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PARKINS and PERKINS surname Y DNA Study Project

Perkins of Ufton
DNA spiral
| Purpose | How to Participate | Historical Background | Immigrants | Current Results | Analysis | Anglo-Saxon, Norman, Viking, Celt? | More Information |

Purpose:

Welcome to the home page for the Parkins, Perkins, Parkin, Perkin, Parkinson, Perkinson, Perkipile, and Perquin, surname Y DNA study project.

The purpose of this project is to discover the genetic connections, if any, between Parkins and Perkins families throughout the world. It is hoped that Parkins and Perkins males who have had Y chromosome DNA analysis will send their results with their Parkins/Perkins ancestry to the coordinator to add to a database of tests. The database will then facilitate matches between descendants of the same individual where written evidence of such a connection is unknown.

Some questions we hope to answer:

  1. What are the genetic relationships among the Parkins and Perkins families of Pilston, Monmouthshire in Wales; Ufton Court, Berkshire; Newent, Gloucestershire; Orton-on-the-Hill, Leicestershire; Lincolnshire; Bunny, Nottinghamshire; Hillmorton and Marston, Warwickshire; Madresfield, Worcestershire; Sheffield, Yorkshire; and London, in England?
  2. What are the relationships among the Parkins/Perkins immigrants to colonial New England and Virginia?
  3. What are the relationships among the Parkins/Perkins immigrants to the Caribbean islands?
  4. What are the relationships among the Parkins/Perkins immigrants to Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and India?
  5. What are the relationships, if any, among the Parkins, Perkins, Parkin, Perkin, Parkinson, Perkinson, Perkipile, or Perquin families of Great Britain, Ireland, Germany, Scandinavia and France?

There are discussion lists for all of the variant names in this study at Rootsweb.com and at Genforum.com. There is a web site for the Rootsweb Perkins-L list at Perkins List Home Page. The web site for the Parkins-L list does not currently work. There is a Parkins One Name Study by Mr Vivian J. Parkins. There is a Perkins One Name Study being done by Mr Robert E. Scales.

How to Participate:

In order to participate you must be a male with one of the Parkins or Perkins surnames or variants. This is because the Y chromosome is only passed from father to son. Women who are Parkins or Perkins descendants can sponsor a test of a close male Parkins or Perkins named relative to determine her and his line of descent.

There are several laboratories that one can use for the Y DNA test. While each lab tests for different markers, the results are comparable. So, while I recommend Family Tree DNA as the testing lab, you may choose any lab that you are comfortable with.

FTDNA has given the Perkins surname project a price of $99.00 US for a 12 marker test and a price of $169.00 US for a 25 marker test. There is a 37 marker test for $229.00 plus $2.00 postage and handling. You can start with the 12 marker and have it upgraded to 25 markers for an additional $90.00 or to 37 markers for $149.00. A 25 marker result can be upgraded to 37 markers for $59.00.

There is also a 25 Marker Y DNA+ and MtDNA combined test suite for $289.00 US. This suite adds testing of your maternal DNA (MtDNA) to identify the group your maternal line descends from. If you decide to participate, a cheek swab test kit will be mailed to you directly from FTDNA. Payment is required when you return the cheek swab test kit.

The 12 marker test can determine that you have a common ancestor within ~1000 years and the 25 marker test can determine a common ancestor within ~400 years. The 37 marker test can determine that you have a common ancestor within the past 5 to 16 generations. These spans cover the periods from the Norman Conquest of England through the immigration to the Americas and the rest of the world.

If you would like to participate, contact me by email at SCPerkins@gmail.com for further details.

Disclaimer

I am not an FTDNA Associate and I do not make any money from these tests.

Historical Background:

The British Isles have been populated by successive waves of invaders. The pre-historic population appears to have been related to the Basques. They were followed by the Picts, the Celts, the Romans, the Angles, the Saxons, the Norwegians, the Danes, and the Normans. Scotland had an influx of Celts from Ireland and of Norwegians. Another Celtic out-migration was to Brittany in the 600s A.D.

