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Ancestors of Amy Russell Tolbert



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Mistui II Obotrites




Husband Mistui II Obotrites 1

           Born: 893 - Sweden
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
       Marriage: 




Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



Children
1 M Mieceslas Prince Of Obotrites 1

           Born: Abt 929 - Sweden
     Christened: 
           Died: 999
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Sophia (Abt 0941-      ) 1




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Tadhg (Teige) O'Brien, King Of Munster




Husband Tadhg (Teige) O'Brien, King Of Munster 1

           Born: Abt 973 - Clare, Munster, Ireland
     Christened: 
           Died: 1022
         Buried: 


         Father: Brian Boroimhe Na Munster King Of Ireland (0942-1014) 1 2
         Mother: Eachraidh Ui Aeda Odba (Abt 0947-Abt 0980) 1


       Marriage: 




Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
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         Buried: 



Children

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Muirchertach Ua Tuathail O'toole and Inghin O'byrne




Husband Muirchertach Ua Tuathail O'toole 1 3

           Born: 1089 - Leinster, Ireland
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Gillachomhghalli O'toole (1055-      ) 1
         Mother: 


       Marriage: 




Wife Inghin O'byrne 1

           Born: 1094 - Leinster, Ireland
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



Children
1 F More O'toole 1 3

           Born: 1114 - Leinster, Ireland
     Christened: 
           Died: 1191
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Diarmait Macmurchada King Of Leinster (1100-1171) 1 4 5
           Marr: Abt 1140 - Locar, Wexf, Leinster, Ireland




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Charllus Ui Aeda Odba




Husband Charllus Ui Aeda Odba 1

           Born: Abt 910 - Eireann, Ireland
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
       Marriage: 




Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



Children
1 F Eachraidh Ui Aeda Odba 1

           Born: Abt 947 - Eireann, Ireland
     Christened: 
           Died: Abt 980
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Gilla-Patraic Na Ossory, King Of Ossory (Abt 0943-0996) 1
           Marr: 1st Husband - Divorced ?
         Spouse: Brian Boroimhe Na Munster King Of Ireland (0942-1014) 1 2
           Marr: After 966 - 2ND Husband 1St Wife




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Gilla-Patraic Na Ossory, King Of Ossory and Eachraidh Ui Aeda Odba




Husband Gilla-Patraic Na Ossory, King Of Ossory 1

           Born: Abt 943 - Ireland
     Christened: 
           Died: 996
         Buried: 


         Father: Donnchad Na Ossory, King Of Ossory (Abt 0908-0976) 1
         Mother: Aife Na Munster Of The Dessi (Abt 0922-      ) 1


       Marriage:  - 1st Husband - Divorced ?




Wife Eachraidh Ui Aeda Odba 1

           Born: Abt 947 - Eireann, Ireland
     Christened: 
           Died: Abt 980
         Buried: 


         Father: Charllus Ui Aeda Odba (Abt 0910-      ) 1
         Mother: 



   Other Spouse: Brian Boroimhe Na Munster King Of Ireland (0942-1014) 1 2 - After 966 - 2ND Husband 1St Wife



Children
1 F Aife Na Ossory 1

           Born: Abt 965 - Ireland
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Donnchad Na Hy Kinsale (Abt 0963-1006) 1
         Spouse: Cinaed Ua Morda (Abt 0940-      ) 1



2 M Tadg Mac Gillapatrick Na Ossory 1

           Born: Abt 966 - Ireland
     Christened: 
           Died: Abt 1027
         Buried: 




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Godefroy of Alamannia




Husband Godefroy of Alamannia

           Born: Bef 669
     Christened: 
           Died: After 708
         Buried: 


         Father: Duke Theodo II of Bavaria (      -      )
         Mother: Regintrude de Austrasia (      -      )


       Marriage: 




Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



Children
1 M Duke Houching of Alamannia

           Born: Abt 709
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 




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Duke Houching of Alamannia




Husband Duke Houching of Alamannia

           Born: Abt 709
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Godefroy of Alamannia (Bef 0669-After 0708)
         Mother: 


       Marriage: 




Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



Children
1 M Hnabi Nebi ("Dux") Alamannia

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: After 724
         Buried: 




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King Louis VII of France and Princess Eleanor of Aquitaine




Husband King Louis VII of France 6

           Born: Abt 1121 - Reims, , Champagne-Ardenne, France
     Christened: 
           Died: 18 Sep 1180 - Paris, , , France
         Buried: 19 Sep 1180 - Barbeau, Isle De France, France


         Father: Louis VI "The Fat" of France, King of France (1081-1137)
         Mother: Countess Alix (Adbelahide) of Savoy (Abt 1092-1154)


       Marriage: 22 Jul 1137 - Bordeaux, , Aquitaine, France

   Other Spouse: Adele of Champagne (      -      ) - 1160

Noted events in his life were:
• Reigned, 1137-1180




Wife Princess Eleanor of Aquitaine 6

           Born: 1122 - Chcateau De Belin, Bordeaux, Aquitaine.
     Christened: 
           Died: 1 Apr 1204 - Poitiers, , Poitou-Charentes, France
         Buried:  - Abbaye De Fontevrault, Fontevrault, , Pays de la Loire, France


         Father: Guillaume X , Duke of Aquitaine (1099-1137)
         Mother: Elbeanor de Chatellerault (Abt 1103-After 1130)



   Other Spouse: Henry II "Curt Mantel" King Of Plantagenet, King of England (1133-1189) 1 6 7 8 9 - 18 May 1152 - Bordeaux, Gironde, , Aquitaine, France 10 11 12 13 14 15 16



Children
1 F Margaret 17

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 1198
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Prince Henry of England, Duke of Normandy, Count of Anjou (1155-1183)
           Marr: 1173
         Spouse: Bela, King of Hungary (      -      )
           Marr: 1186



