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Clark Co., Indiana Regiments
Brief Regimental Sketches by P. Davidson-Peters 2004
INDIANA TWENTY-SECOND REGIMENT - Commanded by Jefferson Columbus Davis who was born in Clark County, Indiana on March 2nd, 1827. The eldest child of William Davis, Jr. and Mary (Drummond), Jefferson grew up in Charlestown on his father's farm. He began his military career in 1846 enlisting in the 3rd Indiana Regiment during the Mexican War. He participated at the Battle of Buena Vista and received the commission as a second lieutenant of the first artillery in 1848. Four years later, he was promoted to first lieutenant.

Officers at Fort Sumter, SCDavis had been posted at Fort Sumter, Charleston, South Carolina, in 1858 and is seen in this photograph (center standing), along with eight other Union officers. The photograph was taken before the Confederate 34-hour bombardment. Six of these officers eventually rose to the rank of general. Those seated before him (L-R) areCaptain Abner Doubleday, Major Robert Anderson, Assistant Surgeon Samuel W. Crawford, and Captain J.G. Foster. Those standing beside him to the left: Captain Truman Seymour and Lieutenant George W. Snyder. To his right, Second Lieutenant Richard K. Meade and Lieutenant Theodore Talbot.

On April 12, 1861, Davis and his men aimed their fire at the Confederate batteries on James Island. Promoted as captain in May, he left for Indiana where he organized the 22nd regiment of Indiana Volunteers at Madison.

David W. Daily was captain of Company D of the 22nd, and was mustered out at the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. Among other officers of Company D were: Captain Isaac N. Haymaker a 2nd lieutenant from Georgetown; Captain Thomas H. Daily a 1st-2nd Lieutenant of Georgetown; and 1st Lieutenant William H. Ralts of Georgetown.

Non-commissioned officers also serving from Clark county included: 1st Sergeant Joseph B. Rowland; Sgt. David N. Runyan; Sgt. John B. Watkins; Sgt. Patrick H. Carney; Sgt. James Simonson; Corporal Benjamin F. McEwen; Corporal William R. Goer; Corporal Charles C. Winters; Corporal John B. Butler; Corporal George G. Taff; Corporal Wash W. Nandair; Corporal James H. Wilson; Musician Maurice Hall; Musician Edward Phillipey; and Wagoner Martin V. Bridges.

Privates from Clark County included: George W. Bard; Weterfield Baxter, Loran M. Bartle, Wesley Bowe, Markius C. Beisbe, Green Burgess, Elevins Burwell, Samuel H. Campbell, Alfred Caughman, William Christian, Harvey Clapp, Samuel Covert, Silas Covert, Thomas Cowling, Edward N. Conner, Harman Cously, William Critchfield, Martin L. Critchfield, Thomas H. Dailey, Henderson Davis, William Deitz, John Q. Dixon, Thomas Donlan, George W. Eads, William F. Gable, Martin Gavin, James Gaylord, Andrew J. Geltner, Charles J. Giles, James A. Guire, Henry Hines, Lewis Harker, Marion Harrison, Joseph Hayburn, Ephraim Harman, Andrew J. Horde, Peter Hoffman, James H. Kane, Benjamin F. Kenny, Volney B. Kenny, Ebenezer Kelse, Peter Kizer, Enoch Lockhart, Henry Loonis, Thomas J. McMillan, Lemuel L. Mitchell, Thomas Moore, George W. Montgomery, Nathaniel Montgomery, George W. Morris, Joseph D. Officer, Calvin R. Ogle, Milton C. Olivar, Lewis H. Olivar, Joseph C. Overman, Miles B. Patrick, James M. Parker, Philip Phifer, Alexander N. Rutherford, James H. Ridge, Benjamin F. Shoots, Henry H. Sickley, Robert P. Slazdin, Joseph H. Slazdin, William Sooper, Samuel K. Sterns, William Stone, Harrison Sturdivan, William A. Stierhem, Charles B. Still, William Stewart, Belshazer Swinger, George W. Tieman, John Tipps, George W. Trumball, William W. Walters, John C. Watterson, Samuel L. Wells, Laban J. Williams, William W. Wheeler.

