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Per Family Tree DNA, "before genetics laboratory findings became commercially available to us as individual genealogists, the academic world was already applying them to its anthropological studies, although it ignored any application to genealogical studies, which were left to researchers without academic sponsorship.

"Anthrogenealogy combines the methods of the two sciences--anthropology, as pursued principally in academic settings, and genealogy, largely with individual or corporate sponsorship or carried out by avocational researchers.

"By utilizing Molecular Biology to observe the genetic data trail of a lineage you are now able to connect unknown family members by employment and comparison of specific locations on the Non-Recombining Y or mtDNA we inherited from our fathers and mothers.

"Anthrogenealogy is, therefore, our word of choice for the study of deep genealogical origins through means of genetics."

Keep checking back as more results unfold!

We are the Chosen

We are the chosen. In each family there is one who seems called to find the ancestors. To put flesh on their bones and make them live again, to tell the family story and to feel that somehow they know and approve. Doing genealogy is not a cold gathering of facts but, instead, breathing life into all who have gone before. We are the storytellers of the tribe. All tribes have one. We have been called, as it were, by our genes. Those who have gone before cry out to us, "Tell our story!" So, we do. In finding them, we somehow find ourselves. How many graves have I stood before now and cried? I have lost count. How many times have I told the ancestors, "You have a wonderful family; you would be proud of us." How many times have I walked up to a grave and felt somehow there was love there for me? I cannot say. It goes beyond just documenting facts. It goes to who am I and why do I do the things I do. It goes to seeing a cemetery about to be lost forever to weeds and indifference and saying, "I can't let this happen." The bones here are bones of my bone and flesh of my flesh. It goes to doing something about it. It goes to pride in what our ancestors were able to accomplish, how they contributed to what we are today. It goes to respecting their hardships and losses, their never giving in or giving up, their resoluteness to go on and build a life for their family. It goes to deep pride that the fathers fought and some died to make and keep us a Nation. It goes to a deep and immense understanding that they were doing it for us. It is of equal pride and love that our mothers struggled to give us birth. Without them we could not exist, and so we love each one, as far back as we can reach. That we might be born who we are. That we might remember them. So,we do. With love and caring and scribing each fact of their existence, because we are they and they are the sum of who we are. So, as a scribe called, I tell the story of my family. It is up to that one called in the next generation to answer the call and take my place in the long line of family storytellers. That is why I do my family genealogy, and that is what calls those young and old to step up and restore the memory or greet those whom we had never known before. -Author Unknown

Realistically, genealogical DNA testing can only test a very small part of who you are as a whole.

For females, mtDNA, tests only your mother's, mother's, mother's, etc. line, excluding all those bloodlines that have married into that one particular line.

For males, yDNA, tests your father's, father's, father's, etc. line, also excluding all those bloodlines that have married into that one particular line.

However, males can also have their mtDNA tested, their mother's, mother's, mother's, etc. line.

It should be noted that woman pass their mtDNA to their daughters and sons. Sons do NOT pass mtDNA on. Males pass their yDNA to their sons, but not their daughters.



Depending on your sex, you then need to decide how in depth you want your test to be. If you choose a too generic tests, you will have too many matches and will need to weed out the "less likely" and get a more defined test with more refined results to find those genealogical matches.

For example, I had the choice to have both my mtDNA panels tested, HRV1 and HRV2. This would narrow down genealogical matches.

My twin brother was tested for just 12 markers, and we found his results too wide, so we are having more markers tested to narrow down his genealogical matches. In addition, he is having his mtDNA tested.


In both my mtDNA panels, HRV1 and HRV2, there was a rare mutation in each panel.

What is a mutation?

A mutation is a marker in your DNA that makes you different from another person genealogically speaking. My mtDNA results determined I am in Haplogroup T*. In this haplogroup, where there is a mutation at 301T, usually, it is 304T. And in my 2nd panel, there is another rare mutation at 215G. But, these rare mutations are very good things!


Because finding another person with the same rare mutations means a greater chance that we are genealogically related. Out of shear curiousity, my twin brother is testing his mtDNA, first panel only, to see if he has these same mutations, which of course, he should (results are back and we match perfectly!) Having more of these rare mutations in the database, we are also hoping this will peak some researchers curiosity to find out "why" or "what" this mutation in haplogroup T* means!

So, let's move on to results. As mentioned previously, I had both panels of my mtDNA tested. The HRV1 and HRV2. It also verifies Native American, African, and Jewish ancestry and includes the most number of base pairs offered anywhere: 16001 to 16569 and 00001 to 00574, for a total of 1143 base pairs.

