Sketches by P. Davidson-Peters © 2004
TWENTY-SECOND REGIMENT - Commanded by
Jefferson Columbus Davis who was born in Clark
County, Indiana on March 2nd, 1827. The eldest
child of William Davis, Jr. and Mary (Drummond),
Jefferson grew up in Charlestown on his father's
farm. He began his military career in 1846
enlisting in the 3rd Indiana Regiment during the
Mexican War. He participated at the Battle of
Buena Vista and received the commission as a
second lieutenant of the first artillery in 1848.
Four years later, he was promoted to first
Davis had been
posted at Fort Sumter, Charleston, South
Carolina, in 1858 and is seen in this photograph
(center standing), along with eight other Union
officers. The photograph was taken before the
Confederate 34-hour bombardment. Six of these
officers eventually rose to the rank of general.
Those seated before him (L-R) areCaptain Abner
Doubleday, Major Robert Anderson, Assistant
Surgeon Samuel W. Crawford, and Captain J.G.
Foster. Those standing beside him to the left:
Captain Truman Seymour and Lieutenant George W.
Snyder. To his right, Second Lieutenant Richard
K. Meade and Lieutenant Theodore Talbot.
12, 1861, Davis and his men aimed their fire at
the Confederate batteries on James Island.
Promoted as captain in May, he left for Indiana
where he organized the 22nd regiment of Indiana
Volunteers at Madison.
Daily was captain of Company D of the 22nd, and
was mustered out at the rank of Lieutenant
Colonel. Among other officers of Company D were:
Captain Isaac N. Haymaker a 2nd lieutenant from
Georgetown; Captain Thomas H. Daily a 1st-2nd
Lieutenant of Georgetown; and 1st Lieutenant
William H. Ralts of Georgetown.
officers also serving from Clark county included:
1st Sergeant Joseph B. Rowland; Sgt. David N.
Runyan; Sgt. John B. Watkins; Sgt. Patrick H.
Carney; Sgt. James Simonson; Corporal Benjamin F.
McEwen; Corporal William R. Goer; Corporal
Charles C. Winters; Corporal John B. Butler;
Corporal George G. Taff; Corporal Wash W.
Nandair; Corporal James H. Wilson; Musician
Maurice Hall; Musician Edward Phillipey; and
Wagoner Martin V. Bridges.
from Clark County included: George W. Bard;
Weterfield Baxter, Loran M. Bartle, Wesley Bowe,
Markius C. Beisbe, Green Burgess, Elevins
Burwell, Samuel H. Campbell, Alfred Caughman,
William Christian, Harvey Clapp, Samuel Covert,
Silas Covert, Thomas Cowling, Edward N. Conner,
Harman Cously, William Critchfield, Martin L.
Critchfield, Thomas H. Dailey,
Henderson Davis, William Deitz, John Q. Dixon,
Thomas Donlan, George W. Eads, William F. Gable,
Martin Gavin, James Gaylord, Andrew J. Geltner,
Charles J. Giles, James A. Guire, Henry Hines,
Lewis Harker, Marion Harrison, Joseph Hayburn,
Ephraim Harman, Andrew J. Horde, Peter Hoffman,
James H. Kane, Benjamin F. Kenny, Volney B.
Kenny, Ebenezer Kelse, Peter Kizer, Enoch
Lockhart, Henry Loonis, Thomas J. McMillan, Lemuel
L. Mitchell, Thomas Moore,
George W. Montgomery, Nathaniel Montgomery,
George W. Morris, Joseph D. Officer, Calvin R.
Ogle, Milton C. Olivar, Lewis H. Olivar, Joseph
C. Overman, Miles B. Patrick, James M. Parker,
Philip Phifer, Alexander N. Rutherford, James H.
Ridge, Benjamin F. Shoots, Henry H. Sickley,
Robert P. Slazdin, Joseph H. Slazdin, William
Sooper, Samuel K. Sterns, William Stone, Harrison
Sturdivan, William A. Stierhem,
Charles B. Still, William Stewart, Belshazer
Swinger, George W. Tieman, John Tipps, George W.
Trumball, William W. Walters, John C. Watterson,
Samuel L. Wells, Laban J. Williams, William W.
regiment was mustered in at Indianapolis, Indiana
on the 15th of August, 1861 and as a
distinguished division and corp commander, Davis
transported his regiment to St. Louis to join
Fremont's army. On August 17th, they were sent up
the Missouri river to relieve Colonel Mulligan
who had been besieged at Lexington, Missouri.
