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PRELIMINARY INVENTORY (PI 163) OF
THE RECORDS OF
THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS (RG 75)
WASHINGTON, D.C. AREA

Compiled by Edward E. Hill, 1965

The National Archives in Washington, D. C., holds much of the original Bureau of Indian Affairs records for Indians. These original records must be viewed in person at the National Archives.


Introduction ... Table of Contents ... Appendix I-III ... Index: A-Em ... Em-Mo ... Mo-Z

Entries: 1-74 ... 75-120 ... 121-197 ... 198-284 ... 285-355 ... 356-443 ... 444-521 ... 522-576 ... 577-643 ... 644-711 ... 712-784 ... 785-860 ... 861-940 ... 941-998 ... 999-1040 ... 1041-1112 ... 1113-1182 ... 1183-1243 ... 1244-1362 ... 1363-1401


INTRODUCTION

The Bureau of Indian Affairs was established within the War Department on March 11, 1824, by order of Secretary of War John C. Calhoun. From 1789 until 1824 the administration of Indian affairs, except for the Government operated factory system of trade with the Indians, was under the direct supervision of the Secretary of War. The factory system -- from 1806 until it was abolishhed in 1822 -- was administered by a Superintendent of Indian Trade responsible to the Secretary of War. The Superintendent's powers and responsibilities had expanded over the years, and the discontinuance of his office confirmed the need for a bureau to administer Indian affairs. Thomas L. McKenney, the last Superintendent of Indian Trade, became the first head of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. 

The Bureau was operated informally within the War Department from 1824 until 1832, when an act of Congress (4 Stat. 564) authorized the appointment of a Commissioner of Indian Affairs, who, under the direction of the Secretary of War, was to direct and manage all matters arising from relations with the Indians.  In 1849, by an act of Congress (9 Stat. 395), the Bureau was transferred f'rom the War Department to the new Department of the Interior, where it has since remained. Although Secretary Calhoun used the term "Bureau" in his order, the name "Office of Indian Affairs" soon came into common usage. The name "Bureau of Indian Affairs" was not formally adopted until 1947. 

The Bureau of Indian Affairs conducts the business of the U.S. Government relating to American Indians. The nature and scope of this business have changed with policies and circumstances. In the early years of the Federal Government the Indian tribes were regarded much like foreign powers, and a major goal of Indian policy was to establish and maintain peace with them. 

During most of the 19th century probably the chief goal of Indian policy was to clear the way for expansion on the frontier by extinguishing Indian title to land. Until 1871 the main device used to accomplish his objective was the treaty by which the Indians gave up their claims to certain areas of land in exchange for reserves in those areas not then sought for white settlement and for compensation in money or goods often extended over a long period of time (annuity payments). 

During President Andrew Jackson's administration it became the policy of the Government to move all Indians living in the East to an Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River. For the most part this removal was carried out. As white settlement spread beyond the Mississippi, however, there were renewed efforts to restrict the areas reserved for the Indians.  By 1871 the Indians were so confined on reservations that it was no longer necessary to negotiate with the tribes as independent governments. 

The next phase in Indian land policy was to divide the tribal lands among the individual Indians. This had been the practice in some cases at a much earlier date, but it did not become a general policy until the passage of the General Allotment Act of 1887 (24 Stat. 388). The purpose of this act was to provide each Indian with his own allotment of land and, this having been done, to dissolve the tribes. Thereafter the Indians, it was presumed, would become citizens and would assimilate with the remainder of the population. At first the allotments were to be held in trust by the United States; but when an Indian was considered to be capable of managing his own affairs he was to assume full control of the land, including the right to sell it. Over a period of time many land allotments were made; some of the tribes were at least legally dissolved; and much of the Indian land was sold to non-Indians. The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 (48 Stat. 984), which was often referred to as the Wheeler-Howard Act, reversed the policy prescribed in the General Allotment Act.  Further land allotments were prohibited and land sales were suspended.  Provision was made for the organization of tribal governments having their own written constitutions. 