2 F Princess Marie of France

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



3 F Princess Alix of France

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 




General Notes: Husband - King Louis VII of France

Louis VII, called The Young (1121?-80), king of France (1137-80), son and
successor of Louis VI. In the first year of his reign he married Eleanor
of Aquitaine, daughter of William X, duke of Aquitaine (1099-1137). Louis
soon aroused the opposition of Pope Innocent II (reigned 1130-43) because
of his support of a rival to the papal candidate for the archbishopric of
Bourges, and his lands were placed under papal interdict. Louis next
fought a 2-year war and conquered Champagne in 1144. In 1147 he joined the
unsuccessful Second Crusade as one of its two chief military leaders (the
other was Conrad III of Germany). Louis returned to France two years
later, and in 1152 his marriage to Eleanor was annulled; in the same year
she married Henry of Anjou, later Henry II, king of England. Louis warred
with Henry for the possession of Aquitaine but renounced all rights to the
duchy in 1154, the year Henry became king of England. Between 1157 and
1180 Louis continued sporadic warfare against Henry, who held many of the
French provinces. Louis was succeeded by his son Philip II (Philip
Augustus).


General Notes: Wife - Princess Eleanor of Aquitaine

She inherited the duchy of Aquitaine from her father in 1137, the same
year in which she was married to Louis VII of France. She accompanied her
husband on the Second Crusade to the Holy Land, where it was rumored that
she committed adultery. The scandal, and the fact that she had not given
the king a male heir, resulted in an annulment of their marriage in 1152
under the pretext of blood kinship between her and the king. Later that
year, Eleanor married and gave her possessions to Henry Plantagenet, count
of Anjou, who in 1154 became Henry II, king of England. In 1170, the queen
induced her husband to invest their son Richard the Lion-Hearted with her
personal dominions of Gascony, Aquitaine, and Poitou. When Richard and his
brothers rebelled against their father in 1173, Eleanor, already alienated
from the king because of his unfaithfulness, supported her sons.
Consequently, she was placed in confinement until 1185. After her release,
she secured the succession of her son Richard, who had become heir
apparent at the death in 1183 of his eldest brother. From the death of
King Henry II in 1189 until Richard's return from the Third Crusade in
1194, Eleanor ruled as regent. During this time, she foiled the attempt of
her son John in 1193 to conspire with France against the new king. After
the return of Richard, she arranged a reconciliation between the two
brothers. Eleanor continued to be prominent in public affairs until she
retired to the abbey in Fontevrault, France, where she died on April 1,
1204.
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Henry II "Curt Mantel" King Of Plantagenet, King of England and Princess Eleanor of Aquitaine




Husband Henry II "Curt Mantel" King Of Plantagenet, King of England 1 6 7 8 9

           Born: 5 Mar 1133 - Le Mans, Sarthe, Maine/Pays-DE-La-Loire, France 9 11 12 18 19 20
     Christened: 
           Died: 6 Jul 1189 - Chinon, Indre-Et-Loire, Touraine/Centre, France 9 11 12 18 19 20
         Buried: 8 Jul 1189 - Fontevrault Abbey, Maine-Et-Loire, Maine/Pays-DE-La-Loire, France 10


         Father: Geoffroy V "Le Bon" Plantagenet, 10th Count of Anjou (1113-1151) 1 7 17 21 22 23
         Mother: Empress Maude/Matilda England, Queen of England (1102-1167) 1 17 24 25 26


       Marriage: 18 May 1152 - Bordeaux, Gironde, , Aquitaine, France 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

   Other Spouse: Rosamunde "The Fair" de Clifford, Concubine (1136-1176)

Noted events in his life were:
• Ruled, 1154-1189




Wife Princess Eleanor of Aquitaine 6

           Born: 1122 - Chcateau De Belin, Bordeaux, Aquitaine.
     Christened: 
           Died: 1 Apr 1204 - Poitiers, , Poitou-Charentes, France
         Buried:  - Abbaye De Fontevrault, Fontevrault, , Pays de la Loire, France


         Father: Guillaume X , Duke of Aquitaine (1099-1137)
         Mother: Elbeanor de Chatellerault (Abt 1103-After 1130)



   Other Spouse: King Louis VII of France (Abt 1121-1180) 6 - 22 Jul 1137 - Bordeaux, , Aquitaine, France



Children
1 M Philip Plantagenet 17

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



2 M Prince William of England 17

           Born: 1152
     Christened: 
           Died: 1156
         Buried: 



3 M Prince Henry of England, Duke of Normandy, Count of Anjou

           Born: 28 Feb 1155
     Christened: 
           Died: 11 Jun 1183
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Margaret (      -1198) 17
           Marr: 1173



4 F Princess Matilda of England

           Born: 1156
     Christened: 
           Died: 8 Jun 1189
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Henry V the Lion , Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, Prince of Germany (Abt 1129-1195) 6
           Marr: 1 Feb 1168



5 M Richard I "The Lion Heart" , King of England 6




            AKA: Coeur de Lion, Richard the Lion Hearted
           Born: 8 Sep 1157 - Oxford, , Oxfordshire, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 6 Apr 1199 - Killed at the siege of Castle of Chalus
         Buried:  - Fontevrault, , Pays de la Loire, France
         Spouse: Berengaria of Navarre (Abt 1163-1230)
           Marr: 12 May 1191 - Limasol, , Limassol, Cyprus



6 M Prince Geoffrey of England, Duke of Brittany

           Born: 23 Nov 1158
     Christened: 
           Died: 19 Aug 1186
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Constance (      -1201) 17
         Spouse: Constance (      -1201)
           Marr: Jul 1181



7 F Princess Eleanor of England

           Born: 13 Oct 1162 - Domfront, Domfront, , Basse-Normandie, France
     Christened: 
           Died: 25 Oct 1214 - Las Huelgas, Burgos, , Castilla y León, Spain
         Buried:  - Monasterio De Las Huelgas, Burgos, , Castilla y León, Spain
         Spouse: Alfonso VIII , King of Castile (1155-1214) 6
           Marr: 1170
         Spouse: Alfonso VIII "The Noble" Sanchez, King of Castile (1155-1214)
           Marr: 22 Sep 1177 - Burgos, Burgos, , Castilla y León, Spain



