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Regulations for the Conductor

60. He will have entire charge and control of the train, and of all persons employed on it, and is responsible for its movements while on the road, except when his directions conflict with these regulations or involve any risk or hazard, in either of which cases all participating will be held alike accountable.

61. He must see that the instructions are observed by those under him, and report, daily, all violations of them.

62. He must see before starting his train from any terminal station, that his cars are clean, and in good and safe order, particularly examining the wheels, axles, brakes and springs, and while on the road that the routine duties of those employed on the trains, and which are not detailed in these instructions, are faithfully attended to.

63. He must see that he has upon the train signal flags, red lanterns, with a sufficient number of ordinary lanterns, spare shackles and pins, oil, etc. He must see that he has a signal cord properly connected, and that he is provided with the customary papers, dispatch bag and boxes.

64. He will duly call the attention of the repairer of cars, or of the station agent in his absence, to any damage which may have been done to cars, or to any which may come to his knowledge, that it may be promptly corrected, and he must notice these in his reports.

65. He is responsible for attaching the tail lamps to the last car of the train, and must see that the red flags or lanterns are upon the engine when his train is to be followed by another. When a car is detached on the way he must see that the tail lamps are removed and reattached to the train.

66. The conductor of a train carrying red flags, or red flags and lanterns, shall, on arriving at a station beyond which it is not to be carried, notify the station agent of the fact, in order that he (which it shall be his duty to do) may give notice thereof to the conductors of other trains interested, which may not have reached that station. The first named conductor shall also notify such conductors, when he meets them, and the extra train must arrive at stations not later than the latest time prescribed for the regular trains.

67. It is his duty to check the engineers when they seem to run unsafely, and to prescribe to them, when he sees fit, the regular rates allowed in the table, or slower rates, if the track is in bad order.

68. He must not permit the sale of books, papers, or refreshments in the cars without a written license from the superintendent of the road or division.

69. He must not allow any person to ride in the baggage car excepting the baggage master, or outside of the cars without permission.

70. He must prevent passengers endangering themselves by imprudent exposure. In the event of any passenger being drunk or disorderly, to the annoyance of others, he must use all gentle means to stop the nuisance; failing which he must, for the safety and convenience of all, exercise his authority and keep him in a separate place until he arrives at the next station, where the passenger must be left.

71. Conductors must be careful never to make the signal for starting while passengers are getting aboard, and should, in making it, stand near the front end of the front passenger car.

72. The conductor of a freight train has leisure on the road to examine the wheels, brakes and journals of his cars, and can have no excuse for allowing the journals to be neglected, and to become heated on the road. It will, therefore, always be presumed that the conductor is inattentive in regard to his subordinates, if they are neglected. He is expected to do his business promptly and entirely at the stations and to run with regularity, when not interrupted by delays in the trains, mindful that he is running his train to do the business of the road, and not merely to make time over it.

73. Conductors of freight trains must take no loaded cars without the proper waybills; nor waybills without the proper cars.

74. He is reminded that it is his duty to require of the engineer attention to the rules of the road. Negligence or recklessness on the part of the engineer will be taken as a proof of the inefficiency of the conductor, unless such conduct has been duly and distinctly reported on every occasion of its taking place. He will at the same time treat the engineer with that consideration due to his very responsible duties, and is recommended always to advise with him in cases of difficulty.

75. In case of accidents to a train, or of stoppage on the main track, from any cause, he must immediately and always station men with red flags by day, or red lanterns by night, and torpedoes, in addition, if it be foggy, on each side of the spot on single track, and back on double track, and he must do this, as a matter of course, at all times and places, and has no right to assume that there are no trains approaching on either side of him. He will also, when assistance is wanted, or when the safety or convenience of the road requires it, send messengers to the station agents on either side of him. Such agents must either personally notify all approaching trains, or station a man with the proper signal for that purpose. If the accident has happened to a passenger train which has the right to the road, the conductor must immediately forward a written message by a trusty person, or by telegraph, when it is available, to any other passenger train, which will be in waiting, and every agent and employe on the road must assist him in forwarding the said message. He will also, when he is likely to be delayed long, take measures to communicate with his division superintendent, who will instruct him as to what course to pursue. He may command the services of any freight, wood or gravel train, or handcar, on the road, either to forward his own passengers, or to carry a message, provided that he gave no orders which shall interfere with the rights of other trains that may be on the road, without taking measures first to notify these trains, or to insure their safety. He will take the best measures within his reach to have his train forwarded with the least possible delay, and every person in the neighborhood in the employ of the company is required to assist him. When the train is ready to proceed anew, the whistle signal shall be used to call in the men stationed out; and when men belonging to any train are stationed out under any other circumstances, this signal shall always be used to call them in.