Here are our results (my brother had just the first panel of his mtDNA tested and we match 100%):

HVR1 Haplogroup


HVR1 differences

from CRS










HVR2 differences

from CRS








Haplogroup T* - What is commonly referred to as my "clan mother", Tara, is believed to have lived around 17,000 years ago in Nothern Italy. Tara's people would have come from the Near East, and her descendents spread all over Europe. Tara's ancestral mother, like all the Daughters of Eve (see Seven Daughters of Eve by Sykes, 2001), would have been one woman that left Africa about 100,000 years ago. Nearly 10% of Europe can trace their maternal ancestor to Tara. (Source:

The last Russian tsar, Nicholas II, has also been shown to be of haplogroup T. This was established when genetic testing was done on his remains to authenticate his identity. As a consequence, all his matrilineal relatives have haplotype T. Assuming all relevant pedigrees are correct, this includes all female-line descendants of his female line ancestor Barbara of Celje (1390-1451), wife of Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor. This includes thousands of European nobles, including the Electress Sophia of Hanover, Charles X of Sweden, Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange, and George III of Great Britain. The American outlaw Jesse James has been shown to be of the subgroup T2. (Source:

There was a paper written about my particular DNA with the unusual mutation at 301, in the first HRV1 panel (but not the second HRV2 panel): Poles/Pomerania (in the paper by Malyarchuk et al, 2002), 126-294-296-301 & 73-263-310. Here is a link to the Malyarchuck et all, 2002 paper to get a sense of the different haplogroups found in Poland. Now I just need to find a Polish line in this DNA branch and consider ways that this Polish person and myself have a similar ancestor, for example, where is my deep maternal line from? Exact matches indicate that we share the same maternal ancestor. Exactly when and where is what we have to hunt for. (Thanks for the help on the FTDNA mtDNA forum!)

Haplogroup T is found with particularly high concentrations around the eastern Baltic Sea, and the Urals.

Countries that border on the sea:

  • Denmark
  • Estonia
  • Finland
  • Germany
  • Latvia
  • Lithuania
  • Poland
  • Russia
  • Sweden

Countries that are in the drainage basin but do not border on the sea:

  • Belarus
  • Czech Republic
  • Norway
  • Slovakia
  • Ukraine
Islands and Archipelagoes
  • Archipelago Sea (Finland)
  • Aland Islands (Finland, autonomous)
  • Bornholm (Denmark)
  • Gotland (Sweden)
  • Hailuoto (Finland)
  • Hiiumaa (Estonia)
  • Kotlin (Russia)
  • Muhu (Estonia)
  • Oland (Sweden)
  • Rugen (Germany)
  • Saaremaa (Estonia)
  • Stockholm archipelago (Sweden)
  • Usedom or Uznam (split between Germany and Poland)
  • Valassaaret (Finland)
  • Wolin (Poland)
The biggest coastal cities:
  • Saint Petersburg (Russia) 4,700,000
  • Riga (Latvia) 760,000
  • Stockholm (Sweden) 743,703 (metropolitan area 1,823,210)
  • Helsinki (Finland) 559,716 (metropolitan area 980,000)
  • Copenhagen (Denmark) 502,204 (metropolitan area 1,823,109) (facing the Sound)
  • Gdansk (Poland) 462,700
  • Szczecin (Poland) 413,600
  • Tallinn (Estonia) 401,774
  • Kaliningrad (Russia) 400,000
  • Malmo (Sweden) 259,579 (facing the Sound)
  • Gdynia (Poland) 255,600
  • Kiel (Germany) 250,000
  • Lubeck (Germany) 216,100
  • Rostock (Germany) 212,700
  • Klaipeda (Lithuania) 194,400
  • Turku (Finland) 175,000


Understanding mtDNA (Link will open in new window)

Famous DNA (Link will open in new window)

Ancient DNA (Link will open in new window)

Caucasian Mummies in Xinjiang (China) (Link will open in new window)

My twin brother had his 37 marker yDNA tested along with his mtDNA.

Since I, of course, am female and unable to test my yDNA, we can assume with almost certain probably our DNA would match within perhaps a margin of 1 step...which means it would not be enough to shift the findings to cause any major changes affecting the outcome. So, having my mtDNA results reported above, and having my twin brothers yDNA current results in hand, I can report his results and assume they would be similar so lets move on to his yDNA test results! Please click HERE. Use your BACK button on your BROWSER to return back here.

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