Search billions of records on


Columbia, S. C., January 31, 1825.


My return to Georgia has been protracted to a much later period than I intended, or had any reason to expect. The delay at the city was occasioned by the course taken by the Executive of the United States, upon the subject of the negotiation pending with the Creeks. This course made it necessary that I should hold a correspondence with the Secretary of War, preparatory to a special message which the President proposed making to Congress in relation to this exigency in particular, and to Indian emigration generally.

The application which I submitted, for authority to hold a treaty with a divided council of the Creeks, was. not expressly granted. Such a course, by a decision of the cabinet, was held to be incompatible with the laws of nations and Indian usage; every other facility, however, was promptly afforded. The sub-agent has been removed, the agent himself placed completely under our control, and our instructions so extended and liberalized as to, authorize the most sanguine expectations of success. The negotiation will be renewed at the Indian Springs, on the 7th February. Orders to this effect were issued and forwarded from Washington City.

I should have reached Georgia five days earlier, but for a snowstorm in Virginia - the heaviest I ever encountered. But for this loss of time, an opportunity would have been afforded me of making this communication more full. I now write under the most disadvantageous circumstances to which a stage passenger can be subjected. With great consideration, I have the honor to be your obedient servant,

Duncan G. Campbell.

His Excellency G. M. Troup.

Creek Nation, Coweta, January 25, 1825.

We, the chiefs of Coweta, Talladega, Cusseta, Broken Arrow, and Hitcheta towns, in council met, do take this method to lay before our father the President of the United States the most distressing difficulties that are existing in our nation, and have been for some time past, owing entirely to the existence of two parties in the nation, known and distinguished by the Red Sticks, (or hostile party,) and the other party friendly to the United States, and who were the warm supporters of the American war against said party of Indians, and also against the British. For further particulars, we most respectfully refer our father the President to General Jackson, who can testify to the characters of the present bearers of this remonstrance. It is painful to us to acknowledge that there is an actual necessity of calling upon our father the President of the United Slates for protection, inasmuch as the Big Warrior, who is influenced by the hostile party, with the exception of a few, is calling his chiefs together, who consist of such Indians as were particularly opposed to the United States during the last American war. One of the most conspicuous chiefs of this council is Gun Boy, whom we took prisoner before Fort Gaines, during Jackson's campaign against the Seminole Indians - and passing orders and decrees without the consent of any of our towns, apparently for the destruction of our people, who are the friendly party - inasmuch as it certainly will create an internal war among ourselves; and we hope our father the President of the United States will never admit that his red children, who took his white children by the hand in the defence of the United States, in the last war with Great Britain, should be entirely excluded from having any voice in the nation, or, in other words, excluded from the benefits of their country, and for the Big Warrior and his party to have the entire prerogative of the nation. We are informed that the Big Warrior and his chiefs are now in council, and we expect are passing such decrees as are derogatory to the safety of McIntosh and the rest of his chiefs; for instance, it has been but a short time since they met in the grand council square, and passed an order for the execution of McIntosh, and any other of his chiefs who would make any proposition to the United States in favor of selling any part of the country which we now claim; therefore, we have been compelled to guard General McIntosh, since the treaty at Broken Arrow, for his safety. This is not all: there is no doubt but that said council, at the present meeting, will pass an order for the dismissing of General McIntosh, and many others of his adherents, and in all probability they have sent, or will send, a delegation from their council to that amount, although knowing, at the same time, that McIntosh and his chiefs have the superiority in the grand council of the nation; for reasons why, they were the only supporters and defenders of the nation in the last war; and that a number of the Big Warrior's chiefs forfeited their rights to their country, which they previously had, by their hostility to the United States during the last war. We do, therefore, deny that the Warrior's party has any right to enter into any such arrangements, and we do also deny that Gun Boy, and several others of the Warrior's chiefs, have any privilege in the national council, although we have heretofore permitted them to do so: for they did not defend our country from the foreign or domestic foe, but used their utmost exertions against the United States, and in favor of their enemies. We, therefore, head men of the nation, or of the aforesaid towns, assure our father the President that we have much trouble in our country, and much, too, in consequence of our agent's partiality to the Big Warrior's party; inasmuch as it appears to create a jealousy with us that the United States are failing to comply with what they once promised us - that is, protection. But we are conscious that it is unknown to our father the President. But hoping that our father will make the necessary inquiries of our delegation, and to advise accordingly for his red children's welfare, of which we will pray, &c.

