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Ancestors of Amy Russell Tolbert



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Roger de Clare, Earl of Hertford and Maud de St. Hilary




Husband Roger de Clare, Earl of Hertford

           Born: 1116 - Tunbridge Castle, Tunbridge, Kent, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 1173 - , , Oxfordshire, England
         Buried:  - Eynsham Priory, Oxfordshire, England


         Father: Richard de Clare, & Tonbridge, Sir (Abt 1090-1136) 1 2 3
         Mother: Alice/Adeliza de Meschines (Abt 1094-1128)


       Marriage: Abt 1153 - , Dalling, Norfolk, England




Wife Maud de St. Hilary

           Born: 1132 - Burkenham, Norfolk, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 24 Dec 1193 - , Norfolk, England
         Buried:  - Priory of Great Carbrooke, Norfolk, England


         Father: James de St. Hilary/Hilaire (Abt 1105-      )
         Mother: Aveline (Abt 1109-      )



   Other Spouse: William de Albini D'Aubigny (1140-1193) - Abt 1164 - Arundel, Sussex, England



Children
1 F Eleanor de Clare

           Born: Abt 1137
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
         Spouse: John de Gray (Abt 1123-1211)



2 M Richard de Clare

           Born: 1162 - Tunbridge Castle, Tunbridge, Kent, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 30 Dec 1218
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Amicia FitzRobert, Countess of Gloucester (1160-1224)



3 M John de Clare

           Born: 1170 - Clare, , Suffolk, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



4 M Henry de Clare

           Born: 1172 - Clare, , Suffolk, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



5 F Mable de Clare

           Born: 1166 - Clare, , Suffolk, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 1203
         Buried: 



6 M Roger de Clare

           Born: 1168 - Middleton, Norfolk, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 1241
         Buried: 



7 M James de Clare

           Born: 1164 - Clare, , Suffolk, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



8 F Aveline de Clare

           Born: 1172 - Hereford, Herefordshire, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Geoffrey FitzPeter, 1st Earl of Essex (Cir 1162-1213)




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Thomas de Clare, I, Gov London/Lord Inchequin




Husband Thomas de Clare, I, Gov London/Lord Inchequin

           Born: Between 1244 and 1247 - Tunbridge, Kent, England 4 5 6 7 8
     Christened: 
           Died: 29 Aug 1287 - Thomond, Connaught, Clare, Ireland 9 10 11
         Buried: 
            AFN: 8503-GF


         Father: Richard de Clare (1222-1262)
         Mother: Maud de Lacy (Abt 1224-1289)


       Marriage: Abt 1272 - , Tunbridge, Kent, England 12 13 14

   Other Spouse: Juliana Fitz Maurice (1250-After 1309) - 1275 - , , Essex, England 12 13 14 15




Wife

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



Children

General Notes: Husband - Thomas de Clare, I, Gov London/Lord Inchequin

OCCUPATION: Governor of London, Lord of Inchequin and Youghae; 2nd sonThomas, governor of th e city of London, 1st Edward I [1272-3], and was killed in battle in Ireland fourteen years a fter, leaving by Amy, his wife, dau. of Sir Maurice FitzMaurice, Gilbert, who d. s. p.; Richa rd, d. v. p., leaving a son, Thomas, who d. s. p.; Thomas, whose daus. and eventual co-heires ses were Margaret, wife of Bartholomew, 1st Lord Badlesmere, and Maud, wife of Robert, Lord C lifford, of Appleby. [Sir Bernard Burke, Dormant, Abeyant, Forfeited, and Extinct Peerages, B urke's Peerage, London, 1883, p. 119, Clare, Lords of Clare, Earls of Hertford, Earls of Glou cester

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Thomas de Clare, Lord of Thomond in Connaught, 2nd son of 5th Earl of Hertford and 2nd Earl o f Gloucester. [Burke's Peerage]
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Thomas, governor of the city of London, 1st Edward I [1272-3], and was killed in battle in Ir eland fourteen years after, leaving by Amy, his wife, dau. of Sir Maurice FitzMaurice, Gilber t, who d. s. p.; Richard, d. v. p., leaving a son, Thomas, who d. s. p.; Thomas, whose daus . and eventual co-heiresses were Margaret, wife of Bartholomew, 1st Lord Badlesmere, and Maud , wife of Robert, Lord Clifford, of Appleby. [Sir Bernard Burke, Dormant, Abeyant, Forfeited , and Extinct Peerages, Burke's Peerage, London, 1883, p. 119, Clare, Lords of Clare, Earls o f Hertford, Earls of Gloucester]

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Thomas de Clare, I, Gov London/Lord Inchequin and Juliana Fitz Maurice




Husband Thomas de Clare, I, Gov London/Lord Inchequin

           Born: Between 1244 and 1247 - Tunbridge, Kent, England 4 5 6 7 8
     Christened: 
           Died: 29 Aug 1287 - Thomond, Connaught, Clare, Ireland 9 10 11
         Buried: 
            AFN: 8503-GF


         Father: Richard de Clare (1222-1262)
         Mother: Maud de Lacy (Abt 1224-1289)


       Marriage: 1275 - , , Essex, England 12 13 14 15




Wife Juliana Fitz Maurice

           Born: 1250 - Dublin, Dublin, Leinster, Ireland 7 8
     Christened: 
           Died: After 1309 - Brampton, Derby, Eng 7 8
         Buried: 
            AFN: 91SH-PJ


         Father: Maurice "Mael,The Bald" Fitz Maurice Fitz Gerald, Lord Offaly/Justiciar (      -Bef 1286)
         Mother: Emmeline Longespee (      -1291)



