Search billions of records on





Texas: The Lone Star State
Capital City: Austin
Location: 30.30588 N, 097.75052 W
Statehood: December 29, 1845
Motto: Friendship

Lone Star State
Origin of state's name: Based on a word used by Caddo Indians meaning "friends"
Population: 19,439,337; 2nd - 7-97

Today's Lone Star Flag was first adopted on January 24, 1839 as the national flag of the Republic of Texas.

The flag was later adopted as the state flag when Texas became the 28th state in 1845. As with the flag of the United States, the blue stands for loyalty, the white represents strength, and the red is for bravery.

The official description of the Texas flag, which specifies the exact proportions of each of its elements, was only recently adopted by the state legislature. Accordingly,

"The state flag consists of a rectangle with a width to length ratio of two to three containing: (1) a blue vertical stripe one-third the entire length of the flag wide, and two equal horizontal stripes, the upper stripe white, the lower red, each two-thirds the entire length of the flag long; and (2) a white, regular five-pointed star in the center of the blue stripe, oriented so that one point faces upward, and of such a size that the diameter of a circle passing through the five points of the star is equal to three-fourths the width of the blue stripe."


Border States:
 Arkansas - Louisiana - New Mexico - Oklahoma
Coastline: 367 mi.
Constitution: 28th State

Agriculture: Cattle, cotton, dairy products, nursery stock, poultry, sorghum, corn, wheat.
Industry: Chemical products, petroleum and natural gas, food processing, electric equipment, machinery, mining, tourism.

Land Area; 262,015 sq.mi.; 2nd
Highest Point: Guadalupe Peak; 8,749 feet
Inland water: 4,790 sq.mi.
Largest City: Houston
Lowest Point: Gulf coast; sea level

Today, the seal of the state of Texas has developed into a uniform design with both a front (obverse) and a reverse side. By law, the seal is required to authenticate official documents of the state. The origins of the seal go back to the early days of the republic.

The Obverse:
The Convention of 1836 convened on March 2 at Washington on the Brazos and declared independence from Mexico. Ten days later, the convention adopted a resolution providing for "a single star of five points" as the "peculiar emblem" of the Republic. At least when used on official documents, the seal was to be either gold or silver in color.

Later that same year, the newly formed government of the republic passed a bill which refined somewhat the original description of the seal. Thus, it declared, "for the future, the national seal of this republic shall consist of a single star, with the letters 'Republic of Texas,' circular on said seal, which seal shall also be circular." Ad interim President David Burnet first proposed this description, and Sam Houston, who replaced Burnet as president, approved the design on December 10, 1836.

The Third Congress of the Republic of Texas modified the seal in 1839, adding a live oak branch (to represent strength) and an olive branch (to represent peace). The resulting design, basically, is the one used today. When Texas joined the United States in 1845, the design of the seal was retained, with the change only of the word "Republic" to "State".

Over the next century and a half, the various departments of the state government evolved more than a dozen different renderings of the basic seal design. To ensure more uniform usage, an official implementation of the seal (as shown above left) was adopted by the Secretary of State in 1992.

The Reverse:
The reverse of the Texas state seal (above right) developed much later than the obverse. It was adopted in 1961, based on a design proposed by the Daughters of the Republic of Texas. It consists of a shield surrounded by the six national flags that have flown over Texas. Atop the shield is the familiar lone star from which Texas derived its nickname. A narrow banner across the upper part of the seal displays the words "Remember the Alamo". A similar banner at the bottom reads "Texas One and Indivisible".

The reverse of the seal is used only as a decorative symbol. Unlike the obverse seal, the reverse does not carry with it any legal use or significance.

The pecan is a large tree native to North America. It bears sweet edible nuts, deep brown in color, that range from 1 to 2 inches in length.

The mature pecan tree is usually 70 to 100 feet tall, but can grow as tall as 150 feet and higher. The native pecan trees are estimated to grow  to be over 150 years old. Their trunks are more than three feet in diameter.

Texas is the largest producer of native pecans, and is second only to Georgia in the production of hybrid (orchard grown) varieties. The pecan became the Texas state tree by act of the Texas Legislature in 1919. Governor James Hogg favored the tree so much that he requested that one be planted at his gravesite.

All rights reserved 2000 - 2006
Contact Web Master at:
CDM Publishing: