Creek Nation, April 10, 1825.
I feel it my duty to state to you, that, being at the Creek agency since the late treaty at the Indian Springs, I was in conversation with the agent, John Crowell, who told me, when I went home, to tell the chiefs of the upper towns that if they listened to the talks of McIntosh he would sell them and their lands in less than a year, and told me that I must say every thing I could against General McIntosh. Mr. Henry Crowell, in the presence and hearing of the agent, told me that the United States commissioners offered him, just before the late treaty, ten thousand dollars and five miles square of land if he would use his exertions to cause the nation to sell their land; but he said that he answered the commissioners by saying that he would have nothing to do with it. He told me that if he had done as the commissioners wished, he would not be doing justice to the Indians; but, if he had done so, it would have been to his interest, as he would have got a great deal of money. The agent said that I and my brother, Samuel Hawkins, ought to collect the Indians when General McIntosh was gone to Washington, and burn down his houses and destroy his property, because of his disposition to sell the land.
I am your obedient servant,
To Governor Troup.
Creek Nation, April 12, 1825.
I have taken the liberty of addressing you on this occasion, believing you to be the friend of our nation, and of stating to you some facts which relate to the conduct of our agent, Mr. John Crowell, which I will at any time, if called upon, swear to. When the agent, John Crowell, first paid money to the nation as their annuity, in 1821, he paid it in fifty and hundred dollar bills to the principal chiefs, to be divided by them to their respective towns; the Big Warrior told the agent, at the time, that the money could not be fairly divided, for the want of smaller bills, and requested the agent the next time he paid them off to bring small hills. Before the agent had ever met the chiefs in council, his brother, Mr. Thomas Crowell, brought to Fort Mitchell a large stock of goods; and, when the agent came to the council-house, he told the chiefs that his brother had goods, and that he had given him a license, and that they might buy what goods they wanted. The chiefs, having what money was to go to their respective towns in large bills of fifty and one hundred dollars, were compelled to go to Thomas Crowell and buy domestic homespun, at fifty cents per yard, of the same description of goods that General McIntosh had furnished the nation at twenty-five cents per yard only a few months ago, or to make an unequal division of their money, or go to the settlements for change. At the time the annuity was paid to the nation in 1822, the agent, John Crowell, again paid off the nation in fifty and one hundred dollar bills; and, when the chiefs asked him for change, he said his brother was provided with change or small bills, and, at the same time, cautioned the chiefs against counterfeiters, and said there were a great many counterfeit bills and many suspicious persons about, but that the change his brother had was genuine. The chiefs, after receiving the respective amounts allowed their towns, went to Mr. Thomas Crowell, the agent's brother, and asked him to change their money; he told them, the chiefs, (myself acting as interpreter,) that he would give to the chiefs of the towns each five dollars in cash, but that the balance of the money must be laid out in goods. Some of the chiefs agreed to do so; but others refused, and went off. To those who bought his goods, in order to make a division to their towns, he charged thirty-seven and a half cents per yard. General McIntosh had goods there, and sold homespun at thirty-one and a quarter cents per yard.
I can further state that I was the interpreter when J. Crowell told the chiefs that his brother, Henry Crowell, who lives at the agency, wanted to make fields on the west side of Flint river, and said the land on the reserve was worn out, and he could not make a support on it; but his brother said to him that he did not want to clear a field for the Georgians, and he (the agent) asked the chiefs if they intended shortly to part with their lands. The Big Warrior replied, at the same time laughing, that he (the agent) need not be afraid that the nation would shortly sell their lands to Georgia. I have since understood from the head chiefs that no direct permission was granted to the agent or his brother to clear a field on the west side of the river; but the agent's brother has a large field on the west side of the river, and has rented out all the fields on the reserve.
I remain your humble servant,
Samuel Hawkins, of the Creek Nation.
To Governor Troup.
Since the last treaty, I have been told by a number of the chiefs of this nation that Hambly, the agent's interpreter, (during the time the United States commissioners were endeavoring to effect a treaty at Fort Mitchell,) came to the square, and told the chiefs, early in the morning, that the agent had sent him to tell them what the commissioners would have to say to them; and it was the agent's wish that they all should be of one mind, and answer the commissioners, as they had promised him, (the agent,) by saying that " We have no more land for sale."