   Other Spouse: Nicholas Avenel (      -      )

   Other Spouse: John II De Cogan (1243-Bef 1302) - Abt 1275 - <, Bampton, Devon, England> 12 13 14



Children
1 M Thomas de Clare II

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: Bef 10 Nov 1286
         Buried: 



2 F Maud (Matilda) de Clare, Baroness Clifford

           Born: Between 1276 and 1279 - Gloucestershire, England 7 8
     Christened: 
           Died: Between 4 Mar and 14 May 1327 - England 16 17 18 19
         Buried: 
            AFN: 9HRX-TV
         Spouse: Robert de Clifford, I, 1st Lord/Appleby/Baron/Sh (1274-1314)
           Marr: 3 Nov 1295 - Castle Clifford, Hereford, England 7 8
         Spouse: Robert De Welles, Sir/Lord/2Nd Baron (Abt 1294-1320)
           Marr: Bef 16 Dec 1315 20 21 22



3 M Richard de Clare, Steward Forest Of Essex/L

           Born: Abt 1278 - Essex, England 7 8
     Christened: 
           Died: 1318
         Buried: 
            AFN: M56V-HR



4 F Margaret (Margareth) de Clare, Countess Angus

           Born: 1286 - Thomond, Connaught, Co Clare, Ireland 7 23 24
     Christened: 
           Died: 1365 - Canterbury, , Kent, England 7 23 24
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Sir Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Lord, Baron (1275-1322)
           Marr: Abt 1299 - Castle Badlesmere, Kent, England 7 8
         Spouse: Gilbert II de Umfreville, Earl Angus (Abt 1243-Bef 1307) 25
           Marr: Bef 1302 7 23 24




General Notes: Husband - Thomas de Clare, I, Gov London/Lord Inchequin

OCCUPATION: Governor of London, Lord of Inchequin and Youghae; 2nd sonThomas, governor of th e city of London, 1st Edward I [1272-3], and was killed in battle in Ireland fourteen years a fter, leaving by Amy, his wife, dau. of Sir Maurice FitzMaurice, Gilbert, who d. s. p.; Richa rd, d. v. p., leaving a son, Thomas, who d. s. p.; Thomas, whose daus. and eventual co-heires ses were Margaret, wife of Bartholomew, 1st Lord Badlesmere, and Maud, wife of Robert, Lord C lifford, of Appleby. [Sir Bernard Burke, Dormant, Abeyant, Forfeited, and Extinct Peerages, B urke's Peerage, London, 1883, p. 119, Clare, Lords of Clare, Earls of Hertford, Earls of Glou cester

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Thomas de Clare, Lord of Thomond in Connaught, 2nd son of 5th Earl of Hertford and 2nd Earl o f Gloucester. [Burke's Peerage]
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Thomas, governor of the city of London, 1st Edward I [1272-3], and was killed in battle in Ir eland fourteen years after, leaving by Amy, his wife, dau. of Sir Maurice FitzMaurice, Gilber t, who d. s. p.; Richard, d. v. p., leaving a son, Thomas, who d. s. p.; Thomas, whose daus . and eventual co-heiresses were Margaret, wife of Bartholomew, 1st Lord Badlesmere, and Maud , wife of Robert, Lord Clifford, of Appleby. [Sir Bernard Burke, Dormant, Abeyant, Forfeited , and Extinct Peerages, Burke's Peerage, London, 1883, p. 119, Clare, Lords of Clare, Earls o f Hertford, Earls of Gloucester]

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General Notes: Wife - Juliana Fitz Maurice

Juliane, married 1st Thomas de Clare and had issue, married 2nd Nicholas Avenel. [Burke's Pe erage]

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Randolf Neville, 1st Baron Neville de Raby and Euphemia de Clavering




Husband Randolf Neville, 1st Baron Neville de Raby

           Born: 18 Oct 1262
     Christened: 
           Died: 18 Apr 1331
         Buried: 


         Father: Robert de Neville (Cir 1240-1271)
         Mother: Mary Tailboys (Cir 1244-Bef 1320)


       Marriage: 




Wife Euphemia de Clavering

           Born: Cir 1266
     Christened: 
           Died: Cir 1320
         Buried: 



Children
1 M Ralph Neville, 2nd Baron Neville de Raby

           Born: Cir 1290
     Christened: 
           Died: 5 Aug 1367
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Alice de Audley (      -      )
           Marr: Abt 14 Jan 1326 - Greystoke Manor, Northumberland, Eng (Royal License, Her 1St Of 2) 26 27 28 29




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Renaud de Clermont, Grand Chamberlain of France and Ermengardis de Clermont




Husband Renaud de Clermont, Grand Chamberlain of France 1

            AKA: Renaud De Creil Chamberlain De Clermont
           Born: Abt 1010 - Clermont-En-Beauvais, Oise, Picardy, France
     Christened: 
           Died: After 1098 - Clermont-En-Beauvais, Oise, Picardy, France
         Buried: 


         Father: Seigneur Huges de Creil et Mouche, Butler of France (Abt 0990-Abt 1060) 1
         Mother: 


       Marriage: 




Wife Ermengardis de Clermont 1

           Born: Abt 1010 - Clermont-En-Beauvais, Oise, Picardy, France
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 


         Father: Baudouin II Count Of Clermont (0990-      ) 1
         Mother: 





Children
1 M Hugues de Clermont, Count of Clermont 1 30 31 32

            AKA: Hugh De Creil Comte De Clermont
           Born: Abt 1030 - Clermont-En-Beauvais, Oise, Picardy, France
     Christened: 
           Died: 1101 33
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Margaret/Marguerite de Montdidier (1045-1110) 1 30 31 32
           Marr: Abt 1080 - , Picardy, France 33