76. Great importance is attached to the most prompt delivery of letters, waybills and dispatches, consigned to the care of a conductor; and any neglect in this particular will be severaly dealt with.

77. He will see that doors of freight cars, loaded with articles liable to be injured or stolen, are always closed and locked; and keep the brakemen at their post; whenever delay occurs at a station from freight being improperly stowed, he is required to report the circumstance on the same day to his division superintendent.

78. He will be held responsible for teh safety of live stock, and will not allow them to be transported in close cars in warm weather, but will be particular to carry them either in open cars, or covered cars that are thoroughly ventilated from the ends as well as the sides. When there are any horses on a train, unless the owner has sent a person in charge of them, he will see that they are carefully watered and moderately fed on the road, and such expense shall be paid him by the agent at the end of his stage.

79. It will be his duty to make himself acquainted, as far as is practicable, with the condition of the goods conveyed in the train; and when they are so stowed as to be liable to damage to change the stowage, or leave them at one of the stations, if necessary, to be forwarded more safely with another opportunity; also at the end of his trip, to see that no pilfering of the contents of the cars has been committed.

80. Freight conductors will be held personally responsible for the proper care of all goods or property entrusted to them, while in their charge, and will be careful to see that the same are delivered to the station agents according to the waybills.

81. It is a very important part of his duty to attend strictly to the removal of empty cars from sidings where they are not wanted, to the stations where they are wanted.

82. If, from any cause, it becomes necessary to leave a car, or freight in any shape, where it does not belong, he shall note the facts on the back of the waybill, and give notice in writing to the agent of the station where left, also to the superintendent of the division on which it is left, without delay; and shall use all other means within his power to have the same forwarded to its proper destination with the least possible delay; and in no case must it remain over twenty-four hours, even if the conductor of another train be obliged to leave the same quantity from his train to take it; but perishable property must not be so left; and superintendents of divisions will discriminate as to the kind of freight to have the preference.

83. He will see that all switches are left in their proper positions, after he has passed or used them.

84. He must see that the signals at the draws and at the junctions are right, before passing them.

85. While waiting at stations, he will do such switching as may be reasonably required by the station agent.

Regulations for the Engineer

86. He must not start his train till directed by the conductor, nor till the bell be rung. He must invariably start with care, and see that he has the whole of his train, before he gets beyond the limits of the station; and he must run the rain as nearly to time as possible, arriving at the stations neither too soon nor too late.

87. He must cause the bell to be run (or the whistle to be sounded, where directed), at least eighty (80) rods before arriving at any road crossing, and to be continued, until passing it, and the neglect of this precaution required by law, will be followed by immediate dismissal.

88. He must sound the whistle with a continued sound, at such places only as shall be indicated by posts erected for the purpose, marked "W," or when within one-half a mile of every station.

89. He must pass by stations where his train does not stop, at a much reduced rate of speed, and haul up where trains are receiving passengers.

90. When attached to a train, he will be subject to the orders of the conductor, who has exclusive charge of the train, and who will direct him when to start and when to stop.

91. When at a station, and not attached to a train, he will be subject to the orders of the station agent.

92. Every engineer, in approaching a road or switch, should move at a moderate speed, and see that the way is clear before he reaches it. If the switch be not seen to be right, he should stop until he is sure, and a very good excuse will be required for running off at a switch left on the wrong track. The absence of the proper lights at those switches or crossings where usually shown, is to be considered as a signal to stop the train, which the engineer must always do, and he must not proceed until he is sure that all is right, and all such omission of lights must be immediately reported to the superintendent.