Other important areas of Indian administration from the earliest years were the regulation of trade with the Indians and the control and eventual prohibition of liquor in Indian country. The system of licensing traders and prescribing conditions for private trade with the Indians was well established before 1800.  From 1795 until 1822 the Government operated its own system of trading houses. 

From the beginning of the Federal Government, some efforts had been made to educate and civilize Indians. A permanent Civilization Fund, established in 1819, was used largely to assist missionary schools. Many of the treaties provided for Government assistance to schools for Indians and for the training of Indians by blacksmiths, farmers, and other skilled workers. When the Indians were confined on reservations and could no longer hunt for their food, the Government made increased efforts to train them in agricultural and mechanical pursuits. The General Allotment Act of 1887 brought a fuller recognition of the importance of the training and education of Indians to make them capable of managing their affairs as members of the general population. There was an increasing interest in the education of Indian children in regular public schools rather than in special schools for Indians only. In time, new programs were developed to assist in economic development, among them irrigation, forestry, health, and employment programs. After the passage of the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, more emphasis was given to programs designed to make the tribes economically self-sufficient. 

Indians were included in the relief programs established to assist in the recovery from the depression of the 1930's. Particularly important were the projects financed by the Public Works Administration, the Work Projects Administration, and the Civilian Conservation Corps. These projects included irrigation work, road construction, construction of homes and farm buildings, and construction work at Bureau facilities. 

During World War II many of the programs for Indians were curtailed. The Bureau, however, added at least one important activity -- cooperation with the War Relocation Authority in operating relocation camps for evacuated Japanese. 

After the war the Government sought at first to relinquish authority over tribes considered sufficiently advanced to manage their own affairs. This policy became known as "termination." There was also an effort to transfer some authority to the States, particularly in relation to law and order. In 1955 responsibility  for Indian health activities was transferred to the Public Health Service. In recent years there has been a rejection of "termination" in favor of increased Federal assistance to the Indians. 

The responsibility of the Bureau has never extended to all Indians, but rather to Indians living on reservations or to Indians maintaining their tribal affiliation in some manner. Some tribes, particularly in the East, have been under State authority rather than Federal. 

For many years the only positions in the Washington office of the Bureau that were specifically authorized by statute were those of Commissioner of Indian Affairs and Chief Clerk. Until 1886 the Chief Clerk was the second ranking official in the Bureau, and he acted for the Commissioner in his absence. In 1886 Congress established the position of Assistant Commissioner to replace that of the Chief Clerk. The position of Chief Clerk was reestablished in 1906 and that of Assistant Commissioner was retained. From 1910 to 1915 the Chief Clerk was designated as the Second Assistant Commissioner. The position of Chief Clerk was abolished in 1934. Since World War II there have been created additional positions of Assistant Commissioner, and also positions of Deputy Commissioner and Associate Commissioner, ranking above the Assistant Commissioners. 

There were no formal subdivisions of the central office of the Bureau until 1846, when four divisions were established by order of the Secretary of War. The names of these divisions varied; but they were most commonly known as Land Division, Civilization Division, Finance Division, and Files and Records Division. The Files and Records Division had custody of the general records of the Bureau, but each of the other divisions also kept its own records. 

There were comparatively few changes in the divisional organization of the Bureau until 1947. From 1873 to 1881 there was a Medical and Educational Division, which assumed some of the duties of the Civilization Division. The Accounts Division was estab lished in 1876; most of its functions had formerly been assigned to the Finance Division. In 1884 the Civilization Division became the Education Division. In 1885 the Depredation Division was established to process depredation claims; but, in 1893, it was consolidated with the Land Division. A Miscellaneous Division was established in 1889 to take over certain duties formerly assigned to the Office of the Assistant Commissioner, particularly the issuance of traders' licenses 