September and October, the 22nd moved with
Fremont to Springfield and Otterville, Missouri.
They engaged in the affair at Blackwater in which
they fought and were ablet to capture 1300
February of 1862, Ulysses S. Grant, who was in
Illinois, crammed 15,000 Union soldiers onto nine
river steamers which were backed up with iron
clads and gunboats, and headed for Lt. Gen.
Albert Sidney Johnston's line of defense which
ran six hundred miles. He first headed for Fort
Henry on the Tennessee which they bombarded with
the ironclads, and then proceeded to Fort
Donelson on the Cumberland. Met with a howling
snow storm, many of the soldiers were found
frozen to death and Grant, aware of the absolute
suffering of the men, surrounded the fort and
called on the gunboats to hammer at the garrison.
He was able to force his old friend from West
Point, Brigadier General Simon B. Buckner, CSA
won the fort, Grant opened the way to the heart
of the South and was hailed an hero overnight.
|With the Yankees
successfully pushing the Confederates out of
Missouri, Union Brigadier General Samuel R.
Curtis (pictured left), moved his troops into
Arkansas along Sugar Creek. The troops included
soldiers from Iowa, Illinois, Missouri, and
Indiana. Those from Indiana were the the 8th,
18th, and 22nd Infantry, the latter, commanded by
Jefferson C. Davis.
Barefoot and ill-equipped,
the Confederate soldiers made their march in a
freezing storm from Fayetteville and met with the
Union soldiers at Leetown, a small village where
Confederate Generals James McIntosh and Benjamin
McCulloch were killed in action which effectively
crushed the Confederate command structure, and
rendered them ineffective to battle the Union
soldiers amongst the chaos.
4600 Confederate soldiers, including many of
their officers, lost their lives during the
Battle of Pea Ridge which lasted from November
6-8, 1862. Among the Union casualties, which
numbered approximately 1400, was the son of the
former Indiana Governor, Lt. Colonel John A.
Hendricks who was commanding the 22nd Infantry.
the Battle of Pea Ridge, the Union soldiers
pushed even further into Arkansas, and having
successfully commanded at that battle, Jefferson
C. Davis was promoted to Brigadier General of
U.S. Volunteers in May 1862, his commission
having been back-dated to the previous December.
was also engaged at Perryville, which was the
largest battle of the Civil War fought in the
Commonwealth of Kentucky. The casualties were
horrendous, leaving four miles of fields strewn
with the dead and dying of both the Union and
Confederate soldiers. Their numbers would reach
in excess of 7500, and leave the residents of
Perryville burying the dead for another six
|Following General Bragg
from Kentucky to Nashville, Major General William
S. Rosecrans' (pictured) soldiers were in close
distance to the Rebel forces on December 29th and
were then attacked by
Bragg at dawn on the 31st at Stones River. The
Confederates had initially been able to drive the
Union soldiers back across McFadden's Ford, but
with the help of their artillery, the Federals
drove the Rebs back, retreating to Shelbyville
and Tullahoma, Tennessee.
Included in this
battle was the 22nd Indiana Infantry, under the
command of Colonel Michael Gooding who had
ordered the 22nd to move in with the Illinois
regiments to fight against Sam Wood's 4th
Confederate brigade. By time the intense fighting
ended, the 22nd Indiana had sustained the loss of
nine killed, thirty-two wounded (including
Lieutenant Colonel John A. Hendricks), and others
taken prisoner, including Colonel Michael
the loss of lives at Stones River was high and
could hardly be considered a victorious battle,
its tactical maneuvers were a success and the
morale of the Union soldiers were once again
to maintain control of the central South,
southeastern Tennessee, and Georgia after the
Union had overtaken them at Chattanooga, the
Rebels retreated to northern Georgia with
Rosecrans' Union troops advancing upon them.
miles south of Chattanooga, Tennessee, the Rebel
forces of Braxton Bragg, and the Federal troops
under the command of William Rosecrans, were
massed along the densely wooded Chickamauga Creek
in September of 1863. Able to exploit a gap in
Rosecrans' line, the Rebs were able to attack the
Union lines on both sides. Had it not been for
the valiant stand of General George H. Thomas,
who held the line and resisted the Rebel attack,
the Union losses would have been devastating. As
was, nearly one of every three soldiers engaged
in the battle, became a casualty.
