans eight years.  I have checked all families of the original Gravesend patentees, the Flushing Remonstrance signers, and those with whom Edward had land transcations for someone with a daughter or widow named Mary.  The family histories state she was from New York.  I found a marriage between an Edward Grifin and Mary Diston in the  Oxford Register of Marriages, Edward Grifin & Mari Diston, lic. 17 Sep 1635, which would have been one month before Edward sailed to Virginia.  There were also many Mary Griffins who crossed the Atlantic prior to 1653 when Edward settled in Gravesend, however, my reading on indentured servants makes it very clear that they were not allowed to be married before their time of service expired.  I could not locate Mary Diston in the Oxford records available to me.

 

118.     I have spent seven years looking for this document.  None of the other Griffin family histories make this assertion.