Between 1907 and 1915 the Bureau's central office was repeatedly reorganized. The Land and Education Divisions survived; and the Education Division, in particular, was given expanded duties. The Finance Division was replaced by the Purchase Division. In 1909 the Purchase Division was consolidated with the Education Division, but in 1914 it was reestablished as a separate division. The name of the Accounts Division was changed to Finance Division. The Miscellaneous Division was abolished. The Files and Records Division was replaced by the Mail and Files Section, which became a part of the Office of the Chief Clerk. The office of the Law Clerk, separated from the Land Division, developed into the Law Division (later known as the Probate Division). An inspection service was organized and it became eventually the Inspection Division: A short-lived Division of Field Work (or Cooperation Division) was responsible for irrigation and forestry activities formerly assigned to the Land Division. The Division of Field Work was abolished about the end of 1908, however; and responsibilities for irrigation and forestry projects were shunted about until 1912. Thereafter there were separate Forestry and Irrigation Sections, which seem to have been associated with the field service rather than the central office. A short-lived Indian Territory Division, in charge of the affairs of the Five Civilized Tribes, was consolidated with the Land Division. For several years there was also a Methods Division, which was responsible for developing office procedures and organization. 

Another aspect of the reorganizations during the 1907-15 period was the subdivision of the divisions into sections. 

There were no major changes in the organization of the central office from 1915 through 1923. In 1924 the Irrigation and Forestry Sections became ful divisions and the Health Division (called the Medical Division until 1931) was established, assuming certain duties formerly assigned to the Education Division. 

In 1926 the Education Division was renamed the Administrative Division. In 1930, however, the Schools Section of the Administrative Division was made a separate Education Division; and in the same year the Industries Section of the Administrative Division was replaced by the Agricultural Extension and Industry Division (later the Division of Extension and Industry). In 1931 the Alaska Division of the Office of Education, in charge of educational and medical work for Alaskan natives, was transferred to the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its activities were gradually merged into those of the Education and Health Divisions. 

There was a major reorganization, of the Bureau in 1931. Two positions of Assistant to the Commissioner and a position of Chief Finance Officer ( later Finance Officer ) were established. Each of these new officials was given supervisory control over several divisions. The Assistant to the Commissioner for Human Relations was in charge of the Divisions of Education, Health, and Agricultural Extension as well as the Employees Section ( formerly in the Administrative Division ) and a new miscellaneous Activities Section. Under this Assistant was a Junior Assistant to the Commissioner, in charge of matters relating to general field supervision, whose office in effect replaced the Inspection Division. The Assistant to the Commissioner for Indian Property supervised the Land, Forestry, and Irrigation Divisions. The Chief Finance Officer was responsible for all financial matters; and he was in charge of the Fiscal Division (formerly the Finance Division), the Purchase Division and the Construction Section (formerly a part of the Administrative Division). The Probate Division was placed under the supervision of the Chief Counsel, who was in charge of all legal work of the Bureau. The Chief Clerk remained in immediate charge of the Washington office and supervised the Mail and Files Section, the Statistics Section, and the library The Administrative Division was abolished. In 1932 the Purchase Division was abolished and all purchasing activities were transferred to the Office of the Secretary of the Interior. 

For the next several years the organization of the Washington office was in a very confused state. In 1934 the position of Chief Clerk was abolished and his duties were assigned to an assistant to the Finance Officer, whose office developed into the Administration Branch of the Bureau. New positions of Assistant to the Commissioner were established, but the specific responsibil ities of the incumbents were changed frequently.  The Statistics and Construction Sections became divisions.  The Employees Section, responsible for field personnel matters, was abolished in 1939, when the personnel work of the Bureau was centralized in a Personnel Division. 

New divisions were established for expediting the emergency programs of the 1930's. These included the Civilian Conservation Corps -- Indian Division (at first called Indian Emergency Conservation Work); the Roads Division; and the Rehabilitation Division, which was in charge of WPA projects. The Construction Division handled PWA projects other than those connected with irrigation and road work. The Indian Organization Division was established to supervise the formation of tribal governments under the provisions of the Indian Reorganization Act. 

