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The 1522 Military Survey & Loan

for the Cornish Parish of St Stithians

From "The Cornwall Military Survey of 1522", edited by T.L. Sloate

The Bookshop - Bernard D. Welchman

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           During the reign of Henry VIII, his Chancelor, Cardinal Wolsey devised a rather underhanded method of raising funds to pay for his master's military adventures. Under the guise of a military muster the commissioners were to summon all males over the age of 16, determine what weapons and armour each possessed and then compel them, under oath, to divulge their total worth in goods; household furnishings, livestock, loans, debts etc.. Landholders, were to give an account of all land they held in each parish. No reasons were given for this evaluation of their material possessions, but once compiled the record became a basis for demanding a "loan" from those capable of paying. Of course, the loan was never paid back.

             The result is a partial listing of the male residents of Stithians along with their relative worth in lands and goods. I say a partial listing because many of the recorded landholders did not reside in the parish and if the man wasn't worth at least 2 in goods, or wasn't extremely poor, he wasn't recorded.             

             The record is divided into 4 parts; 1) the assessment made on the spiritual members of the community, 2) the landholders, 3) the value of goods and what military equipment the men possessed, 4) the value upon which the loan was assessed.

                If the landholder is not on the goods list he didn't reside in the parish. Only 5 landholders did so and are indicated by an asterik * in the notes and armour columns. An "armiger" was someone holding a rank of esquire and would lay claim to a coat-of-arms.  A jack and a brigandine were similar; body armour made of  leather or cloth with steel plates. A brigandine was riveted whereas a jack was sewn. A sallet was a steel helmet with a brim. A bill was sort of a broad axe on a long pole, with or without a pike (spear point) on the end.   

          

                                     Jack                                                         Sallets                                                Brigandine                             Bill

                                                       

           In many parts of Cornwall during this period surnames were not stable. At least 20 of the 35 individual names on the value of goods list are derived from farms and hamlets within the boundry of the Parish. A few, such as Penhalurick, would become and probably was hereditary, but most would disappear with time.

            At least one man may have been identified by his occupation. William Engove was probably an angove - cornish for blacksmith.  Others were given, or took the names of their fathers. An example being William John who appears on the value of goods list bracketed with his probable father, John Treskuwys. Again, we have no certainty that William John passed on this name and the same can be said for John Stephyn, Ralph Hervy, John Benet and others.

 

Stethyans Paryshe

The value of the spiritual possessions in the said parish.

The Abbot and Convent of Regal Loco (Rewley Abbey) juxta Oxford... are worth 10.

Warin Penhaluryk, clerk vicar....is worth 10

Baldwin John, chaplain curate... is worth in stipend,6 and in goods, 10.

 Forename

Surname / Residence

Notes

Value in Lands

 

 

 

S

d

 

 

 

 

 

 

John

Arundell

Kt

4

 

 

Reynold

Mohun

 

2

 

 

John

Broncoys

 

1

15

 

John

Skewys

 

1

 

 

(Heir of)

Dynham

Lord

 

15

 

John

Trebost

 

 

5

8

Walter

Tregoys

 

1

6

8

William

Carnsuyowe

Armiger

1

 

 

Henry

Thomas

 

 

10

 

John

Ressygh

*

1

4

 

Peter

Bevyle

 

5

6

8

James

Erysy

Armiger

 

16

 

Joan

Maliverer

Widow

1

 

 

John

Reskymer

Armiger

 

12

 

William

Godoghan

Armiger

 

4

 

Richard

Courtenay

Armiger

 

14

 

Richard

Spergor

 

 

10

 

John

Sargeant

 

 

8

 

Peter

Trevysa

 

 

7

 

George

Polkynhorne

 

 

7

 

Thomas

Spurnan

 

 

10

 

Anthony

Butsyde

 

 

6

8

Richard

Bonython

 

 

4

 

John

Corfe

 

 

13

 

John

Chygoulyn

 

 

8

 

John

Nanscorran

 

 

3

 

John

Wolcok

 

 

3

 

Richard

Rawe

 

 

3

 

William

Clemowe

 

 

7

 

Richard

Cokke

 

 

18

 

John

Travalscoys

 

 

15

 

John

Coyswyn

 

2

6

8

John

Powe

 

 

10

 

John

Carmynowe

 

1

 

 

John

Treweke

de Lan'ata

2

6

8

William

Gerves

 

 

12

 

Florence

Seyntabyn

Widow

 

8

 

Peter

Penhalevean

*

 

16

 

Simon

Enys

*

 

10

 

Nicholas

Trefalthlis

*

 

12

 

Henry

Trewithin

*

 

4

 

1 - bow & arrows, 2 - bill, 4 - jack, 5- sallet, 7- brigandine

 Forename

Surname / Residence

Armour

Value in Goods

 

 

 

S

d

 

 

 

 

 

 

Peter

Penhalevean

* 2,4,5

10

 

 

Henry

Trewythan

*

3

6

8

Simon

Enys

*

2

 

 

Nicholas

Trefalthlis

*2,4,5

5

 

 

Roger

Kennel

2,4,5

6

13

4

John

Baby

1

3

 

 

Nicholas

Treberveth

 

2

 

 

William

Sebrugh

 

5

 

 

Robert

Broncoys

 

5

 

 

Thomas

Penhaluryk

2,4,5

13

6

8

John

Nanpean

 

2

 

 

Richard

Coyspost

1

5

 

 

John

Tregoys

2,5,7

7

 

 

Henry

Hogen

 

2

10

 

John

Resseygh

*

 

5

 

John

Stephyn

 

2

 

 

Simon

Jenkyn

 

2

 

 

Ralph

Hervy

 

2

 

 

Martin

Rosmenewes

2,4,5

8

 

 

Richard

Rosmenewes

"

"

 

 

James

Hernans

 

6

 

 

John

Menethdue

 

2

13

4

Richard

Leder

 

2

 

 

Roger

Trethek

1,4,5

20

 

 

Richard

Carsoghowe

 

6

13

4

Lucas John

Wylle

 

5

 

 

John

Drewe

 

5

 

 

John Sr.

Wenam

 

2

 

 

John Jr.

Wenam

 

"

 

 

William

Engove

 

3

6

8

John

Martyn

2,4,5

7

 

 

William

Tresefren

 

6

 

 

David

Drewe

2,5

2

 

 

John

Treskuwys

 

3

6

8

William

John

 

"

"

"

John

Benet

 

Pauper

 

 

Oliver

Trebost

 

Pauper

 

 

 

 Forename

Surname Given

Notes

Value for assessment

 

 

 

S

d

 

 

 

 

 

 

Roger

Tretheke

 

20

 

 

Nicholas

Trefalthis

 

5

 

 

Roger

Kennal

 

6

13

4

Thomas

Penhaluryk

 

13

6

8

Richard

Coyspost

 

5

 

 

John

Tregoos

         Tregoys?

6

 

 

John

Reseeght

 

5

 

 

Martin

Rossevenewes

 

8

 

 

Richard

Rosemenevas

 

"

 

 

Peter

Penhalevean

 

10

 

 

James

Hernans

 

6

 

 

Richard

Carnsogyowe

 

6

13

4

Lucas John

Wylle

 

5

 

 

John

Drewe

 

5

 

 

William

Sawraght

Sebrugh

5

 

 

John

Martyn

 

7

 

 

William

Tresefren

 

7

 

 

Robert

Broncoys

Decayed & pauper