George H. Thomas, who was then known as "the
Rock of Chickamauga" by the Union, took
Rosecrans' job and rose to the rank of Major
General. In 1868, he would decline the brevet of
lieutenant general which was offered him by
President Johnson, and on 28 March 1870, he died
in San Francisco. Not to be forgotten by his
country, a five dollar treasury note was issued
with his portrait in 1890 and 1891.
defeat at Chatanooga, General Braxton Bragg
resigned and was replaced with in December of
1863, by Joseph E. Johnston. Their headquarters
and base camp were located at Dalton, Georgia
which also been serving as a front-line hospital
town since 1862. By the spring of 1864, William
Tecumseh Sherman, now in charge of the Military
Division of the Mississippi, had an army of about
100,000 men. They were comprised of the Army of
the Cumberland commanded by George H. Thomas,
James B. McPherson's Army of Tennessee, and John
Scholfield's Army of Ohio. In contrast, the
Confederates were a force of about 65,000 men who
were short on blankets, clothing, and small arms.
Still, as they struggled to keep fed and clothed,
as the Confederate dollar dwindled to the worth
of a Yankee nickel, the South fought on. In fact,
they felt there was a possibility that they could
retain their independence through the upcoming
election. The Northerners were tired of the
endless battles, the casualties, and the cost to
the national treasury. They thought it possible
that George B. McClellan (who had been relieved
of his duties by Lincoln), might run against him
during the presidential election. If McClellan
was victorious, it was thought that a peace
between the North and South might be negotiated
which would allow the Confederacy to exist as an
independent nation, but it was not to be.
|What would become
known as the Atlanta campaign, in which the 22nd
Indiana infantry participated (attached to the
20th Army Corp of the Army of the Cumberland),
would begin in May when General George Thomas ran
into skirmishes with the Confederate soldiers who
were defending Tunnel Hill. The tunnel, which was
in 1850 considered an engineering marvel, had
been built for the purpose of carrying passengers
and freight, as well as giving passage over the
mountain to those on foot. Here, out-numbered and
overwhelmed, the Rebels were unable to damage the
tunnel and was then overtaken by the Federal
A few days after this
skirmish, Sherman ordered the Union forces to
move further south toward Resaca, which was a
strong railroad and communications center.
Thomas' troops moved along Camp Creek Valley with
Hooker's Corps covering the road between Dalton
and Resaca, and Schofield to the left.
Johnston knew he could not hold Resaca, he wanted
to make the Union forces pay dearly. Not only did
the Confederate artillery wreck havoc with Union
troops, giving them a heavier casualty count than
the Confederates, but they burned the railroad
bridge which would have been used as a future
supply line by Sherman and were able to destroy
the communication and railroad facilities.
of 1864, Sherman had divided his army into three
columns for an assault on Atlanta. The 22nd,
still attached to the Army of the Cumberland
(14th Corp, 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division), was
commanded by George H. Thomas who moved his
troops in from the north. General Joseph E.
Johnston had decided on a strategic attack on
that army, but Confederate President Jefferson
Davis relieved Johnston of his command and
replaced him with John B. Hood who attacked
Thomas after his army crossed Peachtree Creek
thus losing the tactical advantage as most of the
Union Army had already crossed by that time and
were entrenched on high ground.
to Major General George H. Thomas' report to
Sherman, at about four in the afternoon on the
20th of July, the Rebels had attacked them at
full force, but were repulsed handsomely by his
line. They suffered heavy loss, but the loss they
had inflicted on the enemy was severe. In fact,
the estimated casualties at Peachtree Creek were
1,710 Union soldiers, and 4,796 Confederates.
|As the Atlanta
campaign continued, General Palmer, commander of
the 14th corps, was relieved upon his own
request, and General Jefferson C. Davis,
commander of the Second Division, was appointed
by the President to take Palmer's place. General
James D. Morgan then took command of the Second
Division in which the 22nd was included. During
the four months of the Atlanta campaign, the Army
of the Cumberland, then composed of the Fourth,
Fourteenth and Twentieth Corps, lost 3,041 who
were killed, 15,783 wounded, and and had 2,707
missing for a total of 21,531. Of these
casualties one-third occurred in the Fourteenth
Corps. To this total must be added the heavy
losses of the Army of the Tennessee, and the Army
of the Ohio, in order to understand the extent of
the fighting while on that campaign.
