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Ancestors of Amy Russell Tolbert



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Arnold/Arnulf II, the Young of Flanders, Count of Flanders and Rosela/Susanna of Italy




Husband Arnold/Arnulf II, the Young of Flanders, Count of Flanders 1 2 3 4

           Born: Dec 961 - Flanders, France 5
     Christened: 
           Died: 30 Mar 987 - Chapel DE St Laurent, France 6
         Buried: 


         Father: Baudouin/Baldwin III of Flanders, Count of Flanders (Abt 0935-0962) 1 2 7
         Mother: Mathilde (Maud) Billung, Of Saxony (Abt 0942-1008) 1 2 7 8 9 10


       Marriage: Abt 968 6

Noted events in his life were:
• Alt. Death 4, 988




Wife Rosela/Susanna of Italy 1 2 4 11

           Born: Abt 962 - Italy 6
     Christened: 
           Died: 26 Jan 1003 - Flanders, Belgium 4 6
         Buried: 


         Father: King Berengarius II of Italy, Marquis Of Ivrea (Abt 0900-0966) 1 2 4 12
         Mother: Willa of Tuscany, d'Arles (Abt 0920-After 0974) 1 2 4 13



   Other Spouse: Robert II "The Pious" Capet, King of France (0972-1031) 2 14 15 16 17 - Bef 1 Apr 988 - 2ND Husband 1St Wife - Repudiated 992 18



Children
1 M Baudouin IV "The Bearded" Count Of Flanders, Count of Flanders 1 2 4 19 20

            AKA: Baldwin IV De Lille Count Of Flanders
           Born: 977 - Flanders, France 21
     Christened: 
           Died: 30 May 1036 - Flanders, France 4 22
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Ogive de Luxembourg (Abt 0988-1030) 1 2 4 22
           Marr: Abt 1012 - Flanders, France 22
         Spouse: Judith De Normandy (Abt 1007-      ) 2 23
           Marr: Abt 1031 - 3rd Wife 23



2 M Count Eudes (Eudon\Odo) of Cambrai 2 24

            AKA: Eudes Of Flanders
           Born: Abt 982 - Flanders, France
     Christened: 
           Died: Deceased - Cambrai, Nord-Pas-DE-Calais, France
         Buried: 



3 F Mathilda

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 995
         Buried: 



4 M Arnold III De Flanders 2

           Born: Abt 984 - Flanders, France
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 




General Notes: Husband - Arnold/Arnulf II, the Young of Flanders, Count of Flanders

Turton has Arnulph II as son of Arnulph I (Baldwin III is not in his direct descent). AR has Arnold II as son of Baldwin III. I am following AR.
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William Warenne, 1st Earl Of Surrey and Gundred of Flanders




Husband William Warenne, 1st Earl Of Surrey 2 25 26 27




            AKA: 01st Earl Of Surrey William De Warenne
           Born: Abt 1055 - Varenne Near Bellencombre, Seine-Inferieure, Normandy, France 27 28
     Christened: 
           Died: 24 Jun 1088 - Lewes, Sussex, England (From Wounds At Siege Of Pevensey) 26 27
         Buried:  - Priory Of Lewes, Sussex, England 27


         Father: Rodulf (Ralph) II De Warenne (Abt 1020-      ) 2 29 30 31
         Mother: Emma (Abt 1020-After 1074) 2 29 32


       Marriage: Bef 1077 - Normandy, France 26

   Other Spouse: Sister Of Richard Guet (Abt 1060-After 1098) 2 33 - After 1085 - 2ND Wife 33




Wife Gundred of Flanders 2 25 26 29 33

            AKA: Gundreda De Gand
           Born: Abt 1063 - Ghent, Flanders
     Christened: 
           Died: 27 May 1085 - Castle Acre, Norfolk, England (In Childbirth) 26 33
         Buried:  - Priory Of Lewes, Sussex, England


         Father: Gherbod The Fleming, 1st Earl Of Chester (Abt 1027-After 1071) 2 26 34
         Mother: Countess Mathilda of Flanders (1032-1083) 2 35 36





Children
1 M William De Warenne, 2nd Earl Of Surrey 2 37 38 39 40

            AKA: 02nd Earl Of Surrey William De Warenne
           Born: Abt 1071 - Lewes, Sussex, England 29
     Christened: 
           Died: 11 May 1138 - Priory Of Lewes, Sussex, England 41
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Isabel (Elizabeth) De Vermandois (Abt 1081-1131) 2 38 41 42 43 44
           Marr: Abt 1118 - 2ND Husband 40 45



2 M Reynold (Rainald) De Warenne 2 46

           Born: Abt 1075 - Winterbourne, Amesbury, Wiltshire, England
     Christened: 
           Died: Bef 1115 - Poulton, Cirencester, Wiltshire, England 46
         Buried: 



3 F Edith (Ediva) De Warenne, Heir Of Mapledurham 2 47 48

           Born: Abt 1076 - Mapledurham, Oxfordshire, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 




General Notes: Husband - William Warenne, 1st Earl Of Surrey

EARLDOM OF SURREY (I) 1088

WILLIAM DE WARENNE was 1st son of Rodulf II by Emma. At some time in or after 1054 Duke William gave him the castle of Mortemer, which had been forfeited by his kinsman, Roger de Mortimer, after the Battle of Mortemer in February of that year. Probably at the same time he acquired lands at Bellencombre, the castle of which became the caput of the Warenne barony in Normandy. In 1066 he was one of the Norman barons summoned by the Duke to a Council on hearing that Harold had been crowned King after the death of the Confessor. He took part in the invasion of England and was present at the Battle of Hastings. He was rewarded with lands in 13 counties (j), including most of the rape of Lewes in Sussex, the manor of Conisborough, co. York, and Castle Acre and a number of holdings in Norfolk. In 1067 he was one of the Norman nobles whom the Conqueror left in England to support his vice-regents, William FitzOsbern and the Bishop of Bayeux. In 1075 he was one of the two chief justiciars who were in charge of England when the Earls of Hereford and Norfolk rebelled and who summoned them to the King's court, and on their refusal crushed the rebellion (b). About 1083-85 he was fighting for the King in Maine (c). In the spring of 1088 he supported William II against the rebels led by the Bishop of Bayeux and the Count of Mortain, and to secure his loyalty he was created, shortly after Easter (16 April) 1088, EARL OF SURREY (e), his immediate successors being styled more usually EARLS DE WARENNE. He was mortally wounded at the siege of Pevensey before the end of May. He founded Lewes priory as a cell of Cluny abbey, about 1078-82.

He married, 1stly, Gundred, sister of Gerbod the Fleming, EARL OF CHESTER, possibly daughter of Gerbod, hereditary advocate of the Abbey of St. Bertin at St. Omer. She died in child-birth, 27 May 1085, at Castle Acre, Norfolk, and was buried the chapter-house at Lewes. He married, 2ndly, [----], sister of Richard GUET (living 1098). He died 24 June 1088, apparently from the effect of his wound at Pevensey, at Lewes, and was buried there beside his wife. [Complete Peerage XII/1:493-5, XIV:604 (transcribed by Dave Utzinger)]

(j) Bedford, Bucks, Cambridge, Huntingdon, Lincoln, Oxford, York, Berks, Essex, Hants, Norfolk, Suffolk, and Sussex.

(b) William was one of those who occupied Norwich castle after its surrender.

(c) He was one of the leaders of an unsuccessful attack on the castle of Ste Suzanne in Jan, year uncertain.

(e) The creation has been ascribed to the Conqueror, but certainly in error. This was the only earldom created before the reign of Stephen of which the holder did not take his title from the county in which lay his chief territorial strength. However, it is likely that with the Earldom he was given lands at Reigate in Surrey.

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[From "The Origins of Some Anglo-Norman Families"]

For this identification see Mr. Loyd's paper 'The Origin of the Family of Warenne' in Yorkshire Arch. Journal, vol. xxxi, pp. 97-113. The hamlet of Varenne lies on the river Varenne c. 2 miles S of Arques and c. 13 miles N of Bellencombre. The latter place, arr. Dieppe, cant. Bellencombre, where there was a castle, became the caput of the Warenne honour in Normandy.

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William Warenne was one of those followers of William of Normandy who made their fortunes by the conquest of England. The younger son of Rudulf of Varenne in Normandy, he distinguished himself in ducal service as a very young man in the early 1050s. After the ducal victory at Mortemer (1054) he received estates in upper Normandy, but it was only after the English invasion that he attained the front rank. He fought at Hastings and was rewarded with lands which by 1086 extended into thirteen counties, most notably strategically important estates in Sussex centered round Lewes. By the end of William I's reign he was one of the dozen largest individual landowners in England. He repaid his debt with vigorous loyalty in both England and France. In 1075 he played a leading role in suppressing the revolt of the earls of Hereford and Norfolk. After the Conqueror's death, Warenne supported William Rufus in 1087-88 against Robert Curthose and Odo of Bayeux. Rufus encouraged his service by creating him earl of Surrey in 1088. The same year Warenne was seriously wounded by an arrow in his leg at the siege of Pevensey and died at his foundation of Lewes Priory on 24 June 1088.

Warenne's career was more than meteoric. A younger son of an obscure minor Norman nobleman, he had risen through conspicuous loyalty to his lord to become not only one of the richest men in one of the richest kingdoms of Europe but also the founder of a dynasty which, powerful, wealthy and influential, survived as earl of Surrey until 1347. Warenne's foundation at Lewes (1078/80) was the first Cluniac house in England, another sign of the Conquest's effect on establishing institutional as well as personal links across the Channel. Warenne's success depended on the traditional chivalric virtues of loyalty, bravery and prowess in arms. His life illustrates the stupendous prizes and the personal dangers on offer to those who joined the conquest of England. It was appropriate that Warenne's direct descendent, John De Warenne, Earl of Surrey (1231-1304), when challenged in 1278 by royal commissioners to produce title to his land, produced an old rusty sword declaring, 'Here, my Lord, is my warrant (warrantus: a pun which no doubt appealed to the somewhat intractable sense of honour of the time). My ancestors came with William the Bastard and won their lands with the sword, and by the sword I will hold them against all comers.' Earl John won his case. William of Warenne would have approved. [Who's Who in Early Medieval England, Christopher Tyerman, Shepheard-Walwyn, Ltd., London, 1996]

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William de Warrenne, Earl of Warrenne, in Normandy, a near kinsman of William the Conqueror, came into England with that prince and, having distinguished himself at the battle of Hastings, obtained an immense portion of the public spoliation. He had large grants of land in several counties, amongst which were the Barony of Lewes, in Sussex, and the manors of Carletune and Benington, in Lincolnshire. So extensive indeed were those grants that his possessions resembled more the dominions of a sovereign prince than the estates of a subject. He enjoyed, too, in the highest degree, the confidence of the king, and was appointed joint justice-general with Richard de Benefactis for administering justice throughout the whole realm. While in that office, some great disturbers of the public peace having refused to appear before him and his colleague in obedience to citation, the Earl took up arms and defeated the rebels in a battle at Fagadune, when he is said, for the purpose of striking terror, to have cut off the right foot of each of his prisoners. Of those rebels, Ralph Wahir or Guarder, Earl of Norfolk, and Roger, Earl of Hereford, were the ringleaders. His lordship was likewise highly esteemed by King William Rufus, and was created by that monarch Earl of Surrey. He m. Gundred, dau. of the Conqueror*, and had issue, William, Reginald, Gundred-Edith, and another dau. who m. Ernise de Colungis.