93. In running behind another train, he must so run as to allow the train in front of him to be at least one mile ahead, except when coming to stations, and, in approaching a station, or in running round or entering a curve, particular caution must be used to avoid the possibility of running into the leading train. No excuse as to being deceived about the distance will be received for a neglect of this rule.

94. He shall allow no person to ride on his engine, while it is hauling a train, or on the tender thereof, other than the proper persons attached thereto, excepting the foreman of track repairs, the conductor of the train, and the officers named in Rule 133. Other engineers having the right to ride on the train, by virtue of a ticket or free pass, are also to be deemed an exception to this rule, at the discretion of the engineer of the train.

95. He is held responsible that his engine is neat, clean and in good working order, before he leaves the engine house, and that the spark arrestor and wire netting over the smoke pipe, and in front of the ash pan, are in good condition, and that there is a sufficiency of wood and water in the tender.

96. He must keep a good lookout as he moves forward, for any signals, either from the repair men, or from any other person, or for any indication of danger made to him, all of which he is responsible for seeing and immediately attending to; and he must obey any signal made by a repair man, or other servant of the corporation, even if he should see reason to think such signal unnecessary. The lives of passengers are entrusted to his care, and it is fully expected that he will not only attend to every signal, and to all his instructions, but also that he will, on all occasions, be vigilant and cautious himself, not trusting entirely to signals or rules for safety.

97. He must always run on the supposition that at any station he may find a train out of place, and he must have his train well in hand, in approaching a switch or station.

98. He must pass the draws in the Passaic and Hackensack bridges slowly, and with great care, looking out closely for the signals.

99. Although the conductor has charge of the train, the engineer will not therefore be considered blameless, if he run any unnecessary risk on the road without all the prescribed precautions being observed, which are necessary to perfect safety; nor will he be relieved from blame, if he proceed in violations of the instructions or orders, even should the conductor, from negligence or misapprehension, direct him to do so.

100. He shall not proceed after dark, without the proper lights on the front of his engine. If the proper lanterns of the engine are out of order, he shall place in front of the engine common white lanterns, which will be furnished him by the conductor on application.

101. He must see that his engine is provided with a pair of screw jacks, large lantern or lanterns for front of engine, two or three small white and one red lantern, red flags, and all tools necessary to meet casualties.

102. He is never to leave his engine in steam, without shutting the regulator, throwing the engine out of gear, and putting on the tender brakes.

103. He will not be allowed (except in case of accident or sudden illness) to change his engine on the journey, nor to leave his station, without permission.

104. He is strictly forbidden throwing wood or waste, or allowing the same to be done, from the tender, while the train is in motion.

105. He is strictly enjoined to start and stop the train slowly, and without a jerk, which is liable to snap the couplings and chains; and he is further warned to be careful not to shut off steam suddenly (except in case of danger), so as to cause a concussion of the cars. This rule applies especially to stock trains, the beasts being liable to be thrown down and injured by a sudden check.

106. The utmost care must be exercised in pushing cars into turnouts, so as to avoid injuring them, or other property of the company.

107. In bringing up the train, he must pay particular attention to the state of the weather, and the condition of the rails, as well as to the length of the train, and these circumstances must have due weight in determining when to shut off steam. Stations must not be entered so rapidly as to require a violent application of the brakes, or the sounding of the whistle signal necessary, and every instance of over-shooting the station will be reported to the division superintendent.

108. Whenever he sees the red signal, or any other which he understands to be a signal, he is to bring his engine to a stand, close to the signal, and on no account to pass it.

109. He must pass all bridges, which are indicated by the sign, "Slow," at a reduced rate of speed, and without steam.

110. When passenger trains are behind time, he is at liberty to make it up, in whole or in part, with the consent of the conductor, when he can do so with safety, provided that he run cautiously, and at moderate rates on the curves, and bad parts of the road.

111. When a conductor is disabled, the engineer will be held responsible for the safety of the train, until the proper persons take charge of it.

112. Engineers of freight trains must always take their wood between stations, when there is any ready, and never at stations where passenger trains wood up, excepting in cases of absolute necessity, unless by the order of their superintendent.

