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ST. AUSTELL PARISH
GENEALOGY

THE HEARTH TAX IN CORNWALL – MICHAELMAS 1664
(Transcribed by J. Mosman, OPC, for the St. Austell History & Genealogy website)

 

It has been claimed that the Hearth and Poll taxes from 1662 to 1689 are the most important population sources for England between the Domesday book and the 1801 Census. Many counties have several lists available during those years which can be compared on the local level to make genealogical hypothesis and conclusions.

 

The “Hearth taxes” in Cornwall commenced in 1662, and continued to 1670. The returns for Lady’s Day, 1664, are not extant; our record is based on the Michaelmas return, 1664, which is largely intact for all of Cornwall. The lists were supposed to show the occupiers (not owners) of houses and the number of hearths in their house. They were to pay 2 shillings for each hearth, paid in two installments on Lady Day (25 th March) and Michaelmas (29 September). In the 1670’s, separate forms are found where the exempt poor could be listed separately.

 

The collector for each parish – the King’s man, not a local person - went with a constable to each property and inspected for the number of hearths, etc. The collector kept the official record, which was subsequently copied by many officials for various purposes – possibly an opening to error. This return shows, in the first column, the names of the holders, and the number of hearths for which they were taxed in 1662 in the second. Some of the holders were owners of property, while most are residents. The next column shows “ex” for “examinatur”, and also “ret” for “returned”. Lastly, there is a column showing differences, such as chimneys fallen down, or where the previous count of 1662 was in error, as well as changes in ownership/possession, where a hearth was no longer chargeable because of poverty, etc. People not subject to poor rates or Church tithes because of poverty were not subject to this tax, unless they had more than two hearths. In that case, they were chargeable despite poverty. Smelting ovens were also exempt, but commercial baking ovens were not.

 

Each return for a parish also included a section for hearths not mentioned in 1662; these were overlooked in that survey, or newly built dwellings after that date, and are so noted.

 

Please do allow for differences in spelling. For instance, Lawdry and Sawdry, common names in St. Austell, were very easily confused, since the “S” and “L” were written much the same. “Rickard” and “Richard” were also difficult to discern. Spelling was not yet standardized; the same person mentioned 3 times in a document might have their name spelled three ways. In addition, the collectors were not local persons, and therefore not acquainted with local names. Where two or more of the same names are shown, it might be caused by the fact that names were entered in random order, as the collector visited the dwellings. Or they might show a parent and child.

St. Blazey and Tywardreath, returns are on the following pages.