The earliest origin of the Parkins/Perkins name has been ascribed to a Pierre de Morlaix alias Perkins, a minor official to the Despenser family in the 14th century. Part of the purpose of this study is to try to determine his origin by looking at the DNA of his supposed descendants. See, the Harleian Society Visitation Series, The Visitation of Berkshire 1623, and, A. Mary Sharp, The History of Ufton Court, of the Parish of Ufton, in the County of Berks, and of the Perkins Family, London: Elliot Stock, (1892), p.35 et.seq. The descendants of John Perkins of Ipswich, Massachusetts, appear to have the best claim to descend from Peter Morley alias Perkyns.

In the 1500s and 1600s there were a number of social, religious, and economic causes of widespread emmigration from England to Ireland and the Americas. In following centuries this spread to India, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. In designing our test objectives we have concentrated on identifying these early immigrants and their children. The hope is to tie families in the British Colonies or former colonies to their family of origin in the UK.

Parkins and Perkins Immigrants

This section will attempt to list the names, dates and locations of Parkins and Perkins immigrants to British Colonies with the names of their sons. Much of the initial information comes from the following sources:

Additions and corrections to this list are solicited from the readers. Send them to me at this email: SCPerkins@gmail.com.

Canada?

Massachusetts and Maine:

New Hampshire and Vermont

Connecticut and New Haven

Rhode Island and Providence Plantations?

New York and Long Island?

New Jersey

Pennsylvania and Delaware?

Maryland

Virginia

North Carolina?

South Carolina?

The following immigrants to North America have been believed to be related to each other:

Tests have been done on a descendant of John Perkins of Ipswich, and of Edward Perkins of New Haven. Results are expected soon for a descendant of Abraham Perkins of Hampton, New Hampshire. The preliminary results indicate that John and Edward are NOT related.

Parkins and Perkins Immigrants to the Caribbean

Bahamas?

Barbados

Bermuda?

Curacoa

Jamaica?

Parkins/Perkins Immigrants to other parts of the world

South Africa?

India?

Australia?

New Zealand?

CURRENT TEST RESULTS

The test results are arranged in sets of more-or-less similar markers.

NOTE: FTDNA has revised the scores for DYS464a-d downward by 1 repeat. The results were changed in accord with their directive on 27 May 2003. 464e-f-g sometimes appear and spaces have been left for them.

Parkins and Perkins Y DNA test results
Kit Number, Ancestor,
Location, and Date
Loci, DYS#, and Alleles reported by Family Tree DNA
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
3
9
3
3
9
0
19/
3
9
4
3
9
1
3
8
5
a
3
8
5
b
4
2
6
3
8
8
4
3
9
3
8
9
i
3
9
2
3
8
9
ii
4
5
8
4
5
9
a
4
5
9
b
4
5
5
4
5
4
4
4
7
4
3
7
4
4
8
4
4
9
4
6
4
a
4
6
4
b
4
6
4
c
4
6
4
d
4
6
4
e
4
6
4
f
4
6
4
g
4
6
0
G
a
t
a