This potent noble built the castle of Holt and founded the priory at Lewes, in Sussex. He resided principally at the castle of Lewes, and had besides Castle-Acre, in Norfolk, and noble castles at Coningsburg and Sandal. He d. 24 June, 1088, and Dugdale gives to following curious account of his parting hour. "It is reported that this Earl William did violently detain certain lands from the monks of Ely, for which, being often admonished by the abbot, and not making restitution, died miserably. And, though his death happened very far off the isle of Ely, the same night he died, the abbot lying quietly in his bed and meditating on heavenly things, heard the soul of this earl, in its carriage away by the devil, cry out loudly and with a known and distinct voice, Lord have mercy on me; Lord have mercy on me. And, moreover, that the next day after, the abbot acquainted all the monks in chapter therewith. And likewise, that about four days after, there came a messenger to them from the wife of this earl with 100 shillings for the good of his soul, who told them that he died the very hour that the abbot had heard the outcry. But that neither the abbot nor any of the monks would receive it, not thinking it safe for them to take the money of a damned person. If this part of the story as to the abbot's hearing the noise be no truer than the last, viz., that his lady sent them 100 shillings, I shall deem it to be a mere fiction, in regard the lady was certainly dead about three years before." The earl was s. by his elder son, William de Warenne. [Sir Bernard Burke, Dormant, Abeyant, Forfeited, and Extinct Peerages, Burke's Peerage, Ltd., London, 1883, p. 568, Warren, Earls of Surrey]

* At one time, it was thought that Gundred was the daughter of William the Conqueror. This has since been disproved. For details, see "Early Yorkshire Charters" by C. T. Clay, or "Études sur Quelques Points de l'Historie de Guillaume le Conquérant" by H. Prentout. [Brian Tompsett, Directory of Royal Genealogical Data, University of Hull, Hull, UK, "Electronic," royal01389]


General Notes: Wife - Gundred of Flanders

Gundred (daughter of Gherbod the Fleming), d. 27 May 1085; m. bef. 1077, William de Warenne, d. Lewes 24 June 1088, created 1st Earl of Surrey, son of Rudolf de Warenne and Beatrice. [Magna Charta Sureties]

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He married, 1stly, Gundred, sister of Gerbod the Fleming, EARL OF CHESTER, possibly daughter of Gerbod, hereditary advocate of the Abbey of St. Bertin at St. Omer. She died in child-birth, 27 May 1085, at Castle Acre, Norfolk, and was buried the chapter-house at Lewes. [Complete Peerage XII/1:493-5, XIV:604 (transcribed by Dave Utzinger)]

Note: I think that Gundred was daughter of Gerbod the Fleming, Earl of Chester. He was also advocate of the Abbey of St. Bertin of St. Omer (as CP itself indicated-see notes under Gherbod) . As far as I know there is only one Gerbod.

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According to Magna Charta Sureties (and CP in a way), a daughter of Gherbod the Fleming. According to the Plantagenet Ancestry, a daughter of William the Conquerer and Matilda of Flanders. The following discussion in soc.genealogy.medieval illustrates the proof for Gundred being daughter of Matilda, wife of William I, and also the controversy still being debated about her ancestry. I happen to believe that the Lewes Chartulary is not false on the basis that there is no reason for forging a relationship to Queen Maud, but not King William I.

From: Phil Moody (moodyprime AT cox.net)
Subject: Re: tombstone of Gundrad, wife of William de Warenne
Newsgroups: soc.genealogy.medieval
Date: 2002-12-30 21:52:15 PST

"Chris PHILLIPS" wrote"

> There was never any question of Gundred being an illegitimate daughter of
> William I, but rather it was a case of a fraudulent claim that she was a
> legitimate daughter. The reason people used to think that Gundred was a
> daughter of William the Conqueror was because the monks of Lewes forged some
> charters which stated that. But I don't think anyone now seriously maintains
> that these charters are authentic.
>
> Gundred is known to have been a sister of Gerbod, who was briefly earl of
> Chester under William the Conqueror. It's clear they were members of a
> Flemish family who were advocates of St Bertin's Abbey in St Omer, and who
> held Oosterzele and Scheldewindeke, although the genealogy isn't altogether
> clear.

PLM: There is some doubt in my mind, however. Per your earlier assistance to me; I do now have "The Chartulary of the Priory of St. Pancras of Lewes", vol. I, ed. L. F. Salzman, and published by the Sussex Record Society in 1032 [sic?]. There is a lengthy charter by William Warrene nearly six pages in length; so I will not quote it's entirety, but this bit is curious.

Page 3:

"..., I have given for the welfare of my soul and that of Gundrada my wife and for the soul of my lord King William who brought me into England and by whose license I caused the monks to come and who confirmed my former gift, and for the welfare of my lady Queen Maud the mother of my wife and for the welfare of my lord King William his son after whose coming to England I made this charter and who made me Earl of Surrey,..." UNQ

PLM: It is quite clear from this charter, that Gundrada is the daughter of Queen Maud, and the lack of a reference to William I being the father of Gundrada is highly significant. If I were to rely solely on this evidence, I would have to conclude that Gundrada was NOT the daughter of William I at all.

People have referred to forged charters from Lewes, but what is the basis of these assertions, and which references discuss these "supposedly proven forgeries"? The premise of such an accusation appears to be up side down, in relation to the above charter. It seems illogical to forge a document that makes Gundrada the daughter of the Queen, as opposed to the King of England; which would essentially diminish her social standing, instead of elevating it, as most forgeries tend to do?

Cheers,
Phil

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From: Chris PHILLIPS (cgp AT medievalgenealogy.org.uk)
Subject: Re: tombstone of Gundrad, wife of William de Warenne
Newsgroups: soc.genealogy.medieval
Date: 2002-12-31 01:54:55 PST

Paul Reed posted a quite detailed summary of the arguments that the charter was spurious, on 11 March 1998, entitled: "Gundred, the Conqueror, and the spurious charter of 1085 (LONG)".

Apart from the internal evidence that the charter has been tampered with, and the existence of a copy of the foundation charter, which doesn't mention Gundred's parentage, in the cartulary of Cluny, the parent house, there are also statements by two other sources that Gundred was the brother of Gerbod. Admittedly these could be circumvented by the suggestion that Gundred was only William's step-daughter, and that Gerbod's father had previously been married to Matilda (although there is no indication elsewhere that this was the case, despite quite a lot of documentation relating to Gerbod's family, and of course to the counts of Flanders).

What clinched the long-running Victorian controversy was the point made by Chester Waters, that when a marriage was proposed between an illegitimate daughter of Henry I and a son of Gundred, it was prohibited on the grounds of a 4th/6th-generation consanguinity. If Gundred had been Matilda's daughter they would have been first cousins, so this, rather than the much more distant relationship, would surely have been mentioned.

Chris Phillips

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From: Linda (lindas4 AT aol.com)
Subject: Re: tombstone of Gundrad, wife of William de Warenne
Newsgroups: soc.genealogy.medieval
Date: 2002-12-31 08:52:44 PST

As with other "proof", I am curious about how conclusive Mr. Waters' arguement is. People being the political animals that they are, it would seem to me that a closer relationship might not be mentioned if it were politically sensitive for some reason. I have no thoughts on what that might be, but Mr. Waters' arguement, while persuasive, still does not seem to me to CONCLUSIVELY prove anything, simply because we cannot possibly know everything was going on in people's minds 1000 years ago (or today, for that matter).

I guess it's my background in math and computers that makes me question these things. It does not seem to me that either side of this controversy has anything that could be considered absolute proof - just circumstantial evidence and theories, all of which can be contested with more theories. There seem to be plenty of sincere and knowledgeable people on both sides of the issue, and I wonder if, barring discovery of new documentation, the issue will ever be resolved. I keep going back to that tombstone - the only piece of evidence that is truly "cast in stone".

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Note: I happen to feel that Chester Water's analysis which invalidates the Chartulary is not altogether conclusive. The fact remains that the marriage WAS invalidated on the grounds of consanguinity; quite possibly for political reasons the church chose a more distant relationship for invalidating the marriage (4th or 6th cousin rather than 1st cousin); the church may not have wanted to emphasize the illegitimacy of Gundred, ancestor of the Warennes, a very powerful family.
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William I the Conqueror of Normandy, King of England, Duke of Normandy and Countess Mathilda of Flanders




Husband William I the Conqueror of Normandy, King of England, Duke of Normandy 2 14 34 35 49 50 51

            AKA: The Conqueror
           Born: 14 Oct 1027 - Falaise, Calvados, Normandy, France 51 52 53 54 55 56 57
     Christened: 1066 - Normand Conqust
           Died: 9 Sep 1087 - Hermentruvilleby, Rouen, Seine-Maritime, Fr (Fell From Horse) 51 52 58 59 60
         Buried: 10 Sep 1087 - Abbey Of St Step, Caen, Calvados, France 61


         Father: Robert I "The Magnificent" Normandy, 6th Duke Normandy (1000-1035) 2 14 34 50 62 63
         Mother: Arletta (Herleve) de Falaise, Officer Of The Household (Abt 1003-Abt 1050) 14 19


       Marriage: Abt 1053 - Eu, Seine-Inferieure, Eu, , Haute-Normandie, France

Noted events in his life were:
• Ruled, 1066-1087




Wife Countess Mathilda of Flanders 2 35 36




           Born: 1032 - Flanders, France 64 65
     Christened: 
           Died: 3 Nov 1083 - Caen, Calvados, Normandy, France 65
         Buried:  - Holy Trinity Abbey, Caen, , Basse-Normandie, France


         Father: Baldwin V of Flanders, Count of Flanders (1012-1067) 1 2 4 66 67 68 69
         Mother: Princess Adaele (Alix) France (Abt 1013-1079) 2 4 20 68 70 71



   Other Spouse: Gherbod The Fleming, 1st Earl Of Chester (Abt 1027-After 1071) 2 26 34 - 1st Husband?