CORNWALL HEARTH TAX Michaelmas 1664 . . .
PARISH Surname Forename(s) # hearths Examnd Document Notes - changes from 1662 tax rolls
. from 1662 tax rolls from 1662 tax rolls in 1662 . names in [..] are from 1662 returns
St. Austell ALLEN Aliexander 1 ex .
St. Austell ALLEN John 5 ex .
St. Austell BAND William 3 ex .
St. Austell BENHAM William 3 ex .
St. Austell BENNETT John 2 ex .
St. Austell BENNETT Thomas 1 ex poor not rated by reason of poverty.
St. Austell BLEIGH Gilbert 6 ex .
St. Austell BODY Patience 2 ex .
St. Austell BOVETT John 1 ex in Towne
St. Austell BOVETT John 2 ex of Carveth
St. Austell BURLACE William 1 ex .
St. Austell CAME John & Ann 4 ex .
St. Austell CARLION, gen Henry 9 ex .
St. Austell CARLYON Tristram 2 ex now Jn. CARLYON
St. Austell CARNE Nicholas 1 ex ret one short
St. Austell CARNE, gen Thomas 4 ex .
St. Austell CLEMENCE Luke 1 ex poor not rated by reason of poverty.
St. Austell CLEMENCE Luke 1 . no such person to be found
St. Austell CLEMENCE Peter 2 ex .
St. Austell CLEMENCE Stephen 2 . one fallen down
St. Austell COCKE Thomas 2 ret one too many by mistake
St. Austell COMBE Richard 1 ex poor not rated by reason of poverty.
St. Austell COMEN Nicholas 1 . not mentioned in the former returns
St. Austell CONGDON John 2 ex .
St. Austell COOMBE Sampson 1 ex .
St. Austell COSGAREN Edward 1 ex now Jn. COSGAREN
St. Austell COURTNEY John 2 . John ROBYNS owner
St. Austell CRAPP John 1 ex .
St. Austell CRAPP Samson 1 ex .
St. Austell DADDOE John 2 . of Boscoppow; not mentioned in the former returns
St. Austell DADDOE Stephen 1 ex .
St. Austell DALLYN John 1 ex .
St. Austell DAVY Jerom 1 ex .
St. Austell DAVY John 2 ex .
St. Austell DAVY William 1 ex .
St. Austell DAVY sen & jr John 3 ex .
St. Austell ESTCOTT Charles 2 ex now Jerom DAVY
St. Austell FOSE Francis 1 . not mentioned in the former returns
St. Austell GILLIS William 2 ex now Wm. BICKEREN
St. Austell GITCHARD William 2 ex .
St. Austell GROWDON Laurence 6 ex .
St. Austell HAMBLY Lewdy 6 . one fallen down
St. Austell HANCOCK John 1 . not mentioned in the former returns
St. Austell HARPER William 1 ex .
St. Austell HENDYE Stephen 2 ex .
St. Austell HEXT Samuel 5 ex .
St. Austell HICKES John 2 ex .
St. Austell HODGE John 5 ex .
St. Austell HODGE John 1 ex .
St. Austell HODGE Peter 1 ex very poor not rated
St. Austell HODGE Stephen 2 ex .
St. Austell HODGE Thomas 2 ex .
St. Austell HOOPER Julyan 3 ex .
St. Austell HUNNEY John 1 ex .
St. Austell HUNNEY Lewdy 3 ex .
St. Austell JACKE Thomasine 1 ex .
St. Austell JAKE William & John 2 ex .
St. Austell JULYAN Richard 2 ret one short
St. Austell KEMPE Luke 1 ex .
St. Austell KNIGHT John 2 ex .
St. Austell LANDRIDGE Thomas 1 ex .
St. Austell LAVEN Martin 2 ex .
St. Austell LAWRENCE William 1 . not mentioned in the former returns
St. Austell LEA, gen William 3 ex .
St. Austell LIGMAN Mark 2 ex .
St. Austell LILLICKE John 1 ex .
St. Austell LUKE William 2 ex .
St. Austell LUNEY John 1 ex poor not rated by reason of poverty.
St. Austell MARTEN Laurence 3 ex .
St. Austell MARTIN Henry 1 . not mentioned in the former returns
St. Austell MAY Joseph 3 . clerk; not mentioned in the former returns
St. Austell MAY Mrs. Katherine 6 ret two short
St. Austell MENHERE Eliz 1 ex now Steph BENNETT
St. Austell MENHERE gen Thomas 5 ex .
St. Austell MOYLE gent David 14 . two fallen down
St. Austell NICHOLLS John 2 ex .
St. Austell OPPYE Richard 3 ex .
St. Austell PASCOE George 1 ex .
St. Austell PASCOE Richard 4 ex of Hay; but one of them in the occupation of a poor man not rated by reason of poverty
St. Austell PASCOE William 2 ex .
St. Austell PEARCE Richard 1 . not mentioned in the former returns
St. Austell PEARCE William 1 . not mentioned in the former returns
St. Austell PEARSE John 1 ex .
St. Austell PENHALE John 3 . one fallen down
St. Austell PENHALE Nicholas 2 ex .
St. Austell PINNER Thomas & Robert 4 . stopt up 2 & now Tho. TYNNER
St. Austell PURKEY John 1 . not mentioned in the former returns
St. Austell REYNOLD Hugh 1 . by reason of poverty by reason of poverty
St. Austell REYNOLD Rose 1 ex .
St. Austell RICHARD Robert 1 . not mentioned in the former returns
St. Austell RICHARD Thomas 2 . one fallen down
St. Austell RICHARDS Philip 1 . not mentioned in the former returns
St. Austell ROBERTS Peter 2 ex .
St. Austell ROBYNS Francis 3 ex the house void but
St. Austell ROBYNS Peter 2 stopt up one
St. Austell ROSCORLA jun George 2 ex .
St. Austell ROSCORLA, gen George 2 ex .
St. Austell ROSEVARE John 3 ex of Rescorla; now Edw. STADDEN has one & the other 2 occupied by poor persons but Jn Rosevare still owner
St. Austell ROSEVARE William 1 ret one short
St. Austell ROSEVEARE John 2 . not mentioned in the former returns
St. Austell ROSEVEARE John 1 . not mentioned in the former returns
St. Austell ROSWARE John 4 . the house void & now Nich. COMON owner
St. Austell ROUSE John 2 ex .
St. Austell ROUSE Thomas 1 ex .
St. Austell ROWETT William 3 ex .
St. Austell ROWSE Edward 2 . not mentioned in the former returns
St. Austell ROWSE Henry 2 ex .
St. Austell SAWLE, Esq Oliver 16 ex .
St. Austell SAWLE, Gent Robert 3 ex .
St. Austell SCHOLLIER Ralph 1 ex .
St. Austell SCOBLE Frances 6 ex now Rich. SCOBLE
St. Austell SLADE Degory 4 ex .
St. Austell STADDEN Edward 1 . no such person to be found
St. Austell STEPHENS John 4 ex .
St. Austell STEPHENS Robert & Mrs. Mary 2 ret one short
St. Austell THOMAS Robert 2 ex .
St. Austell THOMAS Thomas 2 ex .
St. Austell THOMAS William 2 ex .
St. Austell TIPPETT Thomas 3 ex .
St. Austell TONKYN John 4 ex ..
St. Austell TONKYN John 1 ex of Boyne [Boyrie]
St. Austell VIVYAN Robert 1 . for a justment in Carbeane; not mentioned in the former returns
St. Austell VIVYAN William 2 ex .
St. Austell VIVYAN, gen Josias 6 . stopt up two
St. Austell WARRICK Thomas 1 . not mentioned in the former returns
St. Austell WILLIAMS Fretherick 1 ex .
St. Austell WOOLLOCKE Mary 2 ex [WOOLLCOCKE]

 

 

 

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