The 22nd regiment was mustered in at Indianapolis, Indiana on the 15th of August, 1861 and as a distinguished division and corp commander, Davis transported his regiment to St. Louis to join Fremont's army. On August 17th, they were sent up the Missouri river to relieve Colonel Mulligan who had been besieged at Lexington, Missouri.

In September and October, the 22nd moved with Fremont to Springfield and Otterville, Missouri. They engaged in the affair at Blackwater in which they fought and were ablet to capture 1300 prisoners.

In early February of 1862, Ulysses S. Grant, who was in Illinois, crammed 15,000 Union soldiers onto nine river steamers which were backed up with iron clads and gunboats, and headed for Lt. Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston's line of defense which ran six hundred miles. He first headed for Fort Henry on the Tennessee which they bombarded with the ironclads, and then proceeded to Fort Donelson on the Cumberland. Met with a howling snow storm, many of the soldiers were found frozen to death and Grant, aware of the absolute suffering of the men, surrounded the fort and called on the gunboats to hammer at the garrison. He was able to force his old friend from West Point, Brigadier General Simon B. Buckner, CSA into surrendering.

Having won the fort, Grant opened the way to the heart of the South and was hailed an hero overnight.

Brigadier General Samuel R. CurtisWith the Yankees successfully pushing the Confederates out of Missouri, Union Brigadier General Samuel R. Curtis (pictured left), moved his troops into Arkansas along Sugar Creek. The troops included soldiers from Iowa, Illinois, Missouri, and Indiana. Those from Indiana were the the 8th, 18th, and 22nd Infantry, the latter, commanded by Jefferson C. Davis.

Barefoot and ill-equipped, the Confederate soldiers made their march in a freezing storm from Fayetteville and met with the Union soldiers at Leetown, a small village where Confederate Generals James McIntosh and Benjamin McCulloch were killed in action which effectively crushed the Confederate command structure, and rendered them ineffective to battle the Union soldiers amongst the chaos.

Approximately 4600 Confederate soldiers, including many of their officers, lost their lives during the Battle of Pea Ridge which lasted from November 6-8, 1862. Among the Union casualties, which numbered approximately 1400, was the son of the former Indiana Governor, Lt. Colonel John A. Hendricks who was commanding the 22nd Infantry.

After the Battle of Pea Ridge, the Union soldiers pushed even further into Arkansas, and having successfully commanded at that battle, Jefferson C. Davis was promoted to Brigadier General of U.S. Volunteers in May 1862, his commission having been back-dated to the previous December.

Davis was also engaged at Perryville, which was the largest battle of the Civil War fought in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. The casualties were horrendous, leaving four miles of fields strewn with the dead and dying of both the Union and Confederate soldiers. Their numbers would reach in excess of 7500, and leave the residents of Perryville burying the dead for another six months.

Following General Bragg from Kentucky to Nashville, Major General William S. Rosecrans' (pictured) soldiers were in close distance to the Rebel forces on December 29th and were William S. Rosecransthen attacked by Bragg at dawn on the 31st at Stones River. The Confederates had initially been able to drive the Union soldiers back across McFadden's Ford, but with the help of their artillery, the Federals drove the Rebs back, retreating to Shelbyville and Tullahoma, Tennessee.

Included in this battle was the 22nd Indiana Infantry, under the command of Colonel Michael Gooding who had ordered the 22nd to move in with the Illinois regiments to fight against Sam Wood's 4th Confederate brigade. By time the intense fighting ended, the 22nd Indiana had sustained the loss of nine killed, thirty-two wounded (including Lieutenant Colonel John A. Hendricks), and others taken prisoner, including Colonel Michael Gooding.

Though the loss of lives at Stones River was high and could hardly be considered a victorious battle, its tactical maneuvers were a success and the morale of the Union soldiers were once again lifted.

Struggling to maintain control of the central South, southeastern Tennessee, and Georgia after the Union had overtaken them at Chattanooga, the Rebels retreated to northern Georgia with Rosecrans' Union troops advancing upon them.