2 F Miss De Creil 1

           Born: Abt 1045 - Clermont-En-Beauvais, Oise, Picardy, France
     Christened: 
           Died: 1100
         Buried: 




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Hugues de Clermont, Count of Clermont and Margaret/Marguerite de Montdidier




Husband Hugues de Clermont, Count of Clermont 1 30 31 32

            AKA: Hugh De Creil Comte De Clermont
           Born: Abt 1030 - Clermont-En-Beauvais, Oise, Picardy, France
     Christened: 
           Died: 1101 33
         Buried: 


         Father: Renaud de Clermont, Grand Chamberlain of France (Abt 1010-After 1098) 1
         Mother: Ermengardis de Clermont (Abt 1010-      ) 1


       Marriage: Abt 1080 - , Picardy, France 33




Wife Margaret/Marguerite de Montdidier 1 30 31 32

           Born: 1045 - Montdidier, Somme, Picardy, France
     Christened: 
           Died: 1110 - Clermont-En-Beauvais, Oise, Picardy, France
         Buried: 


         Father: Hildouin IV Comte De Ramerupt & Montdidier (Abt 1010-1063) 1 31 34 35 36 37 38
         Mother: Alice (Alix\Adela) Countess De Roucy (Abt 1014-1062) 1 35 36 39 40





Children
1 F Richilde De Creil 1 32

            AKA: Richilde De Clermont
           Born: 1060 - Clermont-En-Beauvais, Oise, Picardy, France
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



2 F Ermentrude De Clermont 1 31

           Born: Abt 1066 - Clermont-En-Beauvais, Oise, Picardy, France
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



3 F Adelaide Clermont 1 41 42 43 44

            AKA: Adeliza De Claremont
           Born: Abt 1072 - Clermont-En-Beauvais, Oise, Picardy, France
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Bouchard IV De Montmorency (Abt 1073-1132) 1 44 45 46
           Marr: After 1124 - 2ND Husband 2ND Wife 43 44
         Spouse: Gilbert FitzRichard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Clare (1066-1114) 1 41 44 47 48
           Marr: Abt 1076 - 1st Husband 44



4 M Reinald II Count Of Clermont 1 49 50

           Born: Abt 1080 - Clermont-En-Beauvais, Oise, Picardy, France 50
     Christened: 
           Died: 1162 49 50
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Adelaide de Vermandois (Abt 1057-1120) 1 49 51 52 53
           Marr: 1103 - 2ND Husband 1St Wife 49 53




General Notes: Husband - Hugues de Clermont, Count of Clermont

Hugues, COUNT OF CLERMONT in Beauvaisis, by Margaret, daughter of Hilduin, COUNT OF Rouci and MONTDIDIER. [Complete Peerage]


General Notes: Wife - Margaret/Marguerite de Montdidier

Margaret, daughter of Hilduin, COUNT OF Rouci and MONTDIDIER. [Complete Peerage]
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Sir Henry de Percy, III, Kt Of The Garter/Baro and Idoine (Idonea) de Clifford




Husband Sir Henry de Percy, III, Kt Of The Garter/Baro

           Born: 6 Feb 1300-1301 - Leckonfield, East Riding, Yorkshire, England 7 8
     Christened: 
           Died: 25 Feb 1351-1352 - Alnwick Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, England 5 7 8 54
         Buried: 1352 - Alnwick, Northumberland, England 7 8
            AFN: GLC9-R2
       Marriage: 1314 - Yorkshire, Eng 55 56 57




Wife Idoine (Idonea) de Clifford

           Born: 1303 - Clifford Castle, Clifford, , Herefordshire, England 7 8
     Christened: 
           Died: 24 Aug 1365 - prob. England 7 8
         Buried: 1365 - Beverley Minster, Beverley, , Yorkshire, England 7 8
            AFN: 8MM0-2V


         Father: Robert de Clifford, I, 1st Lord/Appleby/Baron/Sh (1274-1314)
         Mother: Maud (Matilda) de Clare, Baroness Clifford (Between 1276/1279-Between 1327/1327)





Children
1 M Henry IV de Percy, Baron

           Born:  - Of Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, Eng (Age 30+ 1351/2) 7 8
     Christened: 
           Died: 18 May 1368 - Berwick Castle, Berwick, Eng 7 8
         Buried: 17 Jun 1368 - Alnwick, Northumberland, England 7 8
            AFN: GHSS-Z9
         Spouse: Mary Plantagenet, Lady/Baroness Percy (1320-1362)
           Marr: Tutbury Castle, Tutbury, Stafford, England 55 58 59 60
         Spouse: Joan De Orreby (      -      )
           Marr: Bef May 1365



2 F Eleanor de Percy

           Born: 1325 - Raby-Keverstone Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England 7 8
     Christened: 
           Died: Bef 1368 7 8
         Buried: 
         Spouse: John II Fitz Walter, Baron (      -      )



3 M Roger de Percy

           Born: Abt 1329 - Raby-Keverstone Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England 7 8
     Christened: Child
           Died:  - Raby-Keverstone Castle, Staindrop, Durham, Eng (Dead Young) 7 8
         Buried: 



4 F Isabella de Percy

           Born: 1330 - Of Alnwick, Northumberland, Eng 7 8
     Christened: 
           Died: Bef 25 May 1368 7 8
         Buried: 
            AFN: FL8V-Z3
         Spouse: William De Aton, Sir Knight/Lord Vesci (Abt 1299-Bef 1388/1389)
           Marr: Bef Jan 1326



