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PRELIMINARY INVENTORY (PI 163) OF
THE RECORDS OF
THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS (RG 75)
WASHINGTON, D.C. AREA

Compiled by Edward E. Hill, 1965

The National Archives in Washington, D. C., holds much of the original Bureau of Indian Affairs records for Indians. These original records must be viewed in person at the National Archives.


Introduction ... Table of Contents ... Appendix I-III ... Index: A-Em ... Em-Mo ... Mo-Z

Entries: 1-74 ... 75-120 ... 121-197 ... 198-284 ... 285-355 ... 356-443 ... 444-521 ... 522-576 ... 577-643 ... 644-711 ... 712-784 ... 785-860 ... 861-940 ... 941-998 ... 999-1040 ... 1041-1112 ... 1113-1182 ... 1183-1243 ... 1244-1362 ... 1363-1401


RECORDS OF THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS RECORDS OF THE 
OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF WAR RELATING TO INDIAN AFFAIRS

The two series of records described below are letters received and sent by the Office of the Secretary of War for the period before the establishment of the Bureau of Indian Affairs in 1824. During this period Indian affairs were handled directly by the Office of the Secretary. After the Bureau was established, these records were withdrawn from the Secretary's records and transferred to the Bureau.  

Other correspondence concerning Indian affairs remained with the records of the Secretary of War (Record Group 107). The copies of letters sent relating to Indian affairs (entry 2) were maintained as a separate series in the Office of the Secretary, but other letters relating entirely or in part to Indian matters were copied in other series of letter books. The letters received (entry 1) were separated from the other letters received by the Secretary of War on a document-by-document basis, and some letters and other documents relating to Indian affairs were overlooked in the process of separation. In the registers of incoming correspondence maintained in the Office of the Secretary no distinction was made between letters relating to Indian affairs and other letters. These registers are among the records in Record Group 107, but microfilm copies of them are available le for use with the records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. There are no records of the Office of the Secretary of War relating to Indian affairs among the Bureau records dated before November 1800, when a fire in the War Department destroyed most of its records. 

There are other records among those of the Bureau for the years before its establishment. Included are the records of the Office of Indian Trade (entries 3-73), records of the Revenue Office relating to the Treasury business of the War Department (entry 74), records of some field offices (particularly the Cherokee Agency, East, and the Michigan Superintendency), a few records among those of the Land and Finance Divisions and those relating to Indian removal, and records among the Ratified and Unratified Treaty Files entries 103 and 104), the Special Files (entry 98), and the Special Cases entry 102). 

1. LETTERS RECEIVED.

1800-23. 2 ft.
Chiefly correspondence from Indian superintendents and agents, factors of trading posts, Territorial and State Governors, military commanders, Indians, missionaries, and others. Included are some drafts of letters sent, vouchers, receipts, requisitions, abstracts and statements, certificates of deposit, depositions, contracts, and newspapers. The records relate to negotiations of Indian treaties, land reserves of individual Indians, mission schools, Government trading posts, issuance of licenses to private traders, distribution of annuities, slaves in Indian country, liquor control, investment of Indian moneys, accounts, and many other s subjects. They concern mainly the Indians in the southern part of the United States and the Seneca Indians in New York. This series represents only a small part of the original incoming correspondence relating to Indian affairs. Arranged by year, thereunder alphabetically by name of. writer, and thereunder chronologically by date of letter. These records have been reproduced by the National Archives as Microfilm Publication 271. For letters sent by the Secretary of War relating to Indian affairs, see entry 2. For later letters received by the Bureau of Indian Affairs, which in effect continue these letters, see entry 79

2. LETTERS SENT.

1800-24. 6 vols. 1 ft.
Handwritten copies of letters to Territorial Governors, Indian super intendents, Indian agents and subagents, the Superintendent of Indian Trade and factors of trading posts, military commanders, Commissioners, Treasury Department officials, Members of Congress, private traders, bankers, persons having commercial dealings with the Department, missionaries, Indians, and others. Some of the letters are noted as signed by clerks in the Department rather than by the Secretary, and a few are noted as signed by the President. Included are copies of addresses to Indian delegations, appointments, passports issued for travel in Indian country, and instructions to treaty commissioners. Arranged chronologically. Each volume is indexed alphabetically, primarily by name of addressee but sometimes by name of tribe or other subject concerned. These volumes have been reproduced by the National Archives as Microfilm Publication 15. For letters received, see entry 1. For later letters sent by the Bureau of Indian Affairs, which in effect continue these letters, see entry 84

RECORDS OF THE OFFICE OF INDIAN TRADE 

The Office of Indian Trade was formally established in 1806 (2 Stat. 402). The U.S. Government, however, had begun operating factories, or posts, to trade with the Indians in 1795. In that year Congress appropriated $50,000 for the purchase of goods to be sold to the Indians under the direction of the President (1 Stat. 443). The following year Congress raised the capital to $150,000 and specifically provided for the establishment of trading houses and the appointment by the President of the necessary employees to operate them (1 Stat. 452). The capital was gradually raised until in 1809 it amounted to $300,000 (2 Stat. 544).  Prices were to be charged that would be high enough to maintain, the original capital, but the trade with the Indians was not intended to be a profit-making enterprise. Rather, it was hoped that by selling goods to the Indians at cost, plus expenses, the Government would be able to establish more harmonious relations with them and possibly even make them dependent on the Government. 