8 F Princess Joan of England 6

           Born: Oct 1165
     Christened: 
           Died: 4 Sep 1199
         Buried: 
         Spouse: William II , King of Sicily (1154-1189) 6
           Marr: 13 Feb 1177
         Spouse: Raymond VI , Count of Toulouse (      -1222) 17
           Marr: Oct 1196



9 M Prince John "Lacklund" of England, King of England 6

            AKA: Lackland
           Born: 24 Dec 1166 - Beaumont Palace, Oxford, , Oxfordshire, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 18 Oct 1216 - Newark, , Nottingham, England
         Buried:  - Worcester Cathedral
         Spouse: Isabella (De Taillefer) D'Angouleme (Abt 1188-1246) 17
           Marr: 23 Aug 1200 - Angoulęme, , Poitou-Charentes, France 27
         Spouse: Isabel of Gloucester, Countess of Gloucester (1188-1217) 17
           Marr: 29 Aug 1189 - Marlebridge




General Notes: Husband - Henry II "Curt Mantel" King Of Plantagenet, King of England

Henry II was born at Le Mans in 1133. He was the eldest son of the Empress Matilda, daughter of Henry I, by her second marriage to Geoffrey the Fair of Anjou. His parents' marriage was tempestous, and both parties were glad when politics brought a separation, with Matilda going to England to fight King Stephen, and Geoffrey of Normandy to win a heritage for young Henry.

He first came to England at the age of nine when his mother made her dramatic escape from Oxford where she was besieged by Stephen, across the ice and snow, dressed all in white, to welcome him at Wallingford. His next visit, when he was fourteen, showed his character: he recruited a small army of mercenaries to cross over and fight Stephen in England, but failed so miserably in the execution of his plans that he ended up borrowing money from Stephen to get back home. A third expedition, two years later, was almost as great a failure. Henry was not a soldier, his were skills of administration and diplomacy; warfare bored and sometimes frightened him. For the meanwhile he now concentrated on Normandy, of which his father had made him joint ruler. In 1151, the year of his father's death, he went to Paris to do homage to Louis VII for his duchy. There he met Queen Eleanor, and she fell in love with him.

Henry was by no means averse. To steal a king's wife does a great deal for the ego of a young duke; he was as lusty as she, and late in their lives he was still ardently wenching with 'the fair Rosamund' Clifford, and less salubrious girls with names like 'Bellebelle'; finally, she would bring with her the rich Duchy of Aquitaine, which she held in her own right. With this territory added to those he hoped to inherit and win, his boundaries would be Scotland in the north, and the Pyrenees in the south.

Henry was, apart from his prospects, a 'catch' for any woman. He was intelligent, had learned Latin and could read and possibly write; immensely strong and vigorous, a sportsman and hard rider who loved travel; emotional and passionate, prone to tears and incredible rages; carelessly but richly dressed, worried enough in later life to conceal his baldness by careful arrangement of his hair, and very concerned not to grow fat.

But now he was in the prime of youth, and in 1153, when he landed with a large force in Bristol, the world was ready to be won. He quickly gained control of the West Country and moved up to Wallingford for a crucial battle with Stephen. This was avoided, however, because in thepreparations for the battle Henry fell from his horse three times, a bad omen. Henry himself was not superstitious -- he was the reverse, a cheerful blasphemer -- but he disliked battles and when his anxious advisers urged him to heed the omen, he willingly agreed to parley privately with Stephen. The conference was a strange occasion: there were only two of them there, at the narowest point of the Thames, with Henry on one bank and Stephen on the other. None the less, they seem to have come to an agreement to take negotiations further.

That summer Stephen's son died mysteriously, and Eleanor bore Henry an heir (about the same time as an English whore Hikenai produced his faithful bastard Geoffrey). The omens clearly showed what was soon confirmed between the two -- that when Stephen died, Henry should rule in his place. A year later Stephen did die, and in December 1154, Henry and Eleanor were crowned in London.

Henry was only 21, but he soon showed his worth, destroying unlicensed castles, and dispersing the foreign mercenaries. He gave even-handed justice, showing himself firm, but not unduly harsh. A country racked by civil war sighed with relief. Only two major difficulties appeared: first Henry's failure in his two Welsh campaigns in 1157 and 1165, when guerilla tactics utterly defeated and on the first occasion nearly killed him; second was the reversal of his friendship for Becket when he changed from being Chancellor to Archbishop of Canterbury in 1162.

The quarrel with Becket was linked with the King's determination to continue his grandfather's reform of the administration of justice in the country. He was anxious for a uniform pattern, operated by royal justices, to control the corrupt, ill-administered and unequal local systems operated by barons and churchmen. At Clarendon in 1166 and Northampton in 1176, he got his council's agreeemnt to a series of measures which established circuits of royal justices dealing with the widest range of criminal activities. The method of operation was novel, too, relying on a sworn jury of inquest of twelve men. Though not like a modern jury, in that they were witnesses rather than assessors, the assize juries were the ancestors of the modern English legal system.

Henry travelled constantly, and much of the time in his Contninental territories, for there were constant rebellions to deal with, usually inspired or encouraged by Louis of France. Henry was determined to keep the integrity of his empire, and to pass it on as a unity. To do this was no small task, but in 1169 Henry held a conference with the King of France which he hoped would achieve his objectives: he himself again did homage for Normandy, his eldest son Henry did homage for Anjou, Maine and Brittany, and Richard for Aquitaine. The next year he had young Henry crowned in his own lifetime. If anything could preserve the succession, surely this would, yet, in fact, it brought all the troubles in the world onto Henry's head, for he had given his sons paper domains, and had no intention that they should rule his empire. Yet a man with a title does not rest until he has that title's power.