Twelve miles south of Chattanooga, Tennessee, the Rebel forces of Braxton Bragg, and the Federal troops under the command of William Rosecrans, were massed along the densely wooded Chickamauga Creek in September of 1863. Able to exploit a gap in Rosecrans' line, the Rebs were able to attack the Union lines on both sides. Had it not been for the valiant stand of General George H. Thomas, who held the line and resisted the Rebel attack, the Union losses would have been devastating. As was, nearly one of every three soldiers engaged in the battle, became a casualty.

George H. ThomasMajor General George H. Thomas, who was then known as "the Rock of Chickamauga" by the Union, took Rosecrans' job and rose to the rank of Major General. In 1868, he would decline the brevet of lieutenant general which was offered him by President Johnson, and on 28 March 1870, he died in San Francisco. Not to be forgotten by his country, a five dollar treasury note was issued with his portrait in 1890 and 1891.

Following his defeat at Chatanooga, General Braxton Bragg resigned and was replaced with in December of 1863, by Joseph E. Johnston. Their headquarters and base camp were located at Dalton, Georgia which also been serving as a front-line hospital town since 1862. By the spring of 1864, William Tecumseh Sherman, now in charge of the Military Division of the Mississippi, had an army of about 100,000 men. They were comprised of the Army of the Cumberland commanded by George H. Thomas, James B. McPherson's Army of Tennessee, and John Scholfield's Army of Ohio. In contrast, the Confederates were a force of about 65,000 men who were short on blankets, clothing, and small arms. Still, as they struggled to keep fed and clothed, as the Confederate dollar dwindled to the worth of a Yankee nickel, the South fought on. In fact, they felt there was a possibility that they could retain their independence through the upcoming election. The Northerners were tired of the endless battles, the casualties, and the cost to the national treasury. They thought it possible that George B. McClellan (who had been relieved of his duties by Lincoln), might run against him during the presidential election. If McClellan was victorious, it was thought that a peace between the North and South might be negotiated which would allow the Confederacy to exist as an independent nation, but it was not to be.

Tunnel HillWhat would become known as the Atlanta campaign, in which the 22nd Indiana infantry participated (attached to the 20th Army Corp of the Army of the Cumberland), would begin in May when General George Thomas ran into skirmishes with the Confederate soldiers who were defending Tunnel Hill. The tunnel, which was in 1850 considered an engineering marvel, had been built for the purpose of carrying passengers and freight, as well as giving passage over the mountain to those on foot. Here, out-numbered and overwhelmed, the Rebels were unable to damage the tunnel and was then overtaken by the Federal troops.

A few days after this skirmish, Sherman ordered the Union forces to move further south toward Resaca, which was a strong railroad and communications center. Thomas' troops moved along Camp Creek Valley with Hooker's Corps covering the road between Dalton and Resaca, and Schofield to the left.

Although Johnston knew he could not hold Resaca, he wanted to make the Union forces pay dearly. Not only did the Confederate artillery wreck havoc with Union troops, giving them a heavier casualty count than the Confederates, but they burned the railroad bridge which would have been used as a future supply line by Sherman and were able to destroy the communication and railroad facilities.

In July of 1864, Sherman had divided his army into three columns for an assault on Atlanta. The 22nd, still attached to the Army of the Cumberland (14th Corp, 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division), was commanded by George H. Thomas who moved his troops in from the north. General Joseph E. Johnston had decided on a strategic attack on that army, but Confederate President Jefferson Davis relieved Johnston of his command and replaced him with John B. Hood who attacked Thomas after his army crossed Peachtree Creek thus losing the tactical advantage as most of the Union Army had already crossed by that time and were entrenched on high ground.

According to Major General George H. Thomas' report to Sherman, at about four in the afternoon on the 20th of July, the Rebels had attacked them at full force, but were repulsed handsomely by his line. They suffered heavy loss, but the loss they had inflicted on the enemy was severe. In fact, the estimated casualties at Peachtree Creek were 1,710 Union soldiers, and 4,796 Confederates.