Private trade with the Indians was still permitted under the licensing system established by Congress in 1786 and later modified. Issuing licenses and regulating private trade were responsibilities of the Secretary of War and of the superintendents and agents who served under him. The Secretary also had general supervisory control over the factory system. 

Originally the Purveyor of Public Supplies was given immediate responsibility for procuring goods for the factories and for disposing of the goods received from the factories. Military Agents of the War Department (the predecessors of Quartermaster Officers) usually handled the transportation of goods. In November 1796 John Harris, Keeper of Military Stores at Philadelphia, was designated to receive goods and money from the factories and to dispose of the goods. The Purveyor of Public Supplies continued to purchase goods for the factories. On May 11, 1801, William Irvine, Superintendent of Military Stores, was also appointed Agent for the Indian Factories. He was to receive and handle the disposal of goods from the factories and to furnish the Secretary of War with estimates of goods needed for the factories. Irvine died on July 29, 1804, and George Ingels, Military Storekeeper at Philadelphia, temporarily assumed Irvine's duties both as Superintendent of Military Stores and as Agent for the Indian Factories. On March 26, 1805, William Davy was appointed Principal Agent for Indian Factories. He was to handle both the purchase of goods for the factories and the disposal of goods received from the factories, thereby assuming the former duties of both the Superintendent of Military Stores and the Purveyor of Public Supplies concerning the factories. 

On July 8, 1806, John Shee was appointed Superintendent of Indian Trade by authority of an act of Congress (2 Stat. 402), and he assumed the functions previously exercised by Davy. Shee referred to this post as the Office of the Superintendent of Indian Trade. In 1808 the Superintendent began to use the term "Office of Indian Trade" or "Indian Trade Office." Shee, as had his predecessors, established his office at Philadelphia but the act had provided that it should be moved to the District of Columbia. When Shee decided not to move, Gen. John Mason was appointed Superintendent; and in 1807 he moved the Office of Indian Trade to Georgetown in the District of Columbia. In 1816 Mason was replaced by Thomas L. McKenney, who remained in office until the closing of the Office of Indian Trade. 

After 1811, in addition to trade goods, the Office of Indian Trade was made responsible for purchasing and transmitting goods for annuity payments and presents to Indians. Legally, the Superintendent of Indian Trade was concerned only with the matters relating to trade. Thomas L. McKenney, however, was much interested in Indian education and civilization, and during the period when he was Superintendent there is information concerning these two subjects among the records. In 1824 McKenney became the first head of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. 

In immediate charge of the factories themselves were factors or agents. They are referred to as factors in this inventory to distinguish them from the regular Indian agents appointed to represent the United States in its relations with the various Indian tribes. On occasion, however, factors served as temporary agents. The factors received goods from the Office of Indian Trade, which they sold in exchange for goods -- mostly furs and skins -- brought in by the Indians. The goods received from the Indians were sent to Georgetown or other trade centers, where they were usually sold at public auction. In addition to the factors, the Office of Indian, Trade employed (often on a part-time basis) purchasing, transportation and other agents at important supply centers and depots such as Philadelphia, New York, New Orleans, Savannah, Albany, and St. Louis. 

Congress authorized the closing of the Office of Indian Trade and the factories in 1822 (3 Stat. 679). George Graham was placed in charge of the liquidation, under the direction of the Treasury Department. Some records concerning this liquidation were created as late as 1830. 

The records of the Office of Indian Trade described in this section of the inventory consist of records of both the Office of Indian Trade itself and of the individual factories. The general records of the Office of Indian Trade that are now in the National Archives are mostly for the period after the removal of the Office to Georgetown in 1807. They consist of incoming correspondence, copies of outgoing correspondence, and accounting records. The records of the factories are of a similar nature.  The records are fragmentary, and over the years the records of the central office and those of the factories have become intermingled almost indistinguishably. (Records relating to a factory that were physically with the records of that factory have been described as factory records.) This inventory reflects an arrangement that has been carried out since the accessioning of the records by the National Archives. A modification of the principle of provenance has been permitted in that transcripts of accounts required to be sent in quarterly from the factories, and that are therefore central office records, have been placed physically with the records of the factories themselves since they supplement those records and are likely to be used with them. There are also a few records of other units of the Government and even some private records that are intermingled with the records of the Office of Indian Trade and of the various factories. 

Most of the records of the Office of Indian Trade herein described were in the Bureau of Indian Affairs immediately before they were accessioned by the National Archives. There are, however, some unbound accounts of the Prairie du Chien, Fort Edwards, and Choctaw factories that were accessioned from the Library of Congress, the Bureau having sent them to the Library in 1910. The Library released them in order to bring all the Office of Indian Trade records together again. 

The terminology for some of the accounting records maintained by the Office of Indian Trade and the factories may cause confusion. Daily records of transactions were made in volumes usually known as daybooks but also called waste books or blotters. Later on more finished chronological records known as journals were compiled. Records of separate accounts were maintained in ledgers. Usually journals and ledgers are correlated, and the journals contain references to pages in the ledgers. In addition to a daybook, journal, and ledger, each factory was supposed to maintain a letter book, cashbook, and invoice book. At the close of each quarter the factors were to send to the Office of Indian Trade abstracts of their account books and inventories of stock on hand.