Late in 1171 Henry had a pleasant interlude in Ireland -- escaping from the world's condemnation for the murder of Becket. He spent Christmas at Dublin in a palace built for him out of wattles by the Irish.

Meanwhile, Eleanor had been intriguing with her sons, urging them to revolt and demand their rights. Early in 1173 they trooped off to the French court, and with Louis joined in an attack on Normandy. Henry clamped Eleanor into prison and went off to meet the new threat. Whilst he was busy meeting this, England was invaded from Flanders and Scotland, and more barons who fancied a return of the warlord days of Stephen broke into revolt.

Plainly it was St. Thomas's revenge, and there was no hope of dealing with the situation without expiation. In July 1174 Henry returned to England, and went in pilgrim's dress to Canterbury. Through the town he walked barefoot, leaving a trail of blood on the flinty stones, and went to keep his vigil of a day and a night by the tomb, not even coming out to relive himself. As he knelt, the assembled bishops and all the monks of Christchurch came to scourge him -- each giving him three strokes, but some with bitterness in their hearts laying on with five.

It was worth it though, for the very morning his vigil ended Henry was brought the news that the King of Scotland had been captured. He moved quickly northwards, receving rebels' submission all the time. He met up with Geoffrey who had fought valiantly for him, and commented, 'My other sons have proved themselves bastards, this one alone is my true and legitimate son.'

Returning to France, he quickly came to an agreement with Louis and his three rebel sons, giving each a substantial income, though still no share of power.

Richard set to work reducing the Duchy of Aquitaine to order, and quickly proved himself an able general who performed tremendous feats, such as capturing a fully manned and provisioned castle with three walls and moats to defend it. But the people were less easy to subdue -- they loved war for its own sake as their poet-leader, Bertrand de Born, shows well in his works: '. . . I love to see amidst the meadows tents and pavilions spread; and it gives me great joy to see drawn up on the field knights and horses in battle array; and it delights me when the scouts scatter people and herds in their path; and my heart is filled with gladness when I see strong castles besieged, and the stockades broken and overwhelmed, and the warriors on the bank, girt about by fosses, with a line of strong stakes, interlaced . . . Maces, swords, helms of different hues, shields that will be riven and shattered as soon as the fight begins; and many vassals struck down together; and the horses of the dead and wounded roving at random. And when battle is joined, let all men of good lineage think of nought but the breaking of heads and arms: I tell you I find no such savour in food or in wine or in sleep as in hearing the shout "On! On!" from both sides, and the neighing of steeds that have lost their riders, and the cries of "Help! Help!"; and in seeing men great and small go down on the grass beyond the fosses; in seeing at last the dead, with the pennoned stumps of lances still in their sides.'

These robust knights were actively encouraged by the young King Henry. He was handsome, charming and beloved of all, but also feckless and thoughtless -- far keener on tournaments and frivolity than the serious business of government. Then in the midle of his new rebellion he caught disentery and shortly died. His devoted followers were thunderstruck -- one young lad actually pined to death -- and the rebellion fizzled out.

The young king was dead, but Henry, wary of previous errors, was not going to rush into making a new one. He called his favourite youngest son, John, to his side and ordered Richard to give his duchy into his brother's hands. Richard -- his mother's favourite -- had made Aquitaine his home and worked hard to establish his control there; he refused to give his mother's land to anyone, unless it were back to Eleanor herself.

Henry packed John off to Ireland (which he speedily turned against himself) whilst he arranged to get Eleanor out of her prison and bring her to Aquitaine to receive back the duchy. Meanwhile the new King of France, Philip, was planning to renew the attack on English territories, all the while the three, Henry, Richard, and Philip, were supposed to be planning a joint crusade.

In 1188 Henry, already ill with the absessed anal fistula that was to cause him such an agonising death, refused pointblank to recognise Richard as his heir. The crazy project for substituting John was at the root of it all, though Henry may have deluded himself into thinking he was playing his usual canny hand.

But diplomacy was giving way to the Greekest of tragedies. In June 1189, Philip and Richard advanced on Henry at his birthplace in Le Mans, and he was forced to withdraw with a small company of knights, showering curses on God. Instead of going to the safety of Normandy, he rode hard, his usual long distance, deep into Anjou. This worsened his physical condition and, in high fever, he made no effort to call up forces to his aid. Forced to meet Philip and Richard, he was so ill he had to be held on his horse whilst he deliriously mumbled his abject agreement to their every condition for peace.

Back in bed after his last conference he was brought the news that John, for whom he had suffered all this, had joined the rebels' side. Two sons -- both rebels -- were dead, two sons -- both rebels -- lived, and it was his bastard Geoffrey who now tended him in his last sickness. There was not even a bishop in his suite to give him the last rites. Over and again he cried out in agony "Shame! shame on a vanquished king!"

After his death the servants plundered him, leaving him in a shirt and drawers. When the marshall came to arrange the burial he had to scratch around for garments in which to dress the body. A bit of threadbare gold edging from a cloak was put around Henry's head to represent his sovereignty.

And yet Henry had forseen it all. According to Gerald of Wales, he had long before ordered a fresco for one of his rooms at Winchester: the picture showed an eagle being pecked by three eaglets, and a fourth perched on his head, ready to peck out his eyes when the time should come. [Source: Who's Who in the Middle Ages, John Fines, Barnes & Noble Books, New York, 1995]
MISC: He followed the traditional Angevin recipe of efficacious political manoeuvres, a bril liant marriage and potent aggression, and thereby built up and maintained a vast dominion str etching from the Scottish border to the Pyrenees and encompassing more than half of France . He was succeeded by two of his sons: Richard I (1189-99), a charismatic and effective mil itary leader and crusader, and John (1199-1216), who lost most of his French possessions,incl uding the Plantagenets' ancestral homeland of Anjou, to King Philip II of France, who almos t forfeited his crown to Louis, Philip's son.