In 1940 the Community Services Branch, the Resources Branch, the Administration Branch, and other branches were established. The Finance Officer redesignated Chief Administrative Officer, was put in charge of the Administration Branch. Each of these branches was made up of a number of divisions. In 1949 the terminology was reversed -- the branches became divisions and the divisions became branches. An Assistant Commissioner was put in charge of the Division of Community Services, and another Assistant Commissioner was put in charge of the Division of Resources. More recently there have been created a position of Assistant Commissioner for the Division of Administration and a position of Assistant Commissioner for the Division of Economic Development. The Division of Resources has been abolished. 

Since 1940 there have been many changes in the old divisions (now branches). For divisions that have deposited post-1940 records in the National Archives information concerning administrative changes is given in the introductory statements in this inventory preceding the descriptive entries for their records. 

The central office of the Bureau has been primarily responsible for administrative duties. The field officials maintain actual contact with the Indians and carry out the functional operations. 

During the 19th century there were two principal types of field jurisdictions: superintendencies and agencies. Superintendents had general responsibility for Indian affairs in a geographical area, usually a Territory but sometimes a larger area. Their duties included the supervision of relations among the various Indian tribes in their jurisdiction and between the tribes and citizens of the United States or other persons, and the supervision of the conduct and accounts of agents responsible to them. Agents were immediately responsible for the affairs of one or more tribes. Until the 1870's most agents were responsible to a superintendent, but some of them reported directly to the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Agents attempted to preserve or restore peace and often tried to induce Indians to cede their lands and to move to areas less threatened by white encroachment.  They also distributed money and goods as required by treaties and carried out other provisions of treaties with the Indians. Gradually, as the Indians were confined on reservations, the agents became more concerned with educating and civilizing them. 

The superintendency system is usually considered to have started with an "Ordinance for the Regulation of Indian Affairs," enacted by the Continental Congress on August 7, 1786. This ordinance established a northern Indian department and a southern Indian department, which were divided by the Ohio River. A Superintendent of Indian Affairs was authorized for each of these departments. These positions were continued when the new Government was organized under the Constitution. In 1789 Congress appropriated the necessary funds for the Governor of the Northwest Territory to discharge the duties of superintendent of the northern Indian department. It soon became a common practice for the Governor of a Territory to serve ex officio as Superintendent of Indian Affairs, particularly in newly organized Territories. In superintendencies located in unorganized territory or in the States or where the duties of the superintendent were particularly arduous, a full-time superintendent was appointed. 

Agencies were established at first in a very casual manner. In 1792 the President appointed four special agents, who were charged with special diplomatic missions. In 1793 an act of Congress (1 Stat. 331) authorized the President to appoint temporary agents to reside among the Indians.  Eventually the word "temporary" was dropped from their title, and agents became permanent Indian agents assigned to particular tribes or areas. 1818 there were 15 agents and 10 assistants or subagents. In that year Congress passed a law (3 Stat. 428) providing that all agents be appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. 

By the time the Bureau of Indian Affairs was established in 1824 the system of superintendencies and agencies was well organized. An act of June 30, 1834 (4 Stat . 735), specifically authorized certain superintendencies and agencies. The President could discontinue or transfer agencies but was given no authority to establish additional ones. An act of February 27, 1851 (9 Stat. 574), fixed the number of superintendencies and agencies, taking into account the greatly expanded area of the country after the Mexican War and the settlement of the Oregon boundary with Great Britain. 

The restrictions on the number of agencies were, in a sense, evaded by the establishment of subagencies, which did not require congressional approval. After 1834 most subagents became in effect regular agents, although they received less salary and were usually assigned to less important agencies. Additional agencies were also established by creating "special agencies." A special agent was often appointed to carry out some special. assignment, but frequently special agents were simply regular agents appointed in addition to the authorized agents. Superintendents, particularly those in newly organized areas, often appointed special agents and acting agents of various kinds -- and sometimes without authority to do so. 