I had omitted to state to you a fact, which heretofore has been unusual in our transactions with the United States. In the year 1822, when the agent was about paying the nation their annuity, he charged between sixty and one hundred dollars, (the precise sum not recollected,) and deducted it from the annuity of that year; and stated that his reason for doing so was, that he had to pay that much to a person to go to Darien or Savannah to bring up the sum of the annuity. It was submitted to by the nation, but considered as an imposition and unjust.
Creek Agency, August 22, 1823.
I received your letter by Kitch, giving an account of the conduct of McIntosh in relation to Stinson. I should be glad if my business would admit of my going to Chattahoochie at present; but I am engaged making out my accounts for the present year, ending the 31st of this month, and cannot leave home until after that time.
I wish you to state, in plain and positive terms, to the Prince, that I call upon him, as the headman of this nation, to have Stinson taken and brought to me at all hazards: if six men are not enough, send six hundred, and take him by force, if he has to destroy McIntosh and his whole establishment to effect it. Tell him it will reflect disgrace on him, as the headman of the nation, to suffer one chief to prevent his orders from being put into execution; and this conduct of McIntosh is quite sufficient to break him as a chief. If, however, he does suffer McIntosh to protect this man in violating the laws of the United Slates, his nation must suffer for it; for he may rest assured that the Government will not put up with it. And is it possible that he will allow the conduct of one man to do so serious an injury to his innocent people? If, however, he will not have this man taken, I shall adopt such steps as will insure his arrest, and pay the expenses of it out of the annuity, even should it take the whole of it. I can get men from Georgia that will take him by paying enough for it; and, rather than not have him, I will pay every dollar of the annuity for him. I shall inform the Government of McIntosh's conduct; and the President will, no doubt, hold the nation accountable for it. I wish you to impress upon the mind of the Prince the difficulty which this transaction will place the nation in, should this man be protected by an Indian. This nation, since the war, have acquired a good character for their good behavior with the President; and I should dislike for them to lose or tarnish it, by protecting a white man in violating the laws of the United States.
The receipt which I took for the annuity, and the one from Colonel Lovett for beef, have miscarried. I enclose another, which you will get signed, and return to me, after getting the names of those about Fort Mitchell. Send it by mail to Captain Walker, to be signed by the Warrior, &.c.
Colonel Wm. Hambly, Chattahoochie.
Line Creek, Fayette County, Georgia, May 1, 1825.
The information you have no doubt received by Chilly McIntosh and other Indians will be confirmed by the following relation of the circumstances attending the horrid transaction on the Chattahoochie and Tallapoosa, in the Creek nation: On the morning of the 30th April, several neighbors of mine, who lodged on the bank of the Chattahoochie, this side of McIntosh's, about daybreak heard the war-whoop, and they suppose from two to four hundred guns were fired; the houses were on fire when they set off. An intelligent Indian, (Colonel Miller,) who has fled to my house, together with about one hundred and fifty others, states that he supposes there are upwards of four hundred warriors of the hostile party embodied on the Chattahoochie, at McIntosh's, feasting on all the cattle they can find, hogs, &c., belonging to the friendly party; states, also, that they have taken McIntosh's negroes and all other property they can find; they, he slates, intend marching towards the settlement of the whites in three days. In this I am a little incredulous, though, as far as the resources of our country will afford, I will be prepared. Major Finley Stewart is collecting some volunteers to go out and reconnoiter the country; he will set off as soon as practicable. He (Colonel Miller) supposes, including numbers long cloaked under the garb of friendship, who, since the death of McIntosh, have joined the hostile party, that the hostile party in the nation largely exceed four thousand warriors, and that the friendly party now amount to only five hundred. They implore protection; they need it: they are constantly coming in; say the road is covered with others.
Some provision ought to be made to supply these refugees with food.
Executive Department, Milledgeville, May 3, 1825.
Yesterday, Chilly McIntosh, son of the general, and bearer of this, came with other chiefs to announce the death of his father. On the night of the 29th ultimo, whilst reposing in his bed, the savages hostile to the treaty, in great numbers, beset and fired his house; and this chieftain, whose virtues would have honored any country, perished by the flames or tomahawk. The old chief of Coweta, who was pursued with the same vengeance, and for the same objects, perished with him. The crime of McIntosh and Tustunnuggee is to be sought in the wise and magnanimous conduct which, at the Indian Springs, produced the treaty of the 12th of February, and which, in making a concession of their whole country, satisfied the just claims of Georgia, reconciled the State to the Federal Government, and made happy, at least in prospect, the condition of the Creeks. When, by the last of his generous actions, he had given his consent, in union with his council, to the survey and appropriation of the country, only to gratify the wishes of the Georgians, and was on the eve of departure to explore the new home, where the future fortunes of all were to abide, he met the stroke of the assassin, and the bravest of his race fell by the hands of the most treacherous and cowardly. The guilty authors of this massacre it will be for you to detect and punish. I have done my duty.