There are records -- chiefly of a policy nature -- relating to the factory system that are among the incoming and outgoing correspondence of the Secretary of War relating to Indian affairs (entries 1 and 2), particularly for the period before the establishment of the Office of Indian Trade in 1806. After 1811 most of the correspondence between the Secretary of War and the Superintendent of Indian Trade relates to the furnishing of annuity goods and presents. Much of the incoming correspondence of the Secretary of War relating to the Office of Indian Trade is among the general series of letters received by the Secretary of War in Record Group 107, Records of the Office of the Secretary of War. Among the records in Record Group 94, Records of the Adjutant General's Office, is a small volume of letters sent by the Secretary of War relating to Indian trade for the period from  1795 until 1800. The records of the Office of the Quartermaster General (Record Group 92) include documents of the offices concerned with the factories before the Office of Indian Trade was established. Particularly important are the letters sent, ledgers, and other records of the Purveyor of Public Supplies. There are also records of the Military Storekeeper at Philadelphia, the Superintendent of Military Stores, and the Quartermaster Officer at Philadelphia (known as the Military Agent until 1812). 

The Historical Society of Pennsylvania at Philadelphia has custody of papers of William Irvine, which contain drafts of his outgoing correspondence and originals of incoming correspondence while he was serving as Agent for  the Indian Factories. There are papers of Thomas L. McKenney, Superintendent of Indian Trade and later first head of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, at the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia. The Missouri Historical Society (St. Louis) has papers of James Kennedy, who was the agent for the factories at St. Louis, and papers of George Sibley, who was the factor at the Osage Factory . 

In several volumes of the Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin groups of documents relating to the fur trade have been published. These include many documents relating to the Indian factories, particularly the one at Green Bay. The documents have been drawn mainly from the collections of the Society itself, from the Burton Historical Collection at the Detroit Public Library, and from the records of the Office of Indian Trade that are now in the National Archives. The documentary publications of particular interest are:

Fur Trade and Factory System at Green Bay, 1816-1821, 7:269-288 (1876).

The Fur Trade on the Upper Lakes, 19: 234-374 (1910).

The Fur Trade in Wisconsin, 19:375-488 (1910); 20:1-395 (1911). 

Ora Brooks Peake, A History of the United States Indian Factory System, 1795-1822 (Denver, 1954; 340 p.) is based largely on the records of the Office of Indian Trade that are now in the National Archives. On p. 297-301 is a description of these records. It also contains a bibliography of printed sources. 

A number of articles concerning the Indian factories have been published. Among the most significant are: 

Katherine Coman, Government Factories, An Attempt to Control Competition in the Fur Trade, in Papers and Discussions of the American Economic Association, 368-388 (1911).

George Dewey Harmon, Benjamin Hawkins and the Federal Factory System, in North Carolina Historical Review, 9:138-l52 (1932). 

Aloysius Plaisance, The Arkansas Factory, 1805-1810, in Arkansas Historical Quarterly, 11:184-200 (1952).

Aloysius Plaisance, The Chickasaw Bluffs Factory and Its Removal to the Arkansas River, in Tennessee Historical Quarterly, 11:41-56 (1952). 

Royal B. Way, The United States Factory System for Trading with the Indians, in Mississippi Valle Historical Review, 6: 220-235 (1919). 

Edgar B. Wesley, The Government Factory System among the Indians, 1795-1822, in Journal of Economic and Business History, 4:487-511 (1932). Wesley also includes a chapter on the factories and a good bibliography in Guarding the Frontier: A Study of Frontier Defense (Minneapolis, 1935). 

For additional bibliographical information, see the general introduction to this inventory. 

The several Government factories operating under the Superintendent of Indian Trade are listed below in the order of their establishment: 

Creek:
    Colerain, 1795-97
    Fort Wilkinson, 1797-1806
    Ocmulgee Old Fields, 1806-9
    Fort Hawkins, 1809-16
    Fort Mitchell, 1816-20
Cherokee:
    Tellico, 1795-1807
    Hiwassee, 1807-10
    Fort Wayne, 1802-12
Choctaw:
    Fort St. Stephens, 1802-15
    Fort Confederation, 1816-22
Chickasaw Bluffs, 1802-18
Detroit, 1802-5
Arkansas, 1805-10
Chicago, 1805-22
Belle Fontaine, 1805-9
Natchitoches -- Sulphur Fork
    Natchitoches, 1805-18
    Sulphur Fork, 1818-22
Sandusky, 1806-12
Fort Madison, 1808-15
Osage, 1808-22
Mackinac (Michilimackinac), 1808-12
Green Bay, 1815-22
Praire du Chien, 1815-22
Fort Edwards, 1818-22
Spadre Bluffs (Illinois Bayou), 1818-22

3. LETTERS RECEIVED.

1806-24. 10 in.
Mainly correspondence received by the Superintendent of Indian Trade. Included is incoming correspondence of the Transportation Agent and, after the closing of the Office of Indian Trade, of the Principal Agent for the liquidation of the factories. There are letters from factors, purchasing and transportation agents, the Secretary of War, the Secretary of the Treasury, merchants, members of missionary societies, and others interested in Indian trade or Indians generally. Also included are some drafts of outgoing correspondence, memoranda, and accounting records. The letters are for the most part arranged chronologically but sometimes those received from one person during a calendar year are grouped together. This series represents only a small part of the original incoming correspondence of the Office. There is also incoming correspondence among the miscellaneous accounts described in entry 25.

