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The web page at http://freepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/fileman/ allows one to update this web page at http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~stewartroyal/.

Former Royal Stewart Background Web Pages at FTDNA

Updated 10/26/2016 by Stewart

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Each of the three former versions below of the royal Stewart project web page at http://www.familytreedna.com/public/Stuart/default.aspx were censored by FTDNA. Each is separated from the others by two thick red horizontal lines. All three versions include a version of Table # 2, which shows how much better YFULL's ~500 STR marker value comparison tables are than FTDNA's Y-DNA111 tables (a fact that FTDNA has not publicized).

  • Version # 3 was removed on October 19, 2016 so it is nearest to the top of this web page.
  • Version # 2 was removed about December 2015 so it is near the middle of this web page.
  • Version # 1 was removed about June 2014 so it is nearest to the bottom of this web page. It includes some important anthropological information, insight and opinions that are too politically incorrect for prevaricating bigots and exploiters to allow you to hear.

Version # 3 of FTDNA's aforesaid Stuart project web page has the most recent and trustworthy version of the aforesaid Table # 2 (I copied most of it from YFULL's table at https://www.yfull.com/groups/r-s781/cstr/). I was not able to persuade YFULL to produce its colorized STR comparison tables until after I had manually created the earlier versions of Table # 2 below (a tedious and time consuming job).

I prefer Rootsweb's web pages because they display the useful background colors of cells in the tables below (FTDNA's do not).

All three versions of FTDNA's aforesaid Stuart project web page were removed at the request of an employee of FTDNA, e.g., possibly because they linked to:

The sooner FTDNA's customers discover that YFull's Y-DNA500 STR test comparison tables are far superior to FTDNA's Y-111 STR comparison tables, the sooner they may stop paying for Y-DNA111 tests, and thereby force FTDNA to compensate by increasing the cost of its Big Y test. More of them may purchase FGC's superior Y-Elite  Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) test instead of Big Y as a result. Competition with Ancestry.com, 23ANDME, https://www.yseq.com, etc. has already forced FTDNA to reduce the prices of its autosomal, MtDNA, SNP, etc. tests.

The more educated FTDNA's customers become, the more they will benefit, and the more competitive FTDNA's products will have to become ! Why not?


FTDNA complained about Version # 3 below so it was removed on October 19, 2016.


Text and images may be enlarged over 200% via the Ctrl and + keys. Use <"CTRL MINUS"> to zoom out.

This DICTIONARY may come in handy. Click on images and links to see sources. The Wkipedia quotes below can be found via a search of the history of changes made to each article if the ethnic minority that controls Wikipedia censored them.
DISCLAIMER: The goal and sacred responsibility of the unpaid administrators of this project is to help their trusting kinsmen to make wise choices (not to sell less beneficial and more expensive DNA tests. The genealogical, cultural and personal agendas and opinions found on the web page at http://www.familytreedna.com/public/Stuart/default.aspx and its links may not be considered appropriate by any DNA testing company, employee, administrator, moderator, preacher, scientist, web site host or member of a DNA project.

Others can NOT see your test results, etc. (even if you can), unless you log into your account, select MANAGE PERSONAL INFORMATION> PRIVACY & SHARING> MY DNA RESULTS> WHO CAN VIEW MY DNA RESULTS, etc.


Column # 1 (row # 1)

Welcome to FTDNA's exclusive project for y-DNA tested (R-L744, R1b1a2a1a2c1i1a) descendants of the first
HIGH STEWARD of SCOTLAND

Arms of the Great Steward until 1371                      

We thank Family Tree DNA's President and CEO Bennett Greenspan for creating this project for the patrilineal descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland on October 29, 2010. His video about DNA testing and genetic genealogy is at https://youtu.be/wVmTYXVQmzg.

You may JOIN THIS PROJECT no matter what your surname is. Family Tree DNA imposes NO LIMIT to the number of projects that one may join. Ask your project administrators for advice in order to avoid ordering a useless test and requesting a refund.

The following videos explain:

The more you learn about your ancestry via DNA tests the better you will be able to answer your children's questions (DNA never lies). A family, race or civilization that has a genetic identity is more likely to survive. According to research at Emory University:

  • Children who know more about their family history can turn out to be more emotionally resilient than children who don’t.
  • By anchoring oneself in family history, one has a sense of place and security that may facilitate self-confidence and self-competence.

A Y-DNA test of a Scotsman's SALIVA may help him to identify his patrilineal ancestors all the way back to the:

Don't wait until your last male relatives who are willing to have their DNA tested die (the closer to death, the less cooperative some become). No one but you is likely to pay for your relatives' DNA tests.


Which Test Should You Order?

$575 Big Y tests are by far the best way to learn about a man's Y-DNA no matter what his surname. More information about them is at https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/14028750/Testing%20and%20Analysing%20Big-Y.pdf and at https://www.familytreedna.com/learn/y-dna-testing/big-y/.

Big Y tests are Family Tree DNA's ONLY tests that:

  • Include all Y-DNA111 (a $359 DNA test) plus 387 other STR markers free of charge.
  • Provide a man's deepest ancestral origins.
  • Uncover new branches (SNPs) on the paternal tree.
  • Find recent branches (SNPs) unique to a man's direct paternal line, his family, and even to himself (this is extremely important).
  • Allow us to construct phylogenetic trees that show exactly how each member of this family is kin to the others (see below).
  • Cover 10 million base-pairs.
  • Test nearly 25,000 known SNPs.

There is about a 50% probability that descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland will be assigned to a branch that has already been discovered if they order a Big Y test during FTDNA's upcoming holiday sales (possibly for not much more than the full cost of a Y-DNA111 test). More than one member of our family is now included in about half of the dozens of branches that have been discovered via Big Y tests. Some of them (e.g., branches S781 and Y14198) now include aristocrats who have impeccable lineages.

Unfortunately, FTDNA does not allow men to order Big Y and other SNP tests unless they first purchase a $59.00 Y-DNA12 or other STR (Short Tandem Repeat) test, e.g., by scrolling down at this link or by telephoning FTDNA at 713-868-1438 Monday - Thursday 9 am to 4:30 pm CST and Friday 9 am to noon. A Big Y test can not be ordered until one's STR test has been batched (possibly a couple weeks after it was ordered, hopefully in time to benefit from a sale).

Your STR results will be displayed next to your kit number in the "Ungrouped" category at the bottom of the "Y-DNA Results" web page at http://www.familytreedna.com/public/Stuart/default.aspx?section=ycolorized initially, and be assigned to a different category if you test positive for SNP S310 (a.k.a. R-L746) or at a high enough STR level to prove that you are a patrilineal descendant of the first High Steward of Scotland.

Tests for SNP S310 are the cheapest and most reliable way for men to prove with 100% certainty whether or not they are patrilineal descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland. Those who test positive for SNP S310 can determine to which L746 branch (e.g., S781 or Y14198) of this family they belong via a Big Y (or individual SNP) tests. All of the issue of one of your great-great-great-great-grandmothers descend from Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll if one of her patrilineal cousins tests positive for S781.

Alex Williamson's web page at http://www.ytree.net/DisplayTree.php?blockID=7 and the L746 phylogenetic trees that Administrators Larry and Desideriu maintain below are based on their analysis of Big Y test results, and show SNPs that distinguish the branches to which some members of this Stewart family belong.

The results of the SNP tests that are sold to first time customers by other companies are not displayed at http://www.familytreedna.com/public/Stuart/default.aspx?section=ysnp unless you add them as a suffix to your surname, e.g., Stewart (781+), or Stewart (781-).


SNP vs. STR Tests

According to the toggled answer to a question at https://www.familytreedna.com/learn/y-dna-testing/big-y/: "Unlike Geno 2.0 and related technologies, Big Y is able to detect new branch markers that are unique to your paternal lineage, surname, or even you". Y-DNA 111 test results (plus about four times as many STR markers that may be even more useful) are included free of charge in the results of a Big Y test!

Since Y-DNA111, etc. STR marker values are far too unstable (mutate back and forth too frequently) to provide much useful information about the branches to which very distantly related cousins belong (click here for more details and actual proof), you may never benefit from them.

Patrilineal cousins who are related to each other closely enough to trace their kinship genealogically without the help of a DNA test usually have almost identical STR test results. This project's STR results pages allow you to compare your STR results to those of each L746+ Big Y tester.

You can order tests for a Big Y tester's unique SNPs (i.e., novel variants) if you think that you and he belong to the same branch, e.g., because you and he have some of the same off-modal STR marker values. At least one DNA testing company will be willing to create a test for any newly discovered SNP.


How May We Benefit From Our SNP Test Results?

This ~6 minute VIDEO explains how experts can use the results of Big Y and other Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) tests to scientifically prove exactly how all of the descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland are related to each other.

Read column # 7 below about what to do after your Big Y test results are delivered.


How To Order Individual SNP Tests From FTDNA

If you want to order an individual SNP test, login to your MyFTDNA account and:

  • Click ORDER AN UPGRADE in the upper right corner.
  • Click ORDER AN ADVANCED TEST, select SNP from the Test Type menu and type the name of the SNP, e.g., S781.
  • Click FIND, ADD, ORDER NOW, etc.


Autosomal DNA

One may be able to find a Stewart cousin via genealogical research or via an autosomal test (e.g., Family Finder) of one's own DNA. Identifying the common ancestor of distantly related cousins via shared autosomal DNA segments can be frustrating. Cousins may or may not inherit enough of the same DNA to show that they have a common ancestor.

  • A child randomly receives half of his autosomal DNA from his mother and half from his father.
  • First Cousins may inherit a quarter of their DNA from one of their common grandparents.
  • Second Cousins may inherit an eighth of their DNA from their common great-Gparents.
  • Third Cousins may inherit a sixteenth of their DNA from their common ggGparents.
  • Fourth Cousins may inherit a 32nd of their DNA from their common gggGparents.
  • Fifth Cousins may inherit a 64th of their DNA from their common ggggGparents.
  • Sixth Cousins may inherit 128th of their DNA from their common gggggGparents - segments of DNA become so small at this level and beyond that accurate comparisons may not be possible.


Security

For security reasons we want to make sure that only members of this family and their closest DF41 cousins have access to this project. Administrators may allow members who have not had Y-DNA tests to remain in this project if they post genealogical evidence that they qualify. The Y-DNA test results of most of its members prove that they do. Please remove yourself from this project if you do not, e.g., if:

  • The majority of your matches at the Y-37 level or higher do not have a version of the surname Stewart.
  • The name of your haplogroup does not begin with the letter "R-".
  • At the Y-DNA67 level, over nine of your STR marker values differ from 181994's at the bottom of the "Y-DNA Results" web page.
  • Your completed Y-DNA37 or higher test results remain in the "Ungrouped" category for more than one week.
  • You test negative for SNP S310 (a.k.a. R-L746).

Those who are mistakenly removed from this project may contact an administrator.


Click here to scroll to the top of column # 2.

Column # 2

ScotlandsDNA.com claims that: "About 20% of all men who carry the famous surname Stewart share Sir John of Bonkyll’s lineage while 30% are descended from Sir John’s brother, James Stewart, the 5th High Steward of Scotland (died 16 July 1309)." See the genealogical chart at http://www.strathgenealogy.org.uk/files/2015/02/genealogical_Stewart.pdf.

The claim that about 50% of the Stewarts in Scotland are patrilineal descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland may not be true. Less than 25% of the Stewarts in FTDNA's database (and the Stewarts in the UK for whose tests the General Fund of this project paid) do.


Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll (S781)

About 50 members of this project had been tested for SNP S781 (R1b1a2a1a2c1i1a1) by FTDNA or one of its competitors by Feb/4/2015. About 40% tested positive and about a third added their test results to their surnames as a suffix in order to facilitate subgrouping, etc.

The Stewarts of Appin, the Duke of Buccleuch and everyone who tests positive for SNP S781 descends from Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll (died 22 July 1298 at the Battle of Falkirk). FTDNA's project for Sir John's patrilineal descendants is at https://www.familytreedna.com/public/R-S781. Some of their Big Y test results are posted in the S781 Phylogenetic Tree below and at http://www.s781.org/allsnps.html. All or part of Sir John's patrilineal descendants via the Lennox line (e.g. King James I of England) test positive for both S781 and S768. Sir John's patrilineal descendants via other lines test S781+ and S768-.

a flat stone which is said to mark the grave of Sir John Stewart


Sir John Stewart, Sheriff of Bute (Y14198)

Members of this project's A1e group belong to the Stewart-Bute branch of our family according to the results of their Big Y tests (all of them descend from Scottish King Robert II via Sir John Stewart, sheriff of Bute, and test positive for SNP Y14198)! FTDNA created a project that is exclusively for them at https://www.familytreedna.com/public/Stewart-Bute, where those who are interested can learn more about their goals, FREE DNA TEST offers, etc.


Sir John Stewart Baron of Auchingoun & Blackhall (ZZ52)

Members of this project's A1h group belong to the branch of our family that descends from Scottish King Robert III via his son Sir John Stewart, Baron of Auchingoun and Blackhall. Some of his descendants tested positive for SNP ZZ52). FTDNA may create a project that is exclusively for this branch if one of its members is willing to administer it.


The Big Y test results of Earl Castle Stewart (Y15896+) confirmed his descent from Robert Stewart, the first Duke of Albany, according to this Bannockburn web page.


English Imperialism

According to Wikipedia, "When the Scottish revolt against Edward I broke out in July 1297, James Stewart the 5th High Steward of Scotland led into rebellion a further group of disaffected Scots, including: Robert Wishart, Bishop of Glasgow, MacDuff, the son of the earl of Fife, and the young Robert the Bruce. The future king was now twenty-two, and in joining the rebels he seems to have been acting independently of his father, who took no part in the rebellion and appears to have abandoned Annandale once more for the safety of Carlisle. It appears that Robert Bruce had fallen under the influence of his grandfather’s friends, Wishart and Stewart, who had inspired him to patriotic resistance. With the outbreak of the revolt, Robert left Carlisle and made his way to Annandale, where he called together the knights of his ancestral lands and, according to the English chronicler Walter of Guisborough, addressed them thus: 'No man holds his flesh and blood in hatred, and I am no exception. I must join my own people and the nation in whom I was born'." Would Scots heed his call today?

Bannockburn Live is a two day event marking the 700th anniversary of the Battle of Bannockburn, on Saturday 28 and Sunday 29 June 2014 from 10am - 7pm.

A translation of the Latin on the plaque above: "My Son, Freedom is best, I tell thee true, of all things to be won. Then never live within the Bond of Slavery." "Bas Agus Buaidh" (Death and Victory). Some Celts think that their only nation is people of their own race and ancestry, that to rule or be ruled by anyone else is imperialism and slavery, and that a member of another nation is a foreigner regardless of where he was born and what government issued his passport. They would rather govern themselves than to be ruled by the Houses of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and Hanover, by the U.S., and by any regime whose policy is to obliterate all racial and national identities except their own, e.g., via the Anglo-Saxon's American and "British" empires and religions.

James' son Walter fought at Bannockburn and helped separatist William Wallace to win Scotland's independence. Walter married the daughter of Robert Bruce I (died on 7 June 1329). Their son became Robert II, the first Stewart king.


How May We Help Each Other?

The more members of a project and its unpaid administrators cooperate, e.g., by ordering Big Y tests and following Big Y analyst Larry's suggestions, the more likely their test results will continue to be analyzed and included in their tables and phylogenetic trees, the easier, faster, better and less expensive their genealogical progress will be, the later they may retire, and the more they may suffer by working themselves to death at computers. So why impede genetic genealogists whom one wants to punish, e.g. by not providing a sample of one's DNA, or participating in their research projects?

The only way to discover your branch and terminal SNPs is probably via a Big Y test. Knowing who belongs to your branch may help you to achieve your genealogical goals, e.g., by collaborating with your nearest Big Y matches.

For you to add the terminal SNP of the branch to which you belong as a suffix (generational title) to your surname, e.g., Stewart (L745+), Stewart (S781+) or Stewart (Y14198+), may be helpful. Just:

1) Log in to your FTDNA account.
2) Select MANAGE PERSONAL INFORMATION.
3) Select CONTACT INFORMATION.
4) Add a suffix (generational title) to your surname, e.g., STEWART (L745+)

If you want to help and be helped, please join these projects:

  • STUART project (if you descend from the first High Steward of Scotland).
  • R-S781 project (if you descend from Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll).
  • Stewart-Bute project (if you descend from Sir John Stewart, Sheriff of Bute).
  • R-DF41 project (L746 is downstream of Haplogroup DF41).

The more members of your branch order Big Y and other SNP tests the more likely we will be able to create pedigrees that show exactly how all of them are related to each other. Don't expect anyone but a genealogist to pay for his own tests and to contribute a sample of his DNA (especially to a stranger), no matter how much you need it.

Diana Gale Matthiesen stated: "Genealogy is like a jigsaw puzzle... If everyone hides their piece of the puzzle, none of us will get anywhere ... there are some serious practical considerations relevant to DNA projects that make lineage-sharing imperative." The fewer make their test results and the name, etc. of their earliest genealogically traced patrilineal ancestor private, the sooner we may determine exactly how all of us are related to each other.

Some of the goals of FTDNA's Royal Stewart project are to:

  • Recruit as many patrilineal descendants of the High Stewards of Scotland as possible, no matter what their surnames and geographic locations may be.
  • Help them to have their DNA tested for genealogical purposes by providing information and financial assistance to those who request it (please help us to recruit more European volunteers for FREE DNA TESTS).
  • Use their test results and pedigrees to determine exactly how they are related to each other and to which branch (sept or stirpes) of this GENS they belong.

Compare our DF13 Clan Colla cousins' FTDNA project administrators' achievements and Big Y test results to this family's if you want to see what could be better.


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Column # 3





Who Were the First Farmers?

A collection of nine stone masks found in Israel’s Judean hills are believed to be close to 9,000 years old. The masks are typically between 11 and 12 inches in height and are thought to have been used by early farmers in important ancestral rituals.

Balaresque et al. state: "The relative contributions to modern European populations of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers and Neolithic farmers from the Near East have been intensely debated. Haplogroup R1b1b2 (R-M269) is the commonest European Y-chromosomal lineage, increasing in frequency from east to west, and carried by 110 million European men... The distribution of this lineage, the diversity within it, and estimates of its age all suggest that it spread with farming from the Near East. Taken with evidence on the origins of other lineages, this indicates that most European Y chromosomes descend from Near Eastern farmers... Previous studies suggested a Paleolithic origin, but here we show that the geographical distribution of its microsatellite diversity is best explained by spread from a single source in the Near East via Anatolia during the Neolithic ... in contrast, most maternal lineages descend from hunter-gatherers ..." i.e. most Europeans have Crô-Magnon mitochondrial DNA.

According to this Wikipedia article about haplogroup (HG) R1b1a2 (a.k.a. R-M269), "the distribution of R1b STR variance in Europe forms a cline from east to west, which is more consistent with an entry into Europe from Western Asia with the spread of farming... "The frequency is about 71% in Scotland, 70% in Spain and 60% in France. In south-eastern England the frequency of this clade is about 70%; in parts of the rest of north and western England, Spain, Portugal, Wales and Ireland, it is as high as 90%; and in parts of north-western Ireland it reaches 98%."

Image # 9 above from a 1350 BC seal shows gangly Fertile Crescent farmers with the physical characteristics of Northern Europeans, not those of Crô-Magnon hunter-gatherers and Semitic herdsmen. If you want more evidence, click on the picture and read the book from which it came. The oval in the sky symbolizes the moon, which regulated plantings. The cross represents the Sun, a Celtic symbol for Life and God (Abrahamic faiths repurposed Celtic holidays too, e.g., Easter).

The ancestors of Northern Europeans, e.g., Celts, were the first farmers. They emigrated from the Sahel to the Fertile Crescent during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), and into Europe after the end of the last glacial period.

"Migration from Arabia into the Fertile Crescent has been a constant pattern of human movement in the Middle East since antiquity. As such, the Arabian peninsula has long been accepted as the original Semitic Urheimat by a majority of scholars. Older theories positing Mesopotamia as the Semitic homeland were severely undermined by the identification of the non-Semitic Sumerian culture in Mesopotamia in the late 19th century..."

Quote from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Semitic_language&oldid=424870119#Homeland. Compare this version to the revision at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proto-Semitic_language#Homeland if you want to see a fine example of how Wikipedia's biased censors distort the truth.

The Unger's Bible Dictionary (1957) explanation of why Phoenicians are considered Semitic by anthropologists and ethnologists is that Phoenicians "must have succumbed to the pressure of racial and linguistic intermixture with Semites with the loss of their own ethnic predominance " because Canaan "was like a bridge between Egypt and great Semitic empires". Are the Amorites and other Hamitic farming nations of Canaan called Semitic despite genetic, biblical, etc. evidence to the contrary because their Indo-Hittite speaking ancestors had to adopt a Semitic written language? HG J is found in greatest concentration in the Southwestern Arabian Peninsula (not in the Fertile Crescent).

More information about this subject is at http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~stewdna/.


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Column # 4

Click here to scroll to the top of column # 5 (row # 2).


Column # 5 (row # 2)

YFull Experimental YTree v3.18 at 09 December 2015

  • R-L744 A475 * S797 * S790 ... 25 SNPs formed 3900 ybp, TMRCA 650 ybp info
    • R-L744*
      • id:YF04357
      • id:YF03673 SCT
      • id:YF03554 SCT
      • id:YF02447
      • id:YF02086 GBR [GB-DBY]
      • id:YF02025
      • id:YF01975
    • R-Y14197 Y14197 * Y14198 formed 650 ybp, TMRCA 300 ybp info
      • id:YF03214
      • id:YF02294 SCT
    • R-Y4954 Z17581/Y4954 formed 650 ybp, TMRCA 650 ybp info
    • R-S781 S781 formed 650 ybp, TMRCA 600 ybp info
      • R-S781*
        • id:YF05289
        • id:YF03473
        • id:YF02955
        • id:YF02682
        • id:YF02561
        • id:YF02406
        • id:YF02381 GBR [GB-ANT]
        • id:YF02313
        • id:YF02184
      • R-A306 A307 * A308 * A306 ... 1 SNPs formed 600 ybp, TMRCA 200 ybp info
        • id:YF03362
        • id:YF01691
      • R-Y11635 A889/Y11635 formed 600 ybp, TMRCA 300 ybp info
        • id:YF02698
        • id:YF02080
      • R-A922 A922 formed 600 ybp, TMRCA 300 ybp info
        • R-A922*
          • id:YF02972
        • R-Y14048 Y14048 * A921/Y14230 formed 300 ybp, TMRCA 125 ybp info
          • id:YF03242
          • id:YF02179

YFULL's phylogenetic tree above shows:

  • The names of the SNPs via which some branches of the descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland can be identified.
  • Estimates of how long ago:
    • Those branch mutations occurred.
    • The common ancestor of some branches of this family lived.

Age estimation algorithm presented in article Defining a New Rate Constant for Y-Chromosome SNPs based on Full Sequencing Data by Adamov, Guryanov, Korzhavin, Tagankin, Urasin (2015).


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Column # 6

Our Phylogenetic Tree's Foundation Is Under Construction

QUESTION: "Isn't it strange that none of the testers have any SNPs in common? I would have thought some type of pattern would have emerged by now."

ANSWER: "Most of it was planned that way.

A few months ago we developed a strategy to try to get as many branches identified through BigY as we could to develop a framework. Most of the kits that have tested so far were targeted under that strategy which, if successful, would result in one kit per branch. We still have a few of the targeted kits pending which may identify yet more branches.

But, now that we have a relatively comprehensive framework, additional tests that were not in our targeted set should start the pairing process.

Cheers,
Larry Walker"


Note: About half of our current NGS Testers have already been coupled with members of their own branch of our R-L746 Gens according to Graph # 1 below. Larry's June, 2014 recommendations for Big Y tests were based on genetic distance (shared off-modal branch marker values and SNPs indicate kinship more reliably).


An Analysis of the Big Y Results of some R-S781 Testers

We thank FTDNA's brilliant and hard working Stuart project administrator Desideriu for his "S781 Phylogenetic Tree" below and for his Analysis of the Big Y Test Results of ALL descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland. The lastest versions of his working drafts are at:

If you want your Big Y results to be added to Desideriu's tables:

  • Download and store your .bam files on Google Drive (see the instructions near the bottom of this web page).
  • Send the link needed to access them to Desideriu.

You may:

  • Order a book in French (profits are donated to the General Funds of FTDNA's Stewart projects as needed) about the well-documented and exciting military, etc. history of Desideriu's ancestors in Corsica, etc.
  • Click here to download a free .pdf version thereof.


Click here to scroll to the top of column # 7 (row # 3).


Column # 7 (row # 3)

What a Big Y tester can do in order to benefit from his Big Y results after FTDNA delivers them:

We are fortunate that NGS expert Larry Walker analyzes the Big Y test results of descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland, discovers terminal SNPs via which their branches can be identified, and lists them in Graph # 1 above so that those who did not order an NGS test can prove to which branches they belong (and thereby facilitate their genealogical research) via à la carte SNP tests that cost between $15 and $40.

FTDNA's Big Y Novel Variants report and VCF file only show the markers that meet FTDNA's quality threshold. This means that we cannot assume that any potential SNP is negative if it is shown as “rejected”, or if it is not shown on the Novel Variants report in the VCF file.

Yfull will help us to obtain full utility from your Big Y test by analysing and permanently storing your results for $49 if you:

  1. Telephone FTDNA at (713) 868-1438 or email Helpdesk@FTDNA.com and request that a DOWNLOAD.BAM FILE button be added to your Big Y Results web page as soon as possible.
  2. Login to your FTDNA account about six weeks later (if FTDNA says two days or months it may take five).
  3. Click on the “BigY Results” button near the bottom of the page.
  4. Click on the blue “Download Raw Data” button (not the “Export CSV" button).
  5. A pop-up should appear. Click on the green “Download BAM” button (NOT the “Download VCF” button). Contact the FTDNA help desk and ask for one if you do not see one. A Chrome browser user reported that it took about ten minutes to download a ~750 MB file named "7948.bam.zip" and about an hour to upload it to YFull. More info about the BAM specification is at http://samtools.github.io/hts-specs/SAMv1.pdf.
  6. Temporarily save your .BAM file on your Desktop or in a directory that you can remember.
  7. Click the “Order Now” button near the bottom of the web page at http://www.yfull.com/. Some people confuse YFULL with a different business named Full Genomes Corporation (FGC) that markets a product frequently referred to as ‘Full Y’.
  8. Fill out the form. For “Source of raw data”, select “Upload .BAM file from my computer” (the first option). Click on the temporary link that Yfull immediately emails to you, add your .bam file to the upload queue and click the START button.
  9. Solve the anti-spam puzzle and click the “Order Now” button.
  10. You may delete FTDNA's .zip file from your computer after YFull emails your YFull ID and temporary password to you, or store it on Google Drive in case you need it later.
  11. YFull will bill you $49 after it completes its interpretation of your Y-Chr Sequence about three weeks later. You may then join Yfull's "R-L746, "R-S781, R-DF41" and "R-L21" Groups so that their administrators can compare your ~500 off-modal STR marker values to the modes of all of the Yfull Groups that you join, and see your raw data (ChrY positions, "private" variants, known SNPs, STRs, etc.).

Note: This will give direct access to your YFull analysis to administrators of FTDNA's exclusive projects for descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland.


Click here to scroll to the top of column # 8.

Column # 8.

Administrator Larry's Recommenations

From: A Big Y Tester

Dear Larry Walker,

Thank you for your preliminary analysis.
I assume you already have access to the data.
Is there anything more I need to provide anyone with?


From: Larry Walker
RE: Congratulations on Big Y results

Dear Big Y Tester,

Your valuable Big Y test results will be used to develop the phylogenetic map of mankind if you join the:

After joining, you should receive a request from an admin or co-admin of each project (I am CCing them) telling you what raw data they would like for you to provide and requesting your permission to use it. That will get you into:

From my end, I recommend that you join http://www.yfull.com/ which will cost another $49, but IMHO is well worth it.

Over time (I have a large backlog) I will eventually browse your BAM data at Yfull to confirm the status (+ or -) and read quality of over 700 novel variants. Several good reasons to join YFull that do not include anything that I might do are:

  • Other than YFull, everything above is being done by individual volunteers. If any of us gets run over by a truck, then whatever we are providing goes Kaput. YFull is run as a business by a team, so is not vulnerable to the individual casualty risk.
  • YFull provides complete BAM file analysis including Y-STRs and mtDNA (what you get from the rest of us is partial) with a great set of on-line reports and tools. See http://rangebiome.org/YFullTour.pdf for examples, or go to http://www.yfull.com/ and login as email “guest@yfull.com”, password “yfull” for a hands-on sample.
  • YFull's experimental tree for our R-DF41/CTS2501/ subclade includes private as well as public SNPs, and is updated every 2 to 4 weeks.

I hope that FTDNA and/or FGC will eventually evolve to providing a similar level of analysis and access, but YFull is the only game in town that I know of for now.

That is probably enough for now.

Cheers,
Larry Walker


Click here to scroll to the top of column # 9.

Column # 9.

Administrator Larry's Request

NGS expert Larry Walker Larry prefers that your .BAM file be interpreted by YFULL: "ANYBODY WHO HAS BIGY (or FGC) SHOULD PLEASE-PLEASE-PLEASE JOIN YFULL!!!... While processing new YFull data in preparation for the diagram at http://rangebiome.org/Morrison-Q.jpg for kit 52062 Miller, I found it positive for 17326894CA and 7311229CT which had not been called in the FTDNA reports. And, I found kit 82890 Morrison positive for 7311229CT which had not been called in the FTDNA reports. So, I developed the SPECULATIVE diagram on the ASSUMPTION that all Q’s might be positive (but not called by FTDNA) for those two novel variants. IF CONFIRMED for all of the remaining kits through YFull, it rectifies the problems contained in the online diagram." See FORUM.


Shall We Take the Next Step?

The results of your Y-DNA67 test would be useless if you were the only descendant of the first High Steward of Scotland who ordered it. More descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland have ordered Big Y and Y-DNA111 STR tests than the average Stewart family because of their extraordinary family spirit and because FTDNA created an exclusive project for them.

Shall we take the next step? 148478 Thomas (S781-) tried to get the ball rolling by being the first to order an FGC test. S781+ Administrator Desideriu ordered an FGC test on Nov/04/2014. Were their efforts in vain?