Noted events in her life were:
• Alt. Burial - The Holy Trinity Church, Caen, Calvados, Normandy, France



Children
1 F Agatha of Normandy 19

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 1079 - France
         Buried:  - Bayeux, , Basse-Normandie, France



2 M Prince Robert II "Curthose" of Normandy, Duke of Normandy 2 72

            AKA: Curthose, Courthose
           Born: 1054 - Rouen, Seine-Inferieure, Normandy, France
     Christened: 
           Died: 10 Feb 1134 - Cardiff Castle, Cardiff, , Glamorgan, Wales
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Sybilla (      -1103) 19



3 M Prince Richard of England, Duke of Bernay 19

           Born: Abt 1054 - Normandy, France
     Christened: 
           Died: 1081 - Hunting in the New Forest, England
         Buried:  - Winchester Cathedral, Hampshire, England



4 F Princess Cecilia of England, Abbess Holy Trinity 19

           Born: Abt 1055 - Normandy, France
     Christened: 
           Died: 30 Jul 1126 - Caen, , Basse-Normandie, France
         Buried:  - Abbey of the Holy Trinity, Caen, France



5 M William II "Rufus" of England, King of England 2 14 73

            AKA: Rufus
           Born: Abt 1056 - Rouen, Seine-Inferieure, Normandy, France 73
     Christened: 
           Died: 2 Aug 1100 - New Forest, Near Lyndhurst, Hampshire, England 73
         Buried:  - Winchester, Hampshire, England



6 F Adeliza/Adelaide 19

           Born: Abt 1055 - Normandy, France
     Christened: 
           Died: 1065 - France
         Buried: 



7 F Matilda 19

           Born: Abt 1059 - Normandy, France
     Christened: 
           Died: Bef 1112
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Gilbert De Clare, 3rd Earl Of Pembroke (1173-After 1185) 2 74



8 F Adela Of Normandy, Princess Of England 2 19 75 76 77

            AKA: Adela Princess Of England
           Born: Abt 1062 - Rouen, Seine-Inferieure, Normandy, France 76 77
     Christened: 
           Died: 8 Mar 1137 - Marcigny, , Bourgogne, France 75 77
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Stephen "Le Sage" Comte De Champagne & Blois (Abt 1046-1102) 2 75 77 78
           Marr: Abt 1080 - Breteuil, Eure, Normandy, France 76 77
         Spouse: Stephan Henry , Count of Blois & Chartres (      -1102) 19



9 F Princess Constance of Normandy 2 19 79

           Born: 1066 - Rouen, Seine-Inferieure, Normandy, France
     Christened: 
           Died: 13 Apr 1090 - Brittany, France 79
         Buried:  - St Melans. Redon, France
         Spouse: Alan IV Fergent, Duke of Brittany (Abt 1059-1119) 19
           Marr: 1086 - Caen, , Basse-Normandie, France



10 M Henry I "Beauclerc" England, King of England 2 14 35 80 81

            AKA: Beauclerc, Beauclerc, Duke of Normandy
           Born: 1068 - Selby, West Riding Yorkshire, England 80 82 83 84 85 86 87 88
     Christened: 5 Aug 1100 - Selby, Yorkshire, England
           Died: 1 Dec 1135 - Lyons-La-Foret, Eure, Normandy, France 80 82 89 90 91 92
         Buried: 4 Jan 1136 - Reading, , Berkshire, England 93
         Spouse: Nesta Verch Rhys Tudor, Heiress Carew/Prss Wales (1073-Bef 1136) 19
         Spouse: Sibyl Corbet (      -Abt 1157)
         Spouse: Mathilde de Beaumont (Abt 1098-1148) 2 96 97
         Spouse: Princess Matilda/Edith "Atheling" of Scotland (1079/1080-1118) 72
           Marr: 6 Aug 1100 - Westminster, London, Middlesex, England 35
         Spouse: Adelicia , of Louvain (Abt 1105-1151) 19 72
           Marr: 29 Jan 1121 - Westminster Abbey, London, Middlesex, England



11 F Gundred of Normandy, Princess of England

           Born: 1062 - Normandy, France
     Christened: 
           Died: 27 May 1085 - Acre Castle, Norfolk, England
         Buried: 
         Spouse: William de Warenne (Abt 1055-1088)




General Notes: Husband - William I the Conqueror of Normandy, King of England, Duke of Normandy

CONFLICT: Ancestral Roots of Sixty Colonists Who Came to New England between 1623 and 1650, F rederick Lewis Weis, Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1992 (states natural son of Rober t I & Arlette (or Herleve) Chapman Family History, Beauchamp William Chapman, private publi shing co., 1987 (states illegitmate son of Robert [PAGE 244] Benjamin Maulsby and Rhoda WIL LIAMS Backward and Forward, G. Ann Roberts, 1990 (a private publishing) [states
natural son of Robert the Magnificent]

OCCUPATION: 7th Duke of Normandy; King of England 1066-1087. WILLIAM I of Normandy and I o f England; succeeded his father at the age of seven. Nature and his fearful upbringing had m ade WILLIAM a stern pracitcal man, who ruled by force and not by dreams. But he was also pro vided with imagination --- imagination needed by a great constructive ruler. Crowned King o f England on Christmas Day 1066, died 9 Sept. 1087. He had fallen from a horse while he wa s burning the town of Mantes in France, he was taken to Suburb of Rouen were he laid dying . He lived six weeks after the fall. Said to be buried in an unseenly fashion. By conques t 1st King of House of Normandy line of kings.William I, byname WILLIAM The CONQUEROR, or Th e BASTARD, or WILLIAM of NORMANDY, French GUILLAUME le CONQURANT, or le B(P)TARD, or GUILLAUM E de NORMANDIE (b. c. 1028, Falaise, Normandy--d. Sept. 9, 1087, Rouen), duke of Normandy (a s William II) from 1035 and king of England from 1066, one of the greatest soldiers and ruler s of the Middle Ages. He made himself the mightiest feudal lord in France and then changed th e course of England's history by his conquest of that country.

Early years

William was the elder of two children of Robert I of Normandy and his concubine Herleva, or A rlette, the daughter of a burgher from the town of Falaise. In 1035 Robert died when returnin g from a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and William, his only son, whom he had nominated as his hei r before his departure, was accepted as duke by the Norman magnates and his feudal overlord , King Henry I of France. William and his friends had to overcome enormous obstacles. His ill egitimacy (he was generally known as the Bastard) was a handicap, and he had to survive the c ollapse of law and order that accompanied his accession as a child.

Three of William's guardians died violent deaths before he grew up, and his tutor was murdere d. His father's kin were of little help; most of them thought that they stood to gain by th e boy's death. But his mother managed to protect William through the most dangerous period. T hese early difficulties probably contributed to his strength of purpose and his dislike of la wlessness and misrule.

Ruler of Normandy.

By 1042, when William reached his 15th year, was knighted, and began to play a personal par t in the affairs of his duchy, the worst was over. But his attempts to recover rights lost du ring the anarchy and to bring disobedient vassals and servants to heel inevitably led to trou ble. From 1046 until 1055 he dealt with a series of baronial rebellions, mostly led by kinsme n. Occasionally he was in great danger and had to rely on Henry of France for help. In 1047 H enry and William defeated a coalition of Norman rebels at Val-s-Dunes, southeast of Caen. I t was in these years that William learned to fight and rule.

William soon learned to control his youthful recklessness. He was always ready to take calcul ated risks on campaign and, most important, to fight a battle. But he was not a chivalrous o r flamboyant commander. His plans were simple, his methods direct, and he exploited ruthlessl y any advantage gained. If he found himself at a disadvantage, he withdrew immediately. He sh owed the same
qualities in his government. He never lost sight of his aim to recover lost ducal rights an d revenues, and, although he developed no theory of government or great interest in administr ative techniques, he was always prepared to improvise and experiment. He seems to have live d a moral life by the standards of the time, and he acquired an interest in the welfare of th e Norman church. He made his half brother, Odo, bishop of Bayeux in 1049 at the age of abou t 16, and Odo managed to combine the roles of nobleman and prelate in a way that did not grea tly shock contemporaries. But William also welcomed foreign monks and scholars to Normandy. L anfranc of Pavia, a famous master of the liberal arts, who entered the monastery of Bec abou t 1042, was made abbot of Caen in 1063.

According to a brief description of William's person by an anonymous author, who borrowed ext ensively from Einhard's Life of Charlemagne, he was just above average height and had a robus t, thick-set body. Though he was always sparing of food and drink, he became fat in later lif e. He had a rough bass voice and was a good and ready speaker. Writers of the next generatio n agree that he was exceptionally strong and vigorous. William was an out-of-doors man, a hun ter and soldier, fierce and despotic, generally feared; uneducated, he had few graces but wa s intelligent and shrewd and soon obtained the respect of his rivals.

New alliances.

After 1047 William began to take part in events outside his duchy. In support of his lord, Ki ng Henry, and in pursuit of an ambition to strengthen his southern frontier and expand into M aine, he fought a series of campaigns against Geoffrey Martel, count of Anjou. But in 1052 He nry and Geoffrey made peace, there was a serious rebellion in eastern Normandy, and, until 10 54 William was again in serious danger. During this period he conducted important negotiation s with his cousin Edward the Confessor, king of England, and took a wife.

Norman interest in Anglo-Saxon England derived from an alliance made in 1002, when King Ethel red II of England married Emma, the sister of Count Richard II, William's grandfather. Two o f her sons, William's cousins once removed, had reigned in turn in England, Hardecanute (1040 -42) and Edward the Confessor (1042-66). William had met Edward during that prince's exile o n the Continent and may well have given him some support when he returned to England in 1041 . In that year Edward was about 36 and William 14. It is clear that William expected some sor t of reward from Edward and, when Edward's marriage proved unfruitful, began to develop an am bition to become his kinsman's heir. Edward probably at times encouraged William's hopes. Hi s childlessness was a diplomatic asset.

In 1049 William negotiated with Baldwin V of Flanders for the hand of his daughter, Matilda . Baldwin, an imperial vassal with a distinguished lineage, was in rebellion against the West ern emperor, Henry III, and in desperate need of allies. The proposed marriage was condemne d as incestuous (William and Matilda were evidently related in some way) by the Emperor's fri end, Pope Leo IX, at the Council of Reims in October 1049; but so anxious were the parties fo r the alliance that before the end of 1053, possibly in 1052, the wedding took place. In 105 9 William was reconciled to the papacy, and as penance the disobedient pair built two monaste ries at Caen. Four sons were born to William and Matilda: Robert (the future duke of Normandy ), Richard (who died young), William Rufus (the Conqueror's successor in England), and Henr y (Rufus' successor). Among the daughters was Adela, who was the mother of Stephen, king of E ngland.

Edward the Confessor was supporting the Emperor, and it is possible that William used his ne w alliance with Flanders to put pressure on Edward and extort an acknowledgment that he was t he English king's heir. At all events, Edward seems to have made some sort of promise to Will iam in 1051, while Tostig, son of the greatest nobleman in England, Earl Godwine, married Bal dwin's half sister. The immediate purpose of this tripartite alliance was to improve the secu rity of each of the parties. If William secured a declaration that he was Edward's heir, he w as also looking very far ahead.