H
4
Y
C
A

II

a
Y
C
A

II

b
4
5
6
6
0
7
5
7
6
5
7
0
C
D
Y
a
C
D
Y
b
4
4
2
4
3
8
Group 1, Abraham Perkins, Hampton, NH, YCC I Haplogroup
#4913, Abraham Perkins
Hampton, NH
d.1630+ 13 22 14 10 15 15 11 13 11 13 11 29 15 8 9 8 11 22 16 20 29 12 15 15 15
#7400, Abraham Perkins
Hampton, NH
d.1630+ 13 22 14 10 15 15 11 13 11 13 11 29 15 8 9 8 11 22 16 20 28 12 15 15 15
Group 2, John Perkins, Ipswich, MA, YCC I Haplogroup
#6820, John C. Perkins,
Vermont
1796+ 13 22 14 10 15 15 11 14 11 13 11 29 15 8 9 8 11 22 16 20 28 12 15 15 15
#4367, John Perkins,
New York?/New Brunswick
1750+ 13 22 14 10 15 15 11 15 10 13 11 29 15 8 9 8 11 22 16 20 28 12 15 15 15
#1625, Thomas and Peter Perkins,
Wilkes Co. NC/Campbell Co., TN
1779+ 13 22 14 10 15 15 11 15 11 13 11 29 15 8 9 8 11 22 16 20 28 12 15 15 15 10 10 19 21 13 14 17 22 39 39 12 10
#4762, John Perkins,
Ipswich, MA
1635+ 13 22 14 10 15 15 11 15 11 13 11 29 15 8 9 8 11 22 16 20 28 12 15 15 15 10 10 19 21 13 14 17 22 38 39 12 10
#37226, John Perkins,
Ipswich, MA
1635+ 13 22 14 10 15 15 11 15 11 13 11 29 15 8 9 8 11 22 16 20 28 12 15 15 15 10 10 19 21 13 14 17 22 38 39 12 10
#6474, William Perkins,
MA or Canada?
1790+ 13 22 14 10 15 15 11 15 11 13 11 29 15 8 9 8 11 22 16 20 28 12 15 15 15 10 10 19 21 13 14 16 22 38 39 12 10
#6550, John Perkins,
Ipswich, MA
1635+ 13 22 14 10 15 15 11 15 11 13 11 29 15 8 9 8 11 22 16 20 28 12 15 15 15 10 10 19 21 13 14 17 21 38 39 12 10
#7646, Frank Henry Perkins
MO
1888+ 13 22 14 10 15 15 11 15 11 13 11 29 15 8 9 8 11 22 16 20 28 12 15 15 15
#3270, Daniel Perkins
Wales or NH to
Kent Co., MD
d.1768+ 13 21 14 11 14 15 11 15 11 13 11 29 15 8 9 8 11 22 16 20 28 12 15 15 15
#4363, Thomas and Peter Perkins,
North Carolina
1785+ 13 22 14 10 15 15 11 15 11 13 11 29
Group 3, Richard Perkins of Maryland, YCC R1b Haplogroup
#2702, Richard Perkins,
Maryland
1674+? 13 23 14 11 11 14 12 12 11 13 14 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 18 29 15 15 17 18
#4766, Richard Perkins,
Maryland
1674+? 13 23 14 11 11 14 12 12 11 13 14 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 18 29 15 15 17 18
#10247, Henry Perkins,
Lincoln Co., NC
1826+? 13 23 14 11 11 14 12 12 11 13 14 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 18 29 15 15 17 18
#4792, Elisha Perkins,
Daviess Co., Indiana
1753+ 13 23 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 14 28 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 18 30 14 15 17 18
#13439, Perkins,
1800+ 13 23 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 14 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 18 29 15 15 17 17
Group 4, Nicholas Perkins of VA, Unknown Haplogroup
#4044, Constantine Perkins
Georgia
1796+ 13 23 16 10 16 19 13 12 10 14 11 30 17 9 9 11 11 27 15 19 34 12 14 14 15
#2758, Nicholas Perkins,
Virginia
1641+ 13 24 16 10 16 20 13 12 10 14 11 30
#7118, William Perkins,
Virginia
16??+ 13 23 16 10 15 19 13 12 10 14 11 29 17 9 9 11 11 27 15 19 33 12 14 14 15
#9957, William Perkins,
New Kent Co., Virginia
1673+ 13 23 16 10 15 19 13 12 10 14 11 30 17 9 9 11 11 27 15 19 33 12 14 14 15
#11599, Hardin Perkins S.,
Buckingham Co., Virginia
1819+ 13 23 16 10 16 19 13 12 10 14 11 30 17 9 9 11 11 27 15 19 33 12 14 14 15