A $575 Big Y test covers about 75% of the SNPs in ISOGG's database, and about 70% of the private SNPs that an $775 Y Elite 2 test covers. A test that covers all 14.6 million bases costs even more.

SNP L746 a.k.a. S310

"We are phasing over to favoring the L746 designation for the triad as L744 (adjoins a possible deletion) and L745 (a deletion) can be problematic to identify with next generation sequencing (NGS) and has yielded some false negatives."

"As we are now at a level where identifying branches from STR results appears to be just about impossible, that makes everybody who is willing to invest in a Big Y test a 'priority candidate'".

"Big Y analyst Larry also wrote: ". . .we have covered most, or all, readily identifiable high priority candidates for identification of new branches. ANY additional BigY tests now will either help refine the branches that we have identified, or will identify new branches. Any branch or twig on the box diagram in “Graph #1” that has more than 1 novel variant shown would benefit from refinement."

"... there appears to be no clear indicator from either phylogenetic trees or spreadsheet examination of STR results for projecting whether a person can be expected to test either positive or negative for S781." Must the STR haplotypes of all grandsons of Walter the third High Steward have been identical to the Mode of this entire Stewart family therefore?

" ... 148478 Thomas tested S781-, so whatever hope we had that his FGC test would help clarify the S781+ group is gone. After looking at GD’s, I think that he may end up as a third kit in the Pierce-Thompson cluster."

"Anyway, that is just my opinion. Different people will look at the same data and develop different opinions. The way I see things for now are posted at a permalink http://rangebiome.org/L746Strategy.jpg for whatever it is worth. That Graph is a LOT of work, so I will not update it very often."

Administrator Larry may update Graph # 1 above, and recommend more SNP tests after FTDNA delivers more results. These results may make it easier for some S781+ and S781- Stewarts to determine to which branch they belong by ordering individual SNP tests instead of Big Y tests (~$500).


Click here to scroll to the top of column # 10.

Column # 10.

Our Big Y Analyst's Important Suggestions

I thank FTDNA's DF41 project co-administrator Larry Walker for writing on Dec 29, 2015:

"Dear XXXX Stewart,

I see from our BigY match that you are DF41+ CTS2501+. In order to get the most out of your BigY data, I have three suggestions:

First, join FTDNA’s R-DF41/R-CTS2501 Project at https://www.familytreedna.com/groups/r-df-41. It is free.

Second, join The Big Tree at http://yfull.com/http://ytree.net. See tab at top of page for instructions. It is also free.

Third, join http://yfull.com/. See FAQ for instructions. It has a one-time cost of $49 US. After your account is fully active (you have paid), please join YFull’s R-L21 and R-DF41/CTS2501 Groups. See examples of what you get at http://rangebiome.org/YFullTour.pdf.

Both The Big Tree and YFull maintain similar Trees, but there are some interpretation differences and each includes features that are not included in the other. See http://rangebiome.org/bigtree-yfull.pdf. Therefore, I recommend that you join both.

Sincerely,
Larry Walker, FTDNA kit 240201
FTDNA R-DF41/CTS2501 co-admin"



Branches of the R-S781 family

The left column of Administrator Larry's Graph # 1 below shows exactly how some descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland are related to each other.
All of them belong to the R1b1a2a1a2c1i1a branch of an ISOGG tree that includes all of the descendants of the y-LCA of every living race.
Click on the DF41 phylogenetic tree below if you want to see only the Stewart (S310/R-L746) part of it.

Branches of the DF41 family

Column # 11 (row # 4)

Group: R-S781 → Y-STR results

FTDNA's servers do not allow the useful background colors of the cells in the tables below to be displayed.

Parts of colorized ~500 STR marker Tables # 1 and # 2 below were copied from a similar table at http://www.yfull.com/groups/r-s781/cstr/ (login required) on 5/18/2016.

In Tables # 1 and # 2 below:

  • Colored cells in rows with ID numbers contain off-modal marker values.
  • The five cell colors in the row that displays the names of STR markers indicate to which of five Y-DNA111 panels each marker belongs.
  • Marker values positioned on the left side of a cell indicate low confidence or that there are alternative allele/alleles.
  • That YF02561, YF02313 and YF02698 have the off-modal value of 9 instead of the modal value 13 for marker DYR 68.3 is interesting (see column 201 in Table # 1).

That STR marker values are included in Big Y results is a coincidence as far as FTDNA is concerned. Y-DNA111 tests provide more reliable readings of some marker values, e.g., red font in the top row of Table # 1 indicates four markers (DYS 447, DYS 490, DYS 572 and DYS 617) whose values may be included in Y-DNA111 but not in Big Y test results (see columns # 262, 302, 374 and 409).

"A Y-STR is a short tandem repeat (STR) on the Y-chromosome. Y-STRs are often used in forensics, paternity, and genealogical DNA testing. Y-STRs are taken specifically from the male Y chromosome. These Y-STRs provide a weaker analysis than autosomal STRs because the Y chromosome is only found in males, which are only passed down by the father, making the Y chromosome in any paternal line practically identical. This causes a significantly smaller amount of distinction between Y-STR samples. © Wikipedia"

STR marker values can not indicate to which branches distantly related cousins belong as well as SNPs can, e.g., in Desideriu's table at http://www.s781.org/allsnps.html.

Column # 12

Are the Results of FTDNA's STR Tests Worth What They Cost?

Written 16E17 by Stewart (143035 YF02381 S781 Bonkyll branch)

The attached 35KB file named YfullExcerpts.htm may not be displayed correctly unless downloaded (always download and scan attachments before opening them).

I created Table # 1 below because I want to know whether or not the results of FTDNA's Y-DNA111, etc. STR tests are useful enough to justify their cost (~$359 each) to Big Y testers. A similar table may never have been created by anyone else. I hope that others will produce better tables and improve mine, which may contain human errors (I manually processed some of the information in it).

The STR marker values displayed in Table # 1 below came from:

The background colors of the cells in the third row of Table # 1 below (or attached) indicate to which FTDNA Y-111 category some of these markers were assigned.

Column # 13

The unnumbered cells with red backgrounds in row # 2 below indicate columns whose marker values were imported from FTDNA's Y-DNA111 tables because they may be more reliable than YFULL's.

Off-modal STR marker values are shown in Table # 1 only if they are shared by one or more of those whose ID numbers are listed below. I tentatively grouped them according to my interpretation of their SNP and STR marker values. I hope that greater men than I can group them better.

Can the analytical software that is used by Alex Williamson, etc. process the 60 (out of ~500) YFULL STR marker values shown in Table # 1 as well as it can process the results of FTDNA's Y-DNA111, etc. STR tests?

A ~$60 Y-DNA12 test must be bought before FTDNA allows one to buy a Big Y test. I recommend that no other STR test be bought until after one has had a Big Y test (which includes ~500 STR markers).


1Column # >123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434445464748495051525354555657585960
2Table # 1 compares the off modal STR Marker Values of members of YFULL's S781 YFull Group.Marker # >23 1521233347485660638085889899113125127130131159205214217220226229242 245246274277287291300309315329330331340359367402408410445461475476477 478479480485489
3Branch LabelFTDNA IDYFULL IDTerminal SNPs (Unique Variants)CountryHaplogroup columnCDY .1CDY .2CDY y111DYF 383.2DYF 386.2DYF 386.4DYF 393DYF 401.2DYF 403.1DYF 407.2DYF 409.2DYF 411.1DYR 112DYR 117DYR 12DYR 125.1DYR 125.2DYR 139DYR 159DYR 161DYR 164DYR 165DYR 33DYR 68.3DYR 76DYR 79DYR 81DYR 88.1DYR 90DYS 385.2DYS 385.2 y111DYS 389IIDYS 390DYS 456DYS 459.2DYS 467DYS 471DYS 481DYS 493DYS 500DYS 516DYS 517DYS 518DYS 527.2DYS 547DYS 557DYS 599DYS 612DYS 614DYS 656n/aDYS 685DYS 708DYS 709DYS 710DYS 710 y111DYS 711DYS 712DYS 713DYS 718DYS 722
4MIN 37 91114251425121291361024261714152240149121634171413 29241591226229131313313342152231183439282135356420421420
5MODE 37 9141426162612131114710262718151623411413131634181514 2924151013272210131314323542162233183539282136366521421521
6MAX 38 10141527172713131114711262718151623411513141735191614 3025161013282210141415333643162234193742292236376821451522
7A1a01E16164YF016917983139 GA / A309, 9108372 AT / A308, 23963147 AG / A306, 23998732 GA / A307 R-A306363736-3691115261726131311147102627181516xx141313163418x14142924151013272210x1414323642152233183439282235.2366521421521
8A1a01E15052YF03362A309, FGC34911, A308, FGC34912, FGC34914, FGC34917, A306, A307 R-A306xx36-379141526172613131114710xx1815162341149121634181614142925151013272210141414x334215223118x392922x36x21421521
9A1a02251918YF02184A5026, 2903315 CT, 8675792 GA, 15817682 AG, 17286590 CT, 18729831 AG, 21628621 AG R-S781373737-3791414261626121311147102526181416xx1413131634181515152925151013272310131314323542162331183539292135.2356521421521
 
10A1a03315522YF0208019061777 CA / A888, 20806568 AG / A889 R-Y11635363736-3891414261626121311137102627181516xx141314x35171514142924151012272291313153235421622331836392821x36x21421422
11A1a03a349908YF026987395675 CG, 15476784 AG, 17191410 TC, A889 R-Y11635xx36-37101415261627121311137102627181515234114914x3518151414292415101227229131315323542162233183539282136366721421522
12A1a12183344YF0347315016482 CG R-S781363736-37914142616271213111371026271815x2341141314163518151414292415101327229x131432354216223318343928213636x20421521
 
13A1a05a187778YF021798439846 GA, 18026006 CA/ A922 R-Y14048xx36-36x141425162612139146112527171516xx141314163417141313292415101326229x131432354316223318xx2821x37x21xx21
14A1a05a329057YF032428439846 GA, 18026006 CA/ A922 R-Y14048xx36-37914142514261313914611262717151623401413141634181414142924151013262291413143233431622341835392821x376821421521
15A1a05b272860YF02972A1a05b - 9647644 GA, A922 R-Y14048363736-379141427162612139147102627171516234014131416341814141429241510132822913131431354316223318353928213636672042x21
 
16A1a06143035YF023816188606 AG, 7538242 CT, 7699499 CT, 9146901 GA, 9511177 CT, 14005493 GA, 14200031 AG, 15861256 CT, 22461955 CGN. IreR-S781353735-3791114271625121311147102527181516xx151313x34x161414292415913282210141314323542162232xx3928213535x21421521
17A1a04128499YF0231317423425 CT / A919, 19093413 CT / A920 R-S781363836-3891414261526121211147102526181515xx141313x341716141430241610132722101413143234421522331835402821x35662143x21
18A1a0849412YF025616898539 CG, A2509, 9146656 GA, 16676179 GA, 16906723 TC, A2510, A2511, 23823495 TC R-S781363836-3891115261626121211147102426181516234114913173419141414302415913272210x13133135421522331837x2821x x21x1520
 
19A1a1148694YF05289A5027, A5031, 23050176 TC R-S781363636-3691114261626121311147102626181415224114131417x17151414292415101327239x1314323542152334183440282135.235662043x21
20A1a09115205YF02682A5023, 15711277 CT, A5025 R-S781363736-3710141426162612131114710262718141622411510.113173419161313292415101327221013131432354216223119363928213636642042x21
 
21A1a10248425YF0295514692639 AG, A5024, 16775043 AG, 17355378 AG, A5028, A5032 R-S781363936-399111526162612121114710262718151623411413131634181514143025161013272210131314313542152231193442292135.2 6521451521
22A1a07235915YF024062682514 AT, 13135747 GT, 15858709 GA, 19003150 GA, 22458222 AG, 22461696 GC R-S781363736-3791314261626121211147102527181516xx1413131634181514142924151013272210x131433354216223318x4028213636x21431421

This Table # 2 compares the ~500 STR Marker Values of some descendants of Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll who belong to this S781 YFull Group.Marker # >123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434445464748495051525354555657585960616263646566676869707172737475767778798081828384858687888990919293949596979899100101102103104105106107108109110111112113114115116117118119120121122123124125126127128129130131132133134135136137138139140141142143144145146147148149150151152153154155156157158159160161162163164165166167168169170171172173174175176177178179180181182183184185186187188189190191192193194195196197198199200201202203204205206207208209210211212213214215216217218219220221222223224225226227228229230231232233234235236237238239240241242243244245246247248249250251252253254255256257258259260261262263264265266267268269270271272273274275276277278279280281282283284285286287288289290291292293294295296297298299300301302303304305306307308309310311312313314315316317318319320321322323324325326327328329330331332333334335336337338339340341342343344345346347348349350351352353354355356357358359360361362363364365366367368369370371372373374375376377378379380381382383384385386387388389390391392393394395396397398399400401402403404405406407408409410411412413414415416417418419420421422423424425426427428429430431432433434435436437438439440441442443444445446447448449450451452453454455456457458459460461462463464465466467468469470471472473474475476477478479480481482483484485486487488489490491492493494495496497498499500501502503
Branch LabelFTDNA IDYFULL IDTerminal SNPs (Unique Variants)CountryHaplogroup columnATA 71D03CDY .1CDY .2DXY S156DYF 371.1DYF 371.2DYF 371.3DYF 371.4DYF 380.1DYF 380.2DYF 381.1DYF 381.2DYF 382DYF 383.1DYF 383.2DYF 384.1DYF 384.2DYF 385.1DYF 385.2DYF 386.1DYF 386.2DYF 386.3DYF 386.4DYF 387.1DYF 387.2DYF 389DYF 390DYF 390.1DYF 390.2DYF 391.1DYF 391.2DYF 392DYF 393DYF 394DYF 395.1DYF 395.2DYF 396.1DYF 396.2DYF 398.1DYF 398.2DYF 399.1DYF 399.2DYF 399.3DYF 400.1DYF 400.2DYF 401.1DYF 401.2DYF 403.1DYF 403.2DYF 404.1DYF 404.2DYF 405.1DYF 405.2DYF 406DYF 407.1DYF 407.2DYF 408.1DYF 408.2DYF 409.1DYF 409.2DYF 410.1DYF 410.2DYF 411.1DYF 411.2DYF 412.1DYF 412.2DYR 1DYR 10DYR 100DYR 101DYR 102DYR 103DYR 104DYR 105DYR 106DYR 107DYR 108DYR 110DYR 111DYR 112DYR 113DYR 114DYR 115DYR 116DYR 117DYR 118DYR 119DYR 12DYR 120DYR 121.1DYR 121.2DYR 122.1DYR 122.2DYR 123DYR 124.1DYR 124.2DYR 124.3DYR 125.1DYR 125.2DYR 126DYR 127DYR 128.1DYR 128.2DYR 13DYR 130DYR 131DYR 132.1DYR 132.2DYR 135DYR 136DYR 137DYR 138DYR 139DYR 14DYR 143DYR 144DYR 146DYR 15DYR 150DYR 152DYR 154DYR 156DYR 157DYR 158DYR 159DYR 160DYR 161DYR 162DYR 163DYR 164DYR 165DYR 166DYR 167DYR 168DYR 169DYR 170DYR 171DYR 17.1DYR 172DYR 17.2DYR 173DYR 17.3DYR 174DYR 175DYR 18.1DYR 18.2DYR 19DYR 2DYR 20DYR 23DYR 26DYR 27DYR 28DYR 29DYR 3DYR 30DYR 31DYR 32DYR 33DYR 35.1DYR 35.2DYR 36.1DYR 36.2DYR 38.1DYR 38.2DYR 39DYR 40DYR 41DYR 43DYR 44DYR 45.1DYR 45.2DYR 45.3DYR 46DYR 47DYR 48DYR 49DYR 5DYR 51DYR 52DYR 54DYR 55DYR 56DYR 57DYR 58.1DYR 58.2DYR 59DYR 6DYR 60DYR 61DYR 62DYR 63.1DYR 63.2DYR 64.1DYR 64.2DYR 65DYR 66.1DYR 66.2DYR 67.1DYR 67.2DYR 67.3DYR 67.4DYR 68.1DYR 68.2DYR 68.3DYR 68.4DYR 69DYR 7DYR 70DYR 71DYR 73DYR 74DYR 75DYR 76DYR 77DYR 78DYR 79DYR 8DYR 80DYR 81DYR 82DYR 83DYR 84DYR 85DYR 87DYR 88.1DYR 88.2DYR 89DYR 90DYR 91DYR 9.1DYR 92DYR 9.2DYR 93DYR 94DYR 95DYR 96DYR 97DYR 99DYS 19/394DYS 385.1DYS 385.2DYS 388DYS 389IDYS 389IIDYS 390DYS 391DYS 392DYS 393DYS 413.1DYS 413.2DYS 425DYS 426DYS 434DYS 435DYS 436DYS 437DYS 438DYS 439DYS 441DYS 442DYS 443DYS 444DYS 445DYS 446DYS 447DYS 448DYS 449DYS 450DYS 452DYS 453DYS 454DYS 455DYS 456DYS 458DYS 459.1DYS 459.2DYS 460DYS 461DYS 462DYS 463DYS 464.1DYS 464.2DYS 464.3DYS 464.4DYS 466DYS 467DYS 468DYS 469DYS 470DYS 471DYS 472DYS 473DYS 474DYS 475DYS 476DYS 477DYSDYS 480DYS 481DYS 484DYS 485DYS 487DYS 488DYS 489DYS 490DYS 491DYS 492DYS 493DYS 494DYS 495DYS 496DYS 497DYS 499DYS 500DYS 501DYS 502DYS 504DYS 505DYS 506DYS 507DYS 508DYS 509DYS 510DYS 511DYS 512DYS 513DYS 514DYS 516DYS 517DYS 518DYS 520DYS 521DYS 522DYS 523DYS 525DYS 526ADYS 526BDYS 527.1DYS 527.2DYS 528.1DYS 528.2DYS 530DYS 531DYS 532DYS 533DYS 534DYS 536DYS 537DYS 538DYS 539DYS 540DYS 541DYS 542DYS 543DYS 544DYS 545DYS 546DYS 547DYS 548DYS 549DYS 550DYS 551DYS 552DYS 554DYS 556DYS 557DYS 558DYS 559DYS 561DYS 562DYS 565DYS 567DYS 568DYS 569DYS 570DYS 571DYS 572DYS 573DYS 574DYS 575DYS 576DYS 577DYS 578DYS 579DYS 580DYS 581DYS 582DYS 583DYS 584DYS 585DYS 587DYS 588DYS 589DYS 590DYS 592DYS 593DYS 594DYS 595DYS 596DYS 598DYS 599DYS 600DYS 607DYS 608DYS 609DYS 611DYS 612DYS 613DYS 614DYS 615DYS 616DYS 617618DYS 619DYS 620DYS 621DYS 622DYS 623DYS 624DYS 625DYS 626DYS 627DYS 629DYS 630DYS 631DYS 632DYS 633DYS 634DYS 635DYS 636DYS 637DYS 638DYS 639DYS 640DYS 641DYS 642DYS 643DYS 644DYS 645DYS 649DYS 650DYS 651DYS 655DYS 656n/aDYS 662DYS 664DYS 666DYS 667DYS 668DYS 672DYS 673DYS 675DYS 676DYS 677DYS 678DYS 679DYS 681DYS 683DYS 684DYS 685DYS 686DYS 687DYS 688DYS 692DYS 694DYS 695DYS 696DYS 701DYS 702DYS 703DYS 705DYS 706DYS 707DYS 708DYS 709DYS 710DYS 711DYS 712DYS 713DYS 714DYS 715DYS 716DYS 717DYS 718DYS 719DYS 720DYS 721DYS 722DYS 723DYS 725.1DYS 725.2DYS 725.3DYS 725.4DYS 726G09 411L13 13L14YCA II.1YCA II.2Y-GATA-A10Y-GATA-H4Y-GGAAT-1B07
MIN1135371210121314101088139978101111111414303011x10x998258151688817xxx222314142529151561110121281412121010911111316101012710105889511136x294610101061415771591012242612x810101371111.311641617111199111391321131114131515302240111268374412x13x14xx10131012101312x1111101471714994712121112119111011158411x869101115119111414159410127781010991111999136148710111512121116106341012158717181114612121413107712714111312132924101313xx121291112151211131213121214x192883011111115169911121124141515.31771217161126810881181382213151313111212129916x1381381316121310111017101112201313312191113101336323317189111313151010101013131518141016421212813259111598151911111111161011101010169999888891812128111510810722111598183181881412128881710933262611211098823121111101110810168817xx34850775911611111113510573920347878307528105152228213564204224242619141231182018xxxx1211341923131010
MODE1136371210121314101088139978101111141414303011x10x998268151688817xxx2223141626291515611111212815121310101111111317101012711105889511146x294710121061415771691012262712x810101371111.3116416181111991213101321131115131615302341111268374412x13x14xx10141012101312x1111101571714994712121112119111011159411x8691011161191114141794121277810109911119913136149710111513121116116341013158718191115612121413107712714111412132924111313xx121291112151212131213121214x192983011111115179101112112414151717713171611278108811813822131513131112121210916x14813813161213101110171011122013143221911131013363335181991113131510101010131315181410164213128132591116981519111111111710111010101799998888101812128111510810722111598183381881412128881810933262811211098823121111101110810178818xx35850775911611111114510573921347978327529105152328213665214225242619151232192119xxxx1211341923141010
MAX11363813101213141010881391078101111141415303011x10x998278151688817xxx2223141727291515611111213815121310111111111317101013711105889511146x294710131161415771691012262713x810101371111.3116417181111991314101321141115141616312341111268374412x14x14xx10141012101312x1111101671815994712121112119111011159411x86910121611911141517941212778101099111199131361510710111614121117116351013168719211116613121413107712714111412133025111313xx121291112151213131213121214x193083111111116189101112112415151717713181711288108811813822131613131112121210916x14814813161214101110171011122014153321911141013363336181991113141610101010131315181410164313129132591116981519111111111810111010101799998888101912128111510810722111598183481981412128881810933262811211098823121111101110811178819xx37851775911611111114510574221358278327530105152329223668214526242619151233192219xxxx1211341923141010
A1a01E16164YF016917983139 GA / A309, 9108372 AT / A308, 23963147 AG / A306, 23998732 GA / A307R-A306x36371310121314101088x9978101111111415303011x10x99826x15168881724.1252722231417262915156111112138151213101011111113171010127x10x889511146x29471012106xxxx1691012262712x81010137xx116416181111991313101321131115131615xxxxxxxxx12x13x14xx1014101210.t1312x11x10x71714994712121112x9111011159411x86910111611911x1417xx1212xxx1010991111991313x14971011151312x161163410131687181911x612121413107712714111412132924111313xx121291112151213131213121214x19298301111111517910111211x14151617713171611278x88118x8221316131311x121210916x148xx131612131011x171011122014143221911131013363336181991113131510101010x1315181410164212128132591115x81519111111111810x1010x179999888810181212811151081072211159x1833818814x12x8818109332628x21109x823121111101110810x8818xx34x5077591161111111451057392134x783275291051523282235.26521422524x19151232192119xxxx121134xx141010
A1a01E15052YF03362A309, FGC34911, A308, FGC34912, FGC34914, FGC34917, A306, A307 R-A306xxx1210121314101088139978101111141415303011x10x998268151688817252525.12223141726291515611111213815121310101111111317101012710105889511146x29471012106141577x91012xx12x810101371111.3116416181111991213913x131115x16x302341xxxxxx12x13x14xx1014101210.t1312x111110157x14994712121112119111011159411x8691011x119111414179412127781010991111999136149710x15121211161163410131587181911166121214131077127141114121329251113132324121291112151212131213121214x192983011111115x910111211x14151617713x1611278108811813822xx13131112121210916x14814813x1213101110x101112201414x21911131013363333181991113131510101010131315181410164213128132591115981519111111111710111010101799998888101812128111510810722111598183181881412128881810933xx11.g21109882312x11x1110810x88xxxx8x77591161111111451057392134x78x752910515232922xx2142x24x191512x192118xxxx1211341923141010
$359.00 Y-DNA111 tests did not reveal the 5 off-modal BRANCH STR marker values that members of our A1a01 branch have in common according to the 2 rows above. Scroll right, e.g., to Column # 47, if you want to see some of them.
A1a02251918YF02184A5026, 2903315 CT, 8675792 GA, 15817682 AG, 17286590 CT, 18729831 AG, 21628621 AG R-S781251918 may join YFULL's S781 group by clicking here: https://www.yfull.com/groups/r-s781/create-join-request/, and thereby benefit himself and all other descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland (and help its run down administrator to accomplish more far more easily).
A1a03315522YF0208019061777 CA / A888, 20806568 AG / A889 R-Y11635x36371210121314101088x9978101111141414303011x10x99826x1516888172325.12622231416262915156111112128151213101011111113171010127xx58x951113xx294710121061415xx1691012262712x81010x7xx116416181111991213101321131115131615xxxxxxxxx12x14x14xx1014101210.t1312x11x10157x14994712121112x9111011158411xx6910111611911x1416xx1212xx81010991111991313x1497x11151412xx116351013158717191115612121413107x12714111412132924111313xx121291112151211131213121214x19298301111x1517910111211x14151717712171611278x88118x8221315x1311x12129916x148138131612131011x1710111220131532219111310133633351819911131315x1010101313151814101642x128132591116x81519x1111111710x10101017999988881018x12811151081072211159x1833818814x12x8x181093326xx21109x823121111101110810178818xx368517759x611111114510x392034x78x752910515x2821xx21422524xx141232192219xxxx121134xx141010
A1a03a349908YF026987395675 CG, 15476784 AG, 17191410 TC, A889 R-Y11635xxx1210121314101088x91078101111141415303011x10x99826x1516888172324.12622231416272915156111112128151213101011111113171010127111058x9511136x294710121061415xx1691012262712x81010137xx11641618111199121310x21131115131515302341xxxxxx12x13x14xx1014101210.t1312x11x101671714994712121112119111011159411x86910111611911x1417xx1212xx8101099111199913x14971011151412xx116351013158718191115612121413107712714111412132924111313xx12129111215121213121312x14x19288301111111517910111211x14151717712171611278x88118x8221315x1311x12129916x148138131612131011x171011122013153221911131013363335181991113131510101010131315181410164213128132591116x81519x1111111710x101010179999888810181212811151081072211159x1833818814x12x88181093326xx21109x823121111101110810178818xx35850775911611111114510x3921348178x752910515x2821366721422524x19151232192219xxxx1211341923141010
$359.00 Y-DNA111 tests did not reveal the 7 off-modal BRANCH STR marker values that members of our A1a03 branch have in common according to the 2 rows above. Scroll right, e.g., to Column # 80, if you want to see some of them.Y-DNA111 Panel colors:Y-12 PanelY-25 PanelY-37 PanelY-67 PanelY-111 Panel 
A1a04128499YF0231317423425 CT / A919, 19093413 CT / A920 R-S781x3638x10121314101088x8978101111141414303011x10x99826x1516888172224.12622231415262915156111112128151212101011111113x1010127x1058x9511146x29471012106xxxx1691012252612x81010x7xx11x416181111991213101321131115131515xxxxxxxxx12x13x14xx1014101210.tx12x11x10157x14994712121112x911101115x411xx6x101116x911x14xxx1212xxx1010991111991313614971011151312xx116341013158717181116x12121413107x12714111412133024111313xx121291112151212x1213121214x19x83011111116179101112xx14151717713171611278x88118x8221315131311xx1210916x148148131612131011x1710111220131432219111310xx33341819911x1315101010101313151814101642x128132591115x81519x11x111710x1010x1799998888x1812128x15108x72211159x1833818814x12x8x18109332628x21109x823121111101110810168818xx35xx7759x611111114510x4021x79783275x10515x2821x6621432524xxxx32192119xxxx12x34xx131010
A1a05a187778YF021798439846 GA, 18026006 CA/ A922 R-Y14048xxxx10121314101088xxx78101111141414303011x10x99825x1516888172324.12523231416262915156111112128151213xx9111113x101012xx10x8xx511146xx46x12116xx771591012252713x81010x71111.3116417171111991214101321131115131615xxxxxxxxx12x13x14xx1014101210.tx12x11x101571714994712121112x911xxx9411xx6910111511911x1417941012xxx1010991111991313x14971011151412x16x6341012158717181114612121413x7xx71411131213292411x13xx12129111215121213x1312x14x19298301111x1517910111211241415171771317x11268x88118x8221315x1311x121299xx148x81316x131011x1710111220131432219111310xx333518199x13131510101010x13151814101643x128132591116x81519xxx111710x1010x1799998x88101812x81115xxx722x159x1833818814x12x8x18109x2628x21109x82312111110x10810x8818xxxx5077591161111111451057xxxx7832752910515x2821xx21x25242619x1232192119xxxx121134xx141010
A1a05a329057YF032428439846 GA, 18026006 CA/ A922 R-Y14048xxxx10121314101088x9978101111141414303011x10x99825x1516888172324.12522221414262915156111112138151213101091111131710101271110x8x9511146x294610121161415771691012262712x810101371111.3116416171111991213101321131115131615302340xxxxxx12x13x14xx1014101210.t1312x11x10x71714994712121112119111011159411x86910121611911x1517xx1212xx81010991111991313x14971011151412x161163410131587181911146121214131077127141114121329241113132323121291112151212x1213121214x19298311111111517910111211x14151717713171611268x88118x8221315131311x12129916x148148131612131011x1710111220131432219111310xx33331718911131415101010101313151814101643x128132591116x81519111111111710x101010179999888810181212811151081072211159x1834818814x12x8818109332628x21109x823121111101110810178818xx35x5077591161111111451057392134827832752910515x2821x6821422524x191512x192119xxxx1211341923141010
A1a05b272860YF02972A1a05b - 9647644 GA, A922 R-Y14048x36371210121314101088x9978101111141414303011x10x99827x1516888172324.1252223141626291515611111212815121310109111113171010127x1058x9511146x284710121061415771691012262712x810101371111.3116416171111991213101321131115131615302340xxxxxx12x13x14xx1014101210.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
$359.00 Y-DNA111 tests did not reveal the 11 off-modal BRANCH STR marker values that members of our A1a05 branch have in common according to the 3 rows above. Scroll right, e.g., to Column # 63, if you want to see some of them.
A1a06143035YF023816188606 AG, 7538242 CT, 7699499 CT, 9146901 GA, 9511177 CT, 14005493 GA, 14200031 AG, 15861256 CT, 22461955 CGN. IreR-S781x35371210121314101088x9978101111111414303011x10x99827x151688817232325.12223141625291515611111212815121310101111111317101013xx1058x9511146x29471010106xxxx1691012252712x81010137xx116416181111991213101321131115x1615xxxxxxxxx12x13x14xx1013101210.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
A1a07235915YF024062682514 AT, 13135747 GT, 15858709 GA, 19003150 GA, 22458222 AG, 22461696 GC R-S781113637x10121314101088139978101111131414303011x10x99826x1516888172324.12622231416262915156111112128151212101011111113171010127x10x8x9511146x29471012106xxxx1691012252712x810101371111.3116416181111x91213101321131115131615xxxxxxxxx12x13x14xx1014101210.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
A1a0849412YF025616898539 CG, A2509, 9146656 GA, 16676179 GA, 16906723 TC, A2510, A2511, 23823495 TC R-S781x3638x10121314101088x9978101111111415303011x10x99826x1516888172324.1262122141626291515611111212815121210101111111217101012xx10x8x9511146x294710121061415xx1691012242612x8101013711x116416181111991213101321131115141615x2341xxxxxx12x13x14xxxx101210.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
A1a09115205YF02682A5023, 15711277 CT, A5025 R-S781x36371210121314101088x91078101111141414303011x10x99826x151688817232525.122231416262915156111112128151213101011111113161010127x1058x9511146x294710121061415771691012262712x81010x7xx116416181111991213101321141114131615302241xxxxxx12x13x14xx1014101210.t1312x11x10157x15994712121112x91110111594xxx69101116x911x1417xx1212xxx10109911119910.113614971011151312x17116341013158719211116612121413107712714111312132924111313xx121291112151212131213121214x19298x1111111517910111211x151515.317713171611278x88118x8221315x1311x121210916x148138131612131011x1710111220131432219111310xx3335181991113131510101010131315181410164213128132591116x81519x11x111710x1010101799998888918x12811151081072211159x1831819814x12x8x18109332628x21109x823121111101110810178818xx36850775911611111113510573921x787832752910515x2821366420422624xxx1232192119xxxx1211341923141010
A1a10248425YF0295514692639 AG, A5024, 16775043 AG, 17355378 AG, A5028, A5032 R-S781x3639x10121314101088x9978101111111415303011x10x99826x1516888172324.12521221416262915156111012128151212101011111113171010127x1058x9511146x294710131061415771691012262712x810101371111.3116416181111991113101321131115131615312341xxxxxx12x13x14xx1014101210.t1312x11x10157x14994712121112x9111011159411x86910111611911x1417941212xx81010991111991313x14971011151312x161163410131587181911156121214131077127141114121330251013132223121291112151212131213121214x193083011111116189101112112414151717713171711278x88118x8221315x1311x121210916x148138131612131011x171011122013143121911141013363335181991113131510101010131315181410164213128132591115x81519111111111710x1010x179999888810181212811151081072211159x1831819814x12x8818109332628x21109x823121111101110810178818xx34x507759116111111145105742213479783275291051521292135.265214524242619151232192119xxxx1211341923141010
A1a1148694YF05289A5027, A5031, 23050176 TC R-S781Pending Analysis
A1a12183344YF0347315016482 CG R-S781x36371210121314101088x9978101111141414303011x10x99826x1516888172324.12721231416272915156111112128151213101011111113171010x7x105889511136x29471012106xxxx1691012262712x810101371111.31164161811119912131013x13111513x15302341xxxxxx12x13x14xx1014101210.t1312x11x10157x14994712121112x91110111594xx86910111611911x1415941212xx81010991111991313x14971011151412x161163510131587181911156121214131077127141114121329241113132323121291112151212131213121214x19298301111111517910111211x14151717713181611278x88118x8221315x1311x12129916x148x8131612131011x171011122013143221911131013x3335181991113131510101010131315181410164213128132591116x815191111x111710x1010101799998888101812128x151081072211159xx33818814x12x8818109332628x21109x823121111101110810178818xx34x5077591161111111451057392134x7832752910515x282136x20422524x19151231182119xxxx1211341923141010
A1J305358YF04357 Tested S781- (included in this table for comparison until enough members join the Yfull Group at https://www.yfull.com/groups/r-l746/cstr/r-L746 to create a reliable ~500 marker mode for SNP 781-/L746+ Stewarts. R-L744x3437x10121314101088x9978101111141415303011x10x99826x1516888172324.12622231416262915156111112128141213101111111113171010127x10x8x9511146x294710121061415771691012262712x810101371111.31164171711119913131013211311141316163023411112.t683744.g12x13x14xx1014101210.t1312x11x101471714994712121112x9111011159411xx69101116x911x1417xx1212xxx101099111199913x141071011151312x16116341013158718191115613121413107712714111412132924111313xx121291112151212131213121214x19308x1111x1516910111211x14151717713171611278x88118x8221315x1311x121210916x148138131612141011x171011122013143221911131013x333518199x13131610101010x1315181410164313128132591116x81519xx11111810x1010101799998888101812128111510x10722x159x1833818814x12x8x18109332626x21109x823121111101110810178819xxx8507759x61111x14510xx2134x783075x10515x282136x21422524x19x1232192119xxxx121134xx141010
Distance from reference:ZeroMinus OnePlus OneMinus TwoPlus TwoMinus Three or morePlus Three or moreY-DNA111 Panel colors:Y-12 PanelY-25 PanelY-37 PanelY-67 PanelY-111 Panel 