5 F Margaret de Percy, Baroness Grooby

           Born: Abt 1331 - Of Alnwick, Northumberland, Eng 7 8
     Christened: 
           Died: 3 Sep 1376 - Gyng, New Buttsbury, Essex, England 7 8
         Buried: 1376 - Church Of Friars, Chelmsford, Essex, England 7 8
            AFN: B3DF-FS
         Spouse: Robert De Umfreville (      -      )
         Spouse: William De Ferrers, Sir Knight/3Rd Baron (1332/1333-1370/1371)
           Marr: Bef 25 May 1368 - Of Groby, Leicestershire, Eng



6 M William de Percy

           Born: 1332 - Raby-Keverstone Castle, Staindrop, Durham, England 7 8
     Christened: 
           Died: 
         Buried: 



7 M Thomas de Percy, Bishop Norwich

           Born: 1333 - Alnwick, Northumberland, England 7 8
     Christened: 
           Died: 1369 7 8
         Buried: 
            AFN: VB0R-0Q



8 F Maud de Percy 61 62 63 64 65 66

           Born: Abt 1335 - Warkworth Castle, Alnwick, Northumberland, England 7 8 67 68
     Christened: 
           Died: Bef 18 Feb 1379 - England 7 8 67 68
         Buried:  - Cathedral, Durham, Durham, England 7 8
            AFN: 8HS5-J7
         Spouse: Sir John Neville, 3rd Baron Neville de Raby (1328-1388) 61 62 63 64 65 66
           Marr: Jul 1357 - <, Alnwick, Northumberland, England> 55 56 57 69 70




General Notes: Husband - Sir Henry de Percy, III, Kt Of The Garter/Baro

OCCUPATION: 2nd Lord Percy of Alnwick, member Parliment 1322-1352, knighted 1323, Constabl e of Scarborough Castle, Warden of the Marches of Scotland

DOCUMENTS: WILL mentions Isabel wife of Wm. Lord AtonNinth Baron and second Lord of Alnwick , who was summoned to Parliament 1322-1352. He was at the Siege of
Warwick and at the Battles of Halidon Hill (in France) and Neville Cross.

The Percy family descended from William de Percy, a Norman baron who came to England with Wil liam the Conqueror and married Emma de Port, daughter of Gospatric, Saxon Earl of Northumberl and. The last of this male line of Percy was William, 4th Baron Percy, whose daughter, Agne s de Percy (Baroness) married Josceline de Louvaine, half brother of Adeliza, 2nd wife of Kin g Henry I of England. Josceline, who descended from the Dukes of Louvaine, took the name of P ercy and his descendants became Lords, Earls, and later Dukes of Northumberland under that na me, but he retained his ancient arms of Hainault and Louvaine.

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Ralph de Greystoke and Katherine de Clifford




Husband Ralph de Greystoke

           Born: Bef 1360 - England
     Christened: 
           Died: WFT Est 1386-1451 - England
         Buried: 
       Marriage: Bef 1380




Wife Katherine de Clifford

           Born: Bef 1360 - England
     Christened: 
           Died: WFT Est 1386-1454
         Buried: 



Children
1 F Maude de Greystoke

           Born: 1380 - England
     Christened: 
           Died: WFT Est 1411-1474
         Buried: 
         Spouse: Eudo de Welles (Bef 1380-Bef 1421)
           Marr: Bef 1406




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Henry II "Curt Mantel" King Of Plantagenet, King of England and Rosamunde "The Fair" de Clifford, Concubine




Husband Henry II "Curt Mantel" King Of Plantagenet, King of England 1 71 72 73 74

           Born: 5 Mar 1133 - Le Mans, Sarthe, Maine/Pays-DE-La-Loire, France 74 75 76 77 78 79
     Christened: 
           Died: 6 Jul 1189 - Chinon, Indre-Et-Loire, Touraine/Centre, France 74 75 76 77 78 79
         Buried: 8 Jul 1189 - Fontevrault Abbey, Maine-Et-Loire, Maine/Pays-DE-La-Loire, France 80


         Father: Geoffroy V "Le Bon" Plantagenet, 10th Count of Anjou (1113-1151) 1 72 81 82 83 84
         Mother: Empress Maude/Matilda England, Queen of England (1102-1167) 1 81 85 86 87


       Marriage: 

   Other Spouse: Princess Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122-1204) 71 - 18 May 1152 - Bordeaux, Gironde, , Aquitaine, France 75 76 80 88 89 90 91

Noted events in his life were:
• Ruled, 1154-1189




Wife Rosamunde "The Fair" de Clifford, Concubine

           Born: 1136 - Clifford Castle, Clifford, , Herefordshire, England
     Christened: 
           Died: 1176 - England
         Buried: 1176 - Nunnery At Godstow, Oxfordshire, England


         Father: Walter I Fitzrichard De Clifford Fitz Pons, Lord (Abt 1113-1190)
         Mother: Margaret De Toeni (1109-1185)





Children
1 M William I Longespee, Earl Salisbury Prince of England

           Born: 17 Aug 1152 - Woodstock Manor 92
     Christened: 
           Died: Mar 1225-1226 - Salisbury Castle, Wiltishire, Eng 92
         Buried: 7 Mar 1225-1226 - Cathedral, Salisbury, Wiltshire, England
         Spouse: Ela d'Everaux Fitz Patrick, Countess of Salisbury (      -1261)
           Marr: 1198 - Salisbury, Wiltshire, England




General Notes: Husband - Henry II "Curt Mantel" King Of Plantagenet, King of England

Henry II was born at Le Mans in 1133. He was the eldest son of the Empress Matilda, daughter of Henry I, by her second marriage to Geoffrey the Fair of Anjou. His parents' marriage was tempestous, and both parties were glad when politics brought a separation, with Matilda going to England to fight King Stephen, and Geoffrey of Normandy to win a heritage for young Henry.