The Bureau employed other kinds of agents. Purchasing and disbursing agents were concerned, respectively, with obtaining goods and with distributing either goods or money. Emigration agents assisted in the removal of the Indians from one area to another. Enrolling agents were appointed to prepare rolls for annuity disbursements, land allotments, or other purposes. There were also treaty commissioners, inspectors (beginning in 1873), and special agents assigned to some specific mission such as the investigation of the conduct of a regular field employee or the settlement of claims. 

Superintendents and agents in newly established jurisdictions were allowed wide latitude of action. The assignment of agents was often left to the discretion of the superintendent. Agents were permitted to select sites for agency headquarters, subject to approval. Some agents had no permanent headquarters and spent much of their time traveling. Gradually, as the Indians were settled on reserves, the agencies became more fixed in location; better communications were established; and the superintendents and the agents were allowed less independence of action. In 1869 most of the civilian agents were replaced by Army officers, but in the following year most of these officers in turn were relieved of their duties and civilians were again appointed. It was a common practice, however, to detail Army men to duty with the Indian Service in periods of unusual disturbances or when civilian agents were unavailable. During the 1870's the Bureau allowed various religious denominations to recommended certain persons to be agents . 

The system of giving supervision over a number of agencies to a superintendent was discontinued during the 1870's, and by 1878 the last superintendency had been abolished. Thereafter all agents reported directly to the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Inspectors and special agents, however, were sometimes given some supervisory authority over agents. 

In 1893 an act of Congress (27 Stat. 614) authorized the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, with the approval of the Secretary of the Interior, to assign the duties of Indian agent to a school superintendent. This action was needed to eliminate political patronage (school superintendents were under civil service regulations, but Indian agents were still appointed politically); moreover, the Indians, under the allotment system, were being divided into smaller, more scattered groups. All agents were gradually replaced by superintendents, who were not necessarily in charge of any school. The Bureau revived the term "agency" for field units, but the officers in charge continued to be called "superintendents." 

In 1879 the first nonreservation Indian boarding school was established at Carlisle, Pa., and other schools were established elsewhere. The position of Superintendent of Indian Schools was established in 1883. For some years the Superintendent performed duties similar to those of an inspector, and he had little administrative authority. In time, however, he directed the Indian school system; and in 1910, his title was changed to Chief Supervisor of Education. 

Other supervisory positions were established for specialized activities such as irrigation, forestry, Indian employment, law enforcement, health, and construction. The incumbents of these positions were regarded as field officials, even though some of them maintained their headquarters in Washington. They developed their own elaborate organizations, which in some cases included district systems. Since these services operated outside the regular agency system and apart from the administrative divisions in Washington, problems of conflicting authority arose. 

In 1925 the position of General Superintendent was created. The former Chief Supervisor of Education was appointed to the new position and he was placed in charge of field activities relating to education, agriculture, and industry. 

In 1931 there was an even more sweeping change. Directors were appointed for specialized activities such as education, health, irrigation, and forestry. These directors were in charge of both field operations and those of the Washington office. The Director of Irrigation, for example, was in general charge of both the Irrigation Service in the field and the Irrigation Division in Washington. By 1937 the Bureau had established uniform districts for the various field services in order to eliminate the confusion that resulted from each service's setting up its own district system. After World War II a system of area offices was established whereby area directors were responsible for administering all Indian activities within their areas, including the supervision of agencies and other administrative units. Specialists were expected to provide technical supervision but were relieved of executive responsibility. 