Row # 5

GD between racial haplotypes is greater than indicated due to haplotype convergence.
Table # 5M
o
d
e
3
9
5
6
8
9N
5
0
9
0
0
8
9
1
6
3
2
1
5
8
6
5
Stewart Mode-2917759142
39568 Stewart Duke2-51456067
89163 Australoid59605971-88
N50900 Mongoloid7745105-71139
9 Israelite9151-10559164
215865 Negroid1426716413988-
Related- Hybrid mutation model is used
Table # 3 - Grey cells indicate the 12 ($59), 25, 37 ($169), 67 ($268) and 111 ($339) marker levelsDYS 393DYS 390DYS 19/ 394DYS 391DYS 385DYS 426DYS 388DYS 439DYS 389 iDYS 392DYS 389 iiDYS 458DYS 459DYS 455DYS 454DYS 447DYS 437DYS 448DYS 449DYS 464DYS 460Y-GATA-H4YCA IIDYS 456DYS 607DYS 576DYS 570CDYDYS 442DYS 438DYS 531DYS 578DYF 395 S1DYS 590DYS 537DYS 641DYS 472DYF 406 S1DYS 511DYS 425DYS 413DYS 557DYS 594DYS 436DYS 490DYS 534DYS 450DYS 444DYS 481DYS 520DYS 446DYS 617DYS 568DYS 487DYS 572DYS 640DYS 492DYS 565DYS 710DYS 485DYS 632DYS 495DYS 540DYS 714DYS 716DYS 717DYS 505DYS 556DYS 549DYS 589DYS 522DYS 494DYS 533DYS 636DYS 575DYS 638DYS 462DYS 452DYS 445Y-GATA-A10DYS 463DYS 441Y-GGAAT-1B07DYS 525DYS 712DYS 593DYS 650DYS 532DYS 715DYS 504DYS 513DYS 561DYS 552DYS 726DYS 635DYS 587DYS 643DYS 497DYS 510DYS 434DYS 461DYS 435
Modal STR Haplotype of all Descendants of High Stewards of Scotland tested by FTDNA ==> 1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
Haplotype of ducal descendant #39568 of Charles II according to Roger S. Powell, MA1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515193014-15-16-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-23161012121581222211412111311111211                                            
Haplotype of # 9 (J1c3d. The y-MRCA of HG R & Semitic J-L147 lived ~45 KYA.1223141014-17111712131129178-811112514202514-14-16-16111021-221514181831-31131011815-168111181191221-22191012121781325211312111312121211321581512242720121213111291112101111301113221511112015191023151116241220189151791111
Haplotype of N50900 (China). The y-MRCA of HG O & R lived ~70 KYA.1225161112-12111212121328179-911112414203112-15-15-15111219-231415171832-36111011815-178117811101217-1716111212167132419121211151011121138158161225282011111312129111110111231111223139921162012221613152512231910141891212
Haplotype of Australoid89163 (GD=59@67). The y-MRCA of HG K & R lived ~106 KYA.1323161013-13111012141429189-91182815192714-14-15-15101119-221514172231-34131013816-169111081110019-21191012121691126221511111311111211                                            
Haplotype of # N64496 & 215865 (GD=68@67, HG A00 descendants of Dixie's Carolinian slaves)1319161016-17131112131230168-910112412213213-15-15-1811916-181515141836-36121610914-1481088117923-23171211121681226230121214101111123915913122228191011111012101110810133101220010927151213261713142415152013151491211
Distance from reference:ZeroOneTwoThree+The Most Recent Common Patrilineal Ancestor of all men who belong to HG R lived ~27 KYA. The Y chromosomes of men in R have no known SNP mutations in common with men in A00 & Neanderthals. According to Dr. Michael Hammer at the University of Arizona & Dr. Thomas Krahn, the theoretical y-MRCA of all men who belong to HG R & men who belong to HG A00 lived ~338,000 years ago (95% confidence interval 237 - 581 KYA). Some scientists claim that miscegenation between humans & Neanderthals occured, & that their ancestral population lived ~370,000 years ago.

Click here to see COLORIZED versions of the tables above (and an older, less censored version of this web page) in the new window that slowly opens.


Row # 6

Your Donations

Your contributions to the General Fund of FTDNA's royal Stuart project will be used as you see fit, e.g., to pay for the DNA tests of men with your surname who still live in the part of the world from which you suspect that your patrilineal ancestors came. Most of the donations below were made in order to pay for the DNA tests of men who have the surname Stewart and who live in the UK.

Those who donate to our General Fund can help to avoid confusion and to facilitate communication by using FTDNA's form to state:

  • Their own names or kit numbers.
  • For what test they want their donations to pay, e.g., Big Y.
  • The kit number of the donor of the DNA that will be used for the test.

FTDNA can not use our General Fund to pay for all or part of your DNA test unless your project administrator approves BEFORE you order it.

Please Help Us to Recruit More Volunteers for FREE DNA TESTS, and to Improve this project.

"If you are creating or joining a company the most important thing is to: 1) Do everything you can to gather great people... 3) Constantly seek criticism. A well thought out critique of whatever you are doing is as valuable as gold, and you should seek that from everyone you can, but particularly your friends. Usually your friends know what's wrong, but they don't want to tell you because they don't want to hurt you. They want to encourage you so they do not want to tell you what is wrong with your product. It does not mean that your friends are right but very often they are right. You at least want to listen very carefully to what they say, and to everyone. You should take the approach that you are wrong. Your goal is to be less wrong". SOURCE: the video about Elon MUSK at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NU7W7qe2R0A.

Bannockburn Live was a huge success and the highlight of the 700th anniversary year.

Censorship

Wikipedia is dominated by censors who carefully remove, distort, falsify, discredit, etc. information in order to further their own personal, ethnic, etc. agendas, e.g., they ousted from Wikipedia's current version evidence about the racial identity, appearance, etc. of the Amorites that proves that Pharaoh Tutankhamun and the ancient Canaanites and Egyptians belonged to Celtic haplogroup R1b1a2, and spoke Indo-Hittite (not Semitic) languages before they were holocausted.

Click here if you want to read an uncensored OLDER VERSION of this web page. It included anthropological information (not misleading propaganda) and had many times more visitors per day according to the visitor counter on this web page.

Thank You for your Visit

This counter read 38,721 on Jan/31/2016. It read Zero Mar 01, 2014; 2,975 Apr 01; 6,563 May 1; 7,351 May 11 (replaced the older version); 7,500 May 20; 8,333 June 1; 10,275 July 1; 11,820 August 1; 13,255 September 2; 15,300 October 1; 17,758 November 1; 21,813 December 1; 24,000 Jan. 1; 24,786 Jan. 15, 2015 (when Columns # 15 & 16 about anthropology, etc. were censored); 25,610 Feb 1; 26,936 Mar. 1; 28,837 April 1; 30,342 May 1; 31,340 June 3; 31,975 on July 2; 32,718 on July 31; 33,642 on Sept. 4; 35,938 Nov/3; 36,757 on Nov/30/2015, and 37,721 on Dec/31/2015.
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The more patrilineal descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland join this project the more useful it will be to genealogists and scientists.


We thank the following contributors to the General Fund of this project: David E. Stuart, Steven Mitchell, Donald Grant, Michael Clancey, Hereld Stuart, Francis Marion Stewart III, CD Stewart, Donna Lindberg, Robert Lindberg, Shirley Black Barry, Mary Stuart Spangler, Desideriu Ramelet-Stuart, William Hamilton Stewart, Alexander Stewart, Belinda Dettmann, Diana Stewart Powels.


FTDNA complained about Version # 2 below so it was removed about December 2015.


Text and images may be enlarged over 200% via the Ctrl and + keys. Use <"CTRL MINUS"> to zoom out.

Click on images and links below to see sources. If a Wikipedia quote can not be found via a link below, it can still be found via a search of the history of changes made to each article (Wikipedia's senior censors remove, distort, falsify, discredit, etc. any information that they do not like in order to further their personal, ethnic, etc. agendas).
This DICTIONARY may come in handy. DISCLAIMER: The genealogical, cultural and personal agendas and opinions found on the web page at http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~stewdna/ and its links may not be considered appropriate, or be those of any web site host, DNA testing company, employee, administrator, moderator or scientific community.

Column # 1 (This DNA Project)

Welcome to FTDNA's exclusive project for AGNATIC descendants of the

HIGH STEWARDS of SCOTLAND

You may JOIN US even if you have never ordered a DNA test, and no matter what your surname. Please remove yourself from this project and join a different Stewart project if you test negative for SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) R-L746, or if 50% or more of your matches at or above Y-DNA37 level do not have a version of the surname Stewart.

You may contribute to the content of this web page, e.g., by adding to the bulleted list above a link to your own page. Click here if you want to join the PRIVATE FORUM that was created so that members of this family could share their photographs, etc. with each other.

Arms of the Great Steward until 1371

Arms of the Great Steward until 1371

We thank the contributors to the General Fund of this project:
They paid for DNA tests that benefit all members of our family, e.g.:

  • Free SNP and STR tests for men with the surname STEWART who still live in the places in Europe from which our patrilineal ancestors came.
  • The Walk Through the Y test (discontinued) via which SNP R-L746 (R1b1a2a1a2c1i1) was FIRST discovered and reported internationally.

The L746 mutation is "... only seen in direct descendants of the Stewart dynasty, kings and queens who ruled first Scotland and then Great Britain and Ireland between 1371 and 1701" according to Dr. Jim Wilson of ScotlandsDNA. The International Society of Genetic Genealogists (ISOGG) positioned L746 and all descendants of the High Stewards of Scotland on the orchid colored R1b-DF41 branch of Cladogram # 1 to your right.

Walter fitz Alan STEWART (~1198-1246):

  • Was the first member of this family to use the surname Stewart.
  • Was the third High Steward of Scotland.
  • May have had the L746 mutation first.

Column # 2 (DNA Tests)

Branches of the R-L746 (Royal Stewart) family

Big Y and other NGS tests have begun to identify branches of this patrilineal family more reliably than Y-DNA111 and other STR tests have, e.g., only patrilineal descendants of Walter's grandson Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll (King Charles II and ~40% of the members of this family) have SNP S781. Descendants of John's eldest brother James, the 5th High Steward of Scotland (grandfather of King Robert II) do not have this SNP.

The DF41 column of Williamson's "Big Tree" displays the results of the Big Y and FullGenomes Corp. (FGC) tests of members of this family.

The tree to your left is the L746 part of Williamson's Y-DNA111 STR based R-L21 tree. It shows members of our family who ordered NGS tests. Please inform an administrator if all royal Stewart NGS testers are not designated. Click here for more about them.

  • Blue font indicates kits not tested for SNP L746 (we assume that all descendants of the High Stewards have this mutation).
  • Red lines = FTDNA's Big Y tests.
  • Arrows = FGC testers. Results are more comprehensive but slow coming, and FTDNA does not include them in its database.
  • Green lines = Chromo2 testers. Data for new Chromo2 SNPs are now included in ISOGG's YBROWSE (a Human Y Chromosome Browser based on hg19). Results are not included in FTDNA's database, or shown in Williamson's "Big Tree" (a man's results are useless unless he can compare them to someone else's).

The web page at http://www.isogg.org/tree/index.htm explains the meaning of the beginning letter of each SNP.

SNP test results are more reliable than STR test results because STR marker values may converge, back-mutate, or mutate too slowly to be useful. That is why ~27% of the STR marker values of two of the men listed in Table # 1 at the bottom of this page are the same even though their Most Recent Common Patrilineal Ancestor (Y-MRCA) lived ~338,000 years ago (KYA). Spencer Wells used to claim that the African savage from whom all mankind descends lived only ~50 KYA, i.e., that all people are kissing cousins.

Column # 3 (The forefather of all Celts)

From Haplogroup M207 to R-L746

Cladogram # 1 above shows the SNP lineage of this patrilineal family from Haplogroup (HG) M207 (R) at the top, to HG R-L746 near the bottom. Click on this tree to see an updated version.

The mutation known as M207 first occurred ~27 KYA. It is in the M9 superclade of the M42 branch in the top left corner of Cladogram # 2 to your right.

Column # 4 (The Father of Mankind)

The names of SNP mutations are indicated on the branches of Cladogram # 2 below, and the names of the HGs to which the branches of mankind belong are given at its tips.

Spencer Wells and some of National Geographic's login-restricted Geno2 web pages incorrectly state that the M42 mutation first occurred ~70 KYA in a man who resembled the Tanzanian pictured below. The non-Negroid y-MRCA of all mankind actually lived between 237,000 and 581,000 years ago.

The Einsteins who founded the Y Chromosome Consortium (YCC) gave the name Haplogroup A to the HG to which Adam belongs, and assigned to it only people who look like N64496 & 215865 (descendants of Dixie's Carolinian slaves in HG A00). Does the YCC want us to believe that that their race has " ... the most ancient genetic lines of all", and that our patrilineal ancestors looked like them? People who are less anti-white and more reasonable understand that every lineage that descends from Adam:

  • Is of the same age.
  • Belongs to the same HG as Adam (every son is in the same HG as his father).
  • Is as "African" as any American.

Column # 5 (Migrations)

Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup

Map # 1 above accurately shows where the major Y-Chromosome haplogroups to which the YCC assigned men are most frequent. Some theories about when, why and how some of them traveled from Africa to where they live today are speculative, controversial and based on misinterpreted evidence. Hunter gatherers had good reasons for migrating and remaining wherever they did. The larger a race grew the harder it would be for a newer wave of refugees from Africa to invade, terrorize and displace it.

  1. "Some scientists believe that only a few people left Africa in a single migration that went on to populate the rest of the world, based in the fact that only descents of L3 are found outside Africa." The lines and arrows in the map above show their speculations about from where and to where most haplogroups migrated.
  2. "Other scientists have proposed a Multiple Dispersal Model, in which there were two migrations out of Africa, one across the Red Sea traveling along the coastal regions to India (the Coastal Route), which would be represented by Haplogroup M (mtDNA). Another group of migrants with Haplogroup N (mtDNA) followed the Nile from East Africa, heading northwards and crossing into Asia through the Sinai."
  3. The best and simplest explanation for the aforesaid migrations is that 20,000 year climatic cycles, etc. caused devastatingly long droughts, famines, and at least four migrations of L3 hunter gatherers out of Africa. Only Semites crossed the Red Sea. The Sahelian ancestors of most Eurasians could not trespass east of the Nile, or into the equatorial rain forests to the south without being killed by savages like themselves, so they walked eastwards until they reached the swampy, parasite infested Nile, and then along it northwards through the vast and hyper-arid Sahara desert.

Theories # 1 and # 2 above depend on the implausible back migration theory for why so much of the purest HG R population still lives in the Sahel (see the blue area of Africa in Map #1). They are based on the assumption that territorial savages could wander about more freely than they could. Racism and tribal solidarity impeded invasions and made travel risky. If hunter-gatherers ventured southwards across 3,000 miles of the most barren and hottest desert on earth in search of greener pastures millennia before camels and horses were domesticated, why aren't Neanderthal skeletons, and more Eurasian HGs, found in sub-Saharan Africa?

Column # 6 (Geographic Barriers)

Why Cross the Formidable Sahara Southwards? Why the ancestors of southern Europeans abandoned northern Europe The English Channel Used to be the Celtic Channel
Maps # 2, 3 & 4

Africa During the Last 150 KYA - "From around 150,000 to 130,000 years ago, Africa experienced colder and more arid than present conditions. About 130,000 years ago, a warm phase moister than the present began, and this lasted until about 115,000 years ago, with greater rainforest extent and the deserts almost completely covered with vegetation. Subsequent cooling and drying of the climate led to a cold, arid maximum about 70,000 years ago, followed by a slight moderation of climate and then a second aridity maximum around 22,000-13,000 years ago."

During the Last Glacial Period the global climate was colder so less water evaporated from the oceans and fell in the Sahel. Since the rain forest was already occupied by territorial races when the Sahelian water and food supply dwindled, part of the L3 population walked northwards across the vast Sahara desert via the Nile to Eurasia ~106 KYA, found a new homeland, and founded a new race: the Australoids (see Table #1 below).

Rainfall and the Sahelian population returned to more normal levels during every interstadial (a warm period during a glacial period). Interstadials occurred approximately every 20 thousand years due to variations in the Earth's orbit. When certain interstadials ended African haplogroups that now exist only in Eurasia were extinguished, and a few more of the strongest and bravest young couples walked across the Sahara via the Nile valley and founded a new race: the Mongoloids.

  • Drought ~106 KYA - The ancestors of the Australoid population left the Sahel. They settled in eastern Eurasia because Neanderthals occupied western Eurasia.
  • Drought ~70 KYA - The ancestors of the Mongoloid population left the Sahel due to Toba's eruption. They drove the remnants of the devastated Australoid population to the fringes of the Far East and offshore (an alternative to the "Coastal Route" theory), and took tens of thousands of years to completely populate the rest of the vast Far East.
  • Drought ~40 KYA - Part of the Semitic population left the forests of Ethiopia via the Red Sea area. The ancestors of the Crô-Magnon population left the Sahel via the Mediterranean area. Starving Crô-Magnons who were the least sensitive may have considered the Neanderthals to be bushmeat, and cannibalized and raped them to extinction. The mixed Crô-Magnon and Neanderthal ancestors of southern Europeans abandoned northern Europe ~20 KYA in order to survive the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the warmer forests of Mediterranean Europe (see Map # 3). Their adaptations to the cold are why so few of their southern European descendants can wear the same shoes and clothing as Nordics.
  • Drought ~20 KYA - Celtic (HG R1b) and Nordic (HG I), "Whites" are the most heat-adapted because their ancestors evolved in the hottest place on earth longer than other Eurasians (for at least 120,000 years from the Eemian to the LGM). Their racial characteristics are different from those of Eurasians who evolved longer elsewhere during the last glacial period: Nordics are relatively narrow-headed, tall, slender and fair-haired. Their less hairy and pinkish skin helps to dissipate heat more quickly too. Their non-flat noses (nasal sills) helped to humidify the Sahel's dry air. The reason that this race never became cold-adapted is that after it left the Sahel most of it remained in the relatively warm Fertile Crescent until the Holocene. The Hausa and 95.5% R1b+ Ouldeme are patrilineal descendants of a part of the R1b population that never left Africa (see maps # 1 and # 5). The African parts of most Eurasian HGs (e.g., I) may be extinct.

Column # 7 (The First Civilization)

The Sahelian Origins of HG R R1b Sahelians migrated to America
Maps # 5 and # 6

According to ISOGG, "Y-DNA haplogroup R-M207 is believed to have arisen approximately 27,000 years ago in ASIA."
"The second hypothesis, an AFRICAN origin of the M9 superclade that includes haplotype 117 would imply a subsequent impressive extinction of derivative lineages in sub-Saharan Africa ..." Haplotype 117 carries the M269 (R1b1a2) derived allele on a M207/M173 background (listed in cladograms # 1 & 2).

Column # 8 (Evolution & Speciation)

Why Does More Than One Race and Species Exist?

A race is "an interbreeding, usually geographically isolated population of organisms differing from other populations of the same species in the frequency of hereditary traits".

Distinct races may have existed before mankind left Africa's equatorial rain forest. Some savages, e.g., Bonobos and Chimpanzees could hybridize but have not done so even though they have lived there for hundreds of thousands of years.

Eurasians descend from a woman in which the mutation known as L3 first occurred. Their ancestors immigrated from the forest to the geographically isolated semi-arid African savanna called the Sahel during the hot interglacial known as the Eemian in order to prey upon herbivores (better sources of protein than those to which Pygmies have access). Races that descend from L1 and L2 may have remained in the forest because they felt safer from predatory lions, etc. there.

Any band of hunter-gatherers that traipsed about as though the world were a ballroom would have quickly learned that the penalty for poaching was death. Otherwise there would be only one race or subspecies of mankind and hundreds of thousands of years of evolutionary diversity could not have occurred.

Racial co-existence in the same neighborhood was not possible until civilization developed the weapons that made it possible for imperialists and their religious and secular media to exploit the entire world. They continue to encourage immigration into European homelands from less civilized parts of the world and miscegenation on moral pretenses even though hybridization "is now discouraged due to the emphasis on conserving species and subspecies". Why destroy the valuable racial differences and genetic diversity that was created during mankind's hundreds of thousands of years of evolutionary progress? Might one strain survive interplanetary travel, etc. better than another?

.

How Fair Was Adam?

The ancestors of all mankind had body hair as long and dark as a Bonobo's for camouflage and warmth during the penultimate glacial period, and skin as fair as any Nordic, sheared mammal or plucked bird.

All races evolved less body hair after the extremely hot Eemian (~130 KYA) began. Fair-skinned Africans who continued to live in dark forests compensated by evolving (irreversibly) dark skin for camouflage.

Australoids are darker because they evolved in Eurasian forests for tens of thousands of years after they left the Sahel and before they were devastated by a volcano and driven to the fringes of Asia and its offshore islands by Mongoloids ~70 KYA.

Some "scientists" claim that races that have always lived in forests, e.g., Pygmies, evolved dark skin for protection from cancer even though the "rainforest canopy cut off almost all the ultraviolet light and prevented it from reaching the forest floor". Pygmies should be as white as snow and fairer than Nordics according to the vitamin D theory. That generations of Americans have been taught this nonsense shows how conformist and intelligent some herd animals are.

The savages who emigrated from Africa's equatorial rain forest to the Sahel after the penultimate glacial period ended ~150 KYA retained their fair skin because it is better camouflage in a savannah, and reflects the heat of the sun (see how skin color affects the performance of shirtless ditch diggers of various races when the sun suddenly appears from behind the clouds on a sweltering day).

The descendants of Celts who married the cold-adapted Crô-Magnons (e.g., Basques) are darker, hairier, stockier, shorter, etc., than northern Europeans, and behave less like them.


We thank the following contributors to the General Fund of this project: David E. Stuart, Steven Mitchell, Donald Grant, Michael Clancey, Hereld Stuart, Francis Marion Stewart III, CD Stewart, Donna Lindberg, Robert Lindberg, Shirley Black Barry, Mary Stuart Spangler, Desideriu Ramelet-Stuart, William Hamilton Stewart, Alexander Stewart, Belinda Dettmann, Diana Stewart Powels.


Column # 9 (Hittite Linguistic Origins)
Hittite is the earliest attested Indo-European language.
Partial tree of Indo-Hittite languages. Canaan was the father of "... Heth [ancestor of the Hittites ...]". Branches are in order of first attestation; those to the left are Centum, those to the right are Satem. Languages in red are extinct. White labels indicate categories / un-attested proto-languages. Did this linguistic tree begin branching before or after R1b families settled in the forests of Palestine ~20 KYA?

Where did all Indo-European languages originate? "... southern Turkey, as the most plausible origin — a region that had also been proposed as the origin of Indo-European by the archaeologist Colin Renfrew, in 1987, because it was the source from which agriculture spread to Europe."

Column # 10 (The FIRST Farmers)

Balaresque et al. state: "The relative contributions to modern European populations of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers and Neolithic farmers from the Near East have been intensely debated. Haplogroup R1b1b2 (R-M269) is the commonest European Y-chromosomal lineage, increasing in frequency from east to west, and carried by 110 million European men... The distribution of this lineage, the diversity within it, and estimates of its age all suggest that it spread with farming from the Near East. Taken with evidence on the origins of other lineages, this indicates that most European Y chromosomes descend from Near Eastern farmers... Previous studies suggested a Paleolithic origin, but here we show that the geographical distribution of its microsatellite diversity is best explained by spread from a single source in the Near East via Anatolia during the Neolithic ... in contrast, most maternal lineages descend from hunter-gatherers ..." Most Europeans have Crô-Magnon mitochondrial DNA because Neolithic farmers took the land and women of the hunter-gatherers.

NOTE: ISOGG changed the name of HG R1b1b2 (R-M269) to HG R1b1a2 (R-M269).

According to this Wikipedia article about HG R1b1a2 (a.k.a. R-M269), "the distribution of R1b STR variance in Europe forms a cline from east to west, which is more consistent with an entry into Europe from Western Asia with the spread of farming... "The frequency is about 71% in Scotland, 70% in Spain and 60% in France. In south-eastern England the frequency of this clade is about 70%; in parts of the rest of north and western England, Spain, Portugal, Wales and Ireland, it is as high as 90%; and in parts of north-western Ireland it reaches 98%."

The R-M269 (R1b1a2) genepool spread from the Sahel to the Fertile Crescent to Eurasia. Farming began with the Kebaron and Natufian cultures. The first farmers and Indo-European languages originated in this area.

Maps # 6, 7 & 8 - Agriculture and Indo-European languages originated in the Fertile Crescent. The places where Kassite Babylonia, Mitanni and Hatti, Egypt, and other Hamitic nations existed thousands of years ago are linquistically, religiously, and demographically different from what they used to be.

Some of the savages who emigrated from the Sahel during the LGM remained in the relatively barren Fertile Crescent and became civilized farmers because they were not welcome in the parts of Africa and Eurasia where game was more plentiful.

Droughts forced some Fertile Crescent farmers to immigrate to the abandoned forests of northern Eurasia during the Holocene and to become illiterate hunter-gatherers until northern Europe warmed up enough for farming ~5 KYA. Many Canaanites fled to southern Europe and India via Anatolia during the millenia in which genocidal herdsmen (e.g., Hyksos imperialists) conquered and enslaved them. Enough Celtic refugees had traveled by boat from Anatolia and assembled in the Pyrennes by ~3KYA that they could expand northwards to Armorica, cross the Channel (see Map # 4), and take the land of the hunter-gatherers and the less militarily and technologically advanced farmers who had left the Fertile Crescent thousands of years earlier.

Dolmens and menhirs are found mostly in the parts of north western Europe where Celts lived. The largest concentrations of these monuments outside of Europe are in Israel, Syria and Western Jordan (where they and possibly bones that contain the DNA of ancient Celts are being deliberately destroyed according to this video). Did European Celts believe that monuments like Stonehenge would tell the story of their Fertile Crescent origins and sun and life-oriented religion better than their words could?

Column # 11 (Origins of Blue Eyes)

According to Danish geneticist Hans Eiberg, "the mutations responsible for the blue eye color most likely originate from the Near East area or northwest part of the Black Sea region, where the great agriculture migration to the northern part of Europe took place in the Neolithic periods about 6–10,000 years ago." The mutation that causes blue eyes may even have occurred before the Y-haplogroup R1b1 and I ancestors of northern Europeans left the Sahel.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Amorite&oldid=470188329#Physical_appearance
The Egyptologist Flinders Petrie and Assyriologist Archibald Henry Sayce analysed Egyptian illustrations of what they identified as Amorites (Amurru) depicted as "white skinned, blue eyed, fair haired". According to Sayce (1889):
The Amorites... were a tall, handsome people, with white skins, blue eyes and reddish hair, all the characteristics, in fact, of the white race.
Sayce further discovered a painting in a tomb (No. 34) at Thebes, belonging to the Eighteenth Dynasty which illustrates an Amorite chief with "white skin and red-brown hair". Henry George Tomkins (1897) an Exeter clergyman and member of the Royal Archaeological Institute also wrote the Amorites were blue eyed and fair haired. Easton's Bible Dictionary also contains an entry stating the Amorites are "represented on the Egyptian monuments with fair skins, light hair, blue eyes, aquiline noses, and pointed beards. The Encyclopædia Britannica, 13th ed., vol. 1, 1929, also contained a physical description of the Amorites from Egyptian illustrations:
Egyptian illustrations of the New Kingdom show the Palestinian Amorites to have been a race much more like the Northern Europeans than the Semites; long-headed, with blue eyes, straight noses and thin lips.
'... the terms “Amorites” and “Amalekites” are used synonymously for the “Canaanites...' "thou shalt destroy their name from under heaven . . ."


Why did Wikipedia's censors remove from the article at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amorite the quotes above about the Physical appearance of these Hamitic farmers? Some claim that Hamites were Negroid and that the Israelites were in fact themselves Canaanites. That Hamitic farmers were not allowed to speak Indo-Hittite languages after they were enslaved and their land was given to Abraham from Ur of the Chaldees, may be why some scientists consider them to be Semitic linguistically (and possibly even racially).

Column # 12 (Anglo-Israelism)

"British Israelism (also called Anglo-Israelism) is a doctrine based on the hypothesis that people of Western European descent, particularly those in Great Britain, are the direct lineal descendants of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel. The doctrine often includes the tenet that the British Royal Family is directly descended from the line of King David" (via Princess Tea Tephi). "The central tenets of British Israelism have been refuted by evidence from modern genetic, linguistic, archaeological and philological research. The doctrine continues, however, to have a significant number of adherents." Whites are not the only wannabee Jews.

FTDNA's Population Finder (a.k.a. myOrigins) and President Greenspan's excellent lecture (it begins with 60 seconds of silence) provide insights about tbe ancestry of Jews. "If you have recent Jewish ancestry, you will then have a high number of Jewish cousins on your matches page" due to endogamous marriage patterns.

"The y-HG E1b1b1, 'one of the major founding lineages of the Jewish population', has been observed in all Jewish groups worldwide. It is considered to be the second most prevalent haplogroup among the Jewish population outside of the J haplogroups", and includes some of the most media-trumpeted men in history, e.g., Einstein, Napoléon and Hitler.

Historical linguistics was not possible in Europe from the dominance of Christianity in the late Roman empire to the late 18th century due to literal adherence to Genesis 10 HG J-M267 is found especially in Jews with Cohen surnames.
Map # 9 - "Unto thy seed have I given this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates". . .

After Solomon's building of The First Temple in Jerusalem, Zadok was the first High Priest to serve there.

Map # 10 - Kohanim (HG J) "for thousands of years preserved their genealogical lineages since the Temple period."

Forcing Eostre (Easter) loving golem to worship a Jew was as difficult 1 KYA as persuading them not to do so is now.

Column # 13 (Chaldean and Hyksos Imperialists)

Swiss scientists who work at iGENEA (FTDNA's European affiliate) recently revealed that Hamitic Pharaoh Tutankhamun (~1333 BC) belongs to Celtic HG R1b1a2 despite the Egyptian government's efforts to keep his test results secret (beware of censors).

Semitic herdsmen began to displace farmers in Mesopotamia over ~5 KYA Dark-skinned Hyksos conquered Hamitic Egypt 4 KYA

Map # 11 & Image # 1 - Dark-skinned Semites on both sides of Nile used swift chariots to blitz fair-skinned Egyptian Hamites.

"HG J is found in greatest concentration in the Southwestern Arabian Peninsula. Migration from Arabia into the Fertile Crescent has been a constant pattern of human movement in the Middle East since antiquity. As such, the Arabian peninsula has long been accepted as the original Semitic Urheimat by a majority of scholars. Older theories positing Mesopotamia as the Semitic homeland were severely undermined by the identification of the non-Semitic Sumerian culture in Mesopotamia in the late 19th century..." Quote from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Semitic_language&oldid=452079142#Homeland

Semitic herdsmen and languages originated in the southern Arabia and were imposed on all of the Hamitic nations of ancient Mesopotamia and Canaan.

Map # 12 - "Some nomadic peoples, especially herders, may also move to raid settled communities ... This lifestyle ... is possibly associated with the appearance of Semitic languages in the region of the Ancient Near East."
Click here to see the SOURCE of this quote before Wikipedia censors it.

"Historically nomadic herder lifestyles have led to warrior-based cultures that have made them fearsome enemies of settled people." "The nomadic lifestyle was well suited to warfare, and the steppe horse riders became some of the most militarily potent peoples in the world".

For thousands of years small bands of nomadic herdsmen on horseback, e.g., Genghis Khan, could escape with impunity after they invaded the territories of millions of farmers and terrorized, raped, massacred and plundered them, thereby permanently degrading our increasingly decadent civilization.

According to the Jewish historian Josephus and the Judeo-Christian Bible, hundreds of thousands of Hebrews from the Sumerian city of Ur of the Chaldees were expelled from Egypt by Ahmose I (died ~1557 BC).

Column # 14 (Forensic Anthropology)

10,000 YEAR OLD KIFFIAN SKULL DISCOVERED IN AFRICA's SAHEL at GOBERO in NIGER

You heard some of the above theories here first. Click on Image # 2 above if you want to know more about them, e.g.:


What Is Our Agenda?

Please contribute your dissenting opinions, etc. to this section, even though some people do not want others to hear it, or have never heard it because they live where freedom of speech exists in name only. According to black separatist Mohamed Ali, "The truth don’t hurt nobody" (page 23). Nevertheless, those who hate the truth relentlessly censor it in the name of decency and political correctness, and thereby corrupt, demoralize and gradually destroy the civilization upon which our survival depends.

Columns # 15 & 16 below were originally part of the Stuart web page at http://www.familytreedna.com/public/Stuart/default.aspx. FTDNA requested that they be removed on Jan 15, 2015 on the grounds that they promote someone's "personal agenda" (ALL opinions do), and do not pertain to ancestry (judge for yourself). Therefore 2/3 of the traffic to the aforesaid web page ceased, and this valuable information about anthropology and how genes affect human behavior, etc. was appended to this former Stuart DNA project web page.

Column # 15.

Were Neanderthals Human?

The last common ancestor (y-LCA) of every race or species of mankind that is alive today lived 338 KYA (237 to 581 thousand years ago with 95% confidence) according to estimates that are based on the molecular clock, on genetic marker studies, and on the 2012 discovery of the Y-chromosome variant A00 (thanks to FTDNA). Some people and races may therefore be no more closely related to each other than they are to the Neanderthal species.

Neanderthals survived more than one glacial period in Eurasia so they were too cold-adapted to compete with the heat-adapted Crô-Magnon race that immigrated from the Sahel to Europe during the warm interstadial that began about 40 KYA.

Anatomical comparison of the skulls of a White man and a Neanderthal (right). The skulls of other races are also quite different. Were Neanderthals with 1600 cm3 brains geniuses?

Neanderthals could not compete even though relative to their body size their 1600 cm3 brains were about a third larger than those of some of the races that have been replacing Whites worldwide. If a Neanderthal were alive today:

All Europeans might have more Neanderthal genes if Crô-Magnons had not treated them as inhumanely as Pygmies are.


Does Brain Size Matter?

Studies demonstrate a correlation between brain size and unintelligence. The image below shows that people with:

  • Larger brains inhabit the least desirable environments.
  • Smaller brains inhabit the most desirable and natural resource-rich parts of the Old World, and the impoverished and crime ridden parts of America and Europe to which they have immigrated during the last few centuries.

Do Nigerians Born in Mongolia Have Larger Brains Than Those Born in Mississippi?

The geneticist James Watson has been ostracized since his public comments about IQ in 2007.


Southern Europeans Inherited More Neanderthal and Crô-Magnon Genes Than Northern Europeans

Balaresque et al. state: "The relative contributions to modern European populations of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers and Neolithic farmers from the Near East have been intensely debated. Haplogroup R1b1b2 (R-M269) is the commonest European Y-chromosomal lineage, increasing in frequency from east to west, and carried by 110 million European men... The distribution of this lineage, the diversity within it, and estimates of its age all suggest that it spread with farming from the Near East. Taken with evidence on the origins of other lineages, this indicates that most European Y chromosomes descend from Near Eastern farmers... Previous studies suggested a Paleolithic origin, but here we show that the geographical distribution of its microsatellite diversity is best explained by spread from a single source in the Near East via Anatolia during the Neolithic ... in contrast, most maternal lineages descend from hunter-gatherers ..." i.e. most Europeans have Crô-Magnon mitochondrial DNA.

NOTE: ISOGG changed the name of HG R1b1b2 (R-M269) to HG R1b1a2 (R-M269).

According to this Wikipedia article about haplogroup (HG) R1b1a2 (a.k.a. R-M269), "the distribution of R1b STR variance in Europe forms a cline from east to west, which is more consistent with an entry into Europe from Western Asia with the spread of farming... "The frequency is about 71% in Scotland, 70% in Spain and 60% in France. In south-eastern England the frequency of this clade is about 70%; in parts of the rest of north and western England, Spain, Portugal, Wales and Ireland, it is as high as 90%; and in parts of north-western Ireland it reaches 98%."

Wolfgang Haak, a geneticist at the University of Adelaide, and co-first author of the new study, observes: “The first farmers, whether from Hungary, Germany or Spain, are genetically almost identical: they are from the same origin.”

Image # 1 above from a 1350 BC seal shows gangly Fertile Crescent farmers with the physical characteristics of heat-adapted Northern Europeans, not those of cold adapted (e.g., rotund) Crô-Magnon hunter-gatherers and Semitic herdsmen. Click on the image above and scroll down if you want to see from where it came, and read the book if you want more evidence. The oval in the sky symbolizes the moon, which regulated plantings. The cross represents the Sun, a Celtic symbol for Life and God (Abrahamic faiths repurposed Celtic holidays too, e.g., Easter).


Does More Than One Race Exist?

"All is race -- there is no other truth. Benjamin Disraeli

Geniuses whose model for societal development is to destroy all racial identities and loyalties except their own via psychological, etc. warfare want others to believe that:

If wild lions, tigers, bears or wolves are related to other species closely enough to produce fertile hybrids, might more than one race and species of mankind exist too?

The unique natural qualties of each race exist because:

  • Of separation, branching, competition and evolutionary adaptation (only savages can compete well enough to survive in a savage social environment).
  • All species, subspecies, and races prefer to mate with their own kind.

Scientist and author Richard D. Fuerle tells us, “. . although all these populations were once a single population, they have been becoming increasingly genetically different, on their way to becoming different species.” “Compared to all the human genetic variation in the world, people in the same ethnic group can be almost as related to each other as a parent is to his child. (Salter, 2003, pp. 42, 67, 124, 327, 329). ‘… in most situations individuals have a larger genetic stake in their ethnic groups than in their families.’ (Salter, 2003, p. 37). . ."

Click here to scroll to the top of column # 16.

Column # 16.

Can Civilization Survive The Savagery?

The y-haplogroup R1b, I, etc. and the mtDNA haplogroup T, J, etc. White farmers of the ancient Fertile Crescent (Egypt, Canaan, and Mesopotamia):

Their Skin Color

Their beautiful fair skin (don't throw that precious gift away) is the best camouflage in a savanna. It would have permanently darkened for camouflage if Whites had evolved for many generations in a dark forest during the last glacial period (as Australoids and ALL other races did). Miscegenation also causes Whites to darken. The skin color and hair of races that evolved in a dark forest may be similar even though they are as distantly related to each other as they are to Whites.

More than 99.99% of mammals have fair skin beneath their fur. If the theory that northern Europeans have fair skin because their ancestors were exposed to so little ultraviolet light were true, Pygmies, etc. would be as white as a plucked chicken (hardly any ultraviolet light reaches the floors of equatorial rain forests, e.g., in Africa).

Their Homeland

Swiss scientists who work at iGENEA (Family Tree DNA's European affiliate) revealed that Hamitic Pharaoh Tutankhamun (~1333 BC) belongs to Celtic HG R1b1a2 (despite the Egyptian government's efforts to keep the results of his DNA tests secret). Censors removed this evidence (2011 DNA research) from Wikipedia's article about Tutankhamun's racial identity.

About 4 KYA Hyksos and other Bedouin herdsmen drove most Whites from the Fertile Crescent into Eurasia, where their nations and civilization became the most secure, prosperous and economically and militarily dominant worldwide for millennia despite the curse of the alien religion that was savagely imposed on them, and the insanity that has ensued ever since.

Some Whites (e.g., the Kurds and Yazidis) never left the Fertile Crescent, are still being terrorized and holocausted, and could have a state of their own if it were recognized, e.g., as Israel was in 1948.

Some US citizens were born when less than 10% of them were non-White, and will die when over 50% are, because of the influence that the owners of our religious and secular media have on our opinions, elections and politicians. Most Europeans and Americans will soon be non-White even though:

If the USA became more powerful than Latin America because it was colonized by northern Europeans, what will it become after Whites are replaced by races that:

  • Have higher rates of crime and poverty even though they were hardly affected by the World Wars, and have always lived in earthly paradises that are far more bountiful, natural resource-rich, humanly habitable, unpolluted and desirable than the Sahel and Fertile Crescent ever were.
  • Abandon the most beautiful homelands on earth only because they prefer to live where they can enjoy the security upon which prosperity, technological development and civilization depend, i.e., in White neighborhoods instead of amongst people of their own kind.

Survival of the Fittest

Natural selection ALWAYS makes people as savage as any animal. Everyone feels like stealing, raping or killing someone at least once during his life time. The more savage a person is the more likely he will do so. Only hundreds of generations of selective genetic breeding biologically domesticates or civilizes any species, i.e., reduces its intelligence and curtails the competitive survival instincts that make it more dangerous and less: trustworthy, honorable, trusting, easily exploited, and useful to people.

Some domesticated breeds and races:


Don't Dare Anger The Protected Minority by Telling the Truth

"In law, hate speech is any speech, gesture or conduct, writing, or display which is forbidden because it may incite violence or prejudicial action against or BY A PROTECTED INDIVIDUAL OR GROUP, or because it disparages or intimidates a protected individual or group" ... "punishable in Germany even if committed abroad and even if committed by non-German citizens".


Written 2015/Sept/01

Why Big Y Tests Are Far Better Than Y-DNA111, etc. STR Tests.

The goal of all genealogists is to identify their ancestors and kinfolk as cheaply and reliably as possible. Next Generation Sequencing tests (Big Y or FGC) are the best way to accomplish this goal. The results of SNP tests are far more trustworthy, reliable and cheaper indicators of one's genetic relationships to one's kinfolk and to EVERYONE else on earth than are STR test results (see ISOGG's tree at http://www.isogg.org/tree/ISOGG_YDNATreeTrunk.html).

Every branch of a family will benefit if at least one of its members orders a Big Y or FGC test in order to discover its terminal SNPs. You may respond to the 21/Aug/15 post at https://dnatestingchoice.com/ancestry/provider/family-tree-dna/197 if you disagree.

Table # 1 below shows both Y-DNA111 markers and some of the results of the Big Y tests of the DNA of some of the descendants of Scottish hero Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll. He died about 716 years ago (on 22 July 1298 at the Battle of Falkirk ). All of his patrilineal descendants (and only they) test positive for SNP S781, a branch of R-L746 . Their FTDNA project is at https://www.familytreedna.com/public/R-S781 .

The tables below show some of the results of this Stewart family's:

  • Extremely useful $575 Big Y SNP tests (as low as $425 during a holiday sale).
  • Far less useful $359 Y-DNA111 STR tests.

Hardly any off-modal STR marker values that could be used to distinquish one branch of Sir John's descendants from another (and from any of the other branches of the descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland) were discovered via the results of their Y-DNA111 STR tests.

Since Big Y tests include 495 STR markers, members who order them are over four times as likely to find shared off-modal marker values that distinquish their branch from the others. A few of these "branch" STR markers are shown in colorized Table # 2 below. SNPs are so much more useful than STR markers that nobody may be interested in any of these 495 STR markers.

The trouble with STR marker values is that they are too unstable (mutate back and forth too frequently) to provide much useful information about the branches to which very distantly related cousins belong.

In the tables below:

  • Colored cells in rows with ID numbers contain off-modal marker values.
  • A marker's location in FTDNA's five Y-DNA111 panels is indicated by the colors of cells in the rows that show the names of the STR Markers.

What Is a Branch Off-Modal STR Marker Value?

"Branch" off-modal STR marker values indicate that members of a patrilineal family belong to the same branch. Very few "branch" STR marker values can be found amongst the many shared off-modal marker values shown in Y-DNA111 Table # 1, e.g.:

  • The two listed members of branch A1a03 have NO off-modal marker values in common at the Y-DNA111 level.
  • Two of the three listed members of branch A1a05 have one off-modal marker value (DYS710=37) in common at the Y-DNA111 level (they may be more closely related to each other than the third).

Some cousins have the same off-modal marker values due to random mutations, not because they belong to the same branch, e.g., according to their SNP test results:

  • Branches A1a02, A1a05a, and A1a07 have DYS540=12 in common even though they do not belong to the same branch.
  • Branches A1a02, A1a04 and A1a07 have DYS710=35 in common even though they do not belong to the same branch.
  • Branches A1a01 and A1a04 have DYS557=15 in common even though they do not belong to the same branch.

Guessing which off-modal STR marker values are "branch" markers may therefore:

The results of STR tests are not totally useless, e.g.:

  • Y-DNA67 STR test results reliably indicate to which of the many unrelated patrilineal families people with the surname Stewart belong.
  • Most men who can genealogically trace their shared patrilineal ancestors have almost identical STR test results. That 53238, 251918 and 148693 have FIVE off modal STR marker values in common at the Y-67 level shows that they belong to the same branch (A1a02) of Sir John's descendants (see Table # 4 below). Any Stewart who has some of the same off modal STR marker values as 53238, 251918 and 148693 may be able to prove that he belongs to this branch via a $17.50 test for SNP A5026 instead of via FTDNA's Big Y test.
  • Approximately fifth cousins E16164 and E15052 have four shared SNPs and three shared off-modal STR marker values at the Y67 level (few cousins who know that they are this closely related are likely to order two Y-DNA111 STR tests, two Big Y tests, and an $850 Elite Y test to boot)!
  • Unrelated men who have the same surname and different patrilineal ancestors are not likely to have identical STR test results (at the Y-DNA12 level, and especially at higher levels).


Y-DNA111 TABLE # 1
Line #This column shows SNPs that were discovered via Big Y tests. This row shows the names of 111 STR Markers.BRANCH ID ColumnFTDNA ID ColumnYFULL ID ColumnYSEQ ID ColumnGenetic Distance Column DYS 393DYS 390DYS 19/ 394DYS 391 DYS 385DYS 426DYS 388 DYS 439DYS 389 iDYS 392DYS 389 ii DYS 458DYS 459DYS 455DYS 454DYS 447DYS 437DYS 448 DYS 449 DYS 464DYS 460Y-GATA-H4YCA II DYS 456DYS 607 DYS 576 DYS 570 CDYDYS 442DYS 438DYS 531DYS 578DYF 395 S1DYS 590DYS 537DYS 641DYS 472DYF 406 S1DYS 511DYS 425DYS 413DYS 557DYS 594DYS 436DYS 490DYS 534DYS 450DYS 444DYS 481DYS 520DYS 446DYS 617DYS 568DYS 487DYS 572DYS 640DYS 492DYS 565DYS 710DYS 485DYS 632DYS 495DYS 540DYS 714DYS 716DYS 717DYS 505DYS 556DYS 549DYS 589DYS 522DYS 494DYS 533DYS 636DYS 575DYS 638DYS 462DYS 452DYS 445Y-GATA-A10DYS 463DYS 441Y-GGAAT-1B07DYS 525DYS 712DYS 593DYS 650DYS 532DYS 715DYS 504DYS 513DYS 561DYS 552DYS 726DYS 635DYS 587DYS 643DYS 497DYS 510DYS 434DYS 461DYS 435
This row shows the MODE of all descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland and Sir John.1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
17983139 GA / A309, 9108372 AT / A308, 23963147 AG / A306, 23998732 GA / A307A1a01E16164YF01691 6/111   1324141111-14121213131329179-1011112515192914-15-16-17111019-231515171836-36121211915-1681010811101223-231510121215812222114121113111112113616916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
2 A309, FGC34911, A308, FGC34912, FGC34914, FGC34917, A306, A307A1a01E15052YF033624294/111   1325141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-16-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231510121215812222114121113111112113616916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
37099342 TG / A749, 8675792 GA, 15817682 AG, 16560771 CT, 17286590 CT, 18729831 AG, 21628621 AGA1a02251918YF02184 9/111   1325141111-15121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171737-37121211915-1681010811101222-231610121215812232114121113111112113515916122526191211121211912121011113012142413101021151814241612152512231810141791211
419061777 CA / A888, 20806568 AG / A889A1a03315522YF020809014/111   1324141111-14121212131329169-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-38121211915-1681010811101223-231710121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101022151813241612152512231810141791211
57395675 CG, 15476784 AG, 17191410 TC, A889A1a03a349908YF02698  0/111!   1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
617423425 CT / A919, 19093413 CT / A920A1a04128499YF02313 6/111   1324141111-14121212131330179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231615171736-38121211915-1681010811101223-231510121215812222114121113111112113515916132526191211121211913121011113012132413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
78439846 GA, 18026006 CA/ A922A1a05a187778YF02179 3/111   1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-36121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113715916122526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
88439846 GA, 18026006 CA/ A922A1a05a329057YF03242 3/111   1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113715916132526191211121211914121011113112142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
9A1a05b - 9647644 GA, A922A1a05b272860YF02972 2/111   1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101020151813241612152512231811141791211
106188606 AG, 7538242 CT, 7699499 CT, 9146901 GA, 9511177 CT, 14005493 GA, 14200031 AG, 15861256 CT, 22461955 CGA1a06143035YF023814866/111   1324141111-14121212131329179-911112515193014-15-17-17111019-231515171635-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113515916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231910141791211
112682514 AT, 13135747 GT, 15858709 GA, 19003150 GA, 22458222 AG, 22461696 GCA1a07235915YF0240616111/111   1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916122526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
126898539 CG, A2509, 9146656 GA, 16676179 GA, 16906723 TC, A2510, A2511, 23823495 TCA1a0849412YF02561 5/67   1324141111-14121212131330179-911112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515161736-38121211915-1681010811101223-23151012121581222211412111311111211                                            
13A5023, 15711277 CT, A5025A1a09115205YF02682 6/111   1324141111-13121212131329179-1011112515192915-15-16-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121114111112113615916132626191211121211913121011113012142413101020151813241612152512231810141791211
1414692639 AG, A5024, 16775043 AG, 17355378 AG, A5028, A5032A1a10248425YF02955 ! 9/67   1325141011-14121212131330189-1011112515193014-15-17-17111019-231615171736-39121211915-16810108! 10101223-23151012121581222211412111311111211                                            
15A5027, A5031, 23050176 TCA1a1148694? 7/111   1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-36121211915-1681010811101223-231510121215812232114121113111112113515916132526191211121211913121011113013142414101020151813241612152512231810141791211
1615016482 CGA1a12183344YF03473 1/111   1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101020151813241612152512231810141791211
Distance from reference:ZeroOneTwoThree+ 

All tables but # 1 above and # 4 below compare the values of the 495 STR Markers of the Big Y Tested Descendants of Sir John STEWART of Bonkyll (died 1298).

Written 8/16/2015.

All of the Y-495 tables below are based on the YFULL table displayed at http://www.yfull.com/groups/r-s781/str/ (login required). The modes of Yfull's 495 marker tables may be different from the modes of FTDNA's Y-111, Y-67, etc. STR tables.

In the tables below:

  • Colored cells in rows with ID numbers contain off-modal marker values.
  • A marker's location in FTDNA's five Y-DNA111 panels is indicated by the colors of cells in the rows that show the names of the STR Markers.

Marker values shown on the left side of a cell indicate that an alternative allele(s) may exist.

That YF02561 and YF02698 have the off-modal value of 9 instead of the modal value 13 for marker DYR 68.3 (see column 196 in Table # 2) is bizarre.

All of the tables below were modified and colorized by hand (please report errors to an administrator of the royal Stuart project).

That STR marker values are included in Big Y results is coincidental as far as FTDNA is concerned. Y-DNA111 tests provide more reliable readings of some marker values. Red font in the top row of Table # 2 below indicates four markers (DYS 447, DYS 490, DYS 572 and DYS 617) whose values are included in Y-DNA111 but not in Big Y tests (see columns # 258, 298, 370 and 405).