Group 5, Edward Perkins of New Haven Colony, YCC R1a Haplogroup CT
#2684, Edward Perkins,
New Haven Co., CT
1639+ 13 25 15 11 11 14 12 12 10 14 11 31 15 8 10 11 11 23 14 20 31 12 15 15 16 11 12 19 21 17 16 17 18 34 37 13 11
#5782, Edward Perkins,
New Haven Co., CT
1639+ 13 25 15 11 11 14 12 12 10 14 11 31 15 8 10 11 11 23 14 20 31 12 15 15 16
#8248, Edward Perkins,
New Haven Co., CT
1639+ 13 24 15 11 11 14 12 12 10 14 11 31 15 8 10 11 11 23 14 20 31 12 15 15 16
Group 6, Unknown, YCC R1b Haplogroup
#2711, John Perkins?,
Ipswich, MA
1635+ 13 23 14 10 11 14 12 12 12 14 13 30 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 18 32 15 15 16 16 11 11 19 22 16 14 18 17 38 38 12 12
#9800, Warren Perkins,
NY
fl 1818 13 23 14 10 11 14 12 12 12 14 13 30 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 18 32 15 15 16 16 11 11 19 22 16 14 18 17 38 38 12 12
Group 7, John Perkins of Louisa Co., VA, YCC R1b Haplogroup
#8279, John Perkins
Louisa Co., VA
d. bef 9 Dec 1799 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 14 13 29 19 9 9 11 11 25 14 18 28 15 15 17 17
#9273, Jesse Mercer Perkins
Alabama
1823+ 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 14 13 30 19 9 9 11 11 25 14 18 28 15 15 17 17
Group 9 of Connecticut: 6 steps from Group 3, Richard Perkins, YCC R1b Haplogroup
#7294, Jarius C. Perkins
Lyme, CT
1796+ 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 15 15 17 17
#10526, Quartus Perkins
CT/PA
b~1800 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 29 17 9 10 11 11 25 15 19 30 15 15 17 17
Group 10 of Virginia: Descendants of Humphrey Perkins, YCC R1a Haplogroup
#2705, Richard Perkins,
Halifax Co., VA
1808+ 13 25 16 10 11 14 12 10 10 12 11 29 15 9 10 11 11 24 14 19 32 14 14 15 15
#10866, Humphrey Perkins,
VA
1677+ 13 25 16 10 11 14 12 10 10 12 11 29 14 9 10 11 11 24 14 19 32 14 14 15 15
Group 11, of North Carolina, YCC I Haplogroup
#11293, William H. Perkins,
Scotland/NC/GA, I Haplogroup
1798+ 13 22 14 10 13 14 11 14 12 12 11 28 14 9 9 8 11 23 16 20 29 12 14 15 17
#3294, Samuel Perkins,
NC, I Haplogroup
~1783+ 13 22 14 10 13 14 11 14 11 12 11 28
Unplaced: 6 Steps from Group 5, Edward Perkins
#7150, Richard Perkins ,
Maryland, R1a
1641+ 13 25 15 10 11 14 12 12 11 13 11 30 15 9 10 11 11 23 14 20 30 12 15 16 18
Unplaced
#5335, Nathaniel Perkins,
NH, I Haplogroup
1730+ 14 23 15 10 14 16 11 13 10 13 13 29 18 8 10 11 11 25 14 20 28 14 16 17 17
#5620, Parkins
Bucks. or Beds.,
England, R1b Haplogroup
1800+ 13 23 14 12 11 14 12 12 13 14 13 30 18 9 10 11 11 26 15 19 28 13 15 16 17
#8635, John Perkins
Tasmania, R1b Haplogroup
1800+ 13 24 14 11 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 30 16 9 11 11 11 24 14 18 28 15 15 16 17
#9416, John Perkins
PA/WV, G Haplogroup
b.1817 13 22 15 10 15 15 11 12 13 12 11 29 19 9 9 11 11 24 17 19 30 14 15 16 16
#13876, Cyrenas W Perkins,
KY, E3b Haplogroup
1850+ 13 24 13 10 16 17 11 12 12 13 11 30 15 9 9 11 11 27 14 20 33 14 16 17 17
#13892, Perkins,
Maine, R1b Haplogroup
1798+ 13 23 14 12 12 14 12 12 11 13 13 29 18 9 10 11 11 24 15 19 28 15 16 17 18
#18419, William Perkins
TN and AL
1816+ 13 23 14 11 11 14 12 12 13 13 13 29 16 9 10 10 11 25 15 19 32 14 15 16 16 11 10 19 23 18 15 18 16 37 38 12 12
#18429,