Tomme Tuskenuggee, his + mark;
Hothemarte Tuskenuggee, his + mark;
James Island, his + mark;
Colonel Blue, his + mark;
Coskee Tuskenuggee, his + mark;
James Derriso, his + mark;
Tulsa Haijo, his + mark;
Arpifka Tuskenuggee, his + mark;
Efau Tuskeenahar, his + mark;
Fosuch Emarlo, his + mark;
Thlato Haijo, his + mark;
Neharholo, his + mark;
Coweta Tuskeenehar, his + mark;
Yeacaskee, his + mark;
Farna Mico, his + mark;
Joseph Marshall;
Benjamin Marshall;
John Shuman;
Captain Canard, his + mark;
Jacob Beaver, his + mark;
Foshunch Tuskenuggee, his + mark;

Walthocco Hargo, (Taladaga,) his + mark;
Tuckelas Emarlo, his + mark;
Dick, his + mark;
Oakfuskee Tuskenuggee, his + mark;
Robin Gaison, his + mark.

Broken Arrows:
Arpifkee Tuskenuggee, his + mark;
Samuel Miller, his + mark;
C. W. Miller, his + mark;
Charles Miller, his + mark;
Andy Lovett, his + mark;
Harper Lovett, his + mark;
John Harrard, his + mark.

Tuckerbatchee Haijo, his + mark.

Seah Gray.

Wm. McIntosh, Sp. N. Council.
Sam'l. Hawkins, Interpreter.

Chilly McIntosh, Clerk

Creek Nation, January 25, 1825,

We, the principal chiefs of Coweta, Talladega, Broken Arrow, and Hitchetas towns, in council met, agreeably to a previous notice by General William Mcintosh, whom we acknowledge to be our principal protector and chief, having full confidence in his patriotism, integrity, and great regard for his people, whom he represents, have unanimously recommended and appointed him, and seven others of the national council, to wit: Tomme Tuskenuggee, Othloe Tuskenuggee, Benjamin Derriso, Seah Gray, Arpifkee Tuskenuggee, Tuckeeparchee Haijo, and Coweta Emarlo, and Samuel Hawkins, interpreter, to meet the President of the United States, our father, and to make such arrangements as will be most conducive to the welfare of our people, and to receive such advice as our father the President may think proper to give; and should our father the President give it as his opinion that the claims of the State of Georgia to the land within her limits would prevent a fee-simple title from vesting in our people, then, in that event, General Win. Mcintosh, with the other delegates of our chiefs, are duly authorized, in behalf of our people, to make such arrangements with our father the President, or his commissioners for that purpose, in an exchange for lands west of the Mississippi, such as have been referred to the United States' commissioners, lately, at the Broken Arrow, assuring the President our father, at the same time, that any thing which the said delegates may do on the occasion will meet the approbation of the National Council in general, inasmuch as there are six of our principal council with General William Mcintosh, who are authorized to sign any treaty of that kind which our father the President, and our delegates, may make upon the subject. Signed in open council, the day and date above written.

Tome Tuskenugga, his X mark.
Hoethlemarto Tuekenugga, his + mark.
James Island, his + mark.
Colonel Blue, his + mark.
Caskee Tuskenugga, his + mark.
James Deriso, his + mark.
Tulsa Haijo, his + mark.
Arpifka Tuskanuggee, his + mark.
Efau Tuskanaha, his + mark.
Fosuch Emarlo, his + mark.
Thohato Haijo, his + mark.
Neha Halo, his + mark.
Coweta Tuskenugga, his + mark.
Yeacaskee, his + mark.
Farna Mico, his + mark.
Joseph Marshall.
Benjamin Marshall.
John Sheheeco, his + mark.
Foshunck Tuskenuggee, his + mark.

Wothlo Haijo, his + mark.
Tucklas Emcilo, his + mark.
Dick, his + mark.
Oakfuskee Tuskenuggee, his + mark.
Robin Garson, his + mark.