He first came to England at the age of nine when his mother made her dramatic escape from Oxford where she was besieged by Stephen, across the ice and snow, dressed all in white, to welcome him at Wallingford. His next visit, when he was fourteen, showed his character: he recruited a small army of mercenaries to cross over and fight Stephen in England, but failed so miserably in the execution of his plans that he ended up borrowing money from Stephen to get back home. A third expedition, two years later, was almost as great a failure. Henry was not a soldier, his were skills of administration and diplomacy; warfare bored and sometimes frightened him. For the meanwhile he now concentrated on Normandy, of which his father had made him joint ruler. In 1151, the year of his father's death, he went to Paris to do homage to Louis VII for his duchy. There he met Queen Eleanor, and she fell in love with him.

Henry was by no means averse. To steal a king's wife does a great deal for the ego of a young duke; he was as lusty as she, and late in their lives he was still ardently wenching with 'the fair Rosamund' Clifford, and less salubrious girls with names like 'Bellebelle'; finally, she would bring with her the rich Duchy of Aquitaine, which she held in her own right. With this territory added to those he hoped to inherit and win, his boundaries would be Scotland in the north, and the Pyrenees in the south.

Henry was, apart from his prospects, a 'catch' for any woman. He was intelligent, had learned Latin and could read and possibly write; immensely strong and vigorous, a sportsman and hard rider who loved travel; emotional and passionate, prone to tears and incredible rages; carelessly but richly dressed, worried enough in later life to conceal his baldness by careful arrangement of his hair, and very concerned not to grow fat.

But now he was in the prime of youth, and in 1153, when he landed with a large force in Bristol, the world was ready to be won. He quickly gained control of the West Country and moved up to Wallingford for a crucial battle with Stephen. This was avoided, however, because in thepreparations for the battle Henry fell from his horse three times, a bad omen. Henry himself was not superstitious -- he was the reverse, a cheerful blasphemer -- but he disliked battles and when his anxious advisers urged him to heed the omen, he willingly agreed to parley privately with Stephen. The conference was a strange occasion: there were only two of them there, at the narowest point of the Thames, with Henry on one bank and Stephen on the other. None the less, they seem to have come to an agreement to take negotiations further.

That summer Stephen's son died mysteriously, and Eleanor bore Henry an heir (about the same time as an English whore Hikenai produced his faithful bastard Geoffrey). The omens clearly showed what was soon confirmed between the two -- that when Stephen died, Henry should rule in his place. A year later Stephen did die, and in December 1154, Henry and Eleanor were crowned in London.

Henry was only 21, but he soon showed his worth, destroying unlicensed castles, and dispersing the foreign mercenaries. He gave even-handed justice, showing himself firm, but not unduly harsh. A country racked by civil war sighed with relief. Only two major difficulties appeared: first Henry's failure in his two Welsh campaigns in 1157 and 1165, when guerilla tactics utterly defeated and on the first occasion nearly killed him; second was the reversal of his friendship for Becket when he changed from being Chancellor to Archbishop of Canterbury in 1162.

The quarrel with Becket was linked with the King's determination to continue his grandfather's reform of the administration of justice in the country. He was anxious for a uniform pattern, operated by royal justices, to control the corrupt, ill-administered and unequal local systems operated by barons and churchmen. At Clarendon in 1166 and Northampton in 1176, he got his council's agreeemnt to a series of measures which established circuits of royal justices dealing with the widest range of criminal activities. The method of operation was novel, too, relying on a sworn jury of inquest of twelve men. Though not like a modern jury, in that they were witnesses rather than assessors, the assize juries were the ancestors of the modern English legal system.

Henry travelled constantly, and much of the time in his Contninental territories, for there were constant rebellions to deal with, usually inspired or encouraged by Louis of France. Henry was determined to keep the integrity of his empire, and to pass it on as a unity. To do this was no small task, but in 1169 Henry held a conference with the King of France which he hoped would achieve his objectives: he himself again did homage for Normandy, his eldest son Henry did homage for Anjou, Maine and Brittany, and Richard for Aquitaine. The next year he had young Henry crowned in his own lifetime. If anything could preserve the succession, surely this would, yet, in fact, it brought all the troubles in the world onto Henry's head, for he had given his sons paper domains, and had no intention that they should rule his empire. Yet a man with a title does not rest until he has that title's power.

Late in 1171 Henry had a pleasant interlude in Ireland -- escaping from the world's condemnation for the murder of Becket. He spent Christmas at Dublin in a palace built for him out of wattles by the Irish.

Meanwhile, Eleanor had been intriguing with her sons, urging them to revolt and demand their rights. Early in 1173 they trooped off to the French court, and with Louis joined in an attack on Normandy. Henry clamped Eleanor into prison and went off to meet the new threat. Whilst he was busy meeting this, England was invaded from Flanders and Scotland, and more barons who fancied a return of the warlord days of Stephen broke into revolt.

Plainly it was St. Thomas's revenge, and there was no hope of dealing with the situation without expiation. In July 1174 Henry returned to England, and went in pilgrim's dress to Canterbury. Through the town he walked barefoot, leaving a trail of blood on the flinty stones, and went to keep his vigil of a day and a night by the tomb, not even coming out to relive himself. As he knelt, the assembled bishops and all the monks of Christchurch came to scourge him -- each giving him three strokes, but some with bitterness in their hearts laying on with five.