4. LETTERS SENT.

1807-30. 7 vols. 1 ft.
Handwritten copies of the outgoing correspondence of the Superintendents of Indian Trade, John Mason from 1807 until 1816 and Thomas L. McKenney from 1816 until 1822, and of George Graham, the Principal Agent in charge of the liquidation of the factories. Occasionally there are letters signed by assistants, particularly Jeremiah W. Bronaugh. There are letters sent to the Secretary of War, factors and other representatives of the Office of Indian Trade, Indian agents, the Secretary of the Treasury and other Treasury officials, the President and other officials, merchants, manufacturers, bankers, and others. The letters relate to the purchase of goods for the factories, the disposal of furs and other commodities received from the factories, the operation of the factories, annuity payments, accounts, and appointments as veil as to Indian trade and Indian affairs in general. The letters in the last volume relate primarily to the liquidation of the factories. Each volume is arranged chronologically; but there is some overlapping between volumes, since each succeeding Superintendent kept separate letter books. The first six volumes are indexed by name of addressee. These records have been reproduced by the National Archives as Microfilm Publication 16.

5. INVOICE AND LETTER BOOK.

1803-4, 1816-22. 1 vol. 2 in.
This volume served two purposes. During 1803 and 1804 it was used for copies of invoices from merchants for goods furnished. These invoices give type of goods, quantity, prices, and often the factory for which the goods were intended; they are arranged chronologically. In the same volume are copies of letters sent from 1816 to 1822 by John W. Bronaugh, Transportation Agent for the Office of Indian Trade; they are arranged chronologically. For other invoices, see entries 15-18 and 25. For other letters of John W. Bronaugh, see entries 3 and 4.

6. MEMORANDUM BOOK.

1807-13. 1 vol. 1 in.
Included are information concerning quality and prices of goods and transportation costs; copies of invoices; names, addresses, and dates of appointment of factors; records of sales; and other information presumably kept for reference purposes. Arranged chronologically.

7. WASTE BOOKS.

1803-6. 2 vols. 2 in.
Waste books (or daybooks) are a chronological record of transactions made at the time of the transactions. These two volumes overlap but do not duplicate one another. For later daybooks, see entry 8. For journals and ledgers covering the same period, see entries 9

8. DAYBOOKS.

1809-24. 3 vols. 6 in.
A chronological record of transactions made at the time of the transactions. For earlier waste books, see entry 7. For journals and ledgers covering the same period, see entries 9 and 11.

9. JOURNALS.

1805-24. 4 vols. 9 in.
A revised chronological record of transactions. For each journal there is a ledger covering the same time period (entry 11). There are references in the journals to ledger entries. For the preliminary waste books and daybooks, see entries 7 and 8.

10. INDEX TO LEDGER.

1807-16. 1 vol. 1/4 in.
An index to accounts of individuals and factories and to other accounts (for example, a merchandise account) entered in the ledger. The ledger for this period is missing, but the page references given in the index correspond with those given in the journal for the same period. (See entries 9 and 11.)

11. LEDGERS.

1803-24. 4 vols. 7 in.
Ledgers, like daybooks and journals (entries 7, 8, and 9), are records of transactions, but the entries are arranged by account rather than chronologically by date of transaction. Separate accounts were kept for individuals, factories, and firms; and accounts were also kept for the different uses of funds (merchandise account, salary account, and the like). Each ledger covers a certain period of time and, except for the first ledger, there is a journal covering the same time period. Within each ledger the accounts seem to be arranged in the order in which they were opened. The entries within each account are arranged chronologically. Two of the ledgers are indexed by name of person, name of factory, and type of account. The ledger for the years 1807-16 is missing, but the index to it is described in entry 10.

12. INDENT BOOKS.

1804-20. 9 vols. 10 in.
Consist of copies of lists of goods ordered and of goods needed by the factories. Some of the lists also indicate the action taken on them by the Office of Indian Trade. There are separate volumes for the Arkansas, Cherokee, Chicago, Chickasaw Bluffs, Choctaw, Creek, Fort Wayne, and Natchitoches factories and one volume for the Fort Madison and Fort Edwards factories. Entries in each volume are arranged chronologically. See also entries 3, 13, and 25 and the records of the individual factory.

13. REQUESTS FOR ANNUITY GOODS.

1811-18. 1 vol. 3/4 in.
Copies of letters from factors and Indian agents to the Superintendent and the Secretary of War indicating the goods needed for making annuity payments. Arranged in rough chronological order by date of letter. For other incoming correspondence concerning annuity payments, see entries 1 and 3.

14. ORDERS FOR GOODS.

1806-12. 1 vol. 1 in.
Copies of orders, each of which gives the name of the person from whom the goods were ordered, the date of the order, the type and quantity of goods, and the prices. For the period before 1808 there are also lists of goods delivered to merchants and manufacturers, usually for processing. Arranged chronologically.

15. INVOICES INWARD.

1796-1822. 5 vols. 7 in.
Copies of invoices for goods (mostly furs and peltries) received from the factories and for goods received from merchants. There are also some inventories of goods transferred by the Superintendents to their successors During some periods the factory invoices were kept in separate volumes; in other periods they were intermingled with the invoices from merchants. Entries in each volume are arranged chronologically. For other invoices, see entries 5, 16-18, and 25.

16. INVOICES INWARD FOR ANNUITY GOODS.

1811-19. 1 vol. 2 in.
Copies of invoices received from merchants for goods to be used for annuity payments. Arranged chronologically. Indexed by name of merchant.