Between 1054 and 1060 William held his own against an alliance between King Henry I and Geoff rey Martel of Anjou. Both men died in 1060 and were succeeded by weaker rulers. As a result , in 1063 William was able to conquer Maine. In 1064 or 1065 Edward sent his brother-in-law , Harold, earl of Wessex, Godwine's son and successor, on an embassy to Normandy. William too k him on a campaign into Brittany, and in connection with this Harold swore an oath in which , according to Norman writers, he renewed Edward's bequest of the throne to William and promi sed to support it.

When Edward died childless on Jan. 5, 1066, Harold was accepted as king by the English magnat es, and William decided on war. Others, however, moved more quickly. In May Tostig, Harold' s exiled brother, raided England, and in September he joined the invasion forces of Harald II I Hardraade, king of Norway, off the Northumbrian coast. William assembled a fleet, recruite d an army, and gathered his forces in August at the mouth of the Dives River. It is likely th at he originally intended to sail due north and invade England by way of the Isle of Wight an d Southampton Water. Such a plan would give him an offshore base and interior lines. But adve rse winds detained his fleet in harbour for a month, and in September a westerly gale drove h is ships up-Channel.

The Battle of Hastings.

William regrouped his forces at Saint-Valry on the Somme. He had suffered a costly delay, som e naval losses, and a drop in the morale of his troops. On September 27, after cold and rain y weather, the wind backed south. William embarked his army and set sail for the southeast co ast of England. The following morning he landed, took the unresisting towns of Pevensey and H astings, and began to organize a bridgehead with between 4,000 and 7,000 cavalry and infantry .

William's forces were in a narrow coastal strip, hemmed in by the great forest of Andred, and , although this corridor was easily defensible, it was not much of a base for the conquest o f England. The campaigning season was almost past, and when William received news of his oppo nent it was not reassuring. On September 25 Harold had defeated and slain Tostig and Harald H ardraade at Stamford Bridge, near York, and was retracing his steps to meet the new invader . On October 13, when Harold emerged from the forest, William was taken by surprise. But th e hour was too late for Harold to push on to Hastings, and he took up a defensive position. E arly the next day William went out to give battle. He attacked the English phalanx with arche rs and cavalry but saw his army almost driven from the field. He rallied the fugitives, howev er, and brought them back into the fight and in the end wore down his opponents. Harold's bro thers were killed early in the battle. Toward nightfall the King himself fell and the Englis h gave up. William's coolness and tenacity secured him victory in this fateful battle, and h e then moved against possible centres of resistance so quickly that he prevented a new leade r from emerging. On Christmas Day 1066 he was crowned king in Westminster Abbey. In a forma l sense the Norman Conquest of England had taken place.

King of England

William was already an experienced ruler. In Normandy he had replaced disloyal nobles and duc al servants with his own friends, limited private warfare, and recovered usurped ducal rights , defining the feudal duties of his vassals. The Norman church flourished under his rule. H e wanted a church free of corruption but subordinate to him. He would not tolerate oppositio n from bishops and abbots or interference from the papacy. He presided over church synods an d reinforced ecclesiastical discipline with his own. In supporting Lanfranc, prior of Bec, ag ainst Berengar of Tours in their dispute over the doctrine of the Eucharist, he found himsel f on the side of orthodoxy. He was never guilty of the selling of church office (simony). H e disapproved of clerical marriage. At the same time he was a stern and sometimes rough maste r, swayed by political necessities, and he was not generous to the church with his own proper ty. The reformer Lanfranc was one of his advisers; but perhaps even more to his taste were th e worldly and soldierly bishops Odo of Bayeux and Geoffrey of Coutances.

William left England early in 1067 but had to return in December because of English unrest. T he English rebellions that began in 1067 reached their peak in 1069 and were finally quelle d in 1071. They completed the ruin of the highest English aristocracy and gave William a dist aste for his newly conquered kingdom. Since his position on the Continent was deteriorating , he wanted to solve English problems as cheaply as possible. To secure England's frontiers , he invaded Scotland in 1072 and Wales in 1081 and created special defensive "marcher" count ies along the Scottish and Welsh borders.

In the last 15 years of his life he was more often in Normandy than in England, and there wer e five years, possibly seven, in which he did not visit the kingdom at all. He retained mos t of the greatest Anglo-Norman barons with him in Normandy and confided the government of Eng land to bishops, trusting especially his old friend Lanfranc, whom he made archbishop of Cant erbury. Much concerned that the natives should not be unnecessarily disturbed, he allowed the m to retain their own laws and courts.

William returned to England only when it was absolutely necessary: in 1075 to deal with the a ftermath of a rebellion by Roger, earl of Hereford, and Ralf, earl of Norfolk, which was mad e more dangerous by the intervention of a Danish fleet; and in 1082 to arrest and imprison hi s half brother Odo, bishop of Bayeux and earl of Kent, who was planning to take an army to It aly, perhaps to make himself pope. In the spring of 1082 William had his son Henry knighted , and in August at Salisbury he took oaths of fealty from all the important landowners in Eng land, whosoever's vassals they might be. In 1085 he returned with a large army to meet the th reat of an invasion by Canute IV (Canute the Holy) of Denmark. When this came to nothing owin g to Canute's death in 1086, William ordered an economic and tenurial survey to be made of th e kingdom, the results of which are summarized in the two volumes of Domesday Book.

William was preoccupied with the frontiers of Normandy. The danger spots were in Maine and th e Vexin on the Seine, where Normandy bordered on the French royal demesne. After 1066 William 's continental neighbours became more powerful and even more hostile. In 1068 Fulk the Surl y succeeded to Anjou and in 1071 Robert the Frisian to Flanders. Philip I of France allied wi th Robert and Robert with the Danish king, Canute IV. There was also the problem of William' s heir apparent, Robert Curthose, who, given no appanage and seemingly kept short of money, l eft Normandy in 1077 and intrigued with his father's enemies. In 1081 William made a compromi se with Fulk in the treaty of Blancheland: Robert Curthose was to be count of Maine but a s a vassal of the count of Anjou. The eastern part of the Vexin, the county of Mantes, had fa llen completely into King Philip's hands in 1077 when William had been busy with Maine. In 10 87 William demanded from Philip the return of the towns of Chaumont, Mantes, and Pontoise. I n July he entered Mantes by surprise, but while the town burned he suffered some injury fro m which he never recovered. He was thwarted at the very moment when he seemed about to enforc e his last outstanding territorial claim.

Death

William was taken to a suburb of Rouen, where he lay dying for five weeks. He had the assista nce of some of his bishops and doctors, and in attendance were his half brother Robert, coun t of Mortain, and his younger sons, William Rufus and Henry. Robert Curthose was with the Kin g of France. It had probably been his intention that Robert, as was the custom, should succee d to the whole inheritance. In the circumstances he was tempted to make the loyal Rufus his s ole heir. In the end he compromised: Normandy and Maine went to Robert and England to Rufus . Henry was given great treasure with which he could purchase an appanage. William died at da ybreak on September 9, in his 60th year, and was buried in rather unseemly fashion in St. Ste phen's Church, which he had built at Caen. [Encyclopaedia Britannica CD, 1996, WILLIAM I]Will iam I, byname WILLIAM The CONQUEROR, or The BASTARD, or WILLIAM of NORMANDY, French GUILLAUM E le CONQURANT, or le B(P)TARD, or GUILLAUME de NORMANDIE (b. c. 1028, Falaise, Normandy--d . Sept. 9, 1087, Rouen), duke of Normandy (as William II) from 1035 and king of England fro m 1066, one of the greatest soldiers and rulers of the Middle Ages. He made himself the might iest feudal lord in France and then changed the course of England's history by his conquest o f that country.

Early years

William was the elder of two children of Robert I of Normandy and his concubine Herleva, or A rlette, the daughter of a burgher from the town of Falaise. In 1035 Robert died when returnin g from a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and William, his only son, whom he had nominated as his hei r before his departure, was accepted as duke by the Norman magnates and his feudal overlord , King Henry I of France. William and his friends had to overcome enormous obstacles. His ill egitimacy (he was generally known as the Bastard) was a handicap, and he had to survive the c ollapse of law and order that accompanied his accession as a child.

Three of William's guardians died violent deaths before he grew up, and his tutor was murdere d. His father's kin were of little help; most of them thought that they stood to gain by th e boy's death. But his mother managed to protect William through the most dangerous period. T hese early difficulties probably contributed to his strength of purpose and his dislike of la wlessness and misrule.

Ruler of Normandy.

By 1042, when William reached his 15th year, was knighted, and began to play a personal par t in the affairs of his duchy, the worst was over. But his attempts to recover rights lost du ring the anarchy and to bring disobedient vassals and servants to heel inevitably led to trou ble. From 1046 until 1055 he dealt with a series of baronial rebellions, mostly led by kinsme n. Occasionally he was in great danger and had to rely on Henry of France for help. In 1047 H enry and William defeated a coalition of Norman rebels at Val-s-Dunes, southeast of Caen. I t was in these years that William learned to fight and rule.

William soon learned to control his youthful recklessness. He was always ready to take calcul ated risks on campaign and, most important, to fight a battle. But he was not a chivalrous o r flamboyant commander. His plans were simple, his methods direct, and he exploited ruthlessl y any advantage gained. If he found himself at a disadvantage, he withdrew immediately. He sh owed the same qualities in his government. He never lost sight of his aim to recover lost duc al rights and revenues, and, although he developed no theory of government or great interes t in administrative techniques, he was always prepared to improvise and experiment. He seem s to have lived a moral life by the standards of the time, and he acquired an interest in th e welfare of the Norman church. He made his half brother, Odo, bishop of Bayeux in 1049 at th e age of about 16, and Odo managed to combine the roles of nobleman and prelate in a way tha t did not greatly shock contemporaries. But William also welcomed foreign monks and scholar s to Normandy. Lanfranc of Pavia, a famous master of the liberal arts, who entered the monast ery of Bec about 1042, was made abbot of Caen in 1063.

According to a brief description of William's person by an anonymous author, who borrowed ext ensively from Einhard's Life of Charlemagne, he was just above average height and had a robus t, thick-set body. Though he was always sparing of food and drink, he became fat in later lif e. He had a rough bass voice and was a good and ready speaker. Writers of the next generatio n agree that he was exceptionally strong and vigorous. William was an out-of-doors man, a hun ter and soldier, fierce and despotic, generally feared; uneducated, he had few graces but wa s intelligent and shrewd and soon obtained the respect of his rivals.

New alliances.

After 1047 William began to take part in events outside his duchy. In support of his lord, Ki ng Henry, and in pursuit of an ambition to strengthen his southern frontier and expand into M aine, he fought a series of campaigns against Geoffrey Martel, count of Anjou. But in 1052 He nry and Geoffrey made peace, there was a serious rebellion in eastern Normandy, and, until 10 54 William was again in serious danger. During this period he conducted important negotiation s with his cousin Edward the Confessor, king of England, and took a wife.