OCCUPATION: King of England, 25 Oct 1154-1189, called Curt Mantel; Count of Anjou, Duke of N ormandy.MISC: Henry II was born at Le Mans in 1133. He was the eldest son of the Empress Mat ilda, daughter of Henry I, by her second marriage to Geoffrey the Fair of Anjou. His parents ' marriage was tempestous, and both parties were glad when politics brought a separation, wit h Matilda going to England to fight King Stephen, and Geoffrey of Normandy to win a heritag e for young Henry.

He first came to England at the age of nine when his mother made her dramatic escape from Oxf ord where she was besieged by Stephen, across the ice and snow, dressed all in white, to welc ome him at Wallingford. His next visit, when he was fourteen, showed his character: he recrui ted a small army of mercenaries to cross over and fight Stephen in England, but failed so mis erably in the execution of his plans that he ended up borrowing money from Stephen to get bac k home. A third expedition, two years later, was almost as great a failure. Henry was not a s oldier, his were skills of administration and diplomacy; warfare bored and sometimes frighten ed him. For the meanwhile he now concentrated on Normandy, of which his father had made him j oint ruler. In 1151, the year of his father's death, he went to Paris to do homage to Louis V II for his duchy. There he met Queen Eleanor, and she fell in love with him.

Henry was by no means averse. To steal a king's wife does a great deal for the ego of a youn g duke; he was as lusty as she, and late in their lives he was still ardently wenching with ' the fair Rosamund' Clifford, and less salubrious girls with names like 'Bellebelle'; finally , she would bring with her the rich Duchy of Aquitaine, which she held in her own right. Wit h this territory added to those he hoped to inherit and win, his boundaries would be Scotlan d in the north, and the Pyrenees in the south.

Henry was, apart from his prospects, a 'catch' for any woman. He was intelligent, had learne d Latin and could read and possibly write; immensely strong and vigorous, a sportsman and har d rider who loved travel; emotional and passionate, prone to tears and incredible rages; care lessly but richly dressed, worried enough in later life to conceal his baldness by careful ar rangement of his hair, and very concerned not to grow fat.

But now he was in the prime of youth, and in 1153, when he landed with a large force in Brist ol, the world was ready to be won. He quickly gained control of the West Country and moved u p to Wallingford for a crucial battle with Stephen. This was avoided, however, because in the preparations for the battle Henry fell from his horse three times, a bad omen. Henry himsel f was not superstitious -- he was the reverse, a cheerful blasphemer -- but he disliked battl es and when his anxious advisers urged him to heed the omen, he willingly agreed to parley pr ivately with Stephen. The conference was a strange occasion: there were only two of them ther e, at the narowest point of the Thames, with Henry on one bank and Stephen on the other. Non e the less, they seem to have come to an agreement to take negotiations further.

That summer Stephen's son died mysteriously, and Eleanor bore Henry an heir (about the same t ime as an English whore Hikenai produced his faithful bastard Geoffrey). The omens clearly sh owed what was soon confirmed between the two -- that when Stephen died, Henry should rule i n his place. A year later Stephen did die, and in December 1154, Henry and Eleanor were crown ed in London.

Henry was only 21, but he soon showed his worth, destroying unlicensed castles, and dispersin g the foreign mercenaries. He gave even-handed justice, showing himself firm, but not undul y harsh. A country racked by civil war sighed with relief. Only two major difficulties appear ed: first Henry's failure in his two Welsh campaigns in 1157 and 1165, when guerilla tactic s utterly defeated and on the first occasion nearly killed him; second was the reversal of hi s friendship for Becket when he changed from being Chancellor to Archbishop of Canterbury i n 1162.

The quarrel with Becket was linked with the King's determination to continue his grandfather' s reform of the administration of justice in the country. He was anxious for a uniform patter n, operated by royal justices, to control the corrupt, ill-administered and unequal local sys tems operated by barons and churchmen. At Clarendon in 1166 and Northampton in 1176, he got h is council's agreeemnt to a series of measures which established circuits of royal justices d ealing with the widest range of criminal activities. The method of operation was novel, too , relying on a sworn jury of inquest of twelve men. Though not like a modern jury, in that th ey were witnesses rather than assessors, the assize juries were the ancestors of the modern E nglish legal system.

Henry travelled constantly, and much of the time in his Contninental territories, for there w ere constant rebellions to deal with, usually inspired or encouraged by Louis of France. Henr y was determined to keep the integrity of his empire, and to pass it on as a unity. To do thi s was no small task, but in 1169 Henry held a conference with the King of France which he hop ed would achieve his objectives: he himself again did homage for Normandy, his eldest son Hen ry did homage for Anjou, Maine and Brittany, and Richard for Aquitaine. The next year he ha d young Henry crowned in his own lifetime. If anything could preserve the succession, surel y this would, yet, in fact, it brought all the troubles in the world onto Henry's head, for h e had given his sons paper domains, and had no intention that they should rule his empire. Ye t a man with a title does not rest until he has that title's power.

Late in 1171 Henry had a pleasant interlude in Ireland -- escaping from the world's condemnat ion for the murder of Becket. He spent Christmas at Dublin in a palace built for him out of w attles by the Irish.

Meanwhile, Eleanor had been intriguing with her sons, urging them to revolt and demand thei r rights. Early in 1173 they trooped off to the French court, and with Louis joined in an att ack on Normandy. Henry clamped Eleanor into prison and went off to meet the new threat. Whils t he was busy meeting this, England was invaded from Flanders and Scotland, and more barons w ho fancied a return of the warlord days of Stephen broke into revolt.

Plainly it was St. Thomas's revenge, and there was no hope of dealing with the situation with out expiation. In July 1174 Henry returned to England, and went in pilgrim's dress to Canterb ury. Through the town he walked barefoot, leaving a trail of blood on the flinty stones, an d went to keep his vigil of a day and a night by the tomb, not even coming out to relive hims elf. As he knelt, the assembled bishops and all the monks of Christchurch came to scourge hi m -- each giving him three strokes, but some with bitterness in their hearts laying on with f ive.