17. INVOICES OUTWARD.

1803-24. 4 vols. 7 in.
Mainly copies of invoices for goods sent by the Office of Indian Trade to the factories, but including invoices for furs and other goods received from the factories and sold by the Office of Indian Trade. The invoices give the type of goods, quantity, price, and destination. There are also some lists of sales of furs at certain depots. Arranged chronologically. The last volume is indexed by name of factory. For other invoices, see entries 5, 15, 16, 18, and 25.

18. INVOICES OUTWARD - CHICAGO.

1805-12. 1 vol. 3/4 in.
Copies of invoices for goods sent to the Chicago factory. Arranged chronologically.

19. REGISTER OF NOTES RECEIVABLE AND NOTES PAYABLE.

Jan.-July 1806. 1 vol. 1/2 in.
Entries for notes receivable give name of person from whom received, account for which received, date of note, name of person to whose order it was made, date due or period for which it was to run, amount, and sometimes an indication of its final disposition. Entries for notes payable give date, amount, and reason for payment (usually a bond for payment of duty). Arranged by month, with entries for notes receivable and for notes payable on facing pages.

20. SALES BOOKS.

1807-22. 2 vols. 2 in.
Shown are amounts and kinds of furs and peltries sold and the names of the purchasers at Georgetown, Savannah, Philadelphia, New Orleans, and other places. The name of the factory from which the furs were received is often given. Entries in each volume are arranged chronologically. There is some overlapping between the two volumes but apparently no duplication.

21. STATEMENTS OF ACCOUNT CURRENT.

1805-18. 2 vols. 2 in.
Chiefly copies of the quarterly statements of account prepared by the Superintendent. Included with them - often as appendixes - are statements, abstracts, and lists of contingent expenses, payments made, receipts, and sales. Arranged chronologically.

22. CHECK STUBS.

1809-13, 1821-22. 2 vols. 3 in.
Shown are date and amount of check and the name of payee. On the back of each stub is given the reason for the payment. Arranged by check number. For canceled checks, see entry 23.

23. CANCELS CHECKS.

1808-21. 5 in.
The Office maintained separate bank accounts for its trade activities and for its annuity payment activities. The canceled checks for each account are arranged by check number. For check stubs, see entry 22.

24. FINAL INVENTORIES.

1822-23. 1 vol. 1 in.
Inventories of goods on hand at the Office of Indian Trade in Georgetown and at the factories at the time they were liquidated. Included are some records of sales, lists of debts due, and other financial statements. Arranged by factory, with a separate section for records of the Georgetown office.

25. MISCELLANEOUS RECORDS RELATING TO ACCOUNTS.

1796-1825. 2 ft.
Vouchers, receipts, bills of lading, financial statements, abstracts of payments and receipts, invoices, inventories, lists, and other records relating to accounts. There are both records actually created in the Office of Indian Trade and records received from factors and others. The records are in three groups: general accounts, transportation accounts, and annuity accounts. Within each group the records are arranged roughly by year, but there are bundles of related records covering a period of several years. There are other accounting records among the incoming correspondence described in entry 3 and in the records described in entries 5-24.

26. LEDGERS OF EDGAR PATTERSON.

1807-18. 2 vols. 5 in.
Records of accounts - principally with individuals - of Patterson, who was a stationer in Georgetown, D.C. These are neither records of the Office of Indian Trade nor of the Government. Since, however, at some time these records were filed with the records of the Office of Indian Trade and Patterson had business relations with that office, they are described here. The first volume covers the period 1807-13; and the second volume, 1814-18. Each volume is arranged by account. In the first volume there is a defective chronological pattern according to date of the opening of each account. Accounts in the second volume were at first arranged alphabetically by name of person, but this practice was soon discontinued and there is no discernible order to the remaining accounts.

FACTORY RECORDS

Arkansas Factory

The Arkansas factory was located at Arkansas Post on the Arkansas River in Louisiana Territory (now Arkansas) from March 1805 until November 1810. (See also Spadre Bluffs.)

27. LETTERS SENT AND RECEIVED.

1805-10. 1 vol. 2 in.
Handwritten copies of the factor's incoming and outgoing correspondence. Arranged chronologically by date of outgoing letter or by date of receipt of incoming letter. This volume has been reproduced by the National Archives as Microfilm Publication 142.

28. DAYBOOK.

1805-10. 1 vol. 1 in.
A daily record of transactions, mostly for receipts of skins. Included are some quarterly statements of account that are not in the journal described in entry 29. Arranged chronologically.

29. JOURNAL.

1805-10. 1 vol. 1 in.
A revised form of the daybook described in entry 28, with references to entries in the ledger described in entry 30. Arranged chronologically.

30. LEDGER.

1805-10. 1 vol. 1 in.
A record of accounts with individuals and of other types of accounts (merchandise, peltry, and factory expenses). Arranged by account. Indexed by name of individual and by type of account. For the corresponding journal, see entry 29.

31. INVOICE BOOK.

1805-10. 1 vol. 1 in.
Consists of copies of invoices for goods received by the factory and for furs and other goods sent. Arranged chronologically.

32. MISCELLANEOUS ACCOUNTS.

1805-10. 1 in.
Inventories, statements of account current, other statements and lists, and other unbound records. Arranged by year.

Belle Fontaine Factory

This factory, located near the mouth of the Missouri River, north of St. Louis, was operated from May 1805 until 1809. When it was closed its goods were divided between the newly established factories at Fort Osage and Fort Madison.