Table # 2 lists 495 STR markers.123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627282930313233343536373839404142434445464748495051525354555657585960616263646566676869707172737475767778798081828384858687888990919293949596979899100101102103104105106107108109110111112113114115116117118119120121122123124125126127128129130131132133134135136137138139140141142143144145146147148149150151152153154155156157158159160161162163164165166167168169170171172173174175176177178179180181182183184185186187188189190191192193194195196197198199200201202203204205206207208209210211212213214215216217218219220221222223224225226227228229230231232233234235236237238239240241242243244245246247248249250251252253254255256257258259260261262263264265266267268269270271272273274275276277278279280281282283284285286287288289290291292293294295296297298299300301302303304305306307308309310311312313314315316317318319320321322323324325326327328329330331332333334335336337338339340341342343344345346347348349350351352353354355356357358359360361362363364365366367368369370371372373374375376377378379380381382383384385386387388389390391392393394395396397398399400401402403404405406407408409410411412413414415416417418419420421422423424425426427428429430431432433434435436437438439440441442443444445446447448449450451452453454455456457458459460461462463464465466467468469470471472473474475476477478479480481482483484485486487488489490491492493494495
Branch LabelFTDNA IDYFULL IDTERMINAL SNPATA 71D03CDY .1CDY .2DXY S156DYF 371.1DYF 371.2DYF 371.3DYF 371.4DYF 380.1DYF 380.2DYF 381.1DYF 381.2DYF 382DYF 383.1DYF 383.2DYF 384.1DYF 384.2DYF 385.1DYF 385.2DYF 386.1DYF 386.2DYF 386.3DYF 386.4DYF 387.1DYF 387.2DYF 389DYF 390DYF 390.1DYF 390.2DYF 391.1DYF 391.2DYF 392DYF 393DYF 394DYF 395.1DYF 395.2DYF 396.1DYF 396.2DYF 398.1DYF 398.2DYF 399.1DYF 399.2DYF 399.3DYF 400.1DYF 400.2DYF 401.1DYF 401.2DYF 403.1DYF 403.2DYF 404.1DYF 404.2DYF 405.1DYF 405.2DYF 406DYF 407.1DYF 407.2DYF 408.1DYF 408.2DYF 409.1DYF 409.2DYF 410.1DYF 410.2DYF 411.1DYF 411.2DYF 412.1DYF 412.2DYR 1DYR 10DYR 100DYR 101DYR 102DYR 103DYR 104DYR 105DYR 106DYR 107DYR 108DYR 109DYR 110DYR 111DYR 112DYR 113DYR 114DYR 115DYR 116DYR 117DYR 118DYR 119DYR 12DYR 120DYR 121.1DYR 121.2DYR 122.1DYR 122.2DYR 123DYR 124.1DYR 124.2DYR 124.3DYR 125.1DYR 125.2DYR 126DYR 127DYR 128.1DYR 128.2DYR 13DYR 130DYR 131DYR 132.1DYR 132.2DYR 135DYR 136DYR 137DYR 138DYR 139DYR 14DYR 143DYR 144DYR 146DYR 15DYR 150DYR 152DYR 154DYR 156DYR 157DYR 158DYR 159DYR 160DYR 161DYR 162DYR 163DYR 17.1DYR 17.2DYR 17.3DYR 18.1DYR 18.2DYR 19DYR 2DYR 20DYR 23DYR 26DYR 27DYR 28DYR 29DYR 3DYR 30DYR 31DYR 32DYR 33DYR 34DYR 35.1DYR 35.2DYR 36.1DYR 36.2DYR 37DYR 38.1DYR 38.2DYR 39DYR 40DYR 41DYR 43DYR 44DYR 45.1DYR 45.2DYR 45.3DYR 46DYR 47DYR 48DYR 9DYR 5DYR 51DYR 52DYR 54DYR 55DYR 56DYR 57DYR 58.1DYR 58.2DYR 59DYR 6DYR 60DYR 61DYR 62DYR 63.1DYR 63.2DYR 64.1DYR 64.2DYR 65DYR 66.1DYR 66.2DYR 67.1DYR 67.2DYR 67.3DYR 67.4DYR 68.1DYR 68.2DYR 68.3DYR 68.4DYR 69DYR 7DYR 70DYR 71DYR 73DYR 74DYR 75DYR 76DYR 77DYR 78DYR 79DYR 8DYR 80DYR 81DYR 82DYR 83DYR 84DYR 5DYR 7DYR 88.1DYR 88.2DYR 89DYR 90DYR 91DYR 9.1DYR 92DYR 9.2DYR 93DYR 94DYR 95DYR 96DYR 97DYR 98DYR 99DYS 19/394DYS 385.1DYS 385.2DYS 388DYS 389IDYS 389IIDYS 390DYS 391DYS 392DYS 393DYS 413.1DYS 413.2DYS 425DYS 426DYS 434DYS 435DYS 436DYS 437DYS 438DYS 439DYS 441DYS 442DYS 443DYS 444DYS 445DYS 446DYS 447DYS 448DYS 449DYS 450DYS 452DYS 453DYS 454DYS 455DYS 456DYS 458DYS 459.1DYS 459.2DYS 460DYS 461DYS 462DYS 463DYS 464.1DYS 464.2DYS 464.3DYS 464.4DYS 466DYS 467DYS 468DYS 469DYS 470DYS 471DYS 472DYS 473DYS 474DYS 475DYS 476DYS 477DYSDYS 480DYS 481DYS 484DYS 485DYS 487DYS 488DYS 489DYS 490DYS 491DYS 492DYS 493DYS 494DYS 495DYS 496DYS 497DYS 499DYS 500DYS 501DYS 502DYS 504DYS 505DYS 506DYS 507DYS 508DYS 509DYS 510DYS 511DYS 512DYS 513DYS 514DYS 516DYS 517DYS 518DYS 520DYS 521DYS 522DYS 523DYS 525DYS 526ADYS 526BDYS 527.1DYS 527.2DYS 528.1DYS 528.2DYS 530DYS 531DYS 532DYS 533DYS 534DYS 536DYS 537DYS 538DYS 539DYS 540DYS 541DYS 542DYS 543DYS 544DYS 545DYS 546DYS 547DYS 548DYS 549DYS 550DYS 551DYS 552DYS 554DYS 556DYS 557DYS 558DYS 559DYS 561DYS 562DYS 565DYS 567DYS 568DYS 569DYS 570DYS 571DYS 572DYS 573DYS 574DYS 575DYS 576DYS 577DYS 578DYS 579DYS 580DYS 581DYS 582DYS 583DYS 584DYS 585DYS 587DYS 588DYS 589DYS 590DYS 592DYS 593DYS 594DYS 595DYS 596DYS 598DYS 599DYS 600DYS 607DYS 608DYS 609DYS 611DYS 612DYS 613DYS 614DYS 615DYS 616DYS 617618DYS 619DYS 620DYS 621DYS 622DYS 623DYS 624DYS 625DYS 626DYS 627DYS 629DYS 630DYS 631DYS 632DYS 633DYS 634DYS 635DYS 636DYS 637DYS 638DYS 639DYS 640DYS 641DYS 642DYS 643DYS 644DYS 645DYS 649DYS 650DYS 651DYS 655DYS 656n/aDYS 662DYS 664DYS 666DYS 667DYS 668DYS 672DYS 673DYS 675DYS 676DYS 677DYS 678DYS 679DYS 681DYS 683DYS 684DYS 685DYS 686DYS 687DYS 688DYS 692DYS 694DYS 695DYS 696DYS 701DYS 702DYS 703DYS 705DYS 706DYS 707DYS 708DYS 709DYS 710DYS 711DYS 712DYS 713DYS 714DYS 715DYS 716DYS 717DYS 718DYS 719DYS 720DYS 721DYS 722DYS 723DYS 725.1DYS 725.2DYS 725.3DYS 725.4DYS 726G09 411L13 13L14YCA II.1YCA II.2Y-GATA-A10Y-GATA-H4Y-GGAAT-1B07
MODE   x36371210121314101088139978101111141414303011x10x99826x1516888172324.1252223141626291515611111212815121310101111111317101012x111058x95511146x294710121061415771691012262712x81010137xx116416181111991213101321131115x1615161213141014101210.t1312x1111101571714119947712121112x9111011159411x86910111611911x1417941212xx81010991111991313614971011151312x16116341013158718191115612121413107712127141114121329241113132323121291112151212131213121214x19298301111111517910111211x14151717713171611278x88118x8221315x1311x121210916x148138131612131011x171011122013143221911131013363335181991113131510101010131315181410164213128132591116x81519111111111710x101010179999888810181212811151081072211159x1833818814x12x8818109332628x21109x823121111101110810178818xx358507759x611111114510x3921347978327529105152228213665214225242619151232192119xxxx1211341923141010
A1a01E16164YF01691R-S781*x36371310121314101088x9978101111111415303011x10x99826x15168881724.1252722231417262915156111112138151213101011111113171010127x10x8895511146x29471012106xxxx1691012262712x81010137xx116416181111991313101321131115131615161213141014101210.t1312x11x10x71714119947712121112x9111011159411x86910111611911x1417xx1212xxx1010991111991313x14971011151312x161163410131687181911x61212141310771212714111412132924111313xx121291112151213131213121214x19298301111111517910111211x14151617713171611278x88118x8221316131311x121210916x148xx131612131011x171011122014143221911131013363336181991113131510101010x1315181410164212128132591115x81519111111111810x1010x179999888810181212811151081072211159x1833818814x12x8818109332628x21109x823121111101110810x8818xx34x5077591161111111451057392134x783275291051523282235.26521422524x19151232192119xxxx121134xx141010
A1a01E15052YF03362 Not Pending
A1a02251918YF02184R-S781*x37371210121314101088139978101111141414303011x10x99826x1516888172224.125222314162629151561111121281512131010111111131710101271010x8895512146x294710121061415xx1691012252611x81010x71111.3116416181111991213101321131114131615161213141014101210.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.26521422524x19151232192119xxxx121134xx141010
 292186None Not Pending
A1a03315522YF02080R-Y11635x36371210121314101088x9978101111141414303011x10x99826x1516888172325.12622231416262915156111112128151213101011111113171010127xx58x9551113xx294710121061415xx1691012262712x81010x7xx116416181111991213101321131115131615161214141014101210.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
A1a03a349908YF02698R-Y11635xxx1210121314101088x91078101111141415303011x10x99826x1516888172324.12622231416272915156111112128151213101011111113171010127111058x95511136x294710121061415xx1691012262712x81010137xx11641618111199121310x21131115131515151213141014101210.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
A1a04128499YF02313R-S781*x3638x10121314101088x8978101111141414303011x10x99826x1516888172224.12622231415262915156111112128151212101011111113x1010127x1058x95511146x29471012106xxxx1691012252612x81010x7xx11x416181111991213101321131115131515151213141014101210.tx12x11x10157x14119947712121112x911101115x411xx6x101116x911x14xxx1212xxx1010991111991313614971011151312xx116341013158717181116x12121413107x1212714111412133024111313xx121291112151212x1213121214x19x83011111116179101112xx14151717713171611278x88118x8221315131311xx1210916x148148131612131011x1710111220131432219111310xx33341819911x1315101010101313151814101642x128132591115x81519x11x111710x1010x1799998888x1812128x15108x72211159x1833818814x12x8x18109332628x21109x823121111101110810168818xx35xx7759x611111114510x4021x79783275x10515x2821x6621432524xxxx32192119xxxx12x34xx131010
A1a05a187778YF02179R-Y14048xxxx10121314101088xxx78101111141414303011x10x99825x1516888172324.12523231416262915156111112128151213xx9111113x101012xx10x8xx5511146xx46x12116xx771591012252713x81010x71111.3116417171111991214101321131115131615161213141014101210.tx12x11x101571714119947712121112x911xxx9411xx6910111511911x1417941012xxx1010991111991313x14971011151412x16x6341012158717181114612121413x7xx1271411131213292411x13xx12129111215121213x1312x14x19298301111x1517910111211241415171771317x11268x88118x8221315x1311x121299xx148x81316x131011x1710111220131432219111310xx333518199x13131510101010x13151814101643x128132591116x81519xxx111710x1010x1799998x88101812x81115xxx722x159x1833818814x12x8x18109x2628x21109x82312111110x10810x8818xxxx5077591161111111451057xxxx7832752910515x2821xx21x25242619x1232192119xxxx121134xx141010
A1a05a329057YF03242R-Y14048xxxx10121314101088x9978101111141414303011x10x99825x1516888172324.12522221414262915156111112138151213101091111131710101271110x8x95511146x294610121161415771691012262712x810101371111.3116416171111991213101321131115131615x1213141014101210.t1312x11x10x71714119947712121112119111011159411x86910121611911x1517xx1212xx81010991111991313x14971011151412x16116341013158718191114612121413107712127141114121329241113132323121291112151212x1213121214x19298311111111517910111211x14151717713171611268x88118x8221315131311x12129916x148148131612131011x1710111220131432219111310xx33331718911131415101010101313151814101643x128132591116x81519111111111710x101010179999888810181212811151081072211159x1834818814x12x8818109332628x21109x823121111101110810178818xx35x5077591161111111451057392134827832752910515x2821x6821422524x191512x192119xxxx1211341923141010
A1a05b272860YF02972R-A922*x36371210121314101088x9978101111141414303011x10x99827x1516888172324.1252223141626291515611111212815121310109111113171010127x1058x95511146x284710121061415771691012262712x810101371111.3116416171111991213101321131115131615161213141014101210.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
A1a06143035YF02381R-S781*x35371210121314101088x9978101111111414303011x10x99827x151688817232325.12223141625291515611111212815121310101111111317101013xx1058x95511146x29471010106xxxx1691012252712x81010137xx116416181111991213101321131115x1615161213141013101210.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
A1a07235915YF02406R-S781*113637x10121314101088139978101111131414303011x10x99826x1516888172324.12622231416262915156111112128151212101011111113171010127x10x8x95511146x29471012106xxxx1691012252712x810101371111.3116416181111x91213101321131115131615161213141014101210.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
A1a0849412YF02561R-S781*x3638x10121314101088x9978101111111415303011x10x99826x1516888172324.1262121141626291515611111212815121210101111111217101012xx10x8x95511146x294710121061415xx1691012242612x8101013711x11641618111199121310132113111514161516121314xx101210.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
A1a09115205YF02682R-S781*x36371210121314101088x91078101111141414303011x10x99826x151688817232525.122231416262915156111112128151213101011111113161010127x1058x95511146x294710121061415771691012262712x81010x7xx116416181111991213101321141114131615161213141014101210.t1312x11x10157x15119947712121112x91110111594xxx69101116x911x1417xx1212xxx10109911119910.113614971011151312x1711634101315871921111661212141310771211714111312132924111313xx121291112151212131213121214x19298x1111111517910111211x151515.317713171611278x88118x8221315x1311x121210916x148138131612131011x1710111220131432219111310xx3335181991113131510101010131315181410164213128132591116x81519x11x111710x1010101799998888918x12811151081072211159x1831819814x12x8x18109332628x21109x823121111101110810178818xx36850775911611111113510573921x787832752910515x2821366420422624xxx1232192119xxxx1211341923141010
A1a010248425YF02955R-S781*x3639x10121314101088x9978101111111415303011x10x99826x1516888172324.12521221416262915156111012128151212101011111113171010127x1058x95511146x294710131061415771691012262712x810101371111.3116416181111991113101321131115131615161213141014101210.t1312x11x10157x14119947712121112x9111011159411x86910111611911x1417941212xx81010991111991313x14971011151312x16116341013158718191115612121413107712127141114121330251013132223121291112151212131213121214x193083011111116189101112112414151717713171711278x88118x8221315x1311x121210916x148138131612131011x171011122013143121911141013363335181991113131510101010131315181410164213128132591115x81519111111111710x1010x179999888810181212811151081072211159x1831819814x12x8818109332628x21109x823121111101110810178818xx34x507759116111111145105742213479783275291051521292135.265214524242619151232192119xxxx1211341923141010
A1a01148694None Not Pending
A1a012183344YF03473R-S781*x36371210121314101088x9978101111141414303011x10x99826x1516888172324.12721231416272915156111112128151213101011111113171010x7x1058895511136x29471012106xxxx1691012262712x810101371111.31164161811119912131013x13111513x15x1213141014101210.t1312x11x10157x14119947712121112x91110111594xx86910111611911x1415941212xx81010991111991313x14971011151412x16116351013158718191115612121413107712127141114121329241113132323121291112151212131213121214x19298301111111517910111211x14151717713181611278x88118x8221315x1311x12129916x148x8131612131011x171011122013143221911131013x3335181991113131510101010131315181410164213128132591116x815191111x111710x1010101799998888101812128x151081072211159xx33818814x12x8818109332628x21109x823121111101110810178818xx34x5077591161111111451057392134x7832752910515x282136x20422524x19151231182119xxxx1211341923141010
A1e330477YF02294R-Y14197x36371210121314101088x9978101111141415303011x10x99826x1516888172324.12622231416262915156111112128151213101011111113171010127x1058x9x511146x2947101210xxx7717910122627129810101371111.3116416191111991213101319131115131715x1213141013101210.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
Distance from reference:ZeroOneTwoThree+ 

Table # 3 - The 54 colorized off-modal marker values shown in this table are the only ones that are shared by two or more of the branches of the descendants of Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll that are listed in Tables # 1 and # 2.
 152123334142434445566063818699100114126128130148196205208211217218220234237238266269279283301307322323351359400402437453455456467469470471472477481
Branch LabelFTDNA IDYFULL IDTERMINAL SNPDYF 383.2DYF 386.2DYF 386.4DYF 393DYF 399.1DYF 399.2DYF 399.3DYF 400.1DYF 400.2DYF 407.2DYF 409.2DYF 411.1DYR 112DYR 117DYR 125.1DYR 125.2DYR 139DYR 159DYR 161DYR 163DYR 33DYR 68.3DYR 76DYR 79DYR 81DYR 88.1DYR 88.2DYR 90DYS 385.2DYS 389IIDYS 390DYS 456DYS 459.2DYS 467DYS 471DYS 493DYS 500DYS 517DYS 518DYS 547DYS 557DYS 612DYS 614DYS 656n/aDYS 685DYS 687DYS 688DYS 708DYS 710DYS 711DYS 712DYS 713DYS 718DYS 722
MODE   91414262324.125222312131114726271815161614131316341819151429241510132710131432421633183539347928366521421521
A1a01E16164YF01691R-S781*911152624.12527222313131114726271815161614131316341819x1429241510132710x143242153318343934x2835.26521421521
A1a02251918YF02184R-S781*91414262224.12522231213111472526181416161413131634181915152925151013271013143242163118353933792935.26521421521
A1a03315522YF02080R-Y1163591414262325.1262223121311137262718151616141314x3517191514292415101227913153242163318363934x28xx21421422
A1a03a349908YF02698R-Y11635101415262324.126222312131113726271815151514914x35181915142924151012279131532421633183539348128366721421522
A1a04128499YF02313R-S781*91414262224.1262223121211147252618151515141313x341718161430241610132710141432421533183540x7928x662143x21
A1a05a187778YF02179R-Y14048x1414252324.1252323121391462527171516161413141634171814132924151013269x143243163318xxxx28xx21xx21
A1a05a329057YF03242R-Y1404891414252324.1252222131391462627171516x1413141634181914142924151013269141432431634183539348228x6821421521
A1a05b272860YF02972R-A922*91414272324.125222312139147262717151616141314163418191414292415101328913143143163318353934812836672042x21
A1a06143035YF02381R-S781*9111427232325.12223121311147252718151616151313x34xx16142924159132810141432421632xx3933x2835x21421521
A1a07235915YF02406R-S781*91314262324.126222312121114725271815161614131316341820151429241510132710x143342163318x4034x2836x21431421
A1a0849412YF02561R-S781*91115262324.1262121121211147242618151616149131734191914143024159132710x13314215331837x34x28xx21x1520
A1a09115205YF02682R-S781*10141426232525.122231213111472627181416161510.11317341921161329241510132710131432421631193639x782836642042x21
A1a010248425YF02955R-S781*91115262324.12521221212111472627181516161413131634181915143025161013271013143142153119344234792935.26521451521
A1a012183344YF03473R-S781*91414262324.127212312131113726271815xx1413141635181915142924151013279x143242163318343934x2836x20421521
Distance from reference:ZeroOneTwoThree+ 

Branch # 3 of Sir John's descendants has 8 off-modal marker values in common in Yfull's table. FTDNA's Y-DNA111 tests show none of them.
Excerpted from the 495STR markers in Table # 24381196205211279301322481
Branch LabelFTDNA IDYFULL IDTERMINAL SNPDYF 399.3DYR 112DYR 68.3DYR 76DYR 81DYS 467DYS 493DYS 517DYS 722
MODE   251413133413101421
A1a03315522YF02080R-Y1163526131314351291522
A1a03a349908YF02698R-Y116352613914351291522

Branch # 5 of Sir John's descendants has 8 off-modal marker values in common. Branch # 5a has 9 in common. FTDNA's Y-DNA111 tests show none of them.
Excerpted from the 495 STR markers in Table # 2336386114205220283301351470
Branch LabelFTDNA IDYFULL IDTERMINAL SNPDYF 393DYF 411.1DYR 117DYR 139DYR 76DYR 90DYS 471DYS 493DYS 547DYS 711
MODE   2611718131527104265
A1a05a187778YF02179R-Y14048259617141426943x
A1a05a329057YF03242R-Y1404825961714142694368
A1a05b272860YF02972R-A922*27971714142894367

Appin Branches # 4 & 8 of Sir John's descendants have 5 off-modal marker values in common. Y-DNA111 tests show only two of them.
Excerpted from the 495 STR markers in Table # 24360100196237359
Branch LabelFTDNA IDYFULL IDTERMINAL SNPDYF 399.3DYF 409.2DYR 125.2DYR 68.3DYS 389IIDYS 557
MODE   251327132916
A1a04128499YF02313R-S781*261226133015
A1a0849412YF02561R-S781*26122693015
A1a010248425YF02955R-S781*251227133015

The A1a04 (Appin) branch and the A1a06 branch of the descendants of Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll share the most (three) off-modal marker values in common. Y-DNA111 tests show none of them.
Excerpted from the 495 STR markers in Table # 215213399220269283307455469
Branch LabelFTDNA IDYFULL IDTERMINAL SNPDYF 383.2DYF 386.2DYF 393DYR 125.1DYR 90DYS 459.2DYS 471DYS 500DYS 687DYS 710
MODE   9142626151027133436
A1a06143035YF02381R-S781*911272516928143335
A1a04128499YF02313R-S781*914262516102714xx
A1a0849412YF02561R-S781*911262414927x34x
A1a02251918YF02184R-S781*9142625151027133335.2
A1a05b272860YF02972R-A922*9142726141028133436
A1a05a187778YF02179R-Y14048x142525141026xxx
A1a05a329057YF03242R-Y1404891425261410261434x
A1a07235915YF02406R-S781*9132625151027x3436

Why Does This Family Have So Few Branch Off-Modal STR Marker Values?

Table # 4 below facilitates finding "BRANCH" off-modal STR marker values. "Branch" off-modal STR marker values indicate that members of a patrilineal family belong to the same branch, e.g., Table # 4 shows that Branch A1a02 includes 53238, 251918 and 148693, and that it has FIVE BRANCH off-modal marker values in common at the Y-67 level. This probably means that 53238, 251918 and 148693 are very closely related, e.g., sixth cousins.

Big Y tests include 495 STR markers, so members of the same branch are over four times more likely to find shared off-modal marker values that distinquish them from all other branches. Most members of this family are so distantly related to each other that no branch STR marker values can be found even at the Y-DNA495 level.

STR marker values are far too unstable (mutate back and forth too frequently) to provide much useful information about the branches to which very distantly related cousins belong. We are more likely to benefit from Big Y or FGC tests that help us to discover our terminal SNPs, etc. Since FTDNA does not offer SNP and Big Y tests to first time customers, one may have to buy a different Y-DNA test anyway, e.g., a Y-DNA12 test.

The results of SNP tests are far more trustworthy, reliable and cheaper indicators of one's genetic relationships to one's kinfolk and to EVERYONE else on earth than are STR test results, e.g., the result of a ~$20 test for SNP R-L746 provides 100% proof of whether or not a man is a patrilineal descendant of the first High Steward of Scotland. See ISOGG's tree at http://www.isogg.org/tree/ISOGG_YDNATreeTrunk.html.

You may express your own opinion about this subject by responding to the 21/Aug/15 post at https://dnatestingchoice.com/ancestry/provider/family-tree-dna/197.

Table # 4 (Y-DNA111) was created 4/30/2015. Members of this project who have the same terminal SNPs belong to the same branch of the descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland. If you have some of the same off-modal STR markers as one of these branches, a test for some of the terminal SNPs that distinquish it may prove that you belong to it too. A Big Y test can also determine whether you belong to one of these branches, or to a branch that has not yet been discovered.
IDs of members of this project.BRANCHDYS 393DYS 390DYS 19/ 394DYS 391DYS 385DYS 426DYS 388DYS 439DYS 389 iDYS 392DYS 389 iiDYS 458DYS 459DYS 455DYS 454DYS 447DYS 437DYS 448DYS 449DYS 464DYS 460Y-GATA-H4YCA IIDYS 456DYS 607DYS 576DYS 570CDYDYS 442DYS 438DYS 531DYS 578DYF 395 S1DYS 590DYS 537DYS 641DYS 472DYF 406 S1DYS 511DYS 425DYS 413DYS 557DYS 594DYS 436DYS 490DYS 534DYS 450DYS 444DYS 481DYS 520DYS 446DYS 617DYS 568DYS 487DYS 572DYS 640DYS 492DYS 565DYS 710DYS 485DYS 632DYS 495DYS 540DYS 714DYS 716DYS 717DYS 505DYS 556DYS 549DYS 589DYS 522DYS 494DYS 533DYS 636DYS 575DYS 638DYS 462DYS 452DYS 445Y-GATA-A10DYS 463DYS 441Y-GGAAT-1B07DYS 525DYS 712DYS 593DYS 650DYS 532DYS 715DYS 504DYS 513DYS 561DYS 552DYS 726DYS 635DYS 587DYS 643DYS 497DYS 510DYS 434DYS 461DYS 435
Stewart Mode 1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
Members of FTDNA's royal Stuart project who tested POSITIVE for SNP R-S781
329057 1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113715916132526191211121211914121011113112142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
272638 1324141111-14121212131329169-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171735-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916122626191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
292186 1324141111-14121212131329169-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-38121211915-1681010811101223-231710121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101022151813241612152512231810141791211
168412 1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215813222114121113111112113715916132526191211121211914121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
183344 1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101020151813241612152512231810141791211
E16071A1a011324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-16-17111019-231515171836-37121211915-1681010811101223-231510121215812222114121113111112113616916132526191211121211912121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
E16164A1a011324141111-14121213131329179-1011112515192914-15-16-17111019-231515171836-36121211915-1681010811101223-231510121215812222114121113111112113616916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
E15052A1a011325141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-16-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231510121215812222114121113111112113616916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
53238A1a021325141111-15121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171737-37121211915-1681010811101222-23161012121581223211412111311111211                                            
251918A1a021325141111-15121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171737-37121211915-1681010811101222-231610121215812232114121113111112113515916122526191211121211912121011113012142413101021151814241612152512231810141791211
148693A1a021325141111-15121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171737-37121211915-1681010811101222-23161012121581223211412111311111211                                            
315522A1a031324141111-14121211131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
349908A1a031324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
128499A1a041324141111-14121212131330179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231615171736-38121211915-1681010811101223-231510121215812222114121113111112113515916132526191211121211913121011113012132413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
187778A1a051324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-36121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113715916122526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
287075A1a051324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113715916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
272860A1a051324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101020151813241612152512231811141791211
143035A1a061324141111-14121212131329179-911112515193014-15-17-17111019-231515171635-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113515916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231910141791211
199984A1a061324141111-14121212131329179-911112515193014-15-17-17111019-231515171636-37121212915-1681010811101223-23161012121581222211412111311111211                                            
235915A1a071324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916122526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
49412A1a081324141111-14121212131330179-911112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515161736-38121211915-1681010811101223-23151012121581222211412111311111211                                            
115205A1a091324141111-13121212131329179-1011112515192915-15-16-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121114111112113615916132626191211121211913121011113012142413101020151813241612152512231810141791211
248425A1a101325141011-14121212131330189-1011112515193014-15-17-17111019-231615171736-39121211915-1681010810101223-23151012121581222211412111311111211                                            
48694A1a111324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-36121211915-1681010811101223-231510121215812232114121113111112113515916132526191211121211913121011113013142414101020151813241612152512231810141791211
Members of FTDNA's royal Stuart project who tested NEGATIVE for SNP R-S781
148478 1323141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171737-37121211915-1681010811101223-231710121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
112014 1324141110-14121212131329189-1011112515192915-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211912121011113012132413101021151812241712152512231810141791211
209417 1324141111-14121212131329169-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681011811101223-23161012121581222211412111311111211                                            
317006 1324141111-14121212131329179-1010112515192915-15-17-17111019-231515171836-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101022151813241712152412231810141791211
40333 1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112514192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222014121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413111021151813241612152612231810141891211
48747 1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-16-17111019-231515171736-37121311915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222214121113111112113515916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101121151813241612152512231810141791211
B8873 1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192915-15-17-17111019-231515171736-36121211915-1681010811101223-23161012121581222211412111311111211                  11301214241310           23     12 
315872 1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515202914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-36121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012132413101022151813241712152512231810141791111
221200 1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112615192915-15-17-17111019-231515181736-38121211915-1681010811101223-231710121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241712152412231810141791211
320811 1324141111-14121212131329179-1011122515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171836-37131211915-1681010811101223-23161012121681222211412111311111211                                            
64547 1324141111-14121213131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-38121211915-1681010811101223-23161012121581222211512111311111211                                            
198781 1324141112-14121212131329169-1011112415192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-23161012121581222211412111311111211                                            
43549 1324141211-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171836-37121211915-1681010811101223-23161012121581222211412111311111211                                            
224095 1324151211-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111119-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215811222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101020151813241612152512231810141791211
358623A1b1324141111-14121211131329169-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121217812232114121113111112113615916132526191211121211912121011113012142413101021151813241812152512231810141791211
337156A1b1324141111-14121211131329169-1011112615193014-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-2316101212168122321141211131111121135159161325261912111212119131210111130121324131010211518132416131525122318101417101211
52840A1b1324141111-14121212121328159-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121216812232114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241712152512231810141791211
275395A1b1324141111-14121212131329                                                                                           
198199A1b1324141111-14121212131329159-1011112415192914-15-17-17111019-231515171636-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121216812232114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101022151813241712152512231810141791211
N2338A1b1324141111-14121212131329169-1010112615192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121216813232114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241613152512231810141791211
287664A1b1324141111-14121212131329169-1011112515192814-15-16-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121216812232014121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101020151813241612152512231810141791211
288798A1b1324141111-14121212131329169-1011112515192814-15-16-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-23161012121681223201412111311111211                                            
5603A1b1324141111-14121212131329169-1011112515192814-15-16-17111019-231515171737-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121216812232014121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101020151813241612152512231810141791211
239315A1b1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121216812232114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
283694A1c1324141111-14121212131329169-1011112515193014-15-17-17101019-231515171636-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121216812222115121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
75703A1c1324141111-14121212131329169-1011112515193014-15-17-17111019-231515161636-38121211915-1681010812101223-231610121216812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151713241612152512231810141791211
5987A1d1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231514171635-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215811222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101023151813241612152512231810131791211
16895A1d1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231514171635-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011112812142413101023151813241612152512231810131791211
330477A1e1324141111-14121212131329169-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515161736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211912121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
337093A1e1324141111-14121212131329169-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515161736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916122526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
147822A1e1324141111-14121212131329169-1011112515193014-15-17-17111019-231515171635-36121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121114111112113615916132526191211121211914121011113012152413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
256138A1f1324141111-15121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111119-231515171736-37121211915-1781010810101223-241610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191111121211912121011113012142413101020151813241612152512231810141791211
321497A1g1324141111-14121212131329179-911112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-36121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211914121011113012142413101021151813241711152512231810141791211
368733A1h1324141111-13121212131329179-1011112515192915-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526181211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241712152512231810141791211
57979A1h1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-16-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241713152512231810141791211
179069A1h1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211131211913121011113012142413101021151813241713152512231810141791211
164047A1h1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17121019-231515171736-38121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113715916132526191211131211913121011113012142413101021151813241713152512231810141791211
52758A1i1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-18111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215811222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
305358A1j1324141111-14121212131329169-1011112515193014-15-17-17111019-231515171834-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121216812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151913241612152512231810141791211
Members of FTDNA's royal Stuart project who had NOT TESTED for SNP R-S781 as of 4/30/2015
304756 1323141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-16-17111019-231515171736-37121311915-1681010811101223-23161012121581222221412111311111211       nbsp;                                     
85883 1323141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121216812232114121113111112113615916132526191212121211913121011113012142413101020151813241612152412231810141791211
144696 1323141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171737-37121211915-1681010811101223-23171012121581222211412111311111211                                            
N133020 1324131111-14121212131329169-1011112515193014-15-15-17111119-231515171636-37121211915-1681010811101223-2316101212168122221141211131111121136 91613252619121112121191312101111301214 1310102115 1324161215251223 10141791211
14486 1324141011-14121212131329169-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211131211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
199958 1324141011-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231516171737-38121311915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113515916132526191211121211913121011113012142313101020151813241612152512231810141891311
82598 1324141111-14121212131329159-1011112515193014-15-17-17111019-231515171636-37121211915-1681010811101223-231510121216812222114121113101112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
69506 1324141111-14121212131329169-1011112515192814-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-23161012121581222211412111310111211                                            
212556 1324141111-14121212131329169-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-221515161736-37121211915-1681010811101223-23161012121581223211412111311111211                                            
N53630 1324141111-14121212131329169-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171735-38121211915-1681010811101223-23161012121781223211412111311111211                                            
21686 1324141111-14121212131329169-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113101112113515916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101020151813241612152412231810141791211
275682 1324141111-14121212131329169-1011112515192914-15-17-17111021-221515171836-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121217812222113121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
67847 1324141111-14121212131329169-1011112515193014-15-17-17111019-231515171637-37121211915-1681010811101223-23161012121681221211412111311111211                                            
72199 1324141111-14121212131329169-101192515192914-14-15-17101019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-23161012121681222211412111311111211                                            
150786 1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112415192914-15-17-17111019-231515171735-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121216812222014121113111112113615916132626191211121211913121011113012142413101022151813241612152512231810141791211
112839 1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231415171636-37121211915-1681010811101223-23161012121581222211412111312111211                                            
164112 1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515161736-381212                                                                        
250834 1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171734-37121211915-1681010811101223-23161012121681122211412111311111211                                            
N8849 1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171735-361312                                                                        
44765 1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171735-37121211915-1681010811101223-23161012121581222211412111311111211                                            
280335 1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171735-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121114111112113615916132526191211121212913121011113012142413101020151813241612152512231810141791211
148823 1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-23161012121581222211412111411111211                                            
315732 1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010812101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
3214 1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121311915-1681010811101223-23161012121581222221412111311111211                                            
15341 1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231516171735-38121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113515916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101020151813241612152512231810141891311
199957 1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231516171736-371212                                                                        
365740 1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231516171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113515916132526191211121211913121011113012152313101020151813241612152512231810141891311
129498 1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192915-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215813222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101020151813241712152412231810141791211
337622 1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192915-15-17-17111019-231515171736-381212                                                                        
285143 1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515193014-15-17-17111019-231515161736-37121211915-1681010811101223-23161012121581222211412111311111211                                            
146145 1324141111-14121212141330179-1011112515193014-15-15-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812232114121113111112113615916132526191211121211914121011113012142413101021151813241711152512231810141791211
210080 1324141111-15121212131329169-1011112515192915-15-17-17111019-231515171736-36121211915-1681010811101223-23161012121581222211412111311111211                                            
7107 1324141111-15121212131329179-1011112315192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-36121211915-1681010811101223-23161012121581223211412111311111211                                            
304968 1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112615192914-15-17-17111019-231515171737-371212                                                                        
181994 1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-23161012121581222211412111311111211                                            
Distance from reference:ZeroOneTwoThree+ 