You will soon read in my official correspondence with your Government, the Indians, and the commissioners, the beginning, the progress, and the end of this frightful tragedy, in which the catastrophe was foreseen; of which, ever and anon, the Government of the United States was distinctly forewarned; and which, by the breath of its nostrils, might have been averted; but which was not averted. In despite of every thing attempted to the contrary, I had before succeeded in maintaining peace. Even now, at the very moment I write, a message, of which you have a copy, is dispatched to the surviving chiefs to forbear hostility. I believe the advice will be taken as an order; but it is my duty to inform you that to keep this peace longer than I can hear from you will be impossible to any efforts of yours or mine, unless the most ample satisfaction and atonement shall be made promptly for the death of McIntosh and his friend. The Legislature will convene in a few days, and, on this account, I have deferred any measures either of retaliation or protection.
With great respect and consideration,
G. M. Troup.
The President of the United States, Washington City.
Executive Department, Milledgeville, May 3, 1825.
I heard with sorrow yesterday of the death of our common friend McIntosh. All good hearts among the whites deplore it as much as you. Satisfaction will be demanded, and satisfaction shall be had; but we must not be hasty about it. We will be cool and deliberate in the measures we take, and then we will be certain to be right. Yon be peaceable and quiet until you hear from me, in the same manner as if nothing had happened to McIntosh or Tustunnuggee; but, depend on it, my revenge I will have; it will be such as we have reason to believe the Great Spirit would require, such as our Christ would not think too much, and yet so much that I trust all red and while men will be content with it. Mind what I say to you until you hear from me.
G. M. Troup.
Col. Joseph Marshall, Creek Nation.
Line Creek, Fayette County, May 3, 1825.
When you see this letter, stained with the blood of my husband, the last drop of which is now spilt for the friendship he has shown for your people, I know you will remember your pledge to us in behalf of your nation, that, in the worst of events, you would assist and protect us; and when I tell you that at daylight, on Saturday morning last, hundreds of the hostiles surrounded our house, and instantly murdered General McIntosh and Tome Tustunnuggee, by shooting near one hundred balls into them - Chilly and Moody Kennard making their escape through a window. They then commenced burning and plundering in the most unprincipled way; so that here I am, driven from the ashes of my smoking dwelling, left with nothing but my poor little naked hungry children, who need some immediate aid from our white friends; and we lean upon you, while you lean upon your Government. About the same time of the morning that they committed the horrid act on the general, another party caught Colonel Samuel Hawkins, and kept him tied till about three o'clock, when the chiefs returned from our house, and gave orders for his execution in the same way, and refused to leave his implements to cover his body up with; so that it was left exposed to the fowls of the air and the beasts of the forest; and Jenny and her child are here, in the same condition as we are. This party consisted principally of Oakfuskees, Talladegas, and Muckfaws, though there were others with them. The chiefs that appeared to head the party were, Inlockunge, of Muckfaw; Thloc-co-cos-co-mico, of Arpachoochee; Munnauho, (but I know not where he was from,) who said they were ordered to do it by the Little Prince and Hopoeith-yoholo, and that they were supported and encouraged in it by the agent, and the chiefs that were left after the Big Warrior's death, in a council at Broken Arrow, where they decreed that they would murder all the chiefs who had any hand in selling the land, and burn and destroy and take away all they had, and then send on to the President that he should not have the land. I have not heard of the murder of any others, but expect that all are dead that could be caught. But by reason of a great freshet in the Chattahoo-chie, they could not get Colonel Miller nor Hogey McIntosh, nor the Darisaws; and they and Chilly are gone to the Governor. Our country is in a most ruined state, so far as I have heard, (though, by reason of the high waters, word has not circulated fast.) All have fled from their homes in our parts, and taken refuge among our white friends; and I learn there are now at General Ware's (near this place) from one hundred and fifty to two hundred of them, who are afraid to go to their homes to get a grain of what little corn they have to eat, much more to try to make any more; and if you and your people do not assist us, God help us! we must die either by the sword or by famine.