33. MISCELLANEOUS ACCOUNTS.

1805-9. 1/2 in.
Inventories, invoices, ledgers, statements of account current, copies of pages from a cashbook, and other unbound records. Arranged chronologically.

Cherokee Factory (Tellico and Hiwassee)

The factory for the Cherokee Indians was one of The two original factories established in November 1795. It was usually known by the names of its two locations - at Tellico in the east central part of present-day Tennessee from 1795 until 1807 and at Hiwassee on the Tennessee River from 1807 until it was closed in 1810.

34. MISCELLANEOUS ACCOUNTS.

1796-1810. 5 in.
Receipts, vouchers, invoices, inventories, copies from the daybook, correspondence, statements of account current, other financial statements, lists, and other unbound records. Arranged roughly by year.

Chicago Factory

The Chicago factory was operated from March 1805 until 1822, except for a period during the War of 1812.

35. WASTE BOOK.

1808-10. 1 vol. 1 in.
A daybook giving a chronological record of transactions.

36. LEDGER.

1811-12. 1 vol. 3/4 in.
A record of accounts with individuals, including several soldiers. accounts are in rough alphabetical order by name of person concerned. Indexed by name of person.

37. MISCELLANEOUS ACCOUNTS.

1805-22. 4 in.
Statements of account, receipts, vouchers, invoices, inventories, a cashbook, lists of articles required, abstracts of expenditures, statements of debts due, and other unbound records. Arranged by year.

Chickasaw Bluffs Factory

This factory, located near the site of Memphis, Tenn., was operated from July 1802 until 1818, except for a period during the War of 1812. It was replaced by the Spadre Bluffs factory.

38. DAYBOOKS.

1806-7. 1 in.
Quarterly transcripts of daybooks for the first, second, and fourth quarters of 1806 and for the first and second quarters of 1807. Arranged chronologically. There are later transcripts of daybooks among the miscellaneous accounts of the factory.

39. MISCELLANEOUS ACCOUNTS.

1807-18. 4 in.
Receipts, vouchers, invoices, inventories, estimates, lists of debts due, transcripts from daybooks and journals, lists of articles needed, various financial statements, and other unbound records. Arranged by year.

Choctaw Factory

The factory for the Choctaw Indians was established in July 1802 and was originally located at Fort St. Stephens, north of Mobile Bay, in present-day Alabama. In 1815 it was moved to Fort Confederation on the Tombigbee River, where it remained until the closing of the factory system.

40. DAYBOOKS.

1808-19. 2 ft.
Quarterly transcripts of daybooks. Included are financial statements of debts due, balances on hand, and the like, and copies of invoices. Although some of the copies are called journals, they are all in the form of daybooks. The records for some quarters are missing. There are some earlier transcripts among the miscellaneous accounts described in entry 41. Arranged chronologically.

41. MISCELLANEOUS ACCOUNTS.

1803-25. 2 ft.
Vouchers, receipts, inventories, invoices, statements of account current, other statements, balance sheets, transcripts of daybooks, and other unbound records. Arranged by year.

Creek Factory

 The factory for the Creek Indians was one of the two original factories established in November 1795. It was not usually called the Creek factory. Sometimes it was referred to as the Georgia factory, but it was better known by the names of its successive locations: Colerain on the St. Mary's River, 1795-97; Fort Wilkinson, 1797-1806; Ocmulgee Old Fields, 1806-9; Fort Hawkins, 1809-16; and Fort Mitchell, 1816-20. These records have been reproduced on microfilm by the National Archives as M1334, rolls 1-13.

42. C0RRESP0NDENCE.

1795-1814. 1 ft. 42
Mainly incoming correspondence, but including some copies of outgoing correspondence and some accounts. Arranged chronologically. For most of the outgoing correspondence, see entry 43.

43. LETTERS SENT.

1795-1816. 1 vol. 2 in.
Handwritten copies of the outgoing correspondence of the factors. Arranged chronologically. This volume has been microfilmed by the National Archives as M4.

44. DAYBOOKS.

1799-1820. 13 vols. and unbound papers. 1 ft.
Daily records of transactions. The books from 1799 through 1802 were called Blotters. There are duplicate sets of the daybooks, one set in bound volumes and the other consisting of quarterly transcripts. Neither set is complete, and some periods are not covered by either set. Each set is arranged chronologically.

45. JOURNAL AND LEDGER.

1796-97. 1 vol. 1/2 in.
A journal for 1796, arranged chronologically; and a ledger mainly for 1797, arranged by account. For later journals, see entries 46, 47, and 49; for other ledgers, see entries 46, 48, and 50.

46. LEDGER AND JOURNAL.

1796-1802. 1 vol. 2 in.
A ledger for the years 1796-1802, arranged by account; and a chronological journal covering the period from May to August 1799. For other ledgers, see entries 45, 48, and 59; for other journals, see entries 45, 47, and 49.

47. JOURNALS.

1801-20. 5 vols. and unbound papers. 10 in.
A revised record of daily transactions. There are a complete set of bound journals and some duplicate quarterly transcripts. For other journals, see entries 45, 46, and 49. For the ledgers corresponding to the journals, see entry 48.