113. In passing trains on double track, engines will not sound the whistle unless it be necessary.

Rules for the Station Agent

114. He is responsible for the proper use and care of the buildings and property of the company, and is answerable for the faithful and efficient discharge of the duties of all the company's servants at his station.

115. He must see that all orders are duly executed, and that all books and returns are regularly written up and neatly kept.

116. He must see that all servants at the stations behave respectfully and civilly to passengers of every class.

117. He must inspect, daily, all rooms and places in connection with the stations, and see that they are all neat and clean.

118. He must be careful that all stores supplied for the station are prudently and economically used, and that there is no waste of oil, fuel or stationery.

119. He is not allowed to be absent without leave from the superintendent of his division, or the superintendent, except from illness, in which case he must immediately inform the division superintendent, and take care that some competent person is entrusted with the duties.

120. Cars must never be allowed to stand on the main line, but must be placed on a siding; and the wheels must be securely blocked.

121. Every exertion must be made for the expeditious dispatch of the station duties, and for insuring punctuality in the trains.

122. He is required to see that every article, loaded in the cars, is entered on the freight forwarded book, and on the way-bills; and also, that every article so entered on the way-bills is actually loaded in the car designated thereon.

123. He is held personally responsible for the safe keeping and proper delivery of all goods received by him, and for all charges due thereon; and all articles mentioned on the way-bills will be considered as having been received by the agent at the destined station, and in good order, unless otherwise stated by him on the face of the way-bill.

124. He will report immediately to the division superintendent whenever any train leaves his station before the time presecribed in the timetables, unless telegraph orders shall be given so to do.

125. He will have charge of the switchmen at the station. Switches must always be on the main track, excepting while immediately being used.

126. He will make separate way-bills of the contents of each car, and also of freight destined to different stations. It is absolutely necessary that every loaded freight car be always accompanied by a way-bill showing its contents and destination.

127. Agents at the end of each division must see that the names of the freight conductors are endorsed on the way-bills of freight received from the adjoining divisions, and that the other blanks on the back thereof are filled up.

Rules Related to Section Crews (Maintenance of Way)

135. All persons when at work upon the track, are required to give notice of any obstruction caused by their work, by exhibiting red flags or lanterns conspiciously, and at a sufficient distance from the obstruction, in both directions on single track, and on double track towards approaching trains; and all conductors, engineers, etc. are particularly enjoined to stop when such a signal is exhibited.

140. Track repairers must report any instance of neglect on the part of the engineer to observe their signals of caution or of danger, to their division superintendent.

Rules Related to Telegraph Operators

143. Telegraph operators are allowed to send no messages over the line, excepting such as are connected with the business of the road, unless by permission of their own superintendent, or of one of the superintendents of the road; with this further exception, that they may transmit prepaid messages when they relate to missing baggage or freight, or to cases of sickness or death.

144. Telegraph operators must allow none of their records of messages to be read by any persons excepting superintendents or higher officers of the road; and when they are absent from their offices, the records must be kept in a place inaccessible by those not entitled to use them.

145. The telegraph line will be connected through at the Delaware, Susquehanna and Hornellsville offices every day (Sundays excepted), at precisely 4 minutes before 12 M., for the purpose of sending the time. At precisely 4 minutes before 12 o'clock, the operator who is to send the time, will commence beating seconds with his key, and will continue to do so until 12 o'clock, in order to give every operator an opportunity to adjust his instrument. At precisely 12 o'clock, he will commence saying "i i," which he will continue to repeat for one minute, immediately after which, he will sign. The connecting offices will then disconnect each division of the line, and after 4 minutes past 12, business will go on as usual. It must be understood by those interested, that all other business must be suspended, and that no operator, excepting the one who is sending the time, will be allowed to open the circuit after 4 minutes before 12, until 4 minutes past 12 under any circumstances whatever. In case an operator is unable to get the writing from the one who is sending the time, he must be very careful to keep the circuit closed during the time specified above, even though he may suppose the time is not being sent.

(Illustrations from a series of ads for Waltham Watches published in 1905)

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