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Thomas F. Meagher

Indian Pioneer History Interview
March 29, 1938
[vol. 108, pages 200-205]


Confederate Creeks

Before the government enforced the removal of the confederated bands and tribes of the Muskogees from their old home in Alabama, and drove the bands and tribes known as the confederated Creek from their homes in Georgia; they were a separate people and organization, and at hostile opposition one to the other. The Creek Chief, McIntosh, having sold the birthright of his people, was executed by the Muskogee Chief, Men-now-wee, and a band of Muskogee warriors.

When the Creeks arrived in the new reservation in the Indian Territory, they chose to settle along the Arkansas and Verdigris Rivers (1828-36). In the year of 1836, old Chief Opuithli Yahola arrived with 8000 Muskogees and he halted for a time below Ft. Gibson, until he found that McIntosh Creeks had settled the northern part of the new country, when he, desiring to be separate and distinct from them, took or led his people down the Canadian River and established his headquarters at North Fork Town.

The Creeks had their head chief and government and so did the Mukogees. When the Civil War broke out, Opuithli Yahola said it was none of the affairs of the Muskogees, and tried to take a neutral stand, but this was not to be, for his old enemies, the McIntosh Creeks, seeing a great opportunity for revenge, at once joined the Texas Confederates and attacked Opuithli Yahola, who very ably defended his people in three running fights, and succeeded in reaching safe ground about Leroy ("E-loy"), Kansas. 700 Muskogees are said to have perished form the hardships of this exodus. Old Indians said that they killed and ate their ponies for food and made shoes of the hides. The Union finally equipped the Muskogees as white soldiers and they invaded the Indian Territory along with the Union soldiers and drove not only the Creeks, but the Texas and other Confederates at break-neck speed, across the river into Texas.

Reference is often made to the "Loyal Creeks". There were no loyal Creeks during the Civil War. The Muskogees only were loyal to the Union. It is the Muskogees who at the present time have a $600,000.00 "Lost Property" claim being considered by the Court of Claims, Opuithli Yahola's people.

Tribes of the Muskogee Confederacy

These are the town and tribes belonging to the Muskogee Confederacy, of which Shawnee-Tuckabatchi has always been the leading tribe. The Muskogees:

Tribes of the Creek Confederacy