48. LEDGERS.

1798-1820. 5 vols. and unbound papers. 1 ft.
Consist of accounts of individuals and other accounts such as annuity and peltry. For the period from 1798 until 1808 the ledgers are rather haphazard. There is some overlapping of volumes, and there are some periods not covered by the volumes. From 1808 until 1820 there is a complete set of ledgers, and each volume corresponds to a journal (entry 47) covering the same time period. There are also quarterly transcripts of some of these ledgers. The volumes and transcripts are in chronological order. Entries in each volume or transcript are arranged by account. Some of the volumes are indexed by name of individual and by type of account. For other ledgers, see entries 45, 46, and 50.

49. JOURNAL OF TRANSACTIONS WITH BENJAMIN HAWKINS.

1808-14. 1 vol. 1 in.
Given is a chronological record of transactions with Benjamin Hawkins Creek Agent, including transactions concerning Creek annuities. This volume apparently consists of records of official transactions. There are records of other transactions with Hawkins, presumably private, in the main series of journals described in entry 47. For the ledger corresponding to this journal, see entry 50. There are transcripts from the journal among the miscellaneous accounts described in entry 52.

50. LEDGER OF HAWKINS' ACCOUNTS.

1808-14. 1 vol. 1 in.
A ledger corresponding to the journal described in entry 49. It consists of four accounts: Creek Annuity, Hawkins, Cash, and Balance. Each account is arranged chronologically. There are transcripts from this ledger among the miscellaneous accounts described in entry 52. Records of other transactions of Hawkins, presumably private, are among the main series of ledgers described in entry 48.

51. VOUCHERS.

1796-1821. 6 in.
Vouchers, with some receipts and orders for payments, relating to Creek trade and tribal affairs. Most of the records are for the period before 1810. Arranged roughly by year. For other vouchers, see entry 52.

52. MISCELLANEOUS ACCOUNTS.

1795-1816. 1 ft. 5
Inventories, invoices, vouchers, receipts, abstracts, lists, statement of accounts, copies of ledgers and journals, and other unbound records. Arranged by year.

53. RECORDS OF THE FORT WILKINSON GARRISON.

1795-1801. Negligible.
Fragmentary records consisting of incoming and outgoing correspondence legal documents, a payroll, receipts, and vouchers. These records relate to military affairs and have no apparent direct connection with the Creek factory or Indian trade. They are described here because they have be come intermingled with the Indian records, and Fort Wilkinson is most closely associated with the Creek factory located there during this pen Arranged chronologically.

Detroit Factory

The factory at Detroit was operated from July 1802 until 1805.

54. MISCELLANEOUS ACCOUNTS

1802-4. 1/2 in.
Mainly transcripts of the daybook. Arranged chronologically.

Fort Edwards Factory

This factory (at first a branch of the Prairie du Chien factory) was operated from 1818 until the closing of the factory system. Fort Edwards was located near the mouth of the Des Moines River on the site of Warsaw, Ill. In 1822, just before it was closed, the factory was moved to Fort Armstrong on Rock Island. (See also Fort Madison factory.)

55. MISCELLANEOUS ACCOUNTS.

1818-23. 3 in.
Statements, vouchers, receipts, pages from cashbooks and journals, invoices, inventories, and other unbound records. Arranged in rough chronological order.

Fort Madison Factory

This factory (also known as Le Moin and Belle Vue), located on the Mississippi River above the mouth of the Des Moines River, was established in May 1808. The factory was burned in 1812, and the factor established temporary headquarters at St. Louis and at Little Manitou on the Missouri River. In 1815 the Fort Madison factory was replaced by the Prairie du Chien factory. (See also Fort Edwards.)

56. MISCELLANEOUS ACCOUNTS.

1808-15. 5 in.
Statements, receipts, vouchers, invoices, lists, abstracts, inventories, and other unbound records. Arranged by year.

Fort Wayne Factory

The Fort Wayne factory, located on the Miami River in Indiana, was established in July 1802 and was operated until 1812. An account book of the Fort Wayne factory, consisting mostly of invoices and inventories, has been published in Indiana Historical Collections, 15:405-663 (1927).

57. DAYBOOKS.

1804-6. 1 in.
An incomplete set of quarterly transcripts. Some financial statements are included. Arranged chronologically.

58. MISCELLANEOUS ACCOUNTS.

1803-12. 2 in.
Lists of goods received, expense accounts, inventories, statements, and other unbound records. Arranged in rough chronological order.

Green Bay Factory

This factory was operated from 1815 until the closing of the factory system in 1822.

59. MISCELLANEOUS ACCOUNTS.

1815-23. 2 in.
Invoices; abstracts; inventories; vouchers; transcripts of journals, cashbooks, and ledgers; statements, and other unbound records. Arranged in rough chronological order.

Mackinac (Michilimackinac) Factory

The factory on Mackinac Island, often called Michilimackinac at that time, was operated from September 1808. until it was captured by the British in 1812.

60. MISCELLANEOUS ACCOUNTS.

1808-12. 1/2 in.
Abstracts of expenses, statements of account current, lists of debts due, invoices, and other unbound records. Arranged in rough chronological order.

Natchitoches - Sulphur Fork Factory

The Natchitoches factory, on the Red River in present-day Louisiana, was established in October 1805. In 1818 it was moved to Sulphur Fork on the Red River in present-day Arkansas. The Sulphur Fork factory was operated until the closing of the factory system.

61. LETTERS SENT.

1809-21. 1 vol. 1 in.
Handwritten copies of outgoing correspondence. Arranged chronologically.

62. JOURNAL.

1806-12. 1 vol. 1 in.
This volume is labeled as a daybook, but it is actually a journal with references to ledger entries (see entry 65). Arranged chronologically. (See also entry 63.)