Broken Arrows:
Arpifkee Tuskenuggee, his + mark.
Samuel Miller, his + mark.
C. W. Miller, his + mark.
Charles Miller, his + mark.

Andy Lovett, his + mark.
Harper Lovett, his + mark.
John Harrard, his + mark.

Tuckeebatchee Haijo.
Seah Gray.

William McIntosh, Sp. N. Council.
Samuel Hawkins, Interpreter.

Chilly McIntosh, Clerk of the National Council.

Newnan, Pike county, Georgia, January 26, 1825.

Some time in March 1821, I was called on by the State of Georgia to do some surveying of the line of East Florida, on which I visited a small Indian town on the Alapaha river, below the line. The town was called after the chief, (Mico-town.) While I was there he died, and his representatives called on me to examine his papers; and among them I found several letters, written from Colonel Nichols, a British officer, and one from either Ambrister or Arbuthnot, I now do not recollect. One of the letters particularly named the Big Warrior as being friendly to them, although he was amongst McIntosh's Indians; and that, if proper means were made use of, he, the Big Warrior, could be got with his friends to join them, (meaning the British.)

The other letters were principally on the subject of advising the Indians how to overthrow Mcintosh and his people; that the British were very strong, and would do great things for them, &c.

John H. Brodnax.

Executive Department, Georgia, Milledgeville, February 8, 1825.


Within this hour the mail has brought an important communication, made by the President to Congress, on the 27th ultimo, and connected with the objects of your commission. Fearing a copy may not have reached you, I hasten to forward, by express, a newspaper which contains it. He can be with you early to-morrow morning. With great consideration and respect,

G. M. Troup.

D. G. Campbell and J. Merriwether, Esqrs.
United States Commissioners for holding treaty with the Creeks, Indian Springs.

Indian Springs, February 9, 1825.

Dear sir:

It affords us much pleasure to acknowledge the receipt of yours of yesterday, enclosing a special message lately made by the President to the Senate of the United States. We were aware that such communication was intended to be made, and had arranged for its transmission to this place. It had not arrived, however, which makes the arrival of your express the more acceptable.

The chiefs of the nation are coming in, in considerable numbers. We discover distinctly the decided hostility of a large deputation from Tookaubatchee, but are of the opinion that in council we have the ascendency in numbers and in grade. We cannot admit the possibility of defeat, yet such may be the result. Our expectations are founded upon facts which amount to the strongest assurance of success and we must indulge the gratification; that, even while " Troup is Governor," the policy and obligations of the United States will be effected, and the rights of Georgia obtained.

With great consideration, we are, sir, your obedient servants,

Duncan G. Campbell,
James Merriwether.

His Excellency G. M. Troup.

Executive Department, Georgia, Milledgeville, February 12, 1825.


Accept my thanks for your last letter by express. A despatch from Mr. Forsyth has this moment reached me, and, believing it may be of service to you, I hasten, by another express, to place you in possession of it. Our delegation, as was expected, are resolved to do their duty; it is known to me you will do yours to all parties, and I will endeavor not to be wanting in mine. There can be no doubt of the correctness of the suggestion of Mr. Forsyth, that a treaty concluded with that portion of the tribe resident in Georgia, for the cession of all the lands within our limits, would be approved by Congress.

With great respect and consideration,

G. M. Troup.

Messrs. Campbell and Merriwether,
United States Commissioners, Indian Springs.

Indian Springs, February 13, 1825.


Your express has this moment reached us, and delivered your communication covering the proceedings of Congress upon the Indian question, We are happy to inform you that the " long agony is over, " and that we concluded a treaty yesterday with what we consider the nation, for nearly the whole country. We enclose you a copy; also, dispatches for the Government. These last are addressed to your care, to secure their certain transmission by to-morrow's mail. The original treaty will be conveyed by our secretary to Washington City, by the stage leaving Wilkes, on Thursday next. We are still in time for ratification by the present Senate, and beg to offer you our sincere gratulations upon the more than successful issue of a negotiation in which you have been an ardent co-worker.