GD between racial haplotypes is greater than indicated due to haplotype convergence.
Table # 5M
o
d
e
3
9
5
6
8
9N
5
0
9
0
0
8
9
1
6
3
2
1
5
8
6
5
Stewart Mode-2917759142
39568 Stewart Duke2-51456067
89163 Australoid59605971-88
N50900 Mongoloid7745105-71139
9 Israelite9151-10559164
215865 Negroid1426716413988-
Related- Hybrid mutation model is used
Table # 3 - Grey cells indicate the 12 ($59), 25, 37 ($169), 67 ($268) and 111 ($339) marker levelsDYS 393DYS 390DYS 19/ 394DYS 391DYS 385DYS 426DYS 388DYS 439DYS 389 iDYS 392DYS 389 iiDYS 458DYS 459DYS 455DYS 454DYS 447DYS 437DYS 448DYS 449DYS 464DYS 460Y-GATA-H4YCA IIDYS 456DYS 607DYS 576DYS 570CDYDYS 442DYS 438DYS 531DYS 578DYF 395 S1DYS 590DYS 537DYS 641DYS 472DYF 406 S1DYS 511DYS 425DYS 413DYS 557DYS 594DYS 436DYS 490DYS 534DYS 450DYS 444DYS 481DYS 520DYS 446DYS 617DYS 568DYS 487DYS 572DYS 640DYS 492DYS 565DYS 710DYS 485DYS 632DYS 495DYS 540DYS 714DYS 716DYS 717DYS 505DYS 556DYS 549DYS 589DYS 522DYS 494DYS 533DYS 636DYS 575DYS 638DYS 462DYS 452DYS 445Y-GATA-A10DYS 463DYS 441Y-GGAAT-1B07DYS 525DYS 712DYS 593DYS 650DYS 532DYS 715DYS 504DYS 513DYS 561DYS 552DYS 726DYS 635DYS 587DYS 643DYS 497DYS 510DYS 434DYS 461DYS 435
Modal STR Haplotype of all Descendants of High Stewards of Scotland tested by FTDNA ==> 1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515192914-15-17-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-231610121215812222114121113111112113615916132526191211121211913121011113012142413101021151813241612152512231810141791211
Haplotype of ducal descendant #39568 of Charles II according to Roger S. Powell, MA1324141111-14121212131329179-1011112515193014-15-16-17111019-231515171736-37121211915-1681010811101223-23161012121581222211412111311111211                                            
Haplotype of # 9 (J1c3d. The y-MRCA of HG R & Semitic J-L147 lived ~45 KYA.1223141014-17111712131129178-811112514202514-14-16-16111021-221514181831-31131011815-168111181191221-22191012121781325211312111312121211321581512242720121213111291112101111301113221511112015191023151116241220189151791111
Haplotype of N50900 (China). The y-MRCA of HG O & R lived ~70 KYA.1225161112-12111212121328179-911112414203112-15-15-15111219-231415171832-36111011815-178117811101217-1716111212167132419121211151011121138158161225282011111312129111110111231111223139921162012221613152512231910141891212
Haplotype of Australoid89163 (GD=59@67). The y-MRCA of HG K & R lived ~106 KYA.1323161013-13111012141429189-91182815192714-14-15-15101119-221514172231-34131013816-169111081110019-21191012121691126221511111311111211                                            
Haplotype of # N64496 & 215865 (GD=68@67, HG A00 descendants of Dixie's Carolinian slaves)1319161016-17131112131230168-910112412213213-15-15-1811916-181515141836-36121610914-1481088117923-23171211121681226230121214101111123915913122228191011111012101110810133101220010927151213261713142415152013151491211
Distance from reference:ZeroOneTwoThree+The Most Recent Common Patrilineal Ancestor of all men who belong to HG R lived ~27 KYA. The Y chromosomes of men in R have no known SNP mutations in common with men in A00 and Neanderthals. According to Dr. Michael Hammer at the University of Arizona and Dr. Thomas Krahn, the theoretical y-MRCA of all men who belong to HG R and men who belong to HG A00 lived ~338,000 years ago (95% confidence interval 237–581 KYA). Some scientists irreverently claim that humans and Neanderthals mated and that their ancestral population lived ~370,000 years ago.

Your contributions to the General Fund of FTDNA's royal Stuart project will be used as you see fit, e.g., to pay for the DNA tests of men with your surname who still live in the part of the world from which you suspect that your patrilineal ancestors came. Most of the donations below were made in order to pay for the DNA tests of men who have the surname Stewart and who live in the UK.

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FTDNA complained about Version # 1 below so it was removed about June 2014.


Patrilineal Descendants of the High Stewards of Scotland

DISCLAIMER: The genealogical, cultural and personal agendas and opinions found at http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~stewartroyal/ and its links may not be those of any web site host, DNA testing company, employee, administrator, moderator or scientific community. Click on the red line below to consult a dictionary, and on images and links to see sources.
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Column # 1

Arms of the Great Steward until 1371


Our Patrilineal Clan

The Royal House of Stewart resided at Stirling, Linlithgow, Falkland, etc., and was founded by Robert II (2 March 1316 – 19 April 1390). He was the great-great-grandson of Justiciary Walter fitz Alan STEWART (~1198-1246), the third High Steward of Scotland and the first member of this family to use the surname Stewart (Stiubhard in Gaelic, Senescalli in Latin). King James I of England (1566 – 1625) and his descendants belong to a cadet branch of this aristocratic family line, house or dynasty (the sixth of nine enthroned in England since 927 AD).

After Robert II's death his third son Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany (c. 1340–1420) ruled Scotland. The Duke's son Murdoch Stewart governed Scotland until his first cousin King James I of Scotland was ransomed. James I had Murdoch and most of his sons beheaded on 24 May 1425. Murdoch's youngest son and only surviving heir James Mor Stewart fled to Antrim, County Antrim, Northern Ireland. Murdoch's descendant Andrew Stuart, 1st Baron Castle Stuart of Stewartstown, County Tyrone was one of the chief undertakers in the Ulster Plantation that brought Presbyterians to Ireland during the 1600s.

All of Walter's descendants have SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) R-L745, a deletion that can not back mutate. This mutation is "... only seen in direct descendants of the Stewart dynasty, kings and queens who ruled first Scotland and then Great Britain and Ireland between 1371 and 1701" according to Dr. Jim Wilson of ScotlandsDNA and BritainsDNA. All men who test positive for SNP R-L744 and/or L745 and/or L746 descend from the High Stewards.

The Duke of Buccleuch and about 30 members of this project tested positive for R-L745. A duke (e.g. 39568) is a nobleman with the highest hereditary rank, especially a man of the highest grade of the peerage in Great Britain. The Dukes of Richmond, Grafton, St. Albans and Buccleuch (the largest private landowner in the UK) are descendants of King Charles II of England. Some of them are officers of the Royal Stuart Society. Click here to read about its events, e.g., a free public lecture about James IV on 30th October, 2013.

The aforesaid dukes and about 20% of the members of this patrilineal family do not have the surname Stewart, possibly because their patrilineal ancestors chose a different surname over 800 years ago, or because of a non-paternity event (NPE), e.g., infidelity, illegitimacy or a hidden adoption. "... on average only 50% of individuals sharing a unique surname will have inherited the original Y chromosome of the founding ancestor..." (Northern European genepools have lower than average rates of NPE and crime, e.g, rape).

About half of all Scots who have the occupational surname Stewart (or a variation thereof) descend from Walter. So do all of those whose test results are listed in the bright yellow colored subgroups of this project.

Walter and his five known sons are patrilineal descendants of the lord of Oswestry in Shropshire and of Alan (a crusader in 1097), the hereditary Seneschal of the Bishops de Dol de Bretagne. "Alan, the Dapifer of Dol in Brittany, was of Celtic extraction. Brittany was a separate Celtic country founded by Welsh, Cornish and probably Strathclyde immigrants who settled there in the early IIIrd, IVth and Vth centuries. Alan's family is said to have been a cadet branch to the Dukes of Brittany who were kings two centuries earlier. Hence, while Alan's descendants were followers of William the Conqueror, they were not of Norman extraction."

Some of Alan's patrilineal ancestors may have belonged to the Celtic tribe known as Dumnonii, and fled to Armorica after polytheistic Germans, a.k.a. the English, invaded their homeland (now called England). If Roman imperialists had not disarmed the British, they might have defeated the Anglo-Saxons. According to an article by Alistair Moffat in the 27 December 2011 issue of the Scotsman, "It may well be, on the evidence of DNA, that the Stewart dynasty of Scotland and of Great Britain and Ireland actually originated in the south or south-west of England..." If Allan's pagan ancestors lived in that part of Britain some of them may have helped to build Stonehedge about 5000 years ago.

Skip to Column # 9 about the first farmers if you want to read more historical and anthropological information about the Celtic ancestors of this Stewart family.

That Old-Time Religion, a pre-Roman message of hope, faith and continuity.

The Sun as symbol of God, in Yazdani faiths.

The yellow sun with twenty-one rays represents Mithra, the Sun as symbol of God, in Yazdani faiths.



Note:

  • You may order DNA tests and upgrades ONLINE 24/7, or by talking to the caring and knowledgeable employees at 713-868-1438 Monday - Thursday 9 am - 5 pm and Friday 9 am - 12 pm and 1 pm - 5:00 pm Central time (CST).
  • Genealogists who test their DNA are less likely to waste their time and money researching ancestors who are not their own, and in whom none of their relatives are interested.
  • The results of your DNA tests benefit all members of this family if you make them public. No member or administrator of this project benefits financially.
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  • This phylogenetic project was created especially for descendants of the High Stewards of Scotland on October 29, 2010. The more of them join it the better researchers can help them to achieve their genealogical goals. The test results of members of this family who do not belong to this project may be ignored by researchers (one wrote: "it is a real pain to splice together data from several different projects"). This project's test result pages also facilitate research by loading faster than those of larger projects for families who have nothing in common but the surname Stewart.
  • You may be asked to leave this project unless your matches include descendants of the High Stewards of Scotland, or unless you test positive for SNP R-L745 (a.k.a. S463), L744 (a.k.a. S388), L746, or DF41. Anyone who tests positive for L745 either descends from Walter or from one of his close relatives, i.e., from the House of Stewart. All members of this family and their closest non-Stewart kinfolk test positive for DF41.
  • Customers with similar test results may exchange genealogical, etc. information via email. Project administrators and Ysearch may help people to contact each other even if their test results do not match. Customers need not reveal the names, addresses or any other personal information about the person whose DNA was used for a test unless they choose to do so (DNA testing may be illegal in some countries). Read these Frequently Asked Questions for more information about Privacy, etc.
  • You may find the test results of one of your mother's male cousins if he allows the name, location, dates, etc. of his Most Distant Known Patrilineal Ancestor (y-MDKA) to be displayed via a DNA project for his surname. E.g., if your mother descends from a Michael MARTIN who lived in SC, you may find his genetic signature by searching for his name via this Martin test results web page. Some of his matches may be genealogists who traced your Martin ancestors back a thousand years! You may be able to contact your Martin cousins via Ysearch, or via the Martin project administrator (a donation to her General Fund may help).
  • To see if your test results have been updated, you may have to "RELOAD" or "REFRESH" (F5) a web page (be patient when loading large tables).
  • Click on the images or hyperlinks in quoted text at this web site if you want to see their sources, etc. Please report any nonfunctional links to an administrator and tell us how we can serve you better. This web site has been under construction since it was created (please visit often).


Scroll down to see images. Click on them to see sources.
Scroll to the top and right if you want to read Column # 2. ====>

Column # 2

Welcome to the Phylogenetic Project for patrilineal descendants of the

High STEWARDS of Scotland


Shopping for a DNA Test

Everyone has a haplotype. If your haplotype (y-STR test results) and the Modal Haplotype of this Stewart family are an exact match (and your surname is not Stewart or a version thereof), the chances that you descend from the High Stewards are about:

  • 2% at the $59 Y-DNA12 test level
  • 50% at the Y-DNA25 test level
  • 85% at the $169 Y-DNA37 test level
  • 100% at the Y-DNA111 and $268 Y-DNA67 test levels.

The chances are less if the match is less close. All prices are subject to change. Some tests cost less during sales, and if you join a project before ordering. You may have to wait longer for your test results during a sale.

The more STR markers we can compare the better we can determine how closely people are related, and to which branch of this family they belong. "I have found the 111-marker test absolutely invaluable for sorting out subfamilies within a single large family group of known surname" Belinda Dettmann

We recommend "that those who have the Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype (WAMH) use the Y67 or Y111 test to confirm genealogical relationships unless they have a rare surname." Some advantages of testing 67 markers over testing 37 are:

  • By using additional markers groups of related participants have a better chance of finding mutations which identify sub-branches of their family.
  • People whose test results match closely at the Y67 level, or who have the same terminal SNP (e.g., R-L745), know that they belong to the same genetic family even if they have different surnames.
  • A Y67 test can further refine our estimate of how closely related two individuals are.
  • "The Y111 test is intended for those who wish to refine the time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) calculation with a close or exact match and who wish to improve the confidence in a match.".



Whose DNA to test?

Y-chromosome DNA tests are the most informative genetic system for identifying ancestral lineages. They are for MALES only. Testing the DNA of an older generation (e.g., your father) may eliminate a recent mutation from comparisons. Test the DNA of your most distant genealogically proven patrilineal cousin too in order to determine if a mutation has occurred since your Most Recent Common Patrilineal Ancestor (Y-MRCA) lived. A woman may be able to test the DNA of her biological father, brother, patrilineal cousin, etc.

An autosomal test (e.g., Family Finder) may be taken by either a male or a female, and may identify hundreds of maternal and paternal cousins. If a Y-DNA test proves that an adoptee descends from the High Stewards of Scotland, an autosomal test may help him to identify some of his first, second, third, etc. Stewart cousins. The challenge is to figure out how distant cousins are related to you, e.g., via which gggGrandmother, etc. Your grandfather's Family Finder test will show paternal cousins and clues to the identity of ancestors who are more distantly related to you than your own FF test would.

The Genetic Genealogy Success Stories of the International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) explain how some people have benefited from Y-DNA, autosomal and other kinds of DNA tests.



Identifying Your Genetic Homeland

This is not an endorsement of a genealogical method or service.

"Since modern science can pinpoint a Genetic Homeland it can also be used to confirm it by DNA testing individuals from the pinpointed area."

According to guest speaker Dr. Tyrone Bowes, Ph.D, a person whose matches have different surnames may be able to use those surnames to "... pinpoint where one's direct male ancestor lived when he first picked his surname ... If your ancestors were in their Genetic Homeland 1000 years ago, his descendants (your distant relatives) are still living there even today; to confirm the paternal ancestral link with the identified area one simply has to recruit males living in that location for a Y-DNA test." "Put very simply those surnames arose among a group of related males living in a very specific location, find out where those surnames originate and you'll reveal a common area of association..... literally revealing your paternal GENETIC HOMELAND". He explains how to do this in detail via an article called Case Study Pinpointing the Stewart Paternal Ancestral Genetic Homeland.


Where in Ireland is the surname STEWART Most Common? Click here to see where it was most common in Scotland in 1881, and here for the STUART spelling.



STR Test Results

Y67 tests measure the number of differences, or STR mutations, between two sets of results, i.e, their Genetic Distance (GD) from each other. The more closely related two members of this lineage are, the less GD between them there is likely to be. E.g. the GD between brothers 5987 and 16895 is 1@67 and 3@111, between fourth cousins 199984 and 143035 is 2@67 (about one mutation every six generations), and between the ducal descendants of three different sons of King Charles II (1630-1685) is 3@67.

If your cousins' GD from you is more that 7@67 (~10%) their email addresses may not be included in your list of your matches. The GD between 5603 and 143035 is 11@67 (16.4%) and between some descendants of the High Stewards of Scotland may be as high as 14@67 (~20%).



Signature Marker Values

All descendants of the High Stewards of Scotland who have the surname Stewart and who belong to this project have the "genetic signature" Y-GATA-H4 = 10, DYF 406 S1 = 11 and DYS 565 = 11 so far.

Please carefully peruse Diana Gale Matthiesen's web page about "Signature Markers: What They Are and How to Use Them" if you want to help to determine to which branch of a lineage someone belongs.



Column # 3 ====>

Column # 3


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/King_James_VI_of_Scotland



This Family's Haplogroups and Modal Haplotype

A haplogroup (HG) is a group of similar haplotypes. Every member of this Stewart family is in haplogroup R (a.k.a. IX in some scientific journals) and more specifically in haplogroups R-L744, L745 and L746 (children of haplogroup DF41).

The haplotype of a family's Y-MRCA is its Ancestral Signature or Ancestral Haplotype. If it can not be determined or deduced by testing his remains, it is assumed (perhaps wrongly) to be the Modal Haplotype or mode of all of his tested descendants.

A Modal Haplotype is the most common result or value for each STR marker or allele tested in a group of results. The one and only mode at the Y67 level of more than eighty patrilineal descendants of Walter is the same as the test results of 181994.

Descendants of Walter who belong to the same generation have the same relationship to him no matter what their GD from his assumed haplotype is. E.g., brothers 5987 and 16895 are as closely related to Walter as any other member of their generation, even though they have five off-modal marker values at the Y111 level, and the GD between them is 1@67.

No member of this 800 year old Stewart lineage whose GD from its mode is greater than 9@67 (about one mutation every 100 years) has been tested. 5603 (L745+) and one or two of his cousins have a GD of 7@67 from its mode. Erwin's (42048) GD from it is also 7@67. That he tested negative for SNP DF41, a mutation that is estimated to have occurred two or three millennia ago, shows how distantly related to this Stewart family he is. GD usually indicates how closely people are related, but not always.

Mutation rates are not completely predictable. The GD between over 7% of the members of this family (e.g., 110059, 179069, 181994, 183344, 214547, 235915 and 272860) and its mode is 0@67 (zero mutations every 800 years). Some of them belong to different branches of this lineage according to the genealogical evidence. "... sharing the haplogroup modal values with a family is of virtually no significance beyond the fact that you're related somewhere back in time" (Matthiesen).



Non-Modal Marker Values

Marker values that are not a family's most common are non-modal (a.k.a off-modal). Non-modal marker values help to determine who belongs to which branches of a family. Members of this Stewart family who have no non-modal marker values at the Y67 level have some at the Y111 level. None have tested 0@111 from its mode yet.

The mode of all descendants of the High Stewards of Scotland has the values 14-15-17-17 for DYS464. The ducal descendants of King Charles II have only ONE off-modal marker value for DYS464 in common, 14-15-16-17. That some members of the Kintyre branch have this non-modal marker value and some do not have it indicates that this mutation reversed itself, or that it occurred more than once (DYS464 mutates faster than most markers).

Testing the Y-DNA of the first tester's most distant genealogically traced patrilineal cousin helps to determine which mutation(s) occurred after their Y-MRCA was born, to which branch of the High Stewards of Scotland they belong, and whether or not an adoption occurred. E.g., 143035 and his known fourth cousin 199984 have three "branch" non-modal values in common: DYS459=9-9, DYS 449=30 and DYS 570=16. Their gggGrandfather Robert "Robin" STEWART (born ~1785) probably had all three of these mutations too. Any other descendant of the High Stewards who has all three of these mutations probably descends from Robin, or is closely related to him.

One (199984) of Robin's two tested gggGrandsons has CDY=36-37 and one (143035) has CDY=35-37 (this is one of the fastest mutating markers). Since CDY=36-37 is the modal value for all descendants of the High Stewards, Robin probably had that mutation too. If another descendant of Robin tests CDY=35-37 it would become a fourth branch marker (it would no longer be "private"). All descendants of Robin who have CDY=35-37 are probably closer kin to each other than they are to 199984. If CDY=35-37 is the only non-modal marker that 143035 has in common with another member of this Stewart family they are probably no closer kin to each other than they are to any other descendant of the High Stewards.

That 199984, 143035, 147822, 16895, and 5987 have ONE non-modal marker value (DYS 570=16) in common is evidence that they belong to the same branch of this family (genealogical research may prove otherwise). Based on a comparison of their non-modal marker values using standard parameters, there is a 50% probability that their common ancestor was born no longer than 300 years ago (about 1700) and a 95% probability that he was born no longer than 540 years ago (about 1470).

Pages 37 and 38 of Alex Williamson's Y111 R-L21 phylogenetic tree show how some descendants of the High Stewards of Scotland MAY be related to each other. Pages 103 and 104 of his Y67 tree include haplogroups R-L744, L745, and the following subgroup:

  • f_16895 Clancey R1b-P312>L21>DF13>DF41>L744>L745+ [41-744-Stu] USA
  • f_5987 Clancey R1b-P312>L21>DF13>DF41>L744>L745+ [41-744-Stu] USA
  • f_112839 Stewart zzL21suspect [41-744-Stu] Scotland
  • f_199984 Stewart zzL21suspect [41-744-Stu] Ireland
  • f_143035 Stewart R1b-P312>L21>DF13>DF41>L744>L745+ [41-744-Stu] Ireland
  • f_147822 Stuart R1b-P312>L21>DF13>DF41>L744>L745+ [41-744-Stu] Scotland

Knowing that 143035 and 147822 belong to the same branch of this family may help them to identify their common ancestor. If DYS458=16 is a branch (i.e., non-private) marker value for 147822, it would be evidence that he and 143035 belong to different branches of this family (143035 has DYS458=17).

Since DYS570=16 is the only branch marker value that 147822, 199984, 143035, 16895, 5987 and 112839 have in common at the Y111 level, the man who first had the DYS 570=16 branch mutation probably descends from a man who had no non-modal marker values, and the man who first had the DYS 449=30 branch mutation must be a descendant of the man who first had the DYS 570=16 branch mutation.

DYS459=9-9, DYS449=30 and DYS570=16 are the only branch marker values that fourth cousins 199984 and 143035 have in common at the Y67 level. More may be found if 199984 upgrades to the Y111 level.


After you click on the image below and then on pushpins on the interactive map that SLOWLY loads, the surnames of the y-MDKAs of some DF41 Cousins of the High Stewards are displayed.

The DF41 mutation is believed to have occurred about 2,200 years ago..
Why are so few Continental Europeans shown on this map?
See http://groups.yahoo.com/group/ClanDF41/message/373.


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Column # 4


Armorial used by Stuart monarchs in England after 1603



SNP Test Results

The video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OtMS1rIbPc0 explains how the results of a $695 Big Y test can help us to precisely position each branch of our family on a phylogenetic tree! STR markers are more useful for determining how recent generations of a family are related to each other within genealogical times. A SNP test is a reliable way for you to identify your more distant patrilineal cousins, ancestors and anthropological origins. SNP test results are sometimes better indicators of recent ancestry than STR test results, e.g. read about Erwin # 42048 above.

A SNP is a single mutation in one base pair. "These changes are rare. Once they happen, they seldom change back ..." STR marker values mutate forwards and backwards more frequently so they are less reliable and more ambiguous sources of information than SNPs and other UEPs (unique-event polymorphisms).

We thank Dr. Thomas Krahn (6C3CZ & 64047 on page 3) for discovering SNPs R-L744 (A+), L746 (T+) and L745 (del+) via a Walk Through the Y (WTY) test of the DNA of the member of this Stewart family whose test results are displayed in David Reynolds' table where the L745 row and the 143035 column intersect. The GD between 143035 and 5603 is 11@67 (83.6%) and 13@111 (88.3%).

Next generation sequencing tests of members of this R-L745+ family may discover SNPs that help to divide it into branches. "Across the entire Y-chromosome DNA, a SNP occurs every one to two generations". According to expert Vince Tilroe, Big Y tests are likely to discover one Y-SNP per 4 to 6 generations. Full Y tests sequence more mega-bases so they are likely to discover one Y-SNP per 3 to 4 generations.

The mutation known as R-L744 probably occurred 800 or less years ago. ISOGG recently named this haplogroup R1b1a2a1a2c1i1. FTDNA still assigns people who test L744+ to haplogroup R1b1a2a1a1b4 (the YCC 2008 name for SNP R-L21).

According to the R1b-L21 tree shown at the bottom of this web page, SNPs L744, L745 & L746 are downsteam of DF41 (a mutation estimated to have occurred about 2300 years ago), DF13 and R-L21 (estimated to have occurred about 3500 years ago). Other interesting estimates of when some SNP mutations occurred are shown at the bottom of some of Williamson's trees.

ScotlandsDNA states: "Your marker, S145/R-L21 is present in small but statistically significant numbers in Western France and Spain. One of its most interesting concentrations is in Brittany. Formerly known as Armorica, part of the Roman province of Gaul, this region changed its name to mean 'Little Britain'. This happened because of a migration, an exodus from Southern England of Romano-British people who fled the Anglo-Saxon invasions of the 5th and 6th centuries. These were almost certainly aristocrats, landowners and townspeople of means, those with the most to lose and the ability to flee. They brought their marker with them and outside of Britain, S145 is most common in Brittany, Little Britain."

SNP tests have revealed how some R-L21 families are related to each other. You can determine to which branch of L21 you belong by finding your terminal SNP, e.g., by ordering a test for the terminal SNP of someone who matches you closely. If you test R-L21+ the friendly experts who participate in the R-L21 and DF41 Forums may tell you for which SNP (child of R-L21) to test next.

R-L744, L745 and/or L746 are currently the terminal SNPs of all members of this patrilineal family. Why find your terminal SNP and how?



How to Order An Individual SNP Test

You are not likely to test positive for SNPs R-L744, L745 and/or L746 unless:

  • One of your close matches has already done so.
  • Nearly all of your matches have the surname Stewart.
  • Your GD from the mode of this Stewart family is no greater than 9@67.

If you want to order one or more SNP tests:

  • Just go to your "myFTDNA" pages and click on "Order An Upgrade" in the upper right corner. Scroll down and click on Order an Advanced Test under the heading "Advanced Tests" (tests for recently discovered SNPs will eventually be added to the Order Advanced SNP Test menu).
  • On the next screen, click the drop-down menu on the "Test Type" box and choose "SNP". Then, in the "Marker" box, type the name of the SNP, e.g., L745. Click "Find". That SNP should come up, showing a $39 price. Click "Add". After you add all the SNPs you want to order, click on the little orange "Next" button hidden in the lower right corner and add shipping address, etc. information.

Members' SNP test results are posted on the Stuart family SNP web page and at the bottom of their Haplotree web pages.

If the administrators of other projects do not display their members' SNP test results, please ask them to read the article at this link.



Do Experts Ever Make Mistakes?

The International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) mistakenly listed SNP R-L745 as being a child of L744 because a DNA testing company reported on 11/29/2011 that Webb (75703) tested L744+ (positive) and L745- (negative).

A descendant of the High Stewards (143035) immediately realized that Webb's SNP and STR test results were inconsistent, and asked that company to rerun Webb's SNP test. That company did so nearly two years later.

Laboratory director Connie Bormans, Ph.D. wrote: "The data was reviewed and we reran the sample in question. The rerun showed the sample was L745+, and the results have been changed accordingly." Webb can now be certain that he descends from the High Stewards therefore.




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Column # 5


Banner of the Kings of Scotland and the Flag of Scotland


How Can We Help Each Other?