63. JOURNAL AND DAYBOOK.

1816-22. 1 vol. 1 in.
A record of transactions in journal form for 1816 to 1820 and thereafter in daybook form. Arranged chronologically. (See also entries 62, 66, and 68.)

64. INDEX TO LEDGERS.

1812-16, 1821-22. 1 vol. Negligible.
An index by name and by account to one of the volumes described in entry 65.

65. LEDGERS.

1806-16, 1821-22. 2 vols. 3 in.
Records of individual and other accounts. Each ledger is arranged by account. For the ledger for the period 1816-20, see entry 66; for the corresponding journal, see entry 62; and for an index, see entry 64.

66. LEDGER, DAYBOOK, AND PACKAGE BOOK.

1816-22. 1 vol. 1 in.
A ledger for the period 1816-20 that corresponds to the journal described in entry 63; a daybook for the second quarter of 1822; and a package book, with lists of goods received for the years 1821 and 1822. The ledger is indexed by name and by account. (See also entries 63, 65, 67, and 68.)

67. INVOICES INWARD.

1806-22. 1 vol. 1/2 in.
Copies of invoices for goods received. Included is a package book, with lists of goods received for July 1822. Also included are some copies of correspondence. Arranged chronologically. (See also entry 66.)

68. MISCELLANEOUS ACCOUNTS.

1805-23. 10 in.
Invoices, inventories, vouchers, abstracts, balance sheets, lists, transcripts of a daybook, statements, receipts, and other unbound records. Arranged by year.

Osage Factory

The factory for the Osage Indians was established in 1808 and was operated until the closing of the factory system in 1822. It was located at Fort Osage on the Missouri River near the site of Sibley, Mo., except from 1813 to 1815 when it was farther east at Arrow Rock. A branch of the Osage factory was established on the Marais de Cygne River in 1821. The Missouri Historical Society in St. Louis and Lindenwood College in St. Charles, Mo., have papers of George Sibley, the factor at the Osage factory.

69. MISCELLANEOUS ACCOUNTS.

1808-23. 10 in.
Statements of account; transcripts of daybooks, ledgers, and journals; inventories; vouchers; receipts; and other unbound records. Arranged by year.

Prairie Du Chien Factory

The factory at Prairie du Chien was established in 1815 to replace the Fort Madison factory. It was operated until the closing of the factory system.

70. LEDGER.

1818-22. 1 vol. 1/2 in.
A record of accounts with individuals, principally Indians. Arranged by accounts, which are listed in the order in which they were opened.

71. MISCELLANEOUS ACCOUNTS.

1815-22. 1 ft.
Inventories, invoices, vouchers, balance sheets, statements, lists, transcripts of cashbooks and journals, and other unbound records. Arranged by year.

Sandusky Factory

The Sandusky factory on Lake Erie in Ohio was operated from 1806 until it was destroyed by the British in 1812.

72. MISCELLANEOUS ACCOUNTS.

1806-12. 2 in.
Vouchers; receipts; lists of articles required; inventories; invoices; transcripts of daybooks, journals, and ledgers; and other unbound records. Arranged in rough chronological order.

Spadre Bluffs (Illinois Bayou) Factory

This factory was established in 1818 to replace the Chickasaw Bluffs factory. It was at first temporarily located at Illinois Bayou on the Arkansas River in Arkansas and was later moved about 20 miles upriver to Spadre Bluffs. (See also Arkansas Factory.)

73. MISCELLANEOUS ACCOUNTS

1818-24. 4 in.
Vouchers, receipts, statements of account current, transcripts from a journal and cashbook, and other unbound records.  Arranged by year.

Records of the Revenue Office relating to the treasury business of the War Department

In 1792 Congress passed an act (1 Stat. 280) providing that purchases and contracts for supplies for the War Department should be made by or under the supervision of the Treasury Department. From April 4, 1794, until December 31, 1794, Tench Coxe, the Commissioner of the Revenue, was the Treasury official designated to supervise the purchases for the military, naval, and Indian services. Numerous agents throughout the country were responsible to him. After December 31, 1794, Alexander Hamilton, the Secretary of the Treasury, designated Tench Francis, Agent for Military Purchases, to take over these duties temporarily. By an act of Congress of February 23, 1795 (1 Stat. 419), there was created the office of Purveyor of Public Supplies to be responsible for the procurement of Government supplies. Tench Francis was appointed to this position.

The only series of records of the Revenue Office relating to the Treasury business of the War Department now known to be in the National Archives is the letter book described below. Although it does not relate exclusively or even mainly to Indian affairs, it was accessioned by the National Archives with records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and, since it does contain information about purchases of goods for Indians, it is described in this inventory. There are records of the Purveyor of Public Supplier in Record Group 92, Records of the Office of the Quartermaster General.

74. LETTERS SENT.

1794-96. 1 vol. 2 in.
Handwritten copies of the outgoing correspondence of the Commissioner of the Revenue relating to the Treasury business of the War Department. Letters were sent to the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of War, the Agent for Military Purchases (Tench Francis), Naval Agents, Supervisors of the Revenue, other officials, merchants (including Paul Revere), and others. The Commissioner of the Revenue continued to write letters concerning purchases for the War Department until 1796, even though he was no longer responsible for them. Arranged chronologically. Indexed by name of addressee. This volume has been reproduced by the National Archives as Microfilm Publication 74.