Norman interest in Anglo-Saxon England derived from an alliance made in 1002, when King Ethel red II of England married Emma, the sister of Count Richard II, William's grandfather. Two o f her sons, William's cousins once removed, had reigned in turn in England, Hardecanute (1040 -42) and Edward the Confessor (1042-66). William had met Edward during that prince's exile o n the Continent and may well have given him some support when he returned to England in 1041 . In that year Edward was about 36 and William 14. It is clear that William expected some sor t of reward from Edward and, when Edward's marriage proved unfruitful, began to develop an am bition to become his kinsman's heir. Edward probably at times encouraged William's hopes. Hi s childlessness was a diplomatic asset.

In 1049 William negotiated with Baldwin V of Flanders for the hand of his daughter, Matilda . Baldwin, an imperial vassal with a distinguished lineage, was in rebellion against the West ern emperor, Henry III, and in desperate need of allies. The proposed marriage was condemne d as incestuous (William and Matilda were evidently related in some way) by the Emperor's fri end, Pope Leo IX, at the Council of Reims in October 1049; but so anxious were the parties fo r the alliance that before the end of 1053, possibly in 1052, the wedding took place. In 105 9 William was reconciled to the papacy, and as penance the disobedient pair built two monaste ries at Caen. Four sons were born to William and Matilda: Robert (the future duke of Normandy ), Richard (who died young), William Rufus (the Conqueror's successor in England), and Henr y (Rufus' successor). Among the daughters was Adela, who was the mother of Stephen, king of E ngland.

Edward the Confessor was supporting the Emperor, and it is possible that William used his ne w alliance with Flanders to put pressure on Edward and extort an acknowledgment that he was t he English king's heir. At all events, Edward seems to have made some sort of promise to Will iam in 1051, while Tostig, son of the greatest nobleman in England, Earl Godwine, married Bal dwin's half sister. The immediate purpose of this tripartite alliance was to improve the secu rity of each of the parties. If William secured a declaration that he was Edward's heir, he w as also looking very far ahead.

Between 1054 and 1060 William held his own against an alliance between King Henry I and Geoff rey Martel of Anjou. Both men died in 1060 and were succeeded by weaker rulers. As a result , in 1063 William was able to conquer Maine. In 1064 or 1065 Edward sent his brother-in-law , Harold, earl of Wessex, Godwine's son and successor, on an embassy to Normandy. William too k him on a campaign into Brittany, and in connection with this Harold swore an oath in which , according to Norman writers, he renewed Edward's bequest of the throne to William and promi sed to support it.

When Edward died childless on Jan. 5, 1066, Harold was accepted as king by the English magnat es, and William decided on war. Others, however, moved more quickly. In May Tostig, Harold' s exiled brother, raided England, and in September he joined the invasion forces of Harald II I Hardraade, king of Norway, off the Northumbrian coast. William assembled a fleet, recruite d an army, and gathered his forces in August at the mouth of the Dives River. It is likely th at he originally intended to sail due north and invade England by way of the Isle of Wight an d Southampton Water. Such a plan would give him an offshore base and interior lines. But adve rse winds detained his fleet in harbour for a month, and in September a westerly gale drove h is ships up-Channel.

The Battle of Hastings.

William regrouped his forces at Saint-Valry on the Somme. He had suffered a costly delay, som e naval losses, and a drop in the morale of his troops. On September 27, after cold and rain y weather, the wind backed south. William embarked his army and set sail for the southeast co ast of England. The following morning he landed, took the unresisting towns of Pevensey and H astings, and began to organize a bridgehead with between 4,000 and 7,000 cavalry and infantry .

William's forces were in a narrow coastal strip, hemmed in by the great forest of Andred, and , although this corridor was easily defensible, it was not much of a base for the conquest o f England. The campaigning season was almost past, and when William received news of his oppo nent it was not reassuring. On September 25 Harold had defeated and slain Tostig and Harald H ardraade at Stamford Bridge, near York, and was retracing his steps to meet the new invader . On October 13, when Harold emerged from the forest, William was taken by surprise. But th e hour was too late for Harold to push on to Hastings, and he took up a defensive position. E arly the next day William went out to give battle. He attacked the English phalanx with arche rs and cavalry but saw his army almost driven from the field. He rallied the fugitives, howev er, and brought them back into the fight and in the end wore down his opponents. Harold's bro thers were killed early in the battle. Toward nightfall the King himself fell and the Englis h gave up. William's coolness and tenacity secured him victory in this fateful battle, and h e then moved against possible centres of resistance so quickly that he prevented a new leade r from emerging. On Christmas Day 1066 he was crowned king in Westminster Abbey. In a forma l sense the Norman Conquest of England had taken place.

King of England

William was already an experienced ruler. In Normandy he had replaced disloyal nobles and duc al servants with his own friends, limited private warfare, and recovered usurped ducal rights , defining the feudal duties of his vassals. The Norman church flourished under his rule. H e wanted a church free of corruption but subordinate to him. He would not tolerate oppositio n from bishops and abbots or interference from the papacy. He presided over church synods an d reinforced ecclesiastical discipline with his own. In supporting Lanfranc, prior of Bec, ag ainst Berengar of Tours in their dispute over the doctrine of the Eucharist, he found himsel f on the side of orthodoxy. He was never guilty of the selling of church office (simony). H e disapproved of clerical marriage. At the same time he was a stern and sometimes rough maste r, swayed by political necessities, and he was not generous to the church with his own proper ty. The reformer Lanfranc was one of his advisers; but perhaps even more to his taste were th e worldly and soldierly bishops Odo of Bayeux and Geoffrey of Coutances.

William left England early in 1067 but had to return in December because of English unrest. T he English rebellions that began in 1067 reached their peak in 1069 and were finally quelle d in 1071. They completed the ruin of the highest English aristocracy and gave William a dist aste for his newly conquered kingdom. Since his position on the Continent was deteriorating , he wanted to solve English problems as cheaply as possible. To secure England's frontiers , he invaded Scotland in 1072 and Wales in 1081 and created special defensive "marcher" count ies along the Scottish and Welsh borders.

In the last 15 years of his life he was more often in Normandy than in England, and there wer e five years, possibly seven, in which he did not visit the kingdom at all. He retained mos t of the greatest Anglo-Norman barons with him in Normandy and confided the government of Eng land to bishops, trusting especially his old friend Lanfranc, whom he made archbishop of Cant erbury. Much concerned that the natives should not be unnecessarily disturbed, he allowed the m to retain their own laws and courts.

William returned to England only when it was absolutely necessary: in 1075 to deal with the a ftermath of a rebellion by Roger, earl of Hereford, and Ralf, earl of Norfolk, which was mad e more dangerous by the intervention of a Danish fleet; and in 1082 to arrest and imprison hi s half brother Odo, bishop of Bayeux and earl of Kent, who was planning to take an army to It aly, perhaps to make himself pope. In the spring of 1082 William had his son Henry knighted , and in August at Salisbury he took oaths of fealty from all the important landowners in Eng land, whosoever's vassals they might be. In 1085 he returned with a large army to meet the th reat of an invasion by Canute IV (Canute the Holy) of Denmark. When this came to nothing owin g to Canute's death in 1086, William ordered an economic and tenurial survey to be made of th e kingdom, the results of which are summarized in the two volumes of Domesday Book.

William was preoccupied with the frontiers of Normandy. The danger spots were in Maine and th e Vexin on the Seine, where Normandy bordered on the Fre
William I, byname WILLIAM The CONQUEROR, or The BASTARD, or WILLIAM of NORMANDY, French GUILLAUME le CONQUÉRANT, or le BÂTARD, or GUILLAUME de NORMANDIE (b. c. 1028, Falaise, Normandy--d. Sept. 9, 1087, Rouen), duke of Normandy (as William II) from 1035 and king of England from 1066, one of the greatest soldiers and rulers of the Middle Ages. He made himself the mightiest feudal lord in France and then changed the course of England's history by his conquest of that country.

Early years

William was the elder of two children of Robert I of Normandy and his concubine Herleva, or Arlette, the daughter of a burgher from the town of Falaise. In 1035 Robert died when returning from a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and William, his only son, whom he had nominated as his heir before his departure, was accepted as duke by the Norman magnates and his feudal overlord, King Henry I of France. William and his friends had to overcome enormous obstacles. His illegitimacy (he was generally known as the Bastard) was a handicap, and he had to survive the collapse of law and order that accompanied his accession as a child.

Three of William's guardians died violent deaths before he grew up, and his tutor was murdered. His father's kin were of little help; most of them thought that they stood to gain by the boy's death. But his mother managed to protect William through the most dangerous period. These early difficulties probably contributed to his strength of purpose and his dislike of lawlessness and misrule.

Ruler of Normandy.

By 1042, when William reached his 15th year, was knighted, and began to play a personal part in the affairs of his duchy, the worst was over. But his attempts to recover rights lost during the anarchy and to bring disobedient vassals and servants to heel inevitably led to trouble. From 1046 until 1055 he dealt with a series of baronial rebellions, mostly led by kinsmen. Occasionally he was in great danger and had to rely on Henry of France for help. In 1047 Henry and William defeated a coalition of Norman rebels at Val-ès-Dunes, southeast of Caen. It was in these years that William learned to fight and rule.

William soon learned to control his youthful recklessness. He was always ready to take calculated risks on campaign and, most important, to fight a battle. But he was not a chivalrous or flamboyant commander. His plans were simple, his methods direct, and he exploited ruthlessly any advantage gained. If he found himself at a disadvantage, he withdrew immediately. He showed the same
qualities in his government. He never lost sight of his aim to recover lost ducal rights and revenues, and, although he developed no theory of government or great interest in administrative techniques, he was always prepared to improvise and experiment. He seems to have lived a moral life by the standards of the time, and he acquired an interest in the welfare of the Norman church. He made his half brother, Odo, bishop of Bayeux in 1049 at the age of about 16, and Odo managed to combine the roles of nobleman and prelate in a way that did not greatly shock contemporaries. But William also welcomed foreign monks and scholars to Normandy. Lanfranc of Pavia, a famous master of the liberal arts, who entered the monastery of Bec about 1042, was made abbot of Caen in 1063.

According to a brief description of William's person by an anonymous author, who borrowed extensively from Einhard's Life of Charlemagne, he was just above average height and had a robust, thick-set body. Though he was always sparing of food and drink, he became fat in later life. He had a rough bass voice and was a good and ready speaker. Writers of the next generation agree that he was exceptionally strong and vigorous. William was an out-of-doors man, a hunter and soldier, fierce and despotic, generally feared; uneducated, he had few graces but was intelligent and shrewd and soon obtained the respect of his rivals.

New alliances.

After 1047 William began to take part in events outside his duchy. In support of his lord, King Henry, and in pursuit of an ambition to strengthen his southern frontier and expand into Maine, he fought a series of campaigns against Geoffrey Martel, count of Anjou. But in 1052 Henry and Geoffrey made peace, there was a serious rebellion in eastern Normandy, and, until 1054 William was again in serious danger. During this period he conducted important negotiations with his cousin Edward the Confessor, king of England, and took a wife.