The records described in this inventory are those of the Bureau of Indian Affairs that were in the National Archives on March 31, 1965. They amount to 10,328 cubic feet and are designated as Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.  Included are records of the Office of the Secretary of War relating to Indian Affairs, 1800-24, that were separated from the records of the Office of the Secretary and transferred to the Bureau; records of the Office of Indian Trade; general records of the Bureau; records of most of the divisions of the Bureau that existed before 1940; records of some of the field offices; and records of the Board of Indian Commissioners and of the Indian Arts and Crafts Board -- units not part of the Bureau but closely connected with it. Also included are photographic and cartographic materials maintained apart from the textual records. 

There are related records in many other record groups. For the pre Federal period there are records concerning Indian affairs in Record Group 360, Records of the Continental Congress and the Constitutional Convention. In Record Group 107, Records of the Office of the Secretary of War, there are records for both the period until 1824, when the Secretary had immediate responsibility for Indian affairs, and the period from 1824 until 1849, when the Secretary had supervisory control over the Bureau. Also in Record Group 107 are records concerning military activities throughout the 19th century. Other War Department records relating to Indian affairs are in Record Group 92, Records of the Office of the Quartermaster General; Record Group 94, Records of the Adjutant General's Office; Record Group 98, Records of United States Army Commands; and Record Group 192, Records of the Off''ice of the Commissary General of Subsistence . 

In Record Group 48, Records of the Office of the Secretary of the Interior, there are records reflecting the Secretary's supervisory role in Indian affairs. These records are chiefly among those of the Indian Division and the Indian Territory Division of the Secretary's Office. The records of the Appointments Division are also useful, especially for information on personnel matters. 

Of the records of other agencies under the Department of the Interior, those of the General Land Office -- now part of Record Group 49, Records of the Bureau of Land Management -- are the most important. They contain much information concerning Indian lands and the public domain. In Record Group 115, Records of the Bureau of Reclamation, there are records concerning reclamation projects on Indian lands. 

In Record Group 11, United States Government Documents Having General Legal Effect, are the originals of most ratified Indian treaties. There are other records concerning treaties in Record Group 46, Records of the United States Senate; and there are records concerning Indian legislation in this same record group and in Record Group 233, Records of the United States House of Representatives. There are records concerning claims of and against Indians in Record Group 123, Records of the United States Court of Claims; Record Group 205, Records of the Court of Claims Section (Justice); and Record Group 279, Records of the Indian Claims Commission. Fiscal records concerning Indian administration are in Record Group 39, Records of the Bureau of Accounts (Treasury), and in Record Group 217, Records of the United States General Accounting Office. 

Records relating to programs conducted in cooperation with other agencies are in the following record groups: Record Group 33, Records of the Federal Extension Service; Record Group 35, Records of the Civilian Conservation Corps; Record Group 69, Records of the Work Projects Administration; Record Group 90, Records of the Public Health Service; Record Group 95, Records of the Forest Service; Record Group 96, Records of the Farmers Home Administration; Record Group 114, Records of the Soi1 Conservation Service; Record Group 135, Records of the Public Works Administration; and Record Group 187, Records of the National Resources Planning Board. 

There is no adequate published history of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Probably the best published sources of information concerning the Bureau at given time are the Annual Reports of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Laurence F. Schmeckebier, The Office of Indian Affairs  (Institute for Government Research, Service Monograph No. 48; Baltimore, 1927), provides a good general summary and a detailed analysis of the organization of the Bureau at the time of writing. George Dewey Harmon, Sixty Years of Indian Affairs (Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1941), and Francis Paul Prucha, American Indian Policy in the Formative Years (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1962 , are useful sources for the Bureau's earlier period. Muriel H. Wright, A Guide to the Indian Tribes of Oklahoma (Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1951), stresses the Indian tribes themselves rather than Government administration, but it furnishes much useful information relating to the tribes that eventually settled in Indian Territory. Frederick Webb Hodge, ed., Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico (Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 30; Washington, 1912, is also useful but contains less information concerning administration. A more recent but less detailed publication is John R. Swanton, The Indian Tribes of North America (Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 145; Washington, 1953). For printed copies of treaties see Charles J. Kappler, ed., Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties, Volume 2, Treaties (Washington, 1904).  Executive orders concerning Indian reservations have been published in Executive Orders Relating to Indian Reservations, 1855 to 1922 (Washington, 1912, 1922). For Indian legal history see Felix S. Cohen, Handbook of Federal Indian Law (Washington, 1942); and for a revised version, brought up to date through 1956, see U. S. Department of the Interior, Office of the Solicitor, Federal Indian Law (Washington, 1958). For published collections of documents, see American State Papers: Indian. Affairs (2 vols., Washington, 1832-34) and Clarence E. Carter, ed., The Territorial Papers of the United States. Many documents have also been published in the serial set of congressional documents. 