James D. MorganAs the Atlanta campaign continued, General Palmer, commander of the 14th corps, was relieved upon his own request, and General Jefferson C. Davis, commander of the Second Division, was appointed by the President to take Palmer's place. General James D. Morgan then took command of the Second Division in which the 22nd was included. During the four months of the Atlanta campaign, the Army of the Cumberland, then composed of the Fourth, Fourteenth and Twentieth Corps, lost 3,041 who were killed, 15,783 wounded, and and had 2,707 missing for a total of 21,531. Of these casualties one-third occurred in the Fourteenth Corps. To this total must be added the heavy losses of the Army of the Tennessee, and the Army of the Ohio, in order to understand the extent of the fighting while on that campaign.

On November 15, 1864, after a short rest at Atlanta, and a short campaign in pursuit of Hood, the Fourteenth Corps moved with Sherman's Army on its march to the sea. Three divisions of the corps were under the command of Generals Carlin, Morgan and Baird, and numbered 13,962 present for duty. The march through Georgia to the sea was uneventful as no fighting occurred. Savannah became occupied on December 20th, and in February of 1865, Sherman began his march through the Carolinas. The Fourteenth Corps, along with the Twentieth, formed the Army of Georgia and had General Slocum commanding both corps. At the onset of the Carolina campaign which began February 1, 1865, the Fourteenth reported its strength at 14,420, infantry and artillery, and included forty-seven regiments of infantry as well as four batteries of light artillery.

The Battle of Bentonville, North Carolina, was the last full-scale fighting during the War of the Rebellion in which a Confederate army was able to mount a tactical offensive as Lee's army . This major battle, which occurred on March 19, 1865, was the largest ever fought in North Carolina.

By this time, Lee's Confederate army was thinned by casualties and desertions and was desperately short of supplies. Grant, making his final advance on April 1st at Five Forks, captured Richmond two days later. He accepted Lee's surrender at nearby Appomattox Court House on April 9th. When news of the surrender reached Johnston on April 14th, he sent a message to Sherman asking for a meeting to discuss terms of his army’s surrender.

That same evening while President Lincoln watched the play "Our American Cousin" in Washington, he was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth. Booth, an actor and friend of the theater's owner, John T. Ford, who thought it would would aid the South despite the fact it had surrendered to Federal forces.

James & Nancy Bennett Home - NCBefore negotiations began at the home of James & Nancy Bennett in North Carolina, Sherman had shown Johnston a telegram which announced the assassination of President Lincoln. The war was over, the surrender of Johnston signed on the 26th, but the country was left in mourning.

After the official funeral in Washington, Lincoln would lay in eleven cities along the train route to his final resting place at Oak Ridge Cemetery in Springfield, Illinois. He was entombed on May 4th, and on the 10th of May, President Andrew Johnson declared that all armed resistance was "virtually at end."

Grand Review Parade passing the White HousePlans commenced for the Grand Review, and two victory celebrations were held in Washington, the 22nd Infantry included. For the thousands of soldiers participating in the parade, it would be one of their final military duties. Only a few weeks after the Grand Review, the 22nd Indiana was mustered out on July 24th. They had lost a total of 343 men including fourteen officers, 139 enlisted men who were killed and mortally wounded, and another 190 who died from disease.

Many of the notable generals who had served in the Union Army had been Indianans: Joseph J. Reynolds, Thomas T. Crittenden, Lew Wallace, George F. McGinnis, Jeremiah C. Sullivan, Robert G. Foster, George D. Wagner, Pleasant A. Hackleman, Thomas J. Lucas, Milo S. Hascall, Solomon Meridith, James W. McMillan, Jefferson C. Davis, Alvin P. Hovey, James C. Veatch, John F. Miller, Charles Cruft, August Willich, William Grose, George H. Chapman, James R. Slack, and Walter Q. Gresham commander of the 53rd Indiana regiment in which Captain Seth Daily served as captain of Company D.

SOURCES: Indiana in the Civil War; Indiana State Library; A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion by Frederick H. Dyer 1908; Brother Against Brother by Time-Life Books 1983; The Civil War by Robert Paul Jordan, National Geographic Senior Editorial Staff 1969; Regimental Losses in the American Civil War (1861-1865) by William F. Fox 1889. Photographs courtesey of Library of Congress.

Clark Co., Indiana regiments of the Civil War
Paths of the Civil War
This Week in the Civil War
The Civil War in Harper's Weekly Magazine
The U.S. Civil War 1816-1865 @ The History Place

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