FTDNA recommends:

  • "Be as descriptive, but brief, in your e-mail request as possible. Make the case on why you need to share information. The more detailed it is, the more likely you will receive a reply. The more vague it is, the less likely you will.
  • If someone contacts you with a question you do not know the answer to, do not ignore the e-mail. Either reply that you do not know the answer, or if its a question related to the results and you need assistance to answer the question, contact Family Tree DNA's Customer Service.
  • Do NOT send a bulk e-mail to all of your matches. While more tedious, you will receive a better response rate if you take the time to individually address each match separately. One reason for this is because some customers use the same e-mail address on multiple kits and if you do not address the name you are contacting, they have no way of knowing which kit you are contacting them about."
  • Your matches and administrators may not be able to identify you or know what you are talking about unless your messages include your kit number and the URL of the web page or project that you want to discuss.
  • Those who upgrade to the Y67 and Y111 levels and make their test results public benefit all members of our family, not just themselves.
  • Diana Gale Matthiesen stated: "Genealogy is like a jigsaw puzzle... If everyone hides their piece of the puzzle, none of us will get anywhere." Please do not make your test results and the name, etc. of your earliest genealogically traced patrilineal ancestor private.
  • A comparison of our pedigrees and DNA test results may help us to identify to which branch of this Stewart/Stuart family someone belongs even if he does not know the names of his biological parents. People with different surnames may be surprised to learn that they too are members of our historic Stewart family.
  • Genetic matches who provide their pedigrees and the names of their y-MDKAs are more likely to find genealogical connections. If you want this Stewart family to have Pedigree and Forum web pages like those of the Ards Peninsula Families DNA Project please tell the administrators of this project.
  • Help all Stewart and other genealogists to understand the benefits of genetic genealogy so that our Y-DNA database will grow. Share your Stewart lineage and DNA success stories by participating in genealogical forums, e.g., at http://genforum.genealogy.com/stewart/ and http://boards.rootsweb.com/surnames.stewart/mb.ashx. Encourage members of other families and strangers to have their DNA tested too. The more people have their DNA tested and the more advanced the technology, etc. becomes, the easier it will be for us to find our kinfolk.
  • All of the money that you donate to the General Fund of the Stuart project will be used to pay for any test that you want done, e.g., of the DNA of a Stewart from the village from which your patrilineal ancestor came. The person for whose DNA test you paid may not remove his results from the database or restrict access to them unless he repays you in full. This includes tests for which a group project paid. You may ask his local newspaper to advertise your offer and thereby encourage more interest in DNA testing.
  • Join the Stewart DNA Forum that is exclusively for members of this family (regardless of their surnames and gender) if you want to read or write comments, post pictures, vote about how money in this family's General Fund is spent, elect project administrators, etc.
  • Email an administrator of this project if you want more details about how to order and use your DNA sample collection kit.
  • Having children is the best thing that we can do to help the House of Stewart to survive. Without new generations everything else that we and our ancestors have worked so hard to accomplish is in vain. The more a family or nation neglects its own interests and the care and proper education of its own children, the longer it will last. "We are merely the present-day custodians of our Ancestors' genes."
  • Let's help each other to succeed, not fail.


This Stewart Project Is Unique.

This genetic genealogy project is a collaborative effort to answer genealogical questions using the results of DNA tests. Some of its goals are to:

  • Recruit as many patrilineal descendants of the High Stewards of Scotland as possible, no matter what their surnames and geographic locations may be
  • Help them to have their DNA tested for genealogical purposes by providing information and financial assistance.
  • Use their test results and pedigrees to determine exactly how they are related to each other and to which branches of this lineage they belong
  • Make their DNA test results more understandable and meaningful. The failure to do this is the most common complaint from the customers of DNA testing companies. Reading I Have the Results of My Genetic Genealogy Test, Now What? may help.
  • Serve their needs as a genetic family and to promote their interests, solidarity and pride in any way that we can.

We thank those who joined this project. The better our leaders are, the more successful our efforts will be. Please help us to choose the best. Volunteers, suggestions and criticism are welcome.


Click on a DF41 Tree below, then a 2nd click to enlarge it.

Clan DF41 Tree


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Column # 6


Stewart Tartan and armorial used by Stuart monarchs in Scotland before 1603.


Reputed Lineage of the Stewart Monarchs of Scotland

  1. Alan was an hereditary Seneschal of the Bishops of Dol en Bretagne (crusader in 1097). The name Alan is an Anglicization of the Gaelic name Ó h-Ailín, meaning 'fair', 'handsome, noble, etc. Alain and Allen are variations.
  2. Flaald, Seneschal de Dol (d. between 1080 and 1106)
  3. Alan fitz Flaald (born 1070, died in 1114) m. Aveline de Hesdin. He was a knight in Norman service. Some of his patrilineal descendants held the title of Earls of Arundel until they died without a male heir in 1580. A Y-DNA test of this branch would help to determine when the R-L745 SNP mutation occurred.
  4. Walter fitz Alan (1106 - June 1177) was the 1st hereditary High Steward of Scotland (c1150-1177), m. Eochyna de Molle. He came to Scotland about 1136 and had extensive landholdings in the Borders and central Scotland. He was interred at Paisley Abbey (desecrated by a mob incited by John Knox, et alia). The name Walter comes from Old High German Walthari, containing the elements wald "rule" and hari "army, warrior".
  5. Alan fitz Walter (1140 – 1204) was the 2nd Great Steward of Scotland, took part in the Third Crusade and married Alesta.
  6. Walter STEWART of Dundonald, 3rd High Steward of Scotland (~1198-1246), was the first member of this family to use the surname Stewart.
  7. Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland (b. circa 1214, d. circa 1283), m Jean Macrory. The name Alexander comes from the Greek Aléxandros, meaning defender or protector of men.
  8. James Stewart, 5th High Steward of Scotland (b. c 1243 - died 16 Jul 1309). The name James comes from the Hebrew Ya'aqov, the name of one of the first apostles. It was an uncommon name in Scotland in the 13th century, and not a traditional name in this Stewart family.
  9. Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland (b. 1296 - d. 9 Apr 1327) married Margorie Bruce, Princess of Scotland, daughter of Robert I Bruce, King of Scotland.
  10. Robert II Stewart, first monarch of the House of Stewart (b. 2 Mar 1316 - d. 19 Apr 1390) and father of the Duke of Albany (c.1340–1420). The name Robert is a Germanic given name, from Old High German Hruodberht "bright with glory" (a compound of hruod "fame, glory" and berht "bright").
  11. Robert III Stewart, King of Scotland (b. 1337 - d. 4 Apr 1406) was disabled. The English imprisoned his son James for eighteen years. Robert's younger brother Robert (Earl of Fife and later the first Duke of Albany) served as Regent in Scotland until he died. After James became king he accused the Albany Stewarts of treason and had most of them hanged.
  12. James I Stewart, King of Scotland (b. 25 Jul 1394 - murdered 21 Feb 1437) was held prisoner in the Tower of London
  13. James II Stewart, King of Scotland (b. 16 Oct 1430 - d. 3 Aug 1460 during siege of Roxburgh Castle)
  14. James III Stewart, King of Scotland (b. 10 Jul 1452 - d. 11 Jun 1488 at the Battle of Sauchieburn)
  15. James IV Stewart was born 17 Mar 1473. He began construction of the Palace of Holyroodhouse and died heroically during the disasterous Battle of Flodden Field 9 Sep 1513.
  16. James V Stewart, King of Scotland (b. 15 Apr 1512). He had many illegitimate children. He died 14 Dec 1542 from illness after the Battle of Solway Moss. His first wife was Madeleine de Valois. His second wife Marie de Guise (22 November 1515 – 11 June 1560) refused to marry Henry VIII of England because she wanted to keep her "little neck". She is the mother of Queen Mary Stuart. The name Mary is a form of the Hebrew name Miryam.


    Signet Ring of Queen Mary Stuart

  17. Mary, Queen of Scotland and France (b. 7 Dec 1542 - d. 8 Feb 1587) was the only legitimate child of James V to survive him. Five-year-old Mary and two of her half-brothers were sent to France in order to avoid the "rough wooing" of Henry VIII. She spent the next thirteen years at the French court, mainly at Amboise, near Tours, where she adopted the Gallicised spelling Marie Stuart. She was vivacious, beautiful, clever, devoutly Catholic and is still venerated by the French. She returned to Scotland after her first husband King Francis II of France died. She married her half first cousin Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley (b. 7 December 1545). He was strangled to death after an explosion on 10 February 1567. Mary was blamed. She was unable to cope with the dangerous and complex religious and political situation in Scotland at the time. Although she tolerated the newly established Protestant ascendancy, she charged John Knox, says Dr. MacCrie, "with stirring up her subjects against her, and among other things, upbraied him with sedition", by reason of his treatise on women's government, entitled The First Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment of Women. Mary kept her illegitimate half-brother James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray (c. 1531 – 11 January 1570) as her chief advisor even though he was a leader of the Protestant faction. He rebelled, defeated her forces at the Battle of Langside (13 May 1568) and became Regent of Scotland after he forced her to flee to England. Mary sought the protection of her father's Protestant first cousin Queen Elizabeth I (1533-1603), who was declared illegitimate. Elizabeth betrayed Mary's trust, accused her of treason, had her imprisoned and signed her death warrant. Were Elizabeth's trusted advisors afraid Mary would influence her 21-year old Presbyterian son to become a Catholic king?


Patrilineal lineage of the Stuart Monarchs of England

  1. Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland, b. circa 1214, d. circa 1283.
  2. John Stewart, of Bonkyl and Garlies, b. Abt 1245, killed 1298 at Battle Of Falkirk, buried at Falkirk Old Parish Church. The name John is from the Hebrew name Yôanan, or Jonathan, which means "Graced by Yahweh".
  3. Sir Alan Stewart of Dreghorn killed 1333 at Battle of Halidon Hill.
  4. Sir Alexander Stewart of Darnley, (d.1374).
  5. Sir Alexander Stewart of Darnley, (d.1404).
  6. Sir John Stewart of Darnley, 1st Lord of Concressault and 1st Lord of Aubigny, Count of Évreux (c. 1380-d.1429)
  7. Sir Alan Stuart, 7th of Darnley of Darnley, killed 1439 by Sir Thomas Boyd 4th of Kilmarnock because of a blood feud.
  8. Sir John Stuart, 1st Earl of Lennox, b. before 1430, d. 1495
  9. Matthew Stuart, 2nd Earl of Lennox, Bef. 5 May 1488, killed 9 September 1513 at Battle of Flodden. The name Matthew comes from Hebrew Matityahu.
  10. John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Lennox, b. 1492, murdered 1526
  11. Matthew Stuart, 4th Earl of Lennox, b. 1516, killed in 1571 during a raid on Sterling.
  12. Henry "Darnley" Stuart, b. 1545, murdered by James Hamilton of Finnart in 1567. The name Henry is Germanic and means "home ruler".
  13. James I Charles Stuart (b. 1566 - d. 1625) was crowned King of Scotland on 29 July 1567 and King of Great Britain on 25 July 1603, m. Anne Oldenburg, Princess of Denmark.
  14. Charles I Stuart (b. 1600 - beheaded 1649) m. Henriette Marie de Bourbon, Princesse de France. The name Charles is Germanic and means "free man".
  15. Charles II Stuart was born in 1630 and died Catholic on Feb. 6, 1685. His wife was childless. He acknowledged at least 12 illegitimate children.
  16. James II Stuart (1633 – 1701) was deposed in a Glorious Invasion that was paid for by rich bankers like Marrano Abraham Israel Suasso, a.k.a. "Baron d'Avernas le Gras" (the coffer in which William repaid the loan to Suasso is today on display in the Willet-Holthuisen Museum in Amsterdam), Pope Innocent XI (money-lending was his family's business), the world's main financial centre in Amsterdam, and other cabals that helped to create the largest empire in the history of the world and to win two World Wars in the name of democracy.

Timeline of Scottish Monarchs
Celtic Kingdoms of the British Isles
Book about the origins, etc. of the Stewarts of Appin
Video about the Scots-Irish based on Senator James WEBB's book, Born Fighting.



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Column # 7


The British Before Their SECOND Holocaust™
and After Their FIRST Holocaust™ (read columns #10 & 16)



Historical Timeline



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Column # 8

If you have high speed Internet access you may listen to refreshing music while you read (includes an ad):



An Educational Gift

"Down almost to within the memory of living men, education, even in its most rudimentary form, was a felony in Ireland, on the correct principle that the most effective method of subjugating and despoiling a people is to keep them in enforced ignorance."

The history of our ancestors is written in our genes. Correctly interpreted, it is the greatest story ever told. No forensic evidence is more scientific and trustworthy than the results of a DNA test.

"We believe the first step to unearthing your personal and family history is to better understand your DNA". Bennett Greenspan, the first to develop the commercial application of DNA testing for genealogical purposes.

"The accessibility and affordability of family DNA testing is doubtless the greatest technical advance in the history of genealogical research because -- at long, long last -- we have a tool to break down those brick walls!" Matthiesen

The results of your DNA tests are a gift to all of your cousins, etc. Families and nations that are aware and proud of their ancestry and history, e.g. the Israelites, are more likely to nourish and educate their children well enough for them to become intelligent adults who respect each other and their ethnic boundaries and identity, pass their genes on to the next generation, and contribute to the security, prosperity, survival and scientific and technological progress of their nation.

Israelite Lisa Alcalay Klug wrote: "... I can only be encouraged that perhaps we are seeing the dawn of a new age for our people, an age of greater self-awareness and pride. For me, this means delving even deeper into my heritage in an effort to understand not only who I am, but for what purpose I exist. The meaning of my life certainly is rooted in this rich and fertile ground." Similar genealogical feelings may have motivated Greenspan and Wojcicki (the FDA outlawed some aspects of her business).



The Exciting Future of Genetic Genealogy


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Column # 9

Who Were the First Farmers?

This web page proposes that the ancestors of Northern Europeans, e.g., Celts, were the first farmers, and that they may have begun to emigrate from the Sahel to the Fertile Crescent during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), and into Europe after the end of the last glacial period.

Where did all Indo-European languages originate? "... southern Turkey, as the most plausible origin — a region that had also been proposed as the origin of Indo-European by the archaeologist Colin Renfrew, in 1987, because it was the source from which agriculture spread to Europe.

Balaresque et al. state: "The relative contributions to modern European populations of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers and Neolithic farmers from the Near East have been intensely debated. Haplogroup R1b1b2 (R-M269) is the commonest European Y-chromosomal lineage, increasing in frequency from east to west, and carried by 110 million European men... The distribution of this lineage, the diversity within it, and estimates of its age all suggest that it spread with farming from the Near East. Taken with evidence on the origins of other lineages, this indicates that most European Y chromosomes descend from Near Eastern farmers... Previous studies suggested a Paleolithic origin, but here we show that the geographical distribution of its microsatellite diversity is best explained by spread from a single source in the Near East via Anatolia during the Neolithic ... in contrast, most maternal lineages descend from hunter-gatherers ..." i.e. most Europeans have Crô-Magnon mitochondrial DNA.

According to this Wikipedia article about haplogroup (HG) R1b1a2 (a.k.a. R-M269), "the distribution of R1b STR variance in Europe forms a cline from east to west, which is more consistent with an entry into Europe from Western Asia with the spread of farming... "The frequency is about 71% in Scotland, 70% in Spain and 60% in France. In south-eastern England the frequency of this clade is about 70%; in parts of the rest of north and western England, Spain, Portugal, Wales and Ireland, it is as high as 90%; and in parts of north-western Ireland it reaches 98%."

Wolfgang Haak, a geneticist at the University of Adelaide, and co-first author of the new study, observes: “The first farmers, whether from Hungary, Germany or Spain, are genetically almost identical: they are from the same origin.”

Image # 1 above from a 1350 BC seal shows gangly Fertile Crescent farmers with the physical characteristics of Northern Europeans, not those of Crô-Magnon hunter-gatherers and Semitic herdsmen. If you want more evidence, click on the picture and read the book from which it came. The oval in the sky symbolizes the moon, which regulated plantings. The cross represents the Sun, a Celtic symbol for Life and God (Abrahamic faiths repurposed Celtic holidays too, e.g., Easter).


Matrilineal Haplogroups of the First Farmers

We inherit our mitochondrial (mtDNA) only from our matrilineal ancestors. "... the immigrant Neolithic component is likely to comprise less than one-quarter of the mtDNA pool of modern Europeans". The R1b1 farmers who contributed to the aforesaid "immigrant Neolithic component" belonged to mtDNA haplogroups J and T, etc. before herdsmen drove them from the Fertile Crescent into their present Indo-European homelands in Europe and Central Asia (e.g., the Pontic-Caspian steppe and Scythia). HG T is currently found with high concentrations in northwestern Europe, e.g., around the eastern Baltic Sea).

Haplogroups T and J descend from JT, pre-JT, R (89% of Europeans), N, L3, L1-6, and L, i.e., "Mitochondrial Eve". SNP mutations occurred in the matrilineal lineage of women who belong to MtDNA haplogroup T at an average rate of once every 20 or 25 thousand years if the mutation known as L occurred between 150–200 KY ago). At this rate the mutation called JT may have occurred about 40-50 KY ago. The mutation called T may have occurred 20-25 KY ago, i.e., during the LGM.

The reason that the descendants of the Neolithic farmers who settled in Scandinavia look different from those that settled in southern Europe is that the LGM drove the mixed descendants of Crô-Magnons and Neanderthals out of northern Europe.

After the Holocene began, starvation, marauding shepherds, acute periods of desiccation during the interglacial known as the Holocene motivated some fur or wool clad Neolithic farmers to adopt a hunter-gatherer lifestyle and to immigrate from the Fertile Crescent into the abandoned forests of northern Europe from which Crô-Magnons had been racially cleansed by the LGM.

The well armed and organized southern European farmers who immigrated from the Fertile Crescent after southern Europe warmed up enough for farming settled near the Mediterranean, e.g., in Ancient Greece. Since these Neolithic farmers took the land and women of the descendants of Crô-Magnons and Neanderthals, their descendants inherited the natives' adaptations to the cold and dark forests of Ice Age Europe, i.e., squatty and hairy bodies, brachycephalic heads, and brown hair and olive skin that absorbs the heat of the sun and provides better camouflage in a forest.

According to Geno 2.0 and this PBS video, Southern Europeans ("the Mediterranean component"?) have more Neanderthal DNA than Northern Europeans, and the bulky Neanderthals had blue eyes and fair skin and hair. Should Northern Europeans therefore be less likely than Southern Europeans to have blue eyes? Does Spencer Wells know that the last Neanderthal died about 30 KY ago (before the mutation(s) that causes blue eyes occurred)?

Northern Europeans have less Neanderthal DNA because their Neolithic ancestors did not enter Europe until nearly 20 KY after the last Neanderthal died. Southern Europeans have more Neanderthal DNA because their Crô-Magnon ancestors began to mate with the Neanderthals they had not eaten before the LGM racially cleansed Northern Europe.

Although depicted as blue-eyed and fair-skinned by media propagandists, the need for camouflage and to absorb and preserve heat must have caused the cold adapted pure-blooded Crô-Magnons to have skins that were darker and hairier than those of the people of southern Italy today.

The blue blood farmers that settled in southern Europe and their possible Crô-Magnon laborers practiced apartheid for thousands of years before they began to interbreed with each other. Their mixed descendants became the race whose less civilized behavior caused the decline of the Greek and Roman Empires.


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Column # 10

Why Did Neolithic Farmers Invade Europe?

Linguistic evidence shows that farmers who spoke Indo-European languages had an aristocracy and priests, and lived in an environment like pre-historic Palestine's, where farmers had stone and metal tools, dogs, ducks, geese, goats, pigs and later horses, plowed with oxen, and cultivated grains like barley, wheat, oats, etc. (which grew wild there).

Image # 2 - All Indo-European languages and the first farmers came from this area. The places where Kassite Babylonia, Hamitic Egypt, Mitanni and Hatti existed thousands of years ago are now linquistically, religiously, and demographically different from what they once were.

The Western Atlantic Modal Haplotype (M269, R1b1a2) is still frequent in southwest Asia. If Hyksos, etc. herdsmen from the Arabian subcontinent had not routed, enslaved, exterminated and supplanted so much of its indigenous population, would the nations of the Fertile Crescent still have Indo-European religions, speak Indo-Hittite languages and look more like the Irish (81.5% R1b) and Scots (77.1% R1b, 11.2% I)?

"Historically nomadic herder lifestyles have led to warrior-based cultures that have made them fearsome enemies of settled people." "Some nomadic peoples, especially herders, may also move to raid settled communities ..." "This lifestyle ... is possibly associated with the appearance of Semitic languages in the region of the Ancient Near East." "The nomadic lifestyle was well suited to warfare, and the steppe horse riders became some of the most militarily potent peoples in the world".

According to the Jewish historian Josephus and the Judeo-Christian Bible, hundreds of thousands of Hebrew nomads from the Sumerian city of Ur of the Chaldees were expelled from Egypt by Ahmose I (died ~1557 BC). These Hebrew shepherds conquered the Jebusite Amorites of Jerusalem about 1000 BC. "The land of the Aryans" (a.k.a. Iran) conquered Babylon and allowed Hebrews to return to Jerusalem circa 538 BC.

Hyksos herdsmen may have looked like the current population of the Fertile Crescent, e.g., Yemenite (82.3% J and 16.2% E1b1b) and Israeli Arabs (55.2% J, 20.3% E1b1b, and 16.1% R & I). Semites emigrated from eastern Africa to the southern Arabian peninsula by crossing the Red Sea according to Spencer Wells. Is their skin color darker because their ancestors evolved for so long in the forests of Ethiopia (see the map below)? Many Europeans, e.g., Napoléon, Hitler and Einstein, and most of the people who now live in north Africa and the Sahel belong to Y-haplogroup E1b1b.

Image # 3 - HG J is found in greatest concentration in the Southwestern Arabian Peninsula.

"Migration from Arabia into the Fertile Crescent has been a constant pattern of human movement in the Middle East since antiquity. As such, the Arabian peninsula has long been accepted as the original Semitic Urheimat by a majority of scholars. Older theories positing Mesopotamia as the Semitic homeland were severely undermined by the identification of the non-Semitic Sumerian culture in Mesopotamia in the late 19th century..."

Quote from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proto-Semitic_language&direction=prev&oldid=465700735

The Unger's Bible Dictionary (1957) explanation of why Phoenicians are considered Semitic by anthropologists and ethnologists is that Phoenicians "must have succumbed to the pressure of racial and linguistic intermixture with Semites with the loss of their own ethnic predominance " because Canaan "was like a bridge between Egypt and great Semitic empires". Are the Amorites and other Hamitic farming nations of Canaan called Semitic despite genetic, biblical, etc. evidence to the contrary because their Indo-Hittite speaking ancestors had to adopt a Semitic written language?

Semites contributed relatively little DNA to the gene pools of the parts of Eurasia and northern Africa that they conquered during the seventh century in the name of Islam, an Abrahamic religion.


Image # 4



Column # 11 ====>

Column # 11

Why Did Neolithic Civilization Begin?

During the LGM survival was difficult in northern Europe due to the cold, and in the Sahel because of drought (the colder the oceans became the less evaporation and rainfall there was). The only part of Central Africa where Sahelians could survive the LGM may have been near lakes, e.g., Lake Chad. Did hungry Sahelians who belonged to patrilineal haplogroups I and R1b1 attempt to walk across the vast Sahara via the Nile valley because they were outnumbered by people who lived in Africa's equatorial rain forest thousands of kilometers to the south?

Hunter gatherers from the central Sahel who made it across the Sahara during the LGM crossed the Sinai penninsula and continued their search for a better homeland in Eurasia. They were so outnumbered that they had to avoid the territorial Crô-Magnons to the west and Mongoloids to the east. Those that became the ancestors of aboriginal R1b1 Americans and Kennewick Man traveled so far northeastwards in search of game during a spell of unusually mild weather that they fortuitously became the first non-Neanderthal people to cross the Bering Strait. See Image # 14 in column # 13 below.

Did some hunter gatherers from the central Sahel who belonged to patrilineal haplogroups I and R1b1 remain stranded in the game poor forests of the arid Levant because races that had left Africa tens of thousands of years earlier outnumbered them elsewhere?

E.g., Mongoloids left the Sahel about 70,000 years ago (during an interstadial) and conquered the habitable parts of Eastern Asia. At that time Neanderthals had occupied Europe for hundreds of thousands of years and were too numerous to conquer. For Mongoloids to drive Australoids who had been devastated by an apocalyptic supervolcanic eruption to the fringes of Asia was easier.

Some hunter gatherers who belonged to haplogroups I and R1b1 remained in the Levant and began the Kebaran culture about 18,000 BC (not long after the R1b1 and I mutations occurred). Was there so little game in the Fertile Crescent that in order to feed their hungry children mothers had to painstakingly harvest by hand the seeds of the native grasses, e.g., barley and wheat, that grew wild there? Domesticating the plants, people and other animals that made the Natufian culture possible took Hamites thousands of years.


Image # 5 shows the spread of Natufian culture.

Did each patrilineal clan, clade or HG from the Sahel settle in a different part of the forests of Lebanon, live for thousands of years in relative peace within the secure boundaries of its own independent territory, and become one of about thirteen independent nations that spoke its own version of the Indo-Hittite language? Did these HG R1b1 and I farmers belong to about thirteen ill-fated Hamitic nations, descendants of the cursed children of Ham (the so-called youngest son of Noah) according to the Judeo-Christian Bible? Did most of these Neolithic farmers eventually flee from the Fertile Crescent because herdsmen, e.g., the Semitic Hyksos, terrorized, preyed upon and eventually conquered, enslaved and forced them to adopt Semitic languages? Does this explain why some scientists, Wikipedia and others misrepresent them as being Semitic?

Might some of these farmers have adopted a hunter gatherer lifestyle and spread via demic diffusion into the forests of northern Europe about ten KYA (Thousand Years Ago) in order to avoid both droughts and herdsmen?

Domesticated farmers could not settle on the grassy steppes of Central Asia and compete with savages like Ghengis Khan until they had better weapons. Did herdsmen plague farmers until they found refuge in the dense forests of Europe (cattle starve in a forest)?

The land and investments of farmers must be secure in order for them to grow crops of wheat and barley for their hungry children to eat. Their civilization could not have begun or survived in an area dominated by herdsmen, e.g., Central Asia and the Arabian pennisula. Would farmers rather adopt a nomadic lifestyle than to allow their families to be regularly raided, robbed, raped, murdered and terrorized by herdsmen on horseback?

After its part of the Fertile Crescent was conquered by herdsmen each civilized nation settled in a different part of Eurasia. Southern Europe warmed enough for farming first. Neolithic farmers occupied all of Eurasia except the homelands of the Mongoloid nations after they developed the weapons they needed to defend themselves.

Image # 6 above shows the location of each branch of the Indo-European language, and the diaspora of the terrorized Fertile Crescent farmers who fled in their ox drawn wagons to the verdant parts of non-Mongoloid Eurasia (the LGM had depopulated most of it). Would farmers who were less familiar with the vast Sahara desert than Sahelians, and who knew nothing about what lay to the south of it, have risked the lives of their families by trying to migrate back to the overpopulated Sahel and rain forests of equatorial Africa?



Column # 12 ====>

Column # 12

Back Migrations?

Sahelian hunter gatherers who were familiar with the Sahara and its sources of water may have migrated back and forth across it in every direction for over a hundred thousand years, and been part of the gene pool from which all Eurasian Haplogroups originated. Back migrations of hunter-gatherers from the relatively verdant parts of Eurasia to sub-Saharan Africa make no sense. The "back migration" hypotheses is not the only possible explanation for why the Ouldeme (95.5% R1b+) and Hausa are indigenous to sub-Saharan Africa. "The second hypothesis, an African origin of the M9 superclade that includes haplotype 117, would imply a subsequent impressive extinction of derivative lineages in sub-Saharan Africa, since no other haplotypes carrying the M9 mutation (haplogroups VII–X) have been observed in this region (the only exception being represented by a few haplotype 109 chromosomes found in the Fulbe from Cameroon)." That "impressive extinctions" and migrations of the inhabitants of the Sahel did occur is indisputable.

The LGM did not erase all evidence of the Sahelian origins of all M9 haplogroups. Images # 7 & 8 below show that some people who belong to Haplogroup R still live in Africa. The lower right corner of image # 15 below shows that Y-haplogroups K*, K1, K2, K3, K4, L, M, NO*, N, 0, P*, Q, R, S and T descend from M9.


Image # 7


Image # 8 - Did Haplogroups I and R remain in the Sahel until the LGM began? See other images below.


Why Walk Your Family Across The Sahara?

Image # 9

Long-lasting droughts may have eliminated the food supply of some families and motivated them to leave the Sahel (possibly after the end of the Eemian, over 100 KY ago). These droughts may have wiped out African Y and mitochondrial haplogroups and derivative lineages that now exist only in Eurasia. Is the genetic diversity of the R1b1 clade so small compared to others because it was the last clade to experience one of these impressive extinctions, i.e., genetic bottlenecks?

The severest drought occurred:

1) During the LGM, when Crô-Magnon hunter gatherers shivered near the southern coasts of Europe, and the clades to which the first farmers belonged may have left the Sahel. The Persian Gulf was above sea level, and permafrost extended to the northern coast of the Mediterranean Sea.


Image # 10

2) ~40 - 50 KY ago, when the founders of the Crô-Magnon race may have left the Sahel. Crô-Magnons migrated from Africa to Europe because other parts of Eurasia had already been over-populated by anatomically modern humans, and at a time when Europe's warmer climate made Neanderthals less competitive. Evidence that Neanderthals survived in America after they died out in Europe may eventually be found.

3) ~70 KY ago, when the founders of the Mongoloid race may have left the Sahel.

4) After the end of the Eemian, when the founders of the Australoid race may have left the Sahel.

Why did the people who left the Sahel travel across the Sahara instead of south? Might the occupants of Africa's equatorial rain forests have objected?

If the ancestors of Australoids left Africa first, why didn't they populate Europe? Might Neanderthals have objected?

If the ancestors of Australoids left Africa first, why don't they live where the Mongoloid population lives today? Could the ancestors of the Mongoloids have taken the Australoids' land if the supervolcanic eruption at Lake Toba in Sumatra had not occurred an estimated 69,000 to 77,000 years ago?

"Haplogroup C4 (M347) is the most common haplogroup among indigenous Australians, and it has not been found outside of that continent."

"It is believed that the remnant Australoid populations in Southeast Asia were essentially replaced or assimilated by the southern Mongoloid migration (BELLWOOD 1985), whereas the major Australoid populations in Australia and New Guinea were relatively unaffected by the second migration (TURNER 1987). Assuming that these interpretations are correct, we anticipate that Southeast Asia may be a clinal zone between the Australoid (south and east) and Mongoloid (north and west) genotypes."



Column # 13 ====>

Column # 13

Was There Only One Migration Out Of Africa?


Image # 12 - This "Out of Africa" phylogenetic tree shows which haplogroups may have died out in Africa or survived only elsewhere.

During the last hundred thousand year-long glacial period at least four severe desert expansions may have motivated a few determined CT+ families to abandon their beloved tribes and the Sahel, the region from which all pre-historic hunter-gatherers left Africa, e.g., by crossing the Sahara (a coast-to-coast desert that is larger than the USA) via the 4,000 mile long Nile river. Some of the y-haplogroup(s) to which their descendants belong may have died out in Africa. Others still exist both within and outside of Africa, e.g., R1b1 and T.

Hunter gatherers that survived the months-long walk from the Sahel to the Mediterranean were probably capable of scouting Eurasia. Scouts seen on the territory of another race might be considered spies and killed or enslaved if caught (no nation had civilized itself yet). Those who left Africa during the Sahel's earlier droughts were more likely to discover Eurasia's best unoccupied or conquerable hunting grounds (and to fully populate them before refugees from droughts that occurred tens of thousands of years later could drive them out).