It was worth it though, for the very morning his vigil ended Henry was brought the news tha t the King of Scotland had been captured. He moved quickly northwards, receving rebels' submi ssion all the time. He met up with Geoffrey who had fought valiantly for him, and commented , 'My other sons have proved themselves bastards, this one alone is my true and legitimate so n.'

Returning to France, he quickly came to an agreement with Louis and his three rebel sons, giv ing each a substantial income, though still no share of power.

Richard set to work reducing the Duchy of Aquitaine to order, and quickly proved himself an a ble general who performed tremendous feats, such as capturing a fully manned and provisione d castle with three walls and moats to defend it. But the people were less easy to subdue - - they loved war for its own sake as their poet-leader, Bertrand de Born, shows well in his w orks: '. . . I love to see amidst the meadows tents and pavilions spread; and it gives me gre at joy to see drawn up on the field knights and horses in battle array; and it delights me wh en the scouts scatter people and herds in their path; and my heart is filled with gladness wh en I see strong castles besieged, and the stockades broken and overwhelmed, and the warrior s on the bank, girt about by fosses, with a line of strong stakes, interlaced . . . Maces, sw ords, helms of different hues, shields that will be riven and shattered as soon as the figh t begins; and many vassals struck down together; and the horses of the dead and wounded rovin g at random. And when battle is joined, let all men of good lineage think of nought but the b reaking of heads and arms: I tell you I find no such savour in food or in wine or in sleep a s in hearing the shout "On! On!" from both sides, and the neighing of steeds that have lost t heir riders, and the cries of "Help! Help!"; and in seeing men great and small go down on th e grass beyond the fosses; in seeing at last the dead, with the pennoned stumps of lances sti ll in their sides.'

These robust knights were actively encouraged by the young King Henry. He was handsome, charm ing and beloved of all, but also feckless and thoughtless -- far keener on tournaments and fr ivolity than the serious business of government. Then in the midle of his new rebellion he ca ught disentery and shortly died. His devoted followers were thunderstruck -- one young lad ac tually pined to death -- and the rebellion fizzled out.

The young king was dead, but Henry, wary of previous errors, was not going to rush into makin g a new one. He called his favourite youngest son, John, to his side and ordered Richard to g ive his duchy into his brother's hands. Richard -- his mother's favourite -- had made Aquitai ne his home and worked hard to establish his control there; he refused to give his mother's l and to anyone, unless it were back to Eleanor herself.

Henry packed John off to Ireland (which he speedily turned against himself) whilst he arrange d to get Eleanor out of her prison and bring her to Aquitaine to receive back the duchy. Mean while the new King of France, Philip, was planning to renew the attack on English territories , all the while the three, Henry, Richard, and Philip, were supposed to be planning a joint c rusade.

In 1188 Henry, already ill with the absessed anal fistula that was to cause him such an agoni sing death, refused pointblank to recognise Richard as his heir. The crazy project for substi tuting John was at the root of it all, though Henry may have deluded himself into thinking h e was playing his usual canny hand.

But diplomacy was giving way to the Greekest of tragedies. In June 1189, Philip and Richard a dvanced on Henry at his birthplace in Le Mans, and he was forced to withdraw with a small com pany of knights, showering curses on God. Instead of going to the safety of Normandy, he rod e hard, his usual long distance, deep into Anjou. This worsened his physical condition and, i n high fever, he made no effort to call up forces to his aid. Forced to meet Philip and Richa rd, he was so ill he had to be held on his horse whilst he deliriously mumbled his abject agr eement to their every condition for peace.

Back in bed after his last conference he was brought the news that John, for whom he had suff ered all this, had joined the rebels' side. Two sons -- both rebels -- were dead, two sons - - both rebels -- lived, and it was his bastard Geoffrey who now tended him in his last sickne ss. There was not even a bishop in his suite to give him the last rites. Over and again he cr ied out in agony "Shame! shame on a vanquished king!"

After his death the servants plundered him, leaving him in a shirt and drawers. When the mars hall came to arrange the burial he had to scratch around for garments in which to dress the b ody. A bit of threadbare gold edging from a cloak was put around Henry's head to represent hi s sovereignty.

And yet Henry had forseen it all. According to Gerald of Wales, he had long before ordere d a fresco for one of his rooms at Winchester: the picture showed an eagle being pecked by th ree eaglets, and a fourth perched on his head, ready to peck out his eyes when the time shoul d come. [Source: Who's Who in the Middle Ages, John Fines, Barnes & Noble Books, New York, 19 95]

------Reddish hair & fair complected.

Source: 'The World Book Encyclopedia', 1968, p H178. 'Royalty for Commoners', Roderick W. Stu art, 1993, p 37-38. Reigned 1154-1189. He ruled an empire that stretched from the Tweed to th e Pyrenees. In spite of frequent hostitilties with the French King his own family and rebelli ous Barons (culminating in the great revolt of 1173-74) and his quarrel with Thomas Becket, H enry maintained control over his possessions until shortly before his death. His judicial an d administrative reforms which increased Royal control and influence at the expense of the Ba rons were of great constitutional importance. Introduced trial by Jury. Duke of Normandy. Hen ry II 'Curt Mantel,' Duke of Normandy, Count of Maine and Anjou, King Of England became kin g in 1154. At the height of his power, Henry ruled England and almost all western France. Hi s marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine, the most famous woman of the age, brought the duchy of Aq uitaine under his control. Henry also claimed to rule Scotland, Wales, and eastern Ireland . Henry II carried on his grandfather's policy of limiting the power of the nobles. He als o tried to make the Roman Catholic Church in England submit to his authority. This policy bro ught him into conflict with Thomas a Becket, Achbishop of Canterbury. Four of the king's knig hts murdered Becket while he was at vespers in his cathedral. Henry made Anglo-Saxon common l aw, rather than the revised Roman law, the supreme law of the land. He introduced trial by ju ry and circuit courts. In his later years, Henry's sons often rebelled against him. Two of th em, Richard the Lion-Hearted and John, became the next two kings of England.

