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Possible relationship between Groups I, II and V

The results for Groups I, II and V differ on only 4 tested STRs: DYS439, DYS446, DYS460 and DYS635.
Group439446460635
I: Stonhewers of Biddulph STS10121024
II: Staniers of Birmingham10131024/25
V: Stonehewers of Leek STS11131123
This may be considered as two groups of mutations, one to DYS439, DYS460
& DYS635 (in some as yet undecidable order), and one to DYS446 only.
The order in which these groups took place is also as yet undecidable;
but it seems reasonable to assume that the first took longer than the
second, as it involved more STRs.
The results for Groups I, II and IIa differ on only 3 tested STRs: DYS446, DYS461 and DYS635.
Group446461635
I: Stonhewers of Biddulph STS121224
II: Staniers of Birmingham131224
IIa: Staniers of Birmingham131325
This may be considered as two groups of mutations, one to DYS461
& DYS635 (in some as yet undecidable order), and one to DYS446 only.
Many scenarios may explain these results. Two possible ones are shown below
diagram
Other scenarios are possible: for example, the difference between group II to group IIa could partially be explained by a change of DYS461 from 13 to 12. Similarly DYS635 could have changed from 25 to 24, presumably before the change to 23 seen in Group V. However, changes that increase the repeat count are more common than those that reduce. For that reason, the left-hand scenario above seems more likely.

The groups are connected both by similar DNA results, and by a shared surname: present-day members of groups I and II using the Stanier variant, and those in group V using Stonehewer. Historically, the Stanier variant does not appear until Richard Stanier [1647-1711].

This suggests that Group V diverged from Groups I and II after the adoption of the Stonehewer surname (which we tend to place at circa 1400); while Groups I and II diverged in or after the 17th century, after which groups II and IIa diverged.