Norman interest in Anglo-Saxon England derived from an alliance made in 1002, when King Ethelred II of England married Emma, the sister of Count Richard II, William's grandfather. Two of her sons, William's cousins once removed, had reigned in turn in England, Hardecanute (1040-42) and Edward the Confessor (1042-66). William had met Edward during that prince's exile on the Continent and may well have given him some support when he returned to England in 1041. In that year Edward was about 36 and William 14. It is clear that William expected some sort of reward from Edward and, when Edward's marriage proved unfruitful, began to develop an ambition to become his kinsman's heir. Edward probably at times encouraged William's hopes. His childlessness was a diplomatic asset.

In 1049 William negotiated with Baldwin V of Flanders for the hand of his daughter, Matilda. Baldwin, an imperial vassal with a distinguished lineage, was in rebellion against the Western emperor, Henry III, and in desperate need of allies. The proposed marriage was condemned as incestuous (William and Matilda were evidently related in some way) by the Emperor's friend, Pope Leo IX, at the Council of Reims in October 1049; but so anxious were the parties for the alliance that before the end of 1053, possibly in 1052, the wedding took place. In 1059 William was reconciled to the papacy, and as penance the disobedient pair built two monasteries at Caen. Four sons were born to William and Matilda: Robert (the future duke of Normandy), Richard (who died young), William Rufus (the Conqueror's successor in England), and Henry (Rufus' successor). Among the daughters was Adela, who was the mother of Stephen, king of England.

Edward the Confessor was supporting the Emperor, and it is possible that William used his new alliance with Flanders to put pressure on Edward and extort an acknowledgment that he was the English king's heir. At all events, Edward seems to have made some sort of promise to William in 1051, while Tostig, son of the greatest nobleman in England, Earl Godwine, married Baldwin's half sister. The immediate purpose of this tripartite alliance was to improve the security of each of the parties. If William secured a declaration that he was Edward's heir, he was also looking very far ahead.

Between 1054 and 1060 William held his own against an alliance between King Henry I and Geoffrey Martel of Anjou. Both men died in 1060 and were succeeded by weaker rulers. As a result, in 1063 William was able to conquer Maine. In 1064 or 1065 Edward sent his brother-in-law, Harold, earl of Wessex, Godwine's son and successor, on an embassy to Normandy. William took him on a campaign into Brittany, and in connection with this Harold swore an oath in which, according to Norman writers, he renewed Edward's bequest of the throne to William and promised to support it.

When Edward died childless on Jan. 5, 1066, Harold was accepted as king by the English magnates, and William decided on war. Others, however, moved more quickly. In May Tostig, Harold's exiled brother, raided England, and in September he joined the invasion forces of Harald III Hardraade, king of Norway, off the Northumbrian coast. William assembled a fleet, recruited an army, and gathered his forces in August at the mouth of the Dives River. It is likely that he originally intended to sail due north and invade England by way of the Isle of Wight and Southampton Water. Such a plan would give him an offshore base and interior lines. But adverse winds detained his fleet in harbour for a month, and in September a westerly gale drove his ships up-Channel.

The Battle of Hastings.

William regrouped his forces at Saint-Valéry on the Somme. He had suffered a costly delay, some naval losses, and a drop in the morale of his troops. On September 27, after cold and rainy weather, the wind backed south. William embarked his army and set sail for the southeast coast of England. The following morning he landed, took the unresisting towns of Pevensey and Hastings, and began to organize a bridgehead with between 4,000 and 7,000 cavalry and infantry.

William's forces were in a narrow coastal strip, hemmed in by the great forest of Andred, and, although this corridor was easily defensible, it was not much of a base for the conquest of England. The campaigning season was almost past, and when William received news of his opponent it was not reassuring. On September 25 Harold had defeated and slain Tostig and Harald Hardraade at Stamford Bridge, near York, and was retracing his steps to meet the new invader. On October 13, when Harold emerged from the forest, William was taken by surprise. But the hour was too late for Harold to push on to Hastings, and he took up a defensive position. Early the next day William went out to give battle. He attacked the English phalanx with archers and cavalry but saw his army almost driven from the field. He rallied the fugitives, however, and brought them back into the fight and in the end wore down his opponents. Harold's brothers were killed early in the battle. Toward nightfall the King himself fell and the English gave up. William's coolness and tenacity secured him victory in this fateful battle, and he then moved against possible centres of resistance so quickly that he prevented a new leader from emerging. On Christmas Day 1066 he was crowned king in Westminster Abbey. In a formal sense the Norman Conquest of England had taken place.

King of England

William was already an experienced ruler. In Normandy he had replaced disloyal nobles and ducal servants with his own friends, limited private warfare, and recovered usurped ducal rights, defining the feudal duties of his vassals. The Norman church flourished under his rule. He wanted a church free of corruption but subordinate to him. He would not tolerate opposition from bishops and abbots or interference from the papacy. He presided over church synods and reinforced ecclesiastical discipline with his own. In supporting Lanfranc, prior of Bec, against Berengar of Tours in their dispute over the doctrine of the Eucharist, he found himself on the side of orthodoxy. He was never guilty of the selling of church office (simony). He disapproved of clerical marriage. At the same time he was a stern and sometimes rough master, swayed by political necessities, and he was not generous to the church with his own property. The reformer Lanfranc was one of his advisers; but perhaps even more to his taste were the worldly and soldierly bishops Odo of Bayeux and Geoffrey of Coutances.

William left England early in 1067 but had to return in December because of English unrest. The English rebellions that began in 1067 reached their peak in 1069 and were finally quelled in 1071. They completed the ruin of the highest English aristocracy and gave William a distaste for his newly conquered kingdom. Since his position on the Continent was deteriorating, he wanted to solve English problems as cheaply as possible. To secure England's frontiers, he invaded Scotland in 1072 and Wales in 1081 and created special defensive "marcher" counties along the Scottish and Welsh borders.

In the last 15 years of his life he was more often in Normandy than in England, and there were five years, possibly seven, in which he did not visit the kingdom at all. He retained most of the greatest Anglo-Norman barons with him in Normandy and confided the government of England to bishops, trusting especially his old friend Lanfranc, whom he made archbishop of Canterbury. Much concerned that the natives should not be unnecessarily disturbed, he allowed them to retain their own laws and courts.

William returned to England only when it was absolutely necessary: in 1075 to deal with the aftermath of a rebellion by Roger, earl of Hereford, and Ralf, earl of Norfolk, which was made more dangerous by the intervention of a Danish fleet; and in 1082 to arrest and imprison his half brother Odo, bishop of Bayeux and earl of Kent, who was planning to take an army to Italy, perhaps to make himself pope. In the spring of 1082 William had his son Henry knighted, and in August at Salisbury he took oaths of fealty from all the important landowners in England, whosoever's vassals they might be. In 1085 he returned with a large army to meet the threat of an invasion by Canute IV (Canute the Holy) of Denmark. When this came to nothing owing to Canute's death in 1086, William ordered an economic and tenurial survey to be made of the kingdom, the results of which are summarized in the two volumes of Domesday Book.

William was preoccupied with the frontiers of Normandy. The danger spots were in Maine and the Vexin on the Seine, where Normandy bordered on the French royal demesne. After 1066 William's continental neighbours became more powerful and even more hostile. In 1068 Fulk the Surly succeeded to Anjou and in 1071 Robert the Frisian to Flanders. Philip I of France allied with Robert and Robert with the Danish king, Canute IV. There was also the problem of William's heir apparent, Robert Curthose, who, given no appanage and seemingly kept short of money, left Normandy in 1077 and intrigued with his father's enemies. In 1081 William made a compromise with Fulk in the treaty of Blancheland: Robert Curthose was to be count of Maine but as a vassal of the count of Anjou. The eastern part of the Vexin, the county of Mantes, had fallen completely into King Philip's hands in 1077 when William had been busy with Maine. In 1087 William demanded from Philip the return of the towns of Chaumont, Mantes, and Pontoise. In July he entered Mantes by surprise, but while the town burned he suffered some injury from which he never recovered. He was thwarted at the very moment when he seemed about to enforce his last outstanding territorial claim.

Death

William was taken to a suburb of Rouen, where he lay dying for five weeks. He had the assistance of some of his bishops and doctors, and in attendance were his half brother Robert, count of Mortain, and his younger sons, William Rufus and Henry. Robert Curthose was with the King of France. It had probably been his intention that Robert, as was the custom, should succeed to the whole inheritance. In the circumstances he was tempted to make the loyal Rufus his sole heir. In the end he compromised: Normandy and Maine went to Robert and England to Rufus. Henry was given great treasure with which he could purchase an appanage. William died at daybreak on September 9, in his 60th year, and was buried in rather unseemly fashion in St. Stephen's Church, which he had built at Caen. [Encyclopaedia Britannica CD, 1996, WILLIAM I]
He was the first Norman king of England, also duke of Normandy, who has
been called one of the first modern kings and is generally regarded as one
of the outstanding figures in western European history.

William was an illegitimate son and is therefore sometimes called William
the Bastard. Upon the death of his father, the Norman nobles, honoring
their promise to Robert, accepted William as his successor. Rebellion
against the young duke broke out almost immediately, however, and his
position did not become secure until 1047 when, with the aid of Henry I,
king of France, he won a decisive victory over a rebel force near Caen.

During a visit in 1051 to his childless cousin, Edward the Confessor, king
of England, William is said to have obtained Edward's agreement that he
should succeed to the English throne. In 1053, defying a papal ban,
William married a descendant of King Alfred the Great, thereby
strengthening his claim to the crown of England. Henry I, fearing the
strong bond between Normandy and Flanders resulting from the marriage,
attempted in 1054 and again in 1058 to crush the powerful duke, but on
both occasions William defeated the French king's forces.

Conquest of England

About 1064, the powerful English noble, Harold, earl of Wessex, was
shipwrecked on the Norman coast and taken prisoner by William. He secured
his release by swearing to support William's claim to the English throne.
When King Edward died, however, the witenagemot (royal council) elected
Harold king. Determined to make good his claim, William secured the
sanction of Pope Alexander II (died 1073) for a Norman invasion of
England. The duke and his army landed at Pevensey on September 28, 1066.
On October 14, the Normans defeated the English forces at the celebrated
Battle of Hastings, in which Harold was slain. William then proceeded to
London, crushing the resistance he encountered on the way. On Christmas
Day he was crowned king of England in Westminster Abbey.

The English did not accept foreign rule without a struggle. William met
the opposition, which was particularly violent in the north and west, with
strong measures; he was responsible for the devastation of great areas of
the country, particularly in Yorkshire, where Danish forces had arrived to
aid the Saxon rebels. By 1070 the Norman conquest of England was complete.