On November 15,
1864, after a short rest at Atlanta, and a short
campaign in pursuit of Hood, the Fourteenth Corps
moved with Sherman's Army on its march to the
sea. Three divisions of the corps were under the
command of Generals Carlin, Morgan and Baird, and
numbered 13,962 present for duty. The march
through Georgia to the sea was uneventful as no
fighting occurred. Savannah became occupied on
December 20th, and in February of 1865, Sherman
began his march through the Carolinas. The
Fourteenth Corps, along with the Twentieth,
formed the Army of Georgia and had General Slocum
commanding both corps. At the onset of the
Carolina campaign which began February 1, 1865,
the Fourteenth reported its strength at 14,420,
infantry and artillery, and included forty-seven
regiments of infantry as well as four batteries
of light artillery.
Battle of Bentonville, North Carolina, was the
last full-scale fighting during the War of the
Rebellion in which a Confederate army was able to
mount a tactical offensive as Lee's army . This
major battle, which occurred on March 19, 1865,
was the largest ever fought in North Carolina.
time, Lee's Confederate army was thinned by
casualties and desertions and was desperately
short of supplies. Grant, making his final
advance on April 1st at Five Forks, captured
Richmond two days later. He accepted Lee's
surrender at nearby Appomattox Court House on
April 9th. When news of the surrender reached
Johnston on April 14th, he sent a message to
Sherman asking for a meeting to discuss terms of
his armys surrender.
same evening while President Lincoln watched the
play "Our American Cousin" in
Washington, he was assassinated by John Wilkes
Booth. Booth, an actor and friend of the
theater's owner, John T. Ford, who thought it
would would aid the South despite the fact it had
surrendered to Federal forces.
negotiations began at the home of James &
Nancy Bennett in North Carolina, Sherman had
shown Johnston a telegram which announced the
assassination of President Lincoln. The war was
over, the surrender of Johnston signed on the
26th, but the country was left in mourning.
the official funeral in Washington, Lincoln would
lay in eleven cities along the train route to his
final resting place at Oak Ridge Cemetery in
Springfield, Illinois. He was entombed on May
4th, and on the 10th of May, President Andrew
Johnson declared that all armed resistance was
"virtually at end."
for the Grand Review, and two victory
celebrations were held in Washington, the 22nd
Infantry included. For the thousands of soldiers
participating in the parade, it would be one of
their final military duties. Only a few weeks
after the Grand Review, the 22nd Indiana was
mustered out on July 24th. They had lost a total
of 343 men including fourteen officers, 139
enlisted men who were killed and mortally
wounded, and another 190 who died from disease.
Many of the
notable generals who had served in the Union Army
had been Indianans: Joseph J. Reynolds, Thomas T.
Crittenden, Lew Wallace, George F. McGinnis,
Jeremiah C. Sullivan, Robert G. Foster, George D.
Wagner, Pleasant A. Hackleman, Thomas J. Lucas,
Milo S. Hascall, Solomon Meridith, James W.
McMillan, Jefferson C. Davis, Alvin P. Hovey,
James C. Veatch, John F. Miller, Charles Cruft,
August Willich, William Grose, George H. Chapman,
James R. Slack, and Walter Q. Gresham commander
of the 53rd Indiana regiment in which Captain
Seth Daily served as captain of Company D.
SOURCES: Indiana in the Civil War; Indiana State
Library; A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion
by Frederick H. Dyer ©1908; Brother Against
Brother by Time-Life Books ©1983; The Civil War
by Robert Paul Jordan, National Geographic Senior
Editorial Staff ©1969; Regimental Losses in the
American Civil War (1861-1865) by William F. Fox
©1889. Photographs courtesey of Library of
|Clark Co., Indiana regiments
of the Civil War
|Paths of the Civil War
|This Week in the Civil
|The Civil War in
Harper's Weekly Magazine
|The U.S. Civil War
1816-1865 @ The History Place
| Site Map | Search |
28 Jul 2013
Web Pages Designed & Maintained by P.
Davidson-Peters © 1999
All Rights Reserved.
|What's New | Biographies | Civil War | U.S. Census | Family Letters | Obituaries | Cemeteries | Photos | Email P.
Davidson-Peters | About PDP | PDP's Blog