REF: "Falls the Shadow" Sharon Kay Penman: William the Conqueror requested a large number o f Jews to move to England after his conquest. They spoke Norman & did well under his reign . They continued to thrive under William's grandson Henry II.

REF: British Monarchy Official Website: Henry II (reigned 1154-89) ruled over an empire whic h stretched from the Scottish border to the Pyrenees. Married to Eleanor, the heiress of Aqui taine, the king spent only 13 years of his reign in England; the other 21 years were spent o n the continent in his territories in what is now France. By 1158, Henry had restored to th e crown some of the lands and royal power lost by Stephen. For example, locally chosen sherif fs were changed into royally appointed agents charged with enforcing the law and collecting t axes in the counties. Personally interested in government and law, Henry strengthened royal j ustice, making use of juries and re-introduced the sending of justices (judges) on regular to urs of the country to try cases for the Crown. His legal reforms have led him to be seen as t he founder of English Common Law. Henry's disagreements with his Archbishop of Canterbury, Th omas Becket, over Church/State relations ended in Becket's murder in 1170. Family disputes al most wrecked the king's achievements and he died in 1189 at war with his sons.

Reigned 1154-1189. He ruled an empire that stretched from the Tweed to the Pyrenees. In spit e of frequent hostitilties with the French King his own family and rebellious Barons (culmina ting in the great revolt of 1173-74) and his quarrel with Thomas Becket, Henry maintained con trol over his possessions until shortly before his death. His judicial and administrative ref orms which increased Royal control and influence at the expense of the Barons were of great c onstitutional importance. Introduced trial by Jury. Duke of Normandy.
Henry II, first of the Angevin kings, was one of the most effective of all England's monarchs . He came to the throne amid the anarchy of Stephen's reign and promptly collared his erran t barons. He refined Norman government and created a capable, self-standing bureaucracy. Hi s energy was equaled only by his ambition and intelligence. Henry survived wars, rebellion, a nd controversy to successfully rule one of the Middle Ages' most powerful kingdoms.

Henry was raised in the French province of Anjou and first visited England in 1142 to defen d his mother's claim to the disputed throne of Stephen. His continental possessions were alre ady vast before his coronation: He acquired Normandy and Anjou upon the death of his father i n September 1151, and his French holdings more than doubled with his marriage to Eleanor of A quitane (ex-wife of King Louis VII of France). In accordance with the Treaty of Wallingford , a succession agreement signed by Stephen and Matilda in 1153, Henry was crowned in Octobe r 1154. The continental empire ruled by Henry and his sons included the French counties of Br ittany, Maine, Poitou, Touraine, Gascony, Anjou, Aquitane, and Normandy. Henry was technicall y a feudal vassal of the king of France but, in reality, owned more territory and was more po werful than his French lord. Although King John (Henry's son) lost most of the English holdin gs in France, English kings laid claim to the French throne until the fifteenth century. Henr y also extended his territory in the British Isles in two significant ways. First, he retriev ed Cumbria and Northumbria form Malcom IV of Scotland and settled the Anglo-Scot border in th e North.
Secondly, although his success with Welsh campaigns was limited, Henry invaded Ireland and se cured an English presence on the island.

English and Norman barons in Stephen's reign manipulated feudal law to undermine royal author ity; Henry instituted many reforms to weaken traditional feudal ties and strengthen his posit ion. Unauthorized castles built during the previous reign were razed. Monetary payments repla ced military service as the primary duty of vassals. The Exchequer was revitalized to enforc e accurate record keeping and tax collection.

Incompetent sheriffs were replaced and the authority of royal courts was expanded. Henry empo wered a new social class of government clerks that stabilized procedure - the government coul d operate effectively in the king's absence and would subsequently prove sufficiently tenacio us to survive the reign of incompetent kings. Henry's reforms allowed the emergence of a bod y of common law to replace the disparate customs of feudal and county courts. Jury trials wer e initiated to end the old Germanic trials by ordeal or battle. Henry's systematic approach t o law provided a common basis for development of royal institutions throughout the entire rea lm.

The process of strengthening the royal courts, however, yielded an unexpected controversy. Th e church courts instituted by William the Conqueror became a safe haven for criminals of vary ing degree and ability, for one in fifty of the English population qualified as clerics. Henr y wished to transfer sentencing in such cases to the royal courts, as church courts merely de moted clerics to laymen. Thomas Beckett, Henry's close friend and chancellor since 1155, wa s named Archbishop of Canterbury in June 1162 but distanced himself from Henry and vehementl y opposed the weakening

*******


General Notes: Wife - Princess Eleanor of Aquitaine

She inherited the duchy of Aquitaine from her father in 1137, the same
year in which she was married to Louis VII of France. She accompanied her
husband on the Second Crusade to the Holy Land, where it was rumored that
she committed adultery. The scandal, and the fact that she had not given
the king a male heir, resulted in an annulment of their marriage in 1152
under the pretext of blood kinship between her and the king. Later that
year, Eleanor married and gave her possessions to Henry Plantagenet, count
of Anjou, who in 1154 became Henry II, king of England. In 1170, the queen
induced her husband to invest their son Richard the Lion-Hearted with her
personal dominions of Gascony, Aquitaine, and Poitou. When Richard and his
brothers rebelled against their father in 1173, Eleanor, already alienated
from the king because of his unfaithfulness, supported her sons.
Consequently, she was placed in confinement until 1185. After her release,
she secured the succession of her son Richard, who had become heir
apparent at the death in 1183 of his eldest brother. From the death of
King Henry II in 1189 until Richard's return from the Third Crusade in
1194, Eleanor ruled as regent. During this time, she foiled the attempt of
her son John in 1193 to conspire with France against the new king. After
the return of Richard, she arranged a reconciliation between the two
brothers. Eleanor continued to be prominent in public affairs until she
retired to the abbey in Fontevrault, France, where she died on April 1,
1204.
picture