1800+ 13 24 14 10 11 14 12 12 12 13 13 28 15 9 10 11 11 25 16 20 29 14 14 17 17 11 11 19 23 16 15 18 18 39 40 10 13

There are 59 participants, 52 have returned their test kits and 45 results are on this page. 7 have yet to return their test kits.

The test results are arranged in sets of more-or-less similar markers.

ANALYSIS

A genealogically significant relationship is usually determined by a perfect match on a test of a certain number of Y chromosome markers. At this time 25 markers is the maximum number being used. Analysis of results in several families have shown that 12 marker matches do not automatically mean there will be a match at 25+ markers. It is believed that the more markers tested, the greater the ability to discriminate between branches of a family. One and two step differences in markers probably indicate the individuals are related. Until we have more test data, three to four or more steps differences are considered to mean there is no genealogically recoverable relationship between two individuals, i.e., no relationship within the past 1000 years that might be capable of documentation.

In the current results we have sets that fall into the main European haplogroups and this shows we are dealing with multiple origins for the Parkins/Perkins surnames. I have combined the former Group 8, Descendants of William Perkins of New Kent Co., VA, with Group 4.

Group 1, descendants of Abraham Perkins of Hampton, NH, #4913, and #7400, and Group 2, descendants of John Perkins of Ipswich, MA, #6820, #4367, #1625, #4762, #6474, #6550, #7646, #3270, and #4363, are in the I YCC haplogroup.

Abraham's father, Isaac, and John's father, Henry, were brothers, sons of Thomas Perkins and Alice Kebble of Hillmorton, Warwickshire, England.

Group 3, descendants of Richard Perkins of MD, #2702, #4766, #4792, #10247, and #13439 are in the R1b YCC haplogroup.

Group 4, descendants of Nicholas Perkins of VA, #4044 and #2758, and descendants of William Perkins of New Kent Co., VA, #7118 and #9957, and #11599, have not been assigned to a haplogroup.

Group 5, descendants of Edward Perkins of New Haven, CT, #2684, #5782, and #8248, are in the R1a YCC haplogroup.

Group 6, of unknown New England ancestry, #2711 and #9800, are in the R1b YCC haplogroup.

Group 7, descendants of John Perkins of Louisa Co., VA, #8279 and #9273, are in the R1b YCC haplogroup.

Group 9, appears to be a separate Connecticut family group. Quartus Perkins was named as a nephew in the 1839 will of Perez Perkins of Sesquehana Co., PA, where Quartus lived by the time of the 1850 Census. #7294 and #10526, are in the R1b YCC haplogroup.

Group 10, appears to be descendants of Humphrey Perkins who was in VA by 1677. #2705 and #10866, are in the R1a YCC haplogroup.

Group 11, appears to descend from an unknown progenitor in NC. #11293 and #3294 are 1 step apart at 12 markers. #3294 is encouraged to upgrade to 25 or 37 markers to verify the relationship.

There are 9 unplaced persons in the chart. #5335 is in the I YCC haplogroup. #5620 and #8645 are in the R1b YCC haplogroup. #7150 is in the R1a YCC haplogroup. #9416 is in the G YCC haplogroup. #13876 is in the E3b haplogroup. #13892 is in the R1b haplogroup. Both #18419 and #18429 are in the R1b haplogroup. They are 24 steps distant from each other.

Comparing the haplotypes and the haplogroups, it appears that Group 1 and Group 2 are related as was expected.

The results allow for the following comments:

The preliminary results of the tests of a descendant of John Perkins of Ipswich, 2711, and of a descendant of Edward Perkins of New Haven, 2684, show that they are NOT related. However, the result for another descendant of John Perkins of Ipswich, 4762, while different from that of Edward Perkins, does not match 2711. This is a problem. More descendants of John Perkins of Ipswich are asked to participate in the Y DNA test. Two other descendants of Edward Perkins have tested, one is an exact match to 2684 and the other is 1 step different from them. We are also trying to locate a descendant of Rev. William Perkins of Topsfield and a descendant of Edmund Perkins of Boston, for testing.

The haplotype for Daniel Perkins of MD, 3270, matches that of John Perkins of Ipswich, MA. We are looking for a descendant of Isaac Parkins of Winchester Co., VA, to validate the belief that he and Daniel Perkins of New Kent Co., MD were 1st cousins. More tests of descendants from these lines are needed to validate these results.

The result for Richard Perkins of MD, 2702, has now been validated by tests 4766 and through an anonymous communication which indicates an 11/12 match in the first 12 markers by another descendant of Richard. The anonymous correspondent is being encouraged to have his test extended to 25 markers. 10247 is a perfect 25 marker match to 2702 and 4766. This participant should look for his ancestry in the descendants of Richard Perkins of MD. 4792 also appears to be from this family.