With great consideration and respect,

Duncan G. Campbell.
James Merriwether.

His Excellency G. M. Troup.

Executive Department, Georgia, Milledgeville, February 15, 1825.


From what I have learned, unofficially, of the lute conduct of the agent at the Indian Springs, his hostility to the interest of Georgia has suffered no abatement. I can by no means vouch for the accuracy of the reports connected with it. The commissioners must know, and, if founded in truth, you will be satisfied, that the agent will leave no efforts unessayed to detain the Creeks in their own country to the last hour limited by the treaty, if he be longer continued in office. Macintosh and all his people are willing to hurry away; the agent can retard or detain them by the multiplication of obstacles which will be insuperable to them. We are much concerned in their speedy removal.

With great consideration and respect,

G. M. Troup.

The Hon. Senators and Representatives in Congress from Georgia, Washington City.

Executive Department, Georgia, Milledgeville, February 17, 1825.


What was stated in my letter of the 15th, in relation to the conduct of the agent at the Indian Springs, as rumor, is confirmed as matter of fact. Professing good dispositions, and tendering hearty co-operation to the commissioners, he was secretly engaged in undermining them.

The chiefs were all (the Tuckaubatchies excepted) ready to sign the treaty; and whilst the commissioners were occupied in the preparation of it, the agent ordered a portion of them to depart by night. When the commissioners, to their astonishment, discovered this secession, they despatched Colonel Williamson in pursuit, and to advise them to return; but their resolution was fixed. And when it was asked why they had thus precipitately turned their backs upon the commissioners, on the very eve of the signature, their answer was, one and all, " by order of the agent. " You see, therefore, that but for this perfidious interference, the treaty would have been concluded by the entire nation, and with a unanimity almost unexampled.

This last act of the agent proves that he is yet animated by the same inveterate hostility to the interest of Georgia which signalized his conduct and defeated the treaty at Broken Arrow.

It is the interest of Georgia, as I believe it is the wish of her people, that the territory be organized as speedily as possible consistently with the treaty; and as, in expediting the removal of the Indians, much will depend on the facilities afforded by the agent, it is presumable that he will not fail to take the necessary measures to detain them to the last hour limited by the treaty.

I understand, further, that those of the tribe who refused their assent to the treaty threaten injury to Macintosh and his chiefs. Should the execution of these threats be attempted, (the treaty having been ratified,) I will feel it to be my duty to punish, in the most summary manner, and with the utmost severity, every such attempt, as an act of hostility committed within the actual territory and acknowledged jurisdiction of Georgia; and this whether the agent of the United States may think proper to deport himself as a neutral or a partisan.

With great respect and consideration, G. M. Troup.

P. S. Dr. Merriwether, the secretary to the commissioners, I learn, proceeds to Washington with the treaty. He will, no doubt, be able to give you any information which you may require touching the proceedings at the Indian Springs.

G. M. T.

The Hon. Senators and Representatives in Congress from Georgia, Washington City.



By his excellency G. M. Troup, Governor and Commander-in-chief of the army and navy of this State, and of the militia thereof.

Whereas, by a treaty concluded with the Creeks, at the Indian Springs, on the 12th of February last, their claims to the whole territory within the limits of Georgia were ceded to the United States; and the ratification of the same by the President and Senate having been made known to me; by which act the territory aforesaid, according to the stipulations of the treaty, and of the articles of agreement and cession of the year 1802, will, on or before the 1st day of September, 1826, pass into the actual possession of the State of Georgia:

And whereas it is provided in said treaty (hat the United States shall protect the Indians against the encroachments, hostilities, and imposition of the whites, so that they suffer no interruption, molestation, or injury, in their persons, goods, or effects, their dwellings or the lands they now occupy, until their removal shall have been accomplished, according to the terms of the treaty: I have, therefore, thought proper to issue this my proclamation, warning all persons, citizens of Georgia and others, against trespassing or intruding upon the lands occupied by the Indians within the limits of this State, either for the purpose of settlement or otherwise, as every such act will be in direct violation of the provisions of the treaty aforesaid, and will expose the aggressors to the most certain and summary punishment by the authorities of the State and of the United States.

All good citizens, therefore, pursuing the dictates of good faith, will unite in enforcing the obligations of the treaty as the supreme law, aiding and assisting the magistracy in repressing and punishing any disorder or violence which may infringe its provisions. And all officers, civil and military, are commanded to be vigilant in preventing offences under it, and in detecting and punishing offenders.

Given under my hand and the great seal of the State, at the State-house in Milledgeville, this twenty-first day of March, in the year of our Lord eighteen hundred and twenty-five, and the forty-ninth year of the independence of the United States of America.

G. M. Troup.

By the Governor:

E. Hamilton, Secretary of State.

Chattahoochie, March 29, 1825.


I take the liberty of sending Samuel Hawkins to you, seeing in the newspapers your proclamation, staling that the treaty was ratified by the President and Senate. We sue in the papers, also, where Crowell had written to the Department that chiefs of the lowest grade had signed the treaty, and we see where he says there will be hostilities with us if the United States sign the treaty. We are not any way in danger until he comes home and commences hostility, and urges it himself on us. If the treaty is ratified, if you can let Samuel Hawkins have two thousand dollars, or stand his security in the bank to that amount, we will send men on now to look at the country, to try to move away this fall; the money, if loaned to us, will be paid back as soon as the money comes on to pay the first payment of the treaty. Any information that you can give him will be satisfactory to us.

Your dear friend, &c.

William McIntosh.

To His Excellency G. M. Troup.

Executive Department, Milledgeville, March 29, 1825.

Dear General:

You will have seen, by my proclamation of the 21st instant, that I have resolved, in fulfillment of the stipulations of the treaty, to maintain inviolate all your rights reserved by it, so that you suffer no detriment or loss by the trespasses or intrusions of the whites, as long as you continue to occupy the country.

It is important that the territory acquired by the late treaty should be organized as speedily as possible, consistently with the provisions of that instrument; and not doubting that your assent will be given to the survey of it, before your removal, I have despatched a messenger to you, that your resolution may be communicated to me without delay. It is not presumed that the least inconvenience can result to you from this measure. Besides my own determination to cause the rights of the Indians to be respected in their persons and property at all limes, there will be a future and ample security and protection in the selection of the officers who shall be charged with the duty of running the lines, who shall be responsible, not only that no depredations are committed by themselves, but that none shall be committed by others without their giving prompt notice to the lawful authorities, so that the offenders may be brought to justice.

You will understand that there is no intention on my part to hurry your departure; the period of this will be left to your considerations of interest and convenience under the treaty; but as the survey is a work of time, this time can be saved to us, so that, having completed ii, nothing will remain but to occupy and settle the country after you shall have left it. I wish you by all means to give me your final answer by this express, that I may know what measures it will become my duty to adopt.

Your friend,

G. M. Troup.

General William McIntosh, Creek Nation.

Executive Department, Milledgeville, April 4, 1825.

Dear sir:

I have written to yourself and Major Merriwether, jointly, but with an expectation that, upon your own responsibility, you will be able to meet the wishes of General McIntosh, in relation to an advance of money. . It is of great importance that every facility should be given to any movement of the Indians, which looks to a speedy removal beyond the Mississippi, and I will thank you to make known to me your resolution by return of mail.

With great esteem and consideration,

G. M. Troup.

D. G. Campbell, Esq.

P. S. It is presumed General McIntosh's requisition will be sufficient authority, and I have ordered it placed on file. A draft on the Secretary of War could be negotiated here.

G. M. T.

Executive Department, Milledgeville, April 4, 1825.


Colonel Hawkins has just arrived from the nation, and announces that the Indians will hold a council in a few days, for the purpose of concerting the necessary measures to enable them to remove beyond the Mississippi in the course of the next fall. They will advance a party to explore the country; and, to defray the expenses of this, they ask for two thousand dollars, which I will thank you to furnish without delay. If you are not in funds, I can advance the amount, on your assurance that it will be reimbursed from the first remittance to you under the treaty. It will be considered, of course, as part of the consideration of the purchase, and debited to them accordingly.

With great consideration and respect,

G. M. Troup.

Messrs. Campbell and Merriwether, U. S. Commissioners.