This moment General Ware has come in, and will, in a few minutes, start with a few men and a few friendly Indians to try to get a little something for us to eat. I hope, so soon as you read this, you will lay it before the Governor and the President, that they may know our miserable condition, and afford us relief as soon as possible. I followed them to their camp, about one mile and a half, to try to beg of them something to cover the dead with; but it was denied me. I tried also to get a horse to take my little children, and some provision to last us to the white settlements, which was given up to me, and then taken back; and had it not been for some white men who assisted in burying the dead, and getting us to the white settlements, we should have been worse off than we are, if possible. Before I close, I must remark that the whole of the party, so far as I knew them, were hostile during the late war.
Peggy & Susannah McIntosh.
To Col. D. G. Campbell, and Major J. Merriwether, U. S. Commissioners.
Fayette County, May 3, 1825.
My Dear Friends:
I send you this paper, which will not tell you a lie; but, if it had ten tongues, it could not tell all the truth. On the morning of the 30th of April, at break of day, my father's house was surrounded by a party of hostile Indians, to the number of several hundred, who instantly fired his dwelling, and murdered him and Thomas Tustunnuggee, by shooting more than one hundred balls into them, and took away the whole of father's money and property which they could carry off, and destroyed the rest, leaving the family no clothes (some not one rag) nor provision. Brother Chilly was at father's, and made his escape through a window, under cover of a travelling white man, who obtained leave for them to come out that way. It being not yet light, he was not discovered. While these hostiles were murdering my beloved father, they were tying my husband (Colonel Samuel Hawkins) with cords, to wait the arrival of Itockchunga, Thlococoscomico, and Munnawana, who were the commanders, at father's, to give orders for the colonel's execution also, which took place about 3 o'clock the same day. And these barbarous men, not content with spilling the blood of both my husband and father, to atone for their constant friendship to both your nation and our own, refused my hands the painful privilege of covering up his body in the very ground which he lately defended against those hostile murderers, and drove me from my home stripped of my two best friends in one day; stripped of all my property, my provision, and my clothing; with a more painful reflection than all these, that the body of my poor murdered husband should remain unburied, to be devoured by the birds and the beasts. (Was ever poor woman worse off than I?) I have this moment arrived among our white friends, who, although they are very kind, have but little to bestow on me and my poor helpless infant, who must suffer before any aid can reach us from you; but I can live a great while on a very little, besides the confidence I have on you and your Government; for I know, by your promise, you will aid and defend us as soon as you hear of our situation. These murderers are the very same hostiles who treated the whites ten years ago as they have now treated my husband and father; who say they are determined to kill all who had any hand in selling the land; and, when they have completed the work of murdering, burning, plundering, and destruction, they will send the President word that they have saved their land, taken it back, and that he and the white people never shall have it again; which is the order of the heads of the nation, by the advice of the agent. We expect that many of our best friends are already killed, but have not heard, by reason of the waters being too high for word to go quick, which is the only reason Colonel Miller, and others on his side of the river, were not killed. We are in a dreadful condition; and I do not think there will be one ear of corn made in this part of the nation; for the whole of the friendly party have fled to De Kalb and Fayette counties, too much alarmed to return to their houses to get a little grain of what corn they left for themselves and their families to subsist on, much more to stay at home to make more; and we fear every day that what little provision we left will be destroyed. I am afraid you will think I make it worse; but how can that be? for it is worse of itself than any pen can write. My condition admits of no equal, and mocks me when I try to speak of it. After I was stripped of my last frock but one, humanity and duty called on me to pull it off and spread it over the body of my dead husband, (which was allowed no other covering,) which I did as a farewell witness of my affection. I was twenty-five miles from any friend, (but sister Catharine, who was with me,) and had to stay all night in the woods surrounded by a thousand hostile Indians, who were constantly insulting and affrighting us; and now I am here, with only one old-coat to my back, and not a morsel of bread to save us from perishing, or a rag of a blanket to cover my poor little boy from the sun at noon or the dew at night. I am a poor distracted orphan and widow.
Duncan G. Campbell, and James Merriwether,
United States Commissioners.
P. S. If you think proper, I wish this to be published.
Head-Quarters, Milledgeville, May 5,1825.