It was worth it though, for the very morning his vigil ended Henry was brought the news that the King of Scotland had been captured. He moved quickly northwards, receving rebels' submission all the time. He met up with Geoffrey who had fought valiantly for him, and commented, 'My other sons have proved themselves bastards, this one alone is my true and legitimate son.'

Returning to France, he quickly came to an agreement with Louis and his three rebel sons, giving each a substantial income, though still no share of power.

Richard set to work reducing the Duchy of Aquitaine to order, and quickly proved himself an able general who performed tremendous feats, such as capturing a fully manned and provisioned castle with three walls and moats to defend it. But the people were less easy to subdue -- they loved war for its own sake as their poet-leader, Bertrand de Born, shows well in his works: '. . . I love to see amidst the meadows tents and pavilions spread; and it gives me great joy to see drawn up on the field knights and horses in battle array; and it delights me when the scouts scatter people and herds in their path; and my heart is filled with gladness when I see strong castles besieged, and the stockades broken and overwhelmed, and the warriors on the bank, girt about by fosses, with a line of strong stakes, interlaced . . . Maces, swords, helms of different hues, shields that will be riven and shattered as soon as the fight begins; and many vassals struck down together; and the horses of the dead and wounded roving at random. And when battle is joined, let all men of good lineage think of nought but the breaking of heads and arms: I tell you I find no such savour in food or in wine or in sleep as in hearing the shout "On! On!" from both sides, and the neighing of steeds that have lost their riders, and the cries of "Help! Help!"; and in seeing men great and small go down on the grass beyond the fosses; in seeing at last the dead, with the pennoned stumps of lances still in their sides.'

These robust knights were actively encouraged by the young King Henry. He was handsome, charming and beloved of all, but also feckless and thoughtless -- far keener on tournaments and frivolity than the serious business of government. Then in the midle of his new rebellion he caught disentery and shortly died. His devoted followers were thunderstruck -- one young lad actually pined to death -- and the rebellion fizzled out.

The young king was dead, but Henry, wary of previous errors, was not going to rush into making a new one. He called his favourite youngest son, John, to his side and ordered Richard to give his duchy into his brother's hands. Richard -- his mother's favourite -- had made Aquitaine his home and worked hard to establish his control there; he refused to give his mother's land to anyone, unless it were back to Eleanor herself.

Henry packed John off to Ireland (which he speedily turned against himself) whilst he arranged to get Eleanor out of her prison and bring her to Aquitaine to receive back the duchy. Meanwhile the new King of France, Philip, was planning to renew the attack on English territories, all the while the three, Henry, Richard, and Philip, were supposed to be planning a joint crusade.

In 1188 Henry, already ill with the absessed anal fistula that was to cause him such an agonising death, refused pointblank to recognise Richard as his heir. The crazy project for substituting John was at the root of it all, though Henry may have deluded himself into thinking he was playing his usual canny hand.

But diplomacy was giving way to the Greekest of tragedies. In June 1189, Philip and Richard advanced on Henry at his birthplace in Le Mans, and he was forced to withdraw with a small company of knights, showering curses on God. Instead of going to the safety of Normandy, he rode hard, his usual long distance, deep into Anjou. This worsened his physical condition and, in high fever, he made no effort to call up forces to his aid. Forced to meet Philip and Richard, he was so ill he had to be held on his horse whilst he deliriously mumbled his abject agreement to their every condition for peace.

Back in bed after his last conference he was brought the news that John, for whom he had suffered all this, had joined the rebels' side. Two sons -- both rebels -- were dead, two sons -- both rebels -- lived, and it was his bastard Geoffrey who now tended him in his last sickness. There was not even a bishop in his suite to give him the last rites. Over and again he cried out in agony "Shame! shame on a vanquished king!"

After his death the servants plundered him, leaving him in a shirt and drawers. When the marshall came to arrange the burial he had to scratch around for garments in which to dress the body. A bit of threadbare gold edging from a cloak was put around Henry's head to represent his sovereignty.

And yet Henry had forseen it all. According to Gerald of Wales, he had long before ordered a fresco for one of his rooms at Winchester: the picture showed an eagle being pecked by three eaglets, and a fourth perched on his head, ready to peck out his eyes when the time should come. [Source: Who's Who in the Middle Ages, John Fines, Barnes & Noble Books, New York, 1995]
MISC: He followed the traditional Angevin recipe of efficacious political manoeuvres, a bril liant marriage and potent aggression, and thereby built up and maintained a vast dominion str etching from the Scottish border to the Pyrenees and encompassing more than half of France . He was succeeded by two of his sons: Richard I (1189-99), a charismatic and effective mil itary leader and crusader, and John (1199-1216), who lost most of his French possessions,incl uding the Plantagenets' ancestral homeland of Anjou, to King Philip II of France, who almos t forfeited his crown to Louis, Philip's son.

OCCUPATION: King of England, 25 Oct 1154-1189, called Curt Mantel; Count of Anjou, Duke of N ormandy.MISC: Henry II was born at Le Mans in 1133. He was the eldest son of the Empress Mat ilda, daughter of Henry I, by her second marriage to Geoffrey the Fair of Anjou. His parents ' marriage was tempestous, and both parties were glad when politics brought a separation, wit h Matilda going to England to fight King Stephen, and Geoffrey of Normandy to win a heritag e for young Henry.