William invaded Scotland in 1072 and forced the Scottish king Malcolm III
MacDuncan (died 1093) to pay him homage. During the succeeding years the
Conqueror crushed insurrections among his Norman followers, including that
incited in 1075 by Ralph de Guader, 1st earl of Norfolk, and Roger
Fitzwilliam, earl of Hereford, and a series of uprisings in Normandy led
by his eldest son Robert, who later became Robert II, duke of Normandy.

His Achievements

One feature of William's reign as king was his reorganization of the
English feudal and administrative systems. He dissolved the great
earldoms, which had enjoyed virtual independence under his Anglo-Saxon
predecessors, and distributed the lands confiscated from the English to
his trusted Norman followers. He introduced the Continental system of
feudalism; by the Oath of Salisbury of 1086 all landlords swore allegiance
to William, thus establishing the precedent that a vassal's loyalty to the
king overrode his fealty to his immediate lord. The feudal lords were
compelled to acknowledge the jurisdiction of the local courts, which
William retained along with many other Anglo-Saxon institutions. The
ecclesiastical and secular courts were separated, and the power of the
papacy in English affairs was greatly curtailed. Another outstanding
accomplishment was the economic survey undertaken and incorporated in the
Domesday Book in 1086.

In 1087, during a campaign against King Philip I of France, William burned
the town of Mantes (now Mantes-la-Jolie). William's horse fell in the
vicinity of Mantes, fatally injuring him. William was succeeded by his
third-born son, William II.


General Notes: Wife - Countess Mathilda of Flanders

For many years it was assumed that Gundred, who married William de Warrene, was a daughter of William I and Matilda (as indicated in The Plantagenet Ancestry). However it is now known that Gundred was a daughter of Gherbod the Fleming (as indicated in Ancestral Roots). The following information strongly suggests that Gundred's mother was Matilda (thus the mistaken notion that she was daughter of William I).

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copied from Bill Crawford's ancestry: crawfolk data base on World Connect Project, rootsweb.com
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Had Matilda of Flanders as many husbands as Adelaide, Countess of Ponthieu, and, like her, issue by each? What was the real cause of the inhibition of her marriage with William, Duke of Normandy, - its delay for six years? What truth is there in the story of her unreturned affection for the Angio-Saxon Brihtric Meaw, and of her vindictive conduct to him after she became Queen of England? I have hesitated to believe in the popular tradition that Duke William grossly assaulted the daughter of Baldwin in the street or in her own chamber, not that I have any doubt about his being capable of such an outrage, but because he was too politic to commit it, and she was not the woman to have forgiven it, assuming that the offence was the simple refusal of his hand on the ground of his illegitimacy. It is obvious, however, that the early life of Matilda is involved in mystery, and it is highly probable that a clearer insight into it would enable us to account for much which we now reject as legend, or fail to reconcile with acknowledged facts. If there be any foundation for the story of William's brutality, the outburst of ungovernable fury might have been due to a much greater provocation than has been assigned for it. Brihtric, the son of Algar or Alfar, sumamed Meaw (Snow), from the extreme fairness of his complexion, an Anglo-Saxon Thegn, possessor of large domains in England, had been sent on an embassy from King Edward the Confessor to the Connt of Flanders. Matilda, we are told, fell desperately in love with him, and offered herself to him in marriage! Either disgusted by her forwardness, or preferring another, he declined the flattering proposal. "Hell hath no fury like a woman foiled," and she kept her wrath warm till she was in a position to ruin the man she had so passionately loved. She had no sooner become the Queen of England than she induced William to confiscate, on some pretence, all Brihtric's estates, and obtained the greater proportion for herself. The unfortunate Thegn was arrested at his house at Hanley, in Worcestershire, on the very day Saint Wulfstan had consecrated a chapel of his building, dragged to Winchester, and died in a dungeon! The truth of this story is supported by the impartial evidence of Domesday, in which Hanley and the principal manors held by Brihtric in the time of King Edward are recorded as the possessions of Queen Matilda, and the remainder passed to Fitz Hamon.

After her hand had been rejected by the noble Saxon, it is presumed she became the wife of a Fleming, named Gherbod, who appears to have held the hereditary office of Advocate of the Abbey of Saint Bertin, in St. Omers, and by whom she had at least two children, viz., Gherbod, to whom William gave the earldom of Chester, and Gundred, "the sister of Gherbod," and wife of William de Warren. Was this a clandestine or an informal marriage, which, as it has never been acknowledged by any chronicler, contemporary or other, might have been unknown to the Duke of Normandy, when he proposed to one whom he believed to be the maiden daughter of the Count of Flanders, and the corporal chastisement inflicted, however unworthy of a man, passed over, sub silentio, for prudential reasons, by the parties wlio had been guilty of a disgraceful suppression of facts? The subsequent marriage under such circumstances will awaken no surprise in any one who has studied the character of William. Utterly unscrupulous, destitute of every generous, noble, or delicate feeling, every action of his life was dictated by POLICY alone. An alliance with the Count of Flanders might be considered by the crafty schemer sufficiently advantageous to warrant his overlooking any objectionable antecedents in the conduct of a granddaughter of a king of France, his first discovery of which had provoked his savage nature into a momentary ebullition of fury. Her being the mother of two children was a point in her favour with a man whose sole motive for marrying was the perpetuation of a dynasty, and the fair prospect of legitimate issue, in whose veins the blood of the Capets should enrich that of the Furrier of Falaise, would overcome any hesitation at espousing the widow of an Advocate of St. Bertin. On the other hand, Count Baldwin would be too happy to embrace the opportunity of reinstating his daughter in a position befitting her birth, and, as well as the lady herself, gladly condone past insults for future advantages and the hope of smothering, in the splendour of a ducal wedding, the awkward whispers of scandal.

I have said thus much simply to show the view that may be taken of these mysterious circumstances, in opposition to the rose-coloured representations of some modern historians, who, upon no stronger evidence, elevate the Conqueror into a model husband, and describe Matilda as the perfection of womankind.
picture

Count Baudouin VI (I) Of Flanders and Hainault




Husband Count Baudouin VI (I) Of Flanders and Hainault 2 4 98 99 100

            AKA: Baldwin VI Count Of Flanders
           Born: 1030 - Flanders Now Belgium 101
     Christened: 
           Died: 7 Jul 1070 - Abbey Of Hasnon, Belgium 4 102
         Buried: 


         Father: Baldwin V of Flanders, Count of Flanders (1012-1067) 1 2 4 66 67 68 69
         Mother: Princess Adaele (Alix) France (Abt 1013-1079) 2 4 20 68 70 71


       Marriage: 1051 - 2ND Husband 4 103




Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


Noted events in their marriage were:
• Alt. Marriage 100 101, 2nd husband, Abt 1055


Children

General Notes: Husband - Count Baudouin VI (I) Of Flanders and Hainault

The following is a post to SGM, 15 Jan 2004, by Peter Stewart, showing that Baudouin had captured Hainault & Richilde's hand through an invasion (I have added an "n" to "FitzOsber" in the subject line, since I was responsible for the misspelling in the first place):

From: Peter Stewart (p_m_stewart AT msn.com)
Subject: Re: Richilde, wife of William FitzOsbern, Earl of Hereford
Newsgroups: soc.genealogy.medieval
Date: 2004-01-15 00:52:54 PST

My memory was right for a change - according to 'Annales Elnonenses'_ [in _Les annales de Saint-Pierre de Gand et de Saint-Amand_, edited by Philip Grierson (Brussels, 1937)] under 1050 (actually 1051): "Balduinus interim iunior, Adele filius, consensu patris accepta illicite uxore, castellum Monz obtinuit, post pasca. Nam eo anno in kalendis Aprilis pasca Domini fuit" (Meanwhile Balduin the younger, son of Adela, took an unlawful bride with his father's consent, obtained the castle of Mons, after Easter. In that year Easter fell on 31 March). NB in MGH SS V p 13 Pertz had read "illicite" as "Iudita", and Richilde has been given Judith as a second or alternative name by some historians; but Grierson with the advantage of ultra-violet light was able to correct the word.

This statement of the Elnon annals is interesting for several reasons. First, the mention of obtaining Mons in the same sentence as the marriage possibly accounts for the idea that Richilde may have been daughter of Regnier, count of Mons, as in CP. However, annals kept at Lobbes and Liège appear to put a different spin on this [see 'Annales Laubienses' and 'Annales Leodienses' edited by Gerog Heinrich Pertz in MGH SS IV p 20, parallel texts under 1051, respectively: "Balduinus cum filio suo Balduino rebellat, invaso Haino" and "Balduinus cum Balduino filio suo rebellat, invaso Monte Castriloci" (Balduin rebelled with his son Balduin [the younger], by invading Hainaut/Mons). 'Annales Elmarenses' (edited by Philip Grierson, op cit p 92) add, under 1052: "Ricild, vidua Hermanni comitis, recepit in castrum Montensum Baldwinum iuvenem comitem" (Richilde, widow of Count Hermann, submitted to Count Balduin the younger in Mons castle). There seems little reason to conclude that this was any more than the place where they encountered each other & likely were married straight away, one of the strongholds of the county Richilde was ruling after her first husband's death.

Secondly, there is no mention in the local annals of any relationship between Richilde and Pope Leo (Bruno of Egisheim), despite the very next entry in 'Annales Elmarenses' recording his death. The counts of Flanders had made a practice of marrying well-connected ladies, and a niece of the reigning pope would surely have been an addition to their family prestige that the local monks might have felt especially noteworthy. I'm inclined to disagree on this point with Thierry, and think Pirenne was probably closer to the mark about a stretched interpretation of "avunculus" than was Vanderkindere in making this relationship immediate.