The commander-in-chief, having received information of the existence among the Creeks of the most frightful anarchy and disorder, and of the recent massacre of General McIntosh and the old chief of Coweta, within the actual limits of Georgia, has thought proper to adopt precautionary measures without delay; so that if the United States, bound by the constitution and the treaty to repress and punish hostility among the Indians, and maintain peace upon our borders, shall, by any means, fail in their duty in these respects, a competent force may be held in readiness to march at a moment's warning, either to repel invasion, suppress insurrection among the Indians within our own territory, or give protection to the friendly Creeks, and avenge the death of McIntosh, who, always a firm friend to Georgia, fell a sacrifice in her cause.
Ordered, That Major General Wimberly, Major General Shorter, and Major General Miller, of the 5th, 6th, and 7th divisions, forthwith proceed to take the necessary measures to hold in readiness their respective divisions to march at a moment's warning, either by detachments or otherwise, as they may be commanded by authority of the Legislature or of the commander-in-chief.
By the commander-in-chief: Seaborn Jones, Aid-de-camp.
Head-Quarters, Milledgeville, May 5, 1825.
In carrying into effect the enclosed general orders, you will keep a watchful eye to the frontier of our white settlements, so that you may be able, without communicating with me, to repress, on its first occurrence, any commotion which may happen there in consequence of the state of things prevailing in the nation. These infuriated and misguided people may have the temerity, before the General Government can interpose, to pursue the Indians within our organized limits. You will, therefore, in the spirit of these instructions, give your orders, corresponding with them, to your most confidential officers resident near the frontiers, who, on any sudden emergency of (his character, may, without consulting you, proceed instantly to their execution. A copy of General Ware's letter, received after my general orders were issued, will assure you of the nature and extent of the danger to be apprehended, and of the promptitude with which they are to be carried into effect.
With great consideration and respect,
G. M. Troup.
A copy addressed to Major Generals Wimberly, Shorter, and Miller.
Executive Department, Milledgeville, May 5, 1825.
I have this moment received your letter, and at the very time when I had issued orders to Major Generals Shorter and Wimberly, with corresponding instructions to meet the very exigencies which, from your information, you have reason to anticipate. They will have the contents of your letter communicated to them, that their orders may be despatched with the least possible delay.
I wish you to take measures, and the best you can, for the comfortable maintenance of our unhappy friends, whilst they seek refuge among us and are protected by our arms.
Additional orders will be immediately given to Major General Miller to hold his division in readiness.
The expense of supporting the Indians will be incurred by the State, in the first instance, and reimbursed to her from the first installment payable to them by the United States. You will therefore hold me responsible for any contracts you may make on this account; whilst, at the same time, I ask the favor of you to cause them to be made on the best possible terms.
I sincerely trust, if these infuriated monsters shall have the temerity to set foot within our settled limits, you may have the opportunity to give them the bayonet freely, the instrument which they most dread, and which is most appropriate to the occasion. Very respectfully and sincerely, your friend,
G. M. Troup.
Brigadier General Alexander Ware, Fayetteville, Georgia.
To despatch Mr. Jones, he will not wait for a. copy of the general orders, as General Shorter will make them known to you by Mr. Jones. G. M. T.
Head-Quarters, Milledgeville, May 5, 1825.
I wish you, in the distribution of your orders, to instruct the different quartermasters, particularly of the frontier counties, where the Indians are most likely to take refuge under the protection of our arms, to look to their comfortable support by contracts, which you will be pleased to instruct them to form with strict regard to economy. The funds will be advanced by the State, on the credit of the United States or the Indians, and will be reimbursed by one or the other. Very respectfully and sincerely,
G. M. Troup.
Addressed to Generals Wimberly and Miller.
Executive Department, Milledgeville, May 5, 1825.
I lose no time in communicating, for the information of the President, a copy of a letter received this morning from Brigadier General Ware, commanding the second brigade of the fifth division of the militia of this State, and to advise you that measures have been adopted for the adequate protection of the frontiers, and for the safety of the friendly Indians seeking refuge within our limits, until the authority of the United States can be effectually interposed for these purposes; and that therefore the expenses incurred in the mean time will be considered chargeable to the United States. In due time, the measures referred to will be laid before you in extenso.
With great consideration and respect,
G. M. Troup.
The Secretary of War.
Colonel Hawkins, the interpreter and friend of McIntosh, has shared his fate.
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