He first came to England at the age of nine when his mother made her dramatic escape from Oxf ord where she was besieged by Stephen, across the ice and snow, dressed all in white, to welc ome him at Wallingford. His next visit, when he was fourteen, showed his character: he recrui ted a small army of mercenaries to cross over and fight Stephen in England, but failed so mis erably in the execution of his plans that he ended up borrowing money from Stephen to get bac k home. A third expedition, two years later, was almost as great a failure. Henry was not a s oldier, his were skills of administration and diplomacy; warfare bored and sometimes frighten ed him. For the meanwhile he now concentrated on Normandy, of which his father had made him j oint ruler. In 1151, the year of his father's death, he went to Paris to do homage to Louis V II for his duchy. There he met Queen Eleanor, and she fell in love with him.

Henry was by no means averse. To steal a king's wife does a great deal for the ego of a youn g duke; he was as lusty as she, and late in their lives he was still ardently wenching with ' the fair Rosamund' Clifford, and less salubrious girls with names like 'Bellebelle'; finally , she would bring with her the rich Duchy of Aquitaine, which she held in her own right. Wit h this territory added to those he hoped to inherit and win, his boundaries would be Scotlan d in the north, and the Pyrenees in the south.

Henry was, apart from his prospects, a 'catch' for any woman. He was intelligent, had learne d Latin and could read and possibly write; immensely strong and vigorous, a sportsman and har d rider who loved travel; emotional and passionate, prone to tears and incredible rages; care lessly but richly dressed, worried enough in later life to conceal his baldness by careful ar rangement of his hair, and very concerned not to grow fat.

But now he was in the prime of youth, and in 1153, when he landed with a large force in Brist ol, the world was ready to be won. He quickly gained control of the West Country and moved u p to Wallingford for a crucial battle with Stephen. This was avoided, however, because in the preparations for the battle Henry fell from his horse three times, a bad omen. Henry himsel f was not superstitious -- he was the reverse, a cheerful blasphemer -- but he disliked battl es and when his anxious advisers urged him to heed the omen, he willingly agreed to parley pr ivately with Stephen. The conference was a strange occasion: there were only two of them ther e, at the narowest point of the Thames, with Henry on one bank and Stephen on the other. Non e the less, they seem to have come to an agreement to take negotiations further.

That summer Stephen's son died mysteriously, and Eleanor bore Henry an heir (about the same t ime as an English whore Hikenai produced his faithful bastard Geoffrey). The omens clearly sh owed what was soon confirmed between the two -- that when Stephen died, Henry should rule i n his place. A year later Stephen did die, and in December 1154, Henry and Eleanor were crown ed in London.

Henry was only 21, but he soon showed his worth, destroying unlicensed castles, and dispersin g the foreign mercenaries. He gave even-handed justice, showing himself firm, but not undul y harsh. A country racked by civil war sighed with relief. Only two major difficulties appear ed: first Henry's failure in his two Welsh campaigns in 1157 and 1165, when guerilla tactic s utterly defeated and on the first occasion nearly killed him; second was the reversal of hi s friendship for Becket when he changed from being Chancellor to Archbishop of Canterbury i n 1162.

The quarrel with Becket was linked with the King's determination to continue his grandfather' s reform of the administration of justice in the country. He was anxious for a uniform patter n, operated by royal justices, to control the corrupt, ill-administered and unequal local sys tems operated by barons and churchmen. At Clarendon in 1166 and Northampton in 1176, he got h is council's agreeemnt to a series of measures which established circuits of royal justices d ealing with the widest range of criminal activities. The method of operation was novel, too , relying on a sworn jury of inquest of twelve men. Though not like a modern jury, in that th ey were witnesses rather than assessors, the assize juries were the ancestors of the modern E nglish legal system.

Henry travelled constantly, and much of the time in his Contninental territories, for there w ere constant rebellions to deal with, usually inspired or encouraged by Louis of France. Henr y was determined to keep the integrity of his empire, and to pass it on as a unity. To do thi s was no small task, but in 1169 Henry held a conference with the King of France which he hop ed would achieve his objectives: he himself again did homage for Normandy, his eldest son Hen ry did homage for Anjou, Maine and Brittany, and Richard for Aquitaine. The next year he ha d young Henry crowned in his own lifetime. If anything could preserve the succession, surel y this would, yet, in fact, it brought all the troubles in the world onto Henry's head, for h e had given his sons paper domains, and had no intention that they should rule his empire. Ye t a man with a title does not rest until he has that title's power.

Late in 1171 Henry had a pleasant interlude in Ireland -- escaping from the world's condemnat ion for the murder of Becket. He spent Christmas at Dublin in a palace built for him out of w attles by the Irish.

Meanwhile, Eleanor had been intriguing with her sons, urging them to revolt and demand thei r rights. Early in 1173 they trooped off to the French court, and with Louis joined in an att ack on Normandy. Henry clamped Eleanor into prison and went off to meet the new threat. Whils t he was busy meeting this, England was invaded from Flanders and Scotland, and more barons w ho fancied a return of the warlord days of Stephen broke into revolt.

Plainly it was St. Thomas's revenge, and there was no hope of dealing with the situation with out expiation. In July 1174 Henry returned to England, and went in pilgrim's dress to Canterb ury. Through the town he walked barefoot, leaving a trail of blood on the flinty stones, an d went to keep his vigil of a day and a night by the tomb, not even coming out to relive hims elf. As he knelt, the assembled bishops and all the monks of Christchurch came to scourge hi m -- each giving him three strokes, but some with bitterness in their hearts laying on with f ive.

It was worth it though, for the very morning his vigil ended Henry was brought the news tha t the King of Scotland had been captured. He moved quickly northwards, receving rebels' submi ssion all the time. He met up with Geoffrey who had fought valiantly for him, and commented , 'My other sons have proved themselves bastards, this one alone is my true and legitimate so n.'

Returning to France, he quickly came to an agreement with Louis and his three rebel sons, giv ing each a substantial income, though still no share of power.