It has now been shown that Constantine Perkins of GA, is a descendant of Nicholas Perkins based on the DNA results and the fact that this is the only Perkins family that uses Constantine as a first name. 7118 and 9957, descendants of William Perkins of VA, appear to belong to this group. 11599 has also been placed in this group.

In set 1625, those numbers in red conform with the Oxford Ancestors laboratory "Viking signature". Much of the population of Norway and part of the population of Scotland, Ireland, England and Frisia have this set of markers. When tested in Oxford Ancestors'online Y DNA database, there were 11 matches in Norway, 1 in Scotland and 3 in Ireland. The U of Arizona Recent Ethnic Origins database gave 1 match in Scotland with a two-step mutation. These results point to a Norwegian origin, despite the chart referenced below. The Thomas Perkins family is referred to as of "Scotch-Irish" origin in the Portrait Biographical Album of Sangamon County, Illinois as published by Chapman Brothers in Chicago ca. 1891. His haplotype set is 15,13,11,14,22,10.

Test volunteers from Perkins families in the United Kingdom and Ireland are needed to allow us to connect lines back to the British Isles.

Anglo-Saxon, Norman, Viking, Celt?

At this time, it is not possible to absolutely differentiate between the Anglo-Saxons and the Scandinavian and Norman Vikings through DNA analysis, although the following articles make a start in that direction using Haplogroups of selected markers.
See,:
Helgason, etc., "Estimating Scandinavian and Gaelic Ancestry in the Male Settlers of Iceland", Am. J. Hum. Genet., 67:697-717, (2000);

and, this article:

Wilson, J. F., Weiss, D. A., Richards, M., Thomas, M. G., Bradman, N., Goldstein, D. B. "Genetic evidence for different male and female roles during cultural transitions in the British Isles". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., vol 98 (9) p5078 (2001)",
contains evidence for the following preliminary table of Y DNA markers for Celtic/Basque, Anglo Saxon and Norwegian ancestry:

 
                                  DYS19/ 
         DYS388-DYS393-DYS392-DYS394-DYS390-DYS391 
Celtic/Basque:  12-----13-----13-----14-----24-----11  
Anglo Saxon:    14-----13-----11-----14-----22-----10 
Norwegian:      12-----13-----11-----16-----25-----11 
 
------------------------------------------------------ 
 
Other Y DNA marker sets: 
                                  DYS19/ 
         DYS388-DYS393-DYS392-DYS394-DYS390-DYS391 
Atlantic MH*    12     13     13     14     24     11 
Cohen    MH     16     12     11     14     23     10 
*=Celtic/Basque 
MH=Modal Haplotype       


Preliminary results from a more recent study are reported in this article from the BBC:
Nicola Cook, "Viking Genetics Survey Results", reporting on a study done by Prof. David B. Goldstein at University College London. Once Dr Goldstein's results are published, a link will be made to the paper.

More Information on DNA and Genealogy:

The following page at the University of Leicester contains links to primary scientific research on the Y chromosome: The Y Chromosome as a Marker for the History and Structure of Human Populations.

The following article is one of the more important discussions of Y DNA: Semino, et.al., "The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in Extant Europeans: A Y chromosome Perspective", Science 2000, v 290, p.1155 et. seq.

This is a glossary of genetic terms: Talking Glossary of Genetic Terms from the National Human Genome Research Institute.

Information on Y DNA testing and Genetics in family history research is available from the following web page:
Chris Pomery's DNA Portal: DNA & the Family Historian.

This page by Dennis Garvey discusses Haplogroups and gives frequency tables for the possible variations: Haplogroups.

This page by Nancy Custer gives information on the Y-STR Loci Allele Frequencies as Reported in the Y-STR European and USA Databases.

Kevin Duerinck's page gives information on the various testing laboratories:
Genetics Laboratories and Testing Sites

See also:
GENEALOGY-DNA-L Listed URLs
and,
Genetics and Genealogy

There are online Y DNA databases for YSTR Europe, YSTR America and YSTR Asia at the Y STR sites.

There is a discussion list at Rootsweb. Instructions for subscribing and searching the archives are at this URL: http://lists.rootsweb.com/index/other/Miscellaneous/GENEALOGY-DNA.html.


updated 7 August 2005