Duke Guillaume III (William I) of Aquitaine, Count of Poitiers & Aquitaine and Adaele (Gerloc) of Normandy




Husband Duke Guillaume III (William I) of Aquitaine, Count of Poitiers & Aquitaine 1 28 29 30

            AKA: Guillalume I, William I Of Poitou III Duke Of Aquitaine
           Born: Abt 929 - Poitiers, , Poitou-Charentes, France 31
     Christened: 
           Died: 3 Apr 963 31
         Buried: 


         Father: Ebles II Mancer de Poitiers, Count de Poitou (0876-0935) 1 29 32
         Mother: Princess Emliane Aelgiva of England (Abt 0912-      ) 1 29 32


       Marriage: Abt 928 - France 33




Wife Adaele (Gerloc) of Normandy 1 29 33

            AKA: Geirlaug (Adele) de Normandie
           Born: 917 - Rouen, Seine-Inferieure, Normandy, France
     Christened: 
           Died: After 14 Oct 962 28 31
         Buried: 


         Father: Rollo Rognvaldsson, the Viking, the Ganger, 1St Duke Of Normandy (Abt 0860-Abt 0932) 1 6 17 33 34 35
         Mother: Duchess Poppa of Normandy (Abt 0872-Abt 0938) 1 17 33





Children
1 F Princess Adelaide de Poitiers of Aquitaine 1 29 36 37

           Born: Abt 952 - Poitiers, Vienne, Poitou, France 38
     Christened: 
           Died: 1004 38 39
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Hugh Capet, King of France (Abt 0941-0996) 1 6 37 40 41
           Marr: 968 38



2 M Guillaume IV (Fier-aa-bras) of Aquitaine

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



3 M William II Count Of Poitou, Iv Duke D'aquitaine 1 42 43

            AKA: William II Of Poitou IV Duke Of Aquitaine
           Born: 937 - Poitiers, Vienne, Poitou, France 44
     Christened: 
           Died: 3 Feb 995 43 45
         Buried: 




General Notes: Husband - Duke Guillaume III (William I) of Aquitaine, Count of Poitiers & Aquitaine

This is was happened to the first two Williams of Aquitaine, which is why we start with III:

William I "the Pious" Duke d'Aquitaine was married to Engelberge of Provence. He was son of Bernard, son of William of Gellone. He dsp. and was succeeded by his nephew, William II "the Younger" Duke of Aquitaine 918-26. Neither of these two first William Dukes of Aquitaine had any children.

picture

Sources


1 Jim Weber (https://myaccount.rootsweb.com/publicprofile?mn=jimweber110&kurl=http:%2F%2Fwc%2Erootsweb%2Eancestry%2Ecom%2Fcgi%2Dbin%2Figm%2Ecgi%3Fdb%3Djweber%26id%3DI03403%26op%3DGED).

2 Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999, 175-1, 239-1.

3 Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999, 175-6.

4 Magna Charta Sureties 1215, Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Sheppard Jr, 5th Edition, 1999, 145-1.

5 Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999, 66-26.

6 Microsoft Encarta 1994 ed.

7 Freeman, Marsha Colleen (Scully). "Buell Genealogy" pub. 1 Dec 1978.

8 Magna Charta Sureties 1215, Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Sheppard Jr, 5th Edition, 1999, 142-1, 161-11.

9 Encyclopedia Britannica, Treatise on, Henry II.

10 Europe xc.

11 Magna Charta Sureties 1215, Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Sheppard Jr, 5th E d ition, 1999, line 161.

12 Magna Charta Sureties 1215, Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Sheppard Jr, 5th Edition, 1999, 161-11.

13 Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr, 1-25.

14 Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999, 1-25.

15 jasmith.FTW, 1-25.

16 SmithTucker.FTW, 1-25.

17 Tauté, Anne. "The Kings and Queens of Great Britain" pub by Elm TreeBooks/Hamish Hamilton Ltd. Great Britain.//.

18 Encyclopedia Britannica, Treatise on, Henry II.

19 jasmith.FTW, Henry II.

20 SmithTucker.FTW, Henry II.

21 Magna Charta Sureties 1215, Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Sheppard Jr, 5th Edition, 1999, 151-1, 161-10.

22 Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999, 118-25, 123-25.

23 Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, by G. E Cokayne, Sutton Publishing Ltd, 2000, XII/1:499.

24 Encyclopedia Britannica, Treatise on, Henry V HRE, Henry I of England.

25 Magna Charta Sureties 1215, Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Sheppard Jr, 5th Edition, 1999, 161-10.

26 Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999, 1-24.

27 Camplin, Kathleen Marie. AOL user "Lorcalon."

28 England zx.

29 Dee, Danielle Marie. AOL user Dani Dee. File uploaded to AOL "VanArsdale/Crawford/Hayes" (danidee.zip) on Nov 29, 1994.

30 Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999, 110-23, 121e-18.

31 Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999, 144a-19.

32 Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999, 144a-18.

33 Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999, 121e-18.

34 Freeman, Marsha Colleen (Scully) (Rec# 435). "Buell Genealogy" pub. 1 Dec1978. Chart #34.

35 Encyclopedia Britannica, Treatise on, Rollo.

36 Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999, 53-20, 101-20, 144a-20.

37 The Plantagenet Ancestry, by William Henry Turton, 1968, 13, 14, 19.

38 Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999, 53-20.

39 The Plantagenet Ancestry, by William Henry Turton, 1968, 14.

40 Encyclopedia Britannica, Treatise on, Hugh Capet.

41 Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999, 53-20, 101-20.

42 Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999, 110-23.

43 Newsgroup: soc.genealogy.medieval, at groups - google.com, Ed Mann, 17 Sep 1998.

44 Newsgroup: soc.genealogy.medieval, at groups - google.com, Alan B. Wilson, 11 May 1997.

45 The Plantagenet Ancestry, by William Henry Turton, 1968, 7.


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