For references to depositories of manuscript collections see Philip M. Hamer, ed., A Guide to Archives arid Manuscripts in the United States (New Haven, Yale University Press, 1961). 

Other bibliographical references are given, when appropriate, elsewhere in this inventory; but there has been no attempt to compile a comprehensive bibliography. 

In this inventory the introductory statement and descriptive entries for the records of the Alaska Division were prepared by Virgil E. Baugh.  Much of the preliminary work on the records of the Secretary of War relating to Indian Affairs, the Indian removal records, and the records of the Education Division was done by Carmelita S. Ryan and that on the records of the Irrigation Division by Paula J. Butts. Some of the preliminary work on the records of the Land Division was done by Ruth Howell. The entries for the cartographic records were prepared by Charlotte M. Ashby; they are based on information supplied in National Archives Special List No. 13, "List of Cartographic Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs," compiled by Laura E. Kelsay in 1954. The entries for still pictures are based in large part on information supplied by John E. Maddox, Mario Fenyo, and Joe D. Thomas, and those for motion pictures on information supplied by Thomas A. Devan. A preliminary classification scheme for many of the records, prepared by Chester L. Guthrie, has been very useful. Appendix II was prepared by Grayce B. Owen of the State of Arizona Department of Library and Archives. 

Heads of the Bureau of Indian Affairs 

Name Date of Appointment
Thomas L. McKenney     Mar. 11, 1824
Samuel S. Hamilton Sept. 30, 1830
Elbert Herring Aug. 1831

Commissioners of Indian Affairs

Name Date of Appointment
Elbert Herring July 10, 1832
Carey A. Harris July 4, 1836
Thomas Hartley Crawford Oct. 22, 1838
William Medill Oct. 28, 1845
Orlando Brown June 30, 1849
Luke Lea July 1, 1850
George W. Manypenny Mar. 24, 1853
James W. Denver Apr. 17, 1857
Charles E. Mix June 14, 1858
James W. Denver Nov. 8, 1858
Alfred B. Greenwood May 4, 1859
William P. Dole Mar. 13, 1861
Dennis N. Cooley July 10, 1865
Lewis V. Bogy Nov. 1, 1866
Nathaniel G. Taylor Mar. 29, 1867
Ely S. Parker Apr. 21, 1869
Frances A. Walker Nov. 21, 1871
Edward P. Smith Mar. 20, 1873
John Q. Smith Dec. 11, 1875
Ezra A. Hayt Sept. 27, 1877
Roland E. Trowbridge Mar. 2, 1880
Hiram Price May 4, 1881
John D. C. Atkins Mar. 21, 1885
John H. Oberly Oct. 10, 1888
Thomas J. Morgan June 10, 1889
Daniel M. Browning Apr. 17, 1893
William A. Jones May 3, 1897
Francis E. Leupp Dec. 7, 1904
Roberv C. Valentine June 16, 1909
Cato Sells June 2, 1913
Charles H. Burke Mar. 31, 1921
Charles J. Rhoads Apr. 18, 1929
John Collier Apr. 21, 1933
William A. Brophy Mar. 15, 1945
John R. Nichols Apr. 13, 1949
Dillon S. Myer May 5, 1950
Glenn L. Emmons Aug. 10, 1953
Philleo Nash Sept. 26, 1961