Image # 13 above shows that families of hunter-gatherers from Central Africa would reach fresh water and the forested areas of Lebanon more quickly by traveling north via the Nile river than east across Semitic territory, shark infested salt water and the Arabian desert.

Some of the R1b1 hunter-gatherers who left Africa during the LGM (the part of the last glacial period when the Sahel was at its coldest and driest) may have stayed in the Fertile Crescent because other habitable parts of Eurasia had been completely populated by other territorial hunter-gatherers tens of thousands of years earlier. If the forests of Lebanon were too small to sustain hunter-gatherers and not grassy enough to sustain the herds of Harifian pastoralists, they may have been vacant when the ancestors of R1b1 farmers settled there ~18 KY ago.

Some of the aforesaid R1b1 hunter-gatherers may have bypassed the Mongoloid population of East Asia and crossed the Bering Strait. If a meteorite storm had not killed so many R1b1 native Americans about 12,900 years ago could Mongoloid hunter-gatherers have driven them eastwards about 9 KY ago?


Image # 14 - Is R the only Y-haplogroup that has been indigenous to every continent except Australia for almost 20 KY?

Scientists are still trying to interpret some of the evidence, e.g., FTDNA's Chief Scientist, "Dr. Michael Hammer at the University of Arizona reanalyzed the haplogroup A tree and root with the new information available, and his new ages are even more amazing. Cruciani’s A1b/A0 sample is now at 200,000 years old and A00 is at 338,000, with a 98% confidence level..." The A00 participants (N64496 & 215865) descend from Albert Perry, a slave who lived in SC in Chester and York counties. In other words, the Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA) of everyone who is alive today lived at least 338,000 years ago.

Nevertheless, politically correct propagandist Spencer Wells et al. recently proclaimed that the time to the most recent common ancestral Y chromosome of all mankind was only 50,000 years. He has since backed off a little, and now claims that the ancestors of ALL Eurasian races left Africa at the same time by crossing the Red Sea "more than 60,000 years ago" (contrary to the multiple dispersal model).

Click on Image # 15 above for good explanations of the locations, etc. of the clades listed. M9 and M207 (HG R) are shown in the lower right part of the image above. Haplogroups R and T still exist in or about the Sahel. Other M9, etc. clades might still exist there too if droughts and bad luck had not wiped them out.

Y-haplogroup R is shown in the lower right part of the haplotree below. It shows older and newer estimates of how long ago HG R, etc. mutations may have occurred. Better estimates will be available after academic papers in the works are published. The mutation named CF may have occurred over 100,000 years ago.

Image # 16

Click here for a forum about Genetic Genealogy, etc.



Column # 14 ====>

Column # 14

Did Celts Build Stonehedge?

A significant part of Europe was once Celtic. Only six Celtic nations, e.g., Wales, have survived. Some want their promised land back.


Image # 17

"Brittany stands out in the distribution of menhirs by virtue of both the density of monuments and the diversity of types. The largest surviving menhir in the world is located in Locmariaquer, Brittany, and is known as the Grand Menhir Brisé (Great Broken Menhir). Once nearly 20 meters high, today, it lies fractured into four pieces, but would have weighed near 330 tons when intact. It is placed third after the Thunder Stone in St. Petersburg and the Western Stone in the Western Wall as the heaviest object moved by humans without powered machinery."

Dolmens and menhirs (French, from Middle Breton: men, stone + hir, long) are the cultural signatures of Celts. They are found mostly in the parts of north western Europe where Celts lived. The largest concentrations of these monuments outside of Europe are in Israel, Syria and Western Jordan (where they and possibly bones that contain the DNA of Celts are being deliberately destroyed according to this video).

Herdsmen started to prey upon farmers soon after they began to produce food, etc. and eventually conquered Mesopotamia and the rest of civilizaton in the Fertile Crescent. The terrified farmers who escaped from them with their lives brought to the forests of southern Europe their seeds, domesticated animals, knowledge of how to clear farmland, dig dirt, grow food, make leather ropes, and the other simple technologies that their ancestors had used to build the huge stone monuments of the Fertile Crescent.

Did European Celts erect menhirs in order to honor their ancestors and to carry on their Fertile Crescent religions, traditions and science, and so that their descendants and the world would never forget whence their civilization came? The small Crô-Magnon hunter gatherer population that survived the LGM for about ten thousand years in southern Europe had never seen anything like it.

The Stonehedge experts shown in this PBS video wonder how neolithic farmers moved megaliths that weighed hundreds of tons for such great distances. Some thought that its builders slid them over logs. None mentioned the common sense solution of moving menhirs by rolling them sideways. NASA's engineers could have told them that a menhir will roll sideways downhill like a wheel if pushed hard enough, possibly with the help of a lever.

Were the huge stones of the Fertile Crescent and northern Africa rolled to their destinations? If braided leather ropes were wrapped around it, teams of oxen and/or men could pull even a rectangular menhir up a slope or to the top of a narrow ramp where it could be rotated 90 degrees and its base pivoted into a hole below the end of the ramp. Menhirs could have been rolled over a couple of rails made from the trunks of trees that had to be cleared from their path. Rails placed close together near the center of gravity of a menhir would stabilize it and make changing its direction and wrapping heavy ropes around and around both of its ends easier. Menhirs, etc. could be squared up for building purposes at their final destinations.

Image # 18 above shows how leather ropes could be wrapped around a menhir so that a couple teams of oxen and/or men could roll it over a rail made of tree trunks.

Did the ancestors of Celtic farmers erect menhirs before they left the Sahel? Since Neolithic times, the climate of North Africa has become drier. A reminder of the desertification of the area is provided by megalithic remains, which occur in a great variety of forms and in vast numbers in presently arid and uninhabitable wastelands: cairns (kerkour), dolmens and circles like Stonehenge, underground cells excavated in rock, barrows topped with huge slabs, and step pyramid-like mounds".

Did Celts' Sahelian ancestors domesticate animals, e.g., elephants and deer, and use them to pull loads, e.g., as the Sami and circuses have?


Survival of the Fitest?

The more compassionate, civilized, trusting and realistic an ethnic group is, the more prosperous and scientifically and technologically advanced (and the less capable of competing with savage imperialists, exploiters, genocidal racists, and criminogenic gene pools) it is likely to be.

"... evolution produces new species through splitting ancestral populations of organisms into new groups that cannot or will not interbreed." Natural selection and indiscriminate breeding enhances the survival instincts of ANY subspecies and makes it more competitive. Only artificial selection and the selective breeding of plants and animals, e.g., dogs, can create a new subspecies that is more beneficial and less dangerous to people (and usually less intelligent).

The statistics of the Federal and other governments show that the crime rates of the descendants of the world's first farmers are comparatively low and that their neighborhoods are usually safer. Otherwise their ancestors could not have created the first civilization long before current forms of government, religious and secular media, schools and other methods of social engineering and control existed. High rates of crime undermine civilization by making it less prosperous and therefore less scientifically and technologically advanced (and less attractive to immigrants from the third world therefore).

By 11,000 BC the Natufian descendants of Sahelians had domesticated many of the plants and animals upon which the survival of civlization depends, and possibly their own gene pool by removing criminals from it.

Geno 2.0 claims that only a "tiny fraction of the total genome" sets our bodies apart from those of other animals. Which part of it made it possible for Celts to become a relatively compassionate, virtuous, law-abiding, secure, civilized and beautiful nation that enjoys a standard of living that is high enough to attract immigrants from the third world?

Click here to read a different theory about the origins of HG I.



Column # 15 ====>

Column # 15

What Do Celts' Racial Characteristics Reveal?

The ancestral lineages of any species are found at different frequencies in different populations. Some are specific to a certain region while others are more widespread. Being aware of the mitochondrial and Y haplogroups to which people of your ancestry belong and what their physical, etc. characteristics are makes it possible for you to discover where their descendants are found today, and to understand their evolutionary history and geographic origins.

There is no evidence that the HG R1b1 and HG I ancestors of Northern Europeans ever had dark colored skin. Geno 2.0's web pages imply that they did (and that Neanderthals had blue eyes and fair skin), even though the "experts" have no evidence for that supposition except their own fallible common sense, imaginations and social agendas.

Compared to most of mankind, Scots and the other HG I and R1b1 populations of northern Europe are the least cold adapted. Did their ancestors evolve more heat reflective and heat dissipating physical characteristics (e.g., fair and pinkish skins, more gangly and less hairy bodies, dolichocephalic heads and hair as blond as a lion's) because they left Africa's equatorial rain forest to hunt for protein in the savannah after the end of the cold glacial period that preceded the Eemian?

The noses, teeth, hair, skin, skeletal characteristics, etc. of northern Europeans are better adapted to the lifestyle of a hunter-gatherer in the hot, dry, and sunny Sahel than those of other races (their skulls have the same features as the Kiffian skulls pictured in column # 17). Are they the most heat-adapted because their ancestors were the last hunter-gatherers to leave Africa, and evolved in sunny grasslands for scores of thousands of years longer than those of any other Eurasian race? Northern Europeans would be as cold adapted as other Eurasian races if their ancestors had evolved for as long as other races in Ice Age Eurasia. Celts would be as small and black as Pygmies if their ancestors had lived for as long in dark equatorial rain forests. Does the HG R1b1 population have the least genetic diversity because it was the last race of hunter gatherers to leave the periodically genocidal climate of the Sahel? Would people who belong to Haplogroups R and I have the physical characteristics they have if they had evolved anywhere else?

Prey that eats grass starves in a forest. Daring people who craved that source of protein left the relative safety of the forest. People who were intelligent enough to communicate verbally and who had fair skins were more likely to survive outside the forest. Those that lived in the Sahel to the north of Africa's equatorial rainforest eventually evolved into all of the prehistoric races that left Africa.

Fair skin and hair is better camouflage in the Sahel. Dark skin is better camouflage in a forest. The mutations that cause Pygmies, etc. to have dark colored skin would not have happened otherwise. Their ancestors might have evolved to be as fair and large as Celts if they had been big game hunters and competed with large predators in the Sahel for over 100 KY.

Races that were poorly camouflaged under the thick canopies of a forest, or in the sunny Sahel, would starve or be killed by predators more quickly than by skin cancer. People who have healthier foods and immune systems, more active lifestyles, less toxic environments, etc. are less likely to develop skin cancer anyway.

The hair of lions and Black panthers would be the same color if the mutations that cause heat absorbing black hair were as advantageous in the relatively treeless and sunny Sahel as they are in a dark forest.

Few animals have a black skin underneath a coat of hair or feathers. Homo sapiens sapiens is no exception. Long, warm body hair helped forest dwellers to survive during the cold humid Middle Pleistocene glaciations. It provided them with all of the camouflage that they needed in a dark forest except on the hairless parts of their bodies. The mutations that cause people to have shorter body hair than Bonobos occurred during the sweltering Eemian interglacial period about 130 KY ago. The less hairy one's body is, the easier it is to remove fleas and other disease causing pests from it.

"The rainforest canopy cut off almost all the ultraviolet light and prevented it from reaching the forest floor". In other words, Pygmies and every other race that has evolved since the Eemian under thick forest canopies (even in Europe) for tens of thousands of years has been exposed to less sunlight than Celtic farmers. Should Pygmies therefore have the fairest skins that supposedly soak up the most sunlight and produce the most vitamin D? No secular theory is less sound and more widely believed even by scientists than this absurd explanation for why Celts and Pygmies do not have the same skin color.

Do you see any pink skin on the Bonobo shown in the picture below? Have you seen feet with soles as pale on the blackest people? Parts of the body where camouflage is not needed are not black. Have you seen backs and chests that are almost as hairy as that of the Bonobo pictured below on the Riviera? Hairy bodies helped Crô-Magnon hunter-gatherers survive the LGM in southern Europe. That northern Europeans have so little body hair shows that their ancestors survived the LGM in the Sahel and the Fertile Crescent (not in northern Eurasia).

Image # 19

Bonobos need dark skin for camouflage only on the hairless parts of their bodies. Their bodies are fairer than the bodies of Pygmies and Bantus because their longer body hair provides all the camouflage they need. All three subspecies evolved for over 100 KY in the same equatorial rain forest.

There is no evidence that Bonobos have interbred with chimpanzees in equatorial Africa since they diverged a million years ago (the Congo River acted as a barrier to prevent the groups from mixing fortunately). Both species share about 98.7% of their DNA with the human and non-human members of our own more or less racially mixed species. Their and our Most Recent Common Patrilineal Ancestor (MRCA) lived about 4 million years ago.

This topic and others explained on this web page show that some conventional opinions are nonsense. The more often politically correct propaganda and lies are repeated, particularly by the media conglomerates, the less anyone will dare to refute them, and the more likely children and the adults they become will believe them, and shun or censor anyone who is sane enough to disagree.



Column # 16 ====>

Column # 16

Do We Have a Right To Know Our Ancestry?

Despite the Egyptian government's efforts to keep his test results secret, Swiss scientists who work at iGENEA (FTDNA's European affiliate) recently revealed that Hamitic Pharaoh Tutankhamun (~1333 BC) belongs to Celtic HG R1b1a2. Wikipedia's censors removed the evidence about "Tutankhamun#2011_DNA_research" from this article about his racial identity (it may be possible to find the earlier article via Wikipedia's revision history pages).

Why have the governments of Egypt, Israel and other Fertile Crescent states denied foreign experts' requests to test the DNA of ancient remains from their grave sites, deep in their unoxygenated territorial waters, and even scattered about their roadsides? China once prevented foreign experts from studying the four thousand year old, swastika tatooed, red haired HG R1a mummies of Xinjiang (blond natives still live there). The US government prevented scientists from studying Kennewick Man for nine years.

About 99.9% of the people painted on the walls of ancient Egyptian tombs and the current population of Egypt look nothing like most of the people shown in this PBS video, i.e., Mugabe and Semites. Egyptologist Zahi Hawass has always maintained that "Tutankhamun was not black, and the portrayal of ancient Egyptian civilization as black has no element of truth to it." If this statement implies that Hawass knows to which clades ancient Egyptians belong, why has he not told us?


The skin color in Image #20 above indicates an Egyptian man. Fair skin would indicate a woman and black skin a non-Negroid Ethiopian.

In his "Atlas of African History", Colin McEvedy wrote: "the most important happening in African history was probably the outpouring of Negro tribes across the center of the continent from their original eastern limit in the Cameroon Mountains through the Zaire Basin to the headwaters of the White Nile, opening up equatorial Africa into E. Africa about two thousand years ago.". If tribes from the coastal rain forests of central western Africa who began to conquer sub-Saharan Africa about 2,000 years ago did not create ancient Egyptian civilization, who did? Hamitic farmers created it according to the Semitic herdsmen who wrote the Bible.

The mutation that causes blue eyes may have occurred before the Y-haplogroup R1b1 and I ancestors of northern Europeans left Africa. According to Danish geneticist Hans Eiberg, "the mutations responsible for the blue eye color most likely originate from the Near East area or northwest part of the Black Sea region, where the great agriculture migration to the northern part of Europe took place in the Neolithic periods about 6–10,000 years ago." Are blue eyes and European haplogroups less common in the Near East now because of ethnic cleansing?

The Egyptologist Flinders Petrie and Assyriologist Archibald Henry Sayce analysed Egyptian illustrations of what they identified as Amorites (Amurru) depicted as "white skinned, blue eyed, fair haired". According to Sayce (1889):
The Amorites... were a tall, handsome people, with white skins, blue eyes and reddish hair, all the characteristics, in fact, of the white race.
Sayce further discovered a painting in a tomb (No. 34) at Thebes, belonging to the Eighteenth Dynasty which illustrates an Amorite chief with "white skin and red-brown hair". Henry George Tomkins (1897) an Exeter clergyman and member of the Royal Archaeological Institute also wrote the Amorites were blue eyed and fair haired. Easton's Bible Dictionary also contains an entry stating the Amorites are "represented on the Egyptian monuments with fair skins, light hair, blue eyes, aquiline noses, and pointed beards. The Encyclopædia Britannica, 13th ed., vol. 1, 1929, also contained a physical description of the Amorites from Egyptian illustrations:
Egyptian illustrations of the New Kingdom show the Palestinian Amorites to have been a race much more like the Northern Europeans than the Semites; long-headed, with blue eyes, straight noses and thin lips.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Amorite&oldid=470188329#Physical_appearance

'... the terms “Amorites” and “Amalekites” are used synonymously for the “Canaanites”...'

Why did Wikipedia's censors remove from its article at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amorite the quotes above about the Physical appearance of the Hamitic Amorites who were exterminated by Israel? Should scientific evidence of the history of any people, or holocausts that occurred generations ago, be kept secret? Does it depend on whose ox was gored? According to these quotes from a documentary about Dr. Fred A. Sondermann (1923-1978): Christianized Germans "committed some of the most terrible crimes recorded in all of human history ... must forever be part of our personal experience and of the record we transmit to our children ... the deeds were so incredible, of such non-human scale ... One cannot forget what happened (search for the word "forget" in the large, slow loading, multilingual .pdf document at this link) ... Nor can one forgive."

Experts disagree on the correct interpretation of some archaeological and genetic, etc. evidence. All of the statements herein about Genetic Anthropology and the ancestors of Celts from the time they left Africa are hypothetical and could be phrased as questions. Diana Gale Matthiesen wrote: "Everything is true to one degree or another, and the more evidence you can gather, the more confidence you can have that you are nearer to 'getting it right'." To 'get it right' is our own responsibility. We may help each other to do so by expressing our opinions via the Stewart DNA Forum for members of this family.

Contradictions

Spencer Wells and Geno 2 made the following statements about the British: "This reference population is based on samples collected from populations in the United Kingdom. The dominant 50% Northern European component likely reflects the earliest settlers in Europe, hunter-gatherers who arrived there more than 35,000 years ago. The 33% Mediterranean and 17% Southwest Asian percentages arrived later, with the spread of agriculture from the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East, over the past 10,000 years." This statement contradicts those of Balaresque, etc. above.

The use of euphemisms and mild, indirect, vague and confusing geographic terms as synonyms for races and haplogroups in the paragraph above is confusing and obfuscates the evidence.

E.g., does:
1) "Northern European" refer to Celts, Germans, Slavs, etc.?
2) "Mediterranean" refer to Southern Europeans?
3) "Southwest Asian" refer to Semites?
4) "African" refer to Pygmies, Negroes, Hamites, Bushmen, San, Egyptians, etc.?
Are more specific and less confusing words too harsh, blunt, offensive, racist and easily understood for the brainwashed general public to tolerate?

The above statements of Wells and Geno 2 give the false impression that the patrilineal ancestors of Celts did not come from the Fertile Crescent, that they lived in Europe before the LGM, and that other races brought Neolithic civilization to Europe. Spencer Wells is not the first "expert" that has helped the media conglomerates to manipulate public opinion by broadcasting nonsense that promotes the social agendas of their owners.

Has genetic evidence of the true origins of the R1b1 population of Europe put the geo-political, etc. agendas of Wikipedia's historical revisionists, deniers, social engineers and censors at stake? Must our minds and actions be poisoned by a belief that sacred myths and the "legal" versions of history that we have been force-fed are truth? Let's think for ourselves, not what others think or want us to think. May sanity and the truth prevail, and this web page help people to find it. No secular or religious lie has ever benefited mankind.



Column # 17 ====>

Column # 17

Goberno

From November 19 – December 23, 2011, Dr. Paul Sereno led an archaeological and paleontological expedition to Niger’s Sahara desert, returning to Gobero, the site of the People of the Green Sahara ... Laboratory analysis includes sampling teeth (dentine) for ancient DNA to better understand where Gobero’s inhabitants originated."

No forensic anthropologist can distinguish the skulls above from those of northern Europeans even though there is no evidence that the prehistoric ancestors of the 6.8' tall Kiffians ever lived in Eurasia. E.g., the images of the skulls have prominent nasal sills, overbites and dolichocephalic heads. Kiffians' finely crafted (Mechta-Afalou / Capsian?) artefacts and 10,000 year old northern European-looking skeletons are obviously neither Negroid nor Mongoloid.

The Kiffian and Tenerian skulls shown above have none of the following Negroid features: "Negroid features ... include a broad and round nasal cavity; no dam or nasal sill; Quonset hut-shaped nasal bones; notable facial projection in the jaw and mouth area (prognathism); a rectangular-shaped palate; a square or rectangular eye orbit shape; and large, megadontic teeth". Sahelians did not live in the forest so they ate meat and did not need megadontic teeth to grind the vegetation that forest dwellers eat.

See column # 15 for more information about what the racial characteristics of Kiffians and their European cousins tell us about the environment in which their common ancestors evolved until about 20,000 years ago.

About 140,000 years ago the non-Negroid ancestors of Sahelians immigrated from Africa's equatorial rain forests to the Sahel in order to harvest protein. Every 20 or 30 thousand years a new drought forced another wave of Sahelians to immigrate to Eurasia, where it evolved into a separate territorial race.

A few survivors repopulated the Sahel whenever climatic conditions improved. The hunter gatherer ancestors of northern Europeans left the Sahel during the LGM, later than those of the other major races.

The Sahelians who remained behind became the Berbers. Berbers have been fighting wars for national self-determination and reunification (similar to those of the Kurds, Palestinians and Germans after WWI) because the imperialist rulers of Muslim and European nations conquered their territory. Scientists' access to Goberno has been sporadic because Berbers are now fighting for their survival and resources against the non-Berber governments of Niger, Mali, Algeria, Libya, Burkina Faso, etc.

If the Kiffians' DNA test results are publicized in plain English, and prove that they belong to the same haplogroups as Berbers, the Cameroonian Ouldeme (95.5% R1b+), and many Europeans, might scientists lose funding and access, and 10,000 year old sites like Gobero be deliberately destroyed? What Are They Trying to Hide?


Scroll to bottom left to see images.


Map of vegetation patterns during the last glacial maximum MODERN EUROPEAN SKULL

Image #21 - Dolichocephalic northern Europeans have more prominent (i.e., larger and higher) noses (see image above), fairer hair and skin, and less body hair than southern Europeans because:

  • They have less Crô-Magnon blood than southern Europeans.
  • Their ancestors immigrated from the sunny Sahel during the LGM 20KYA, tens of thousands of years later than Crô-Magnons, Mongoloids and Australoids.
10,000 YEAR OLD KIFFIAN SKULL DISCOVERED IN AFRICA's SAHEL at GOBERO in NIGER

Image #22 - There is no evidence that the ancestors of the Kiffians of Goberno (see image above) ever left Africa. They evolved physically and mentally for over 100,000 years in the dangerous Sahel (a verbal language may have helped them to compete with lions and other predators). Some physical adaptations to that hot and dry climate include:

  • Elevated noses that cool and humidify the hot, dry air of the Sahel before it enters the lungs.
  • Dolichocephalic heads that help cool the brain.
  • Tall, thin and relatively hairless and sweaty bodies that helped men to exhaust and kill large furry ungulates by chasing them during the hotest part of the day (possibly with the help of dogs).
  • Fair colored hair and skin that provides better camouflage in the sunny savanna, and reflects heat and cancer causing radiation.
  • Blood that cools and turns the skin pink because it circulates so closely to the surface.
The teeth of Kiffians are relatively small because their ancestors obtained most of their protein from meat.

A Modern Australoid

Image #23 - This skull of an adult 50 year old male from the Pintubi tribe of Australoids shows less adaptations to the Sahel because his ancestors left it about 85,000 years earlier than the ancestors of northern Europeans. Australoids left the Sahel ~106 KYA soon after the end of the Eemian and were driven to the fringes of Asia by Mongoloids ~70KYA. Negroes are no more closely related to Australoids than they are to northern Europeans.

MODERN NEGROID SKULL

Image #24 - The ancestors of Pygmies and Negroes evolved mentally and phsically inside of Africa's equatorial rain forest for hundreds of thousands of years longer than those of any other race. Some physical adaptations to that relatively safe environment include:

  • Flat noses (see image above) facilitated breathing warm, humid air.
  • Relatively hairless bodies helped protect them from parasites and skin diseases.
  • Dark skins provided camouflage, and helped them to absord more Vitamin D ("the rainforest canopy cut off almost all the ultraviolet light and prevented it from reaching the forest floor."
  • Megadontic teeth helped them to obtain most of their proteins from vegetation.
Were Neanderthals as human as we think we are?

Image #23 - Do Neanderthals belong within Homo sapiens, i.e., were they as human as we think we are? Paleoanthropologists cannot agree. The skull above was cast from the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neanderthal discovered in 1908.

MODERN MONGOLOID SKULL

Image #25 - Mongoloids have flatter noses than Europeans because their ancestors left the Sahel 50KY earlier and survived the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in Eurasia.

TENERIAN SKULL DISCOVERED AT GOBERNO in the SAHEL OF NIGER

Image #26 - Tenerian cranium from Goberno

MODERN EUROPEAN SKULL

Image #27 - Dolichocephalic craniums helped the ancestors of Europeans survive in the Sahel.

Mongoloid skull

Image #28 - Brachycephalic heads (see the image of a Mongoloid skull above) helped to keep the brain warm during the LGM in Eurasia. Black hair and dark skin provided better camouflage for hunter gatherers who lived in a forest, and helped to keep the body warm by absorbing the heat of the sun. Descendants of Mongoloids and Crô-Magnons have some of the same characteristics because their ancestors survived the LGM in the forests of Eurasia.

MODERN NEGROID SKULL

Image #29 - The image above shows the bone structure that underlies the broad and flat nose of a Negro.

ANCIENT NEANDERTHAL SKULL

Image #30 - Large brachycephalic heads and flat noses helped Neanderthals survive several Eurasian glacial periods. The last European Neanderthal died about 30 thousand years ago (reproductive failure is a biologist's definition of racial inferiority). It took 10,000 years for Crô-Magnons to replace Neaderthals. Demographic changes are occurring so fast in the homelands of Europeans that they and their civilization may not exist a few generations from now.

1.8-million-year-old cranium @ http://popular-archaeology.com/issue/09012013/article/skull-find-key-to-understanding-early-human-ancestor-species

Image #31 - The small teeth of this 1.8 million-year-old dolichocephalic skull from the Republic of Georgia is evidence that it belonged to a meat eater whose ancestors may have evolved in the Sahel.

LARGE TEETH HELP BONOBOS MASTICATE VEGETATION

Image #32 - Bonobos and branches of mankind that evolved until recently in rain forests have megadontic teeth because their ancestors obtained most of their protein from vegetation.

BONOBOS DON'T HAVE BLACK SKIN ON PARTS OF THEIR BODIES THAT ARE CAMOUFLAGED BY DARK HAIR

Image #33 - Dark faces and body hair provide all of the camouflage that Bonobos need in Africa's dark equatorial rain forest. The skin underneath their hair is no darker than that of any furry or feathered animal. Mankind must have had long body hair during the frigid glacial period before the Eemian, and long after mankind split into two races.

Baka boy at http://www.pygmies.org/baka/men.asp

Image #34 - If the Sahelian and Fertile Crescent ancestors of Celts had fair skin due to lack of sunlight, why doesn't the Pygmy pictured above? Until logging began, only twilight reached the floor of Africa's equatorial rain forest. Did races that live in dark forests evolve dark skin for protection from sunlight, or for camouflage and to improve vitamin D production? Did Geno 2 give you the impression that Y-chromosomal Adam had black skin? Until our species lost its long body hair (probably after the glacial period and during the unbearably hot Eemian), its skin was as fair as any hairy or feathered animal's.

Does Wells think that Neanderthals had pink skin, freckles, blond hair, blue eyes, narrow noses, etc.?
Image #35 - The last Neanderthal died ~30 KYA. Wells picked this pitiful guy as a model even though his ancestors were probably 100% northern European. Add a little dirt and a mean expression of self hatred to his face and voila: a Neanderthal! His pinkish skin shows that his blood circulates close to the skin, an adaptation that helped keep our Sahelian ancestors cool, and that would have reduced a hunter gatherer's chances of survival in Eurasia during a glacial period. Likewise, his fair skin and blond hair would have been better camouflage in the sunny Sahel than in the dark forests of Eurasia. Did Geno 2 give you the impression that Neanderthals had blue eyes? Sorry Wells: the mutations that cause blue eyes and fair hair occurred after the LGM and in only one race (the descendants of Neolithic farmers).
BLACK LIES

The adjacent panel to the right contains more information about Image #36 above. It is a screen shot of a personal Geno.2 web page at https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com/results/yourmap?mapType=p that is hidden from the General Public because one can not view it without logging in.

Image # 36 in the panel to your left is of the Geno.2 web page at https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com/results/yourmap?mapType=p. That web page is hidden from the general public because one must log in to see it. It reveals some of Spencer Wells' obviously blatant lies, e.g., the following explanation is written on the same web page: "Each segment on the map above represents the migratory path of successive groups that eventually coalesced to form your branch of the tree. We start with the marker for your oldest ancestor, and walk forward to more recent times, showing at each step the line of your ancestors who lived up to that point... The oldest Y-chromosome lineages in existence, belonging to the A branch of the tree, are found only in African populations."

Spencer Well's statement that the most primitive Y-chromosome lineages in existence belong to the A branch of the tree, and are found only in African populations is a blatant and racist lie. Y-chromosomal Adam is the oldest ancestor of all people (not just people in HG A, e.g., N64496 & 215865 (HG A00 descendants of Dixie's Carolinian slaves).
  • Neither your nor anyone else's oldest ancestor belonged to haplogroup "M42" (a.k.a. "BT").
  • Everyone's lineage is equally old no matter what the Y Chromosome Consortium (YCC) names their mutations and the haplogroups they are in.
Well's credentials" are no better than his ability to think and speak truthfully. Did dishonest members of the YCC like Wells give the name A exclusively to Y-chromosomal Adam and to the haplogroup to which men who look like the one pictured above belong in order to confuse you into thinking that you descend from them too?

If the YCC's nomenclature were truly hierarchical, it would show that all of Y-chromosomal Adam's descendants belong to haplogroup A, not just people who look like the man above (euphemistically referred to as "Africans" even though they are not the only race in Africa).

Why would a member of the YCC want some races to be confused about their ancestry? The more lies we believe, the more insane, less successful, and more easily exploited we become.

Yfull's Stewart Big Y Test Result Analysis

Phylogenetic Tree # 1 above is at http://www.yfull.com/tree/R-L744. It shows:

  • The names of the SNPs via which some branches of the descendants of the first High Steward of Scotland can be identified.
  • Estimates of how long ago:
    • Those branch mutations occurred.
    • The common ancestor of some branches of this family lived.


End of document