Peter Stewart

Note: The last paragraph involves the controversy over Richilde's ancestry. Thierry Stasser (and many other sources including CP & AR) have Richilde as a daughter of a brother/sister of Pope Leo IX (who was born Bruno Egisheim, son of Hugo/Hugh Count of Egisheim. However Pirenne (above) says the relationship with Leo IX came through Richilde's 1st husband Herman's maternal grandmother, who was sister of Leo IX's mother; and that Richilde is descended from some other line. Richilde is referred to as niece of Leo IX in several documents, but it is "possible" that the relationship was less close & not even a blood relationship.
picture

Ausbert of the Moselle, Senator of Rome and Blithildis of France




Husband Ausbert of the Moselle, Senator of Rome

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 570
         Buried: 


         Father: Wambertus of the Moselle (      -      )
         Mother: Lucilla (      -      )


       Marriage: 




Wife Blithildis of France

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Chlothar I "the old" , King of the Franks (0497-0561)
         Mother: Ingonde , Princess of Thuringia (Abt 0499-Bef 0539)





Children
1 F Gertrudis of the Moselle

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 615
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Richimir , Lord of estates in Franconia, Duke of Burgundy (      -      )



2 M Arnoaldus Meroving, Bishop of Metz, Margrave of the Schelde

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



3 M Erchenaud of the Moselle

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 




picture
Hugues I Comte De Ponthieu and Princess Gisaele of France




Husband Hugues I Comte De Ponthieu 2 104

            AKA: Hugh I De Montreuil Seigneur Of Abbeville
           Born: Abt 965 - Ponthieu, Somme, Picardy, France
     Christened: 
           Died: 4 Jul 1000 - Abbeville, Somme, Picardy, France
         Buried: 


         Father: Hildouin Comte De Ponthieu (Abt 0940-Abt 0981) 2 104
         Mother: Hersende De Montreuil (Abt 0946-      ) 2


       Marriage: 




Wife Princess Gisaele of France 2 104

           Born: Abt 970 - France
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Hugh Capet, King of France (Abt 0941-0996) 2 14 105 106 107
         Mother: Princess Adelaide de Poitiers of Aquitaine (Abt 0952-1004) 1 2 107 108





Children
1 M Enguerrand I Comte De Ponthieu 2 104

            AKA: Enguerrand De Montreuil
           Born: Abt 985 - Montreuil, Artois/Pas-DE-Calais, France
     Christened: 
           Died: Abt 20 Sep 1045 - Ponthieu, Somme, Picardy, France 109
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Unknown First Wife (Abt 0985-      ) 2
           Marr: 1st Wife
         Spouse: Adele Of Holland (Abt 0985-      ) 2 110
           Marr: After 1033 - 2ND Husband 2ND Wife 104




General Notes: Husband - Hugues I Comte De Ponthieu

Advocate of St Riquier.
Advocate 981 of Ponthieu.
Adherent of Hugh Capet.
picture

Louis IX of France, King of France and Margaret of Provence




Husband Louis IX of France, King of France 14

           Born: 1214
     Christened: 
           Died: 1270
         Buried: 


         Father: King Louis VIII "The Lion" of France, King of France (1187-1226) 14
         Mother: Princess Blanca Alphonsa of Castile (Bef 1188-1252)


       Marriage: 

Noted events in his life were:
• Reigned, 1226-1270




Wife Margaret of Provence

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



Children
1 M Philip III , King of France




           Born: 30 Apr 1245 - Poissy, , , France
     Christened: 
           Died: 5 Oct 1285 - Perpignan, , Languedoc-Roussillon, France
         Buried:  - Saint Denis, Isle De France, Paris, , , France
         Spouse: Maria Of Brabant (Abt 1279-1318)
           Marr: 21 Aug 1274
         Spouse: Isabella of Aragon (      -      )
           Marr: 28 May 1262




General Notes: Husband - Louis IX of France, King of France

Louis IX, called St. Louis (1214-70), king of France (1226-70), son and
successor of Louis VIII. Louis's mother, Blanche of Castile (1188-1252),
daughter of Alfonso IX, king of Castile, was regent during his minority
and again from 1248 until her death in 1252. During the latter years Louis
was in the Holy Land on the Seventh Crusade, one of the religious wars
between Christians and Muslims. Louis and his forces were defeated and
captured in Egypt in 1250, and the king remained in Syria for four years
before returning to France. In 1258 Louis signed the Treaty of Corbeil,
relinquishing to the kingdom of Aragón all French claims to Barcelona and
Roussillon, in return for which the Aragonese renounced their claims to
parts of Provence and Languedoc. In 1259 he signed the Treaty of Paris, by
which Henry III of England was confirmed in his possession of territories
in southwestern France and Louis received the provinces of Anjou,
Normandy, Poitou, Maine, and Touraine. In 1270 Louis embarked on another
Crusade and died en route at Tunis in northern Africa. He was succeeded by
his son Philip III. Louis, an outstanding monarch of medieval times, was
canonized in 1297. His feast day is August 25.
picture

Louis IX of France, King of France




Husband Louis IX of France, King of France 14

           Born: 1214
     Christened: 
           Died: 1270
         Buried: 


         Father: King Louis VIII "The Lion" of France, King of France (1187-1226) 14
         Mother: Princess Blanca Alphonsa of Castile (Bef 1188-1252)


       Marriage: 

   Other Spouse: Margaret of Provence (      -      )

Noted events in his life were:
• Reigned, 1226-1270




Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



Children

General Notes: Husband - Louis IX of France, King of France

Louis IX, called St. Louis (1214-70), king of France (1226-70), son and
successor of Louis VIII. Louis's mother, Blanche of Castile (1188-1252),
daughter of Alfonso IX, king of Castile, was regent during his minority
and again from 1248 until her death in 1252. During the latter years Louis
was in the Holy Land on the Seventh Crusade, one of the religious wars
between Christians and Muslims. Louis and his forces were defeated and
captured in Egypt in 1250, and the king remained in Syria for four years
before returning to France. In 1258 Louis signed the Treaty of Corbeil,
relinquishing to the kingdom of Aragón all French claims to Barcelona and
Roussillon, in return for which the Aragonese renounced their claims to
parts of Provence and Languedoc. In 1259 he signed the Treaty of Paris, by
which Henry III of England was confirmed in his possession of territories
in southwestern France and Louis received the provinces of Anjou,
Normandy, Poitou, Maine, and Touraine. In 1270 Louis embarked on another
Crusade and died en route at Tunis in northern Africa. He was succeeded by
his son Philip III. Louis, an outstanding monarch of medieval times, was
canonized in 1297. His feast day is August 25.
picture

Louis VI "The Fat" of France, King of France and Countess Alix (Adbelahide) of Savoy




Husband Louis VI "The Fat" of France, King of France




           Born: 1081
     Christened: 
           Died: 1 Aug 1137 - Chateau De Bbethizy, Paris, Isle De France, France
         Buried:  - St Denis, Isle De France, France


         Father: Philip I "The Fair" , King of France (Bef 1052-1108) 2 111 112 113
         Mother: Bertha of Holland (      -      )


       Marriage: Apr 1115 - Paris, , , France

Noted events in his life were:
• Reigned, 1108-1137




Wife Countess Alix (Adbelahide) of Savoy

           Born: Abt 1092 - Savoie
     Christened: 
           Died: 18 Nov 1154
         Buried:  - Abbaye De Montmartre, , France



Children
1 M Pierre , Prince of France

           Born: 1125 - Courtenay, Courtenay, , Centre, France
     Christened: 
           Died: 10 Apr 1123 - Palestine, Iseral
         Buried: 10 Apr 1183
         Spouse: Isabelle (Elizabeth) de Courtenay (Abt 1127-1205)
           Marr: 1150 - France



2 M King Louis VII of France 14

           Born: Abt 1121 - Reims, , Champagne-Ardenne, France
     Christened: 
           Died: 18 Sep 1180 - Paris, , , France
         Buried: 19 Sep 1180 - Barbeau, Isle De France, France
         Spouse: Princess Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122-1204) 14
           Marr: 22 Jul 1137 - Bordeaux, , Aquitaine, France
         Spouse: Adele of Champagne (      -      )
           Marr: 1160



3 F Princess Constance of France, of Toulouse 19

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 1176
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Eustace IV , Count of Boulogne (1130/1131-1153) 19
           Marr: After Feb 1134 72



4 M Prince Philippe of France, Arch-Dean of Paris

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



5 M Robert of France, Count of Dreux

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



6 M Hugues of France

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



7 M Prince Henri of France

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 




General Notes: Husband - Louis VI "The Fat" of France, King of France

Louis VI, called The Fat (1081-1137), king of France (1108-37), son and
successor of Philip I; he was married to Adelaide of Savoy. Almost his
entire reign was spent in subduing the robber barons, who preyed on the
environs of Paris but were finally forced to yield to royal authority. For
some 20 years during the period from 1109-1135, Louis waged war against
Henry I, the Norman king of England, and against Henry's son-in-law, Holy
Roman Emperor Henry V; he successfully repelled an invasion by Henry V in
1124. Louis greatly strengthed the royal power in France, granted
benefactions to the church and privileges to towns, and became known as
the protector of the peasants and as a fearless military leader. He was
succeeded on the throne by his son Louis VII.
picture

King Pepin "The Short" of France, King of the Franks and Countess Bertrada II Of Laon




Husband King Pepin "The Short" of France, King of the Franks




           Born: 714 - Austrasia, France
     Christened: 
           Died: 24 Sep 768 - St Denis, Isle De France, France
         Buried: 


         Father: Charles Martel, King of Austrasia (0688-0741)
         Mother: Duchess Chotrud of Austrasia (Abt 0690-Abt 0724) 114


       Marriage: 740




Wife Countess Bertrada II Of Laon 114

           Born: Abt 720 - Laon, , Picardie, France
     Christened: 
           Died: 783 - Choisy, , , France
         Buried:  - St Denis, Isle De France, France


         Father: Count Claribert I (Heribert) Of Laon (Abt 0690-      ) 114
         Mother: Bertrada , Countess of Laon (Abt 0695-      ) 114





Children
1 M Charlemagne , King of Franks, Holy Roman Emperor 14




           Born: 2 Apr 742 - Aix-la-Chapelle, Kaln, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany (Austrasia)
     Christened:  - St Denis, Isle De France, France
           Died: 28 Jan 814 - Aix-la-Chapelle, Kaln, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany (Austrasia) 115
         Buried:  - Notre Dame D'aix La Chapelle, , Austrasia
         Spouse: Desiderata (      -      ) 114
           Marr: 770
         Spouse: Fastrada (      -0794) 114
           Marr: 783
         Spouse: Liutgard (      -      ) 114
         Spouse: Madelgard (      -      ) 114
         Spouse: Gersvind (      -      ) 114
         Spouse: Regina (      -      ) 114
         Spouse: Adalind (      -      ) 114
         Spouse: Himiltrud (      -      ) 114
         Spouse: Hildegard of Lizgau, Empress of the Holy Roman Empire (Abt 0757-0783)
           Marr: Abt 772 - Aachen, Kaln, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany



2 F Princess Ade of the Franks

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



3 M Carloman of the Franks, King of Burgundy

           Born: 751
     Christened: 
           Died: 771
         Buried: 



4 F Princess Gertrude of the Franks

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



5 M Prince Pepin of the Franks

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



6 F Princess Gisele of the Franks

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



7 F Princess Adbelahide of France

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



8 F Princess Rothaide of France

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 




General Notes: Husband - King Pepin "The Short" of France, King of the Franks

He was also mayor of the palace of Austrasia. He was mayor of the palace
during the reign of Childeric III (reigned about 743-52), the last of the
Merovingian dynasty. In 751, Pepin deposed Childeric and thus became the
first king of the Carolingian dynasty. He was crowned by Pope Stephen II
(III) in 754. When the pope was threatened by the Lombards of northern
Italy, Pepin led an army that defeated them (754-55). He ceded to the pope
territory that included Ravenna and other cities. This grant, called the
Donation of Pepin, laid the foundation for the Papal States. Pepin
enlarged his own kingdom by capturing Aquitaine, or Aquitania, in
southwestern France. He was succeeded by his sons Carloman and Charlemagne
as joint kings.

picture

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