Richard set to work reducing the Duchy of Aquitaine to order, and quickly proved himself an a ble general who performed tremendous feats, such as capturing a fully manned and provisione d castle with three walls and moats to defend it. But the people were less easy to subdue - - they loved war for its own sake as their poet-leader, Bertrand de Born, shows well in his w orks: '. . . I love to see amidst the meadows tents and pavilions spread; and it gives me gre at joy to see drawn up on the field knights and horses in battle array; and it delights me wh en the scouts scatter people and herds in their path; and my heart is filled with gladness wh en I see strong castles besieged, and the stockades broken and overwhelmed, and the warrior s on the bank, girt about by fosses, with a line of strong stakes, interlaced . . . Maces, sw ords, helms of different hues, shields that will be riven and shattered as soon as the figh t begins; and many vassals struck down together; and the horses of the dead and wounded rovin g at random. And when battle is joined, let all men of good lineage think of nought but the b reaking of heads and arms: I tell you I find no such savour in food or in wine or in sleep a s in hearing the shout "On! On!" from both sides, and the neighing of steeds that have lost t heir riders, and the cries of "Help! Help!"; and in seeing men great and small go down on th e grass beyond the fosses; in seeing at last the dead, with the pennoned stumps of lances sti ll in their sides.'

These robust knights were actively encouraged by the young King Henry. He was handsome, charm ing and beloved of all, but also feckless and thoughtless -- far keener on tournaments and fr ivolity than the serious business of government. Then in the midle of his new rebellion he ca ught disentery and shortly died. His devoted followers were thunderstruck -- one young lad ac tually pined to death -- and the rebellion fizzled out.

The young king was dead, but Henry, wary of previous errors, was not going to rush into makin g a new one. He called his favourite youngest son, John, to his side and ordered Richard to g ive his duchy into his brother's hands. Richard -- his mother's favourite -- had made Aquitai ne his home and worked hard to establish his control there; he refused to give his mother's l and to anyone, unless it were back to Eleanor herself.

Henry packed John off to Ireland (which he speedily turned against himself) whilst he arrange d to get Eleanor out of her prison and bring her to Aquitaine to receive back the duchy. Mean while the new King of France, Philip, was planning to renew the attack on English territories , all the while the three, Henry, Richard, and Philip, were supposed to be planning a joint c rusade.

In 1188 Henry, already ill with the absessed anal fistula that was to cause him such an agoni sing death, refused pointblank to recognise Richard as his heir. The crazy project for substi tuting John was at the root of it all, though Henry may have deluded himself into thinking h e was playing his usual canny hand.

But diplomacy was giving way to the Greekest of tragedies. In June 1189, Philip and Richard a dvanced on Henry at his birthplace in Le Mans, and he was forced to withdraw with a small com pany of knights, showering curses on God. Instead of going to the safety of Normandy, he rod e hard, his usual long distance, deep into Anjou. This worsened his physical condition and, i n high fever, he made no effort to call up forces to his aid. Forced to meet Philip and Richa rd, he was so ill he had to be held on his horse whilst he deliriously mumbled his abject agr eement to their every condition for peace.

Back in bed after his last conference he was brought the news that John, for whom he had suff ered all this, had joined the rebels' side. Two sons -- both rebels -- were dead, two sons - - both rebels -- lived, and it was his bastard Geoffrey who now tended him in his last sickne ss. There was not even a bishop in his suite to give him the last rites. Over and again he cr ied out in agony "Shame! shame on a vanquished king!"

After his death the servants plundered him, leaving him in a shirt and drawers. When the mars hall came to arrange the burial he had to scratch around for garments in which to dress the b ody. A bit of threadbare gold edging from a cloak was put around Henry's head to represent hi s sovereignty.

And yet Henry had forseen it all. According to Gerald of Wales, he had long before ordere d a fresco for one of his rooms at Winchester: the picture showed an eagle being pecked by th ree eaglets, and a fourth perched on his head, ready to peck out his eyes when the time shoul d come. [Source: Who's Who in the Middle Ages, John Fines, Barnes & Noble Books, New York, 19 95]

------Reddish hair & fair complected.

Source: 'The World Book Encyclopedia', 1968, p H178. 'Royalty for Commoners', Roderick W. Stu art, 1993, p 37-38. Reigned 1154-1189. He ruled an empire that stretched from the Tweed to th e Pyrenees. In spite of frequent hostitilties with the French King his own family and rebelli ous Barons (culminating in the great revolt of 1173-74) and his quarrel with Thomas Becket, H enry maintained control over his possessions until shortly before his death. His judicial an d administrative reforms which increased Royal control and influence at the expense of the Ba rons were of great constitutional importance. Introduced trial by Jury. Duke of Normandy. Hen ry II 'Curt Mantel,' Duke of Normandy, Count of Maine and Anjou, King Of England became kin g in 1154. At the height of his power, Henry ruled England and almost all western France. Hi s marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine, the most famous woman of the age, brought the duchy of Aq uitaine under his control. Henry also claimed to rule Scotland, Wales, and eastern Ireland . Henry II carried on his grandfather's policy of limiting the power of the nobles. He als o tried to make the Roman Catholic Church in England submit to his authority. This policy bro ught him into conflict with Thomas a Becket, Achbishop of Canterbury. Four of the king's knig hts murdered Becket while he was at vespers in his cathedral. Henry made Anglo-Saxon common l aw, rather than the revised Roman law, the supreme law of the land. He introduced trial by ju ry and circuit courts. In his later years, Henry's sons often rebelled against him. Two of th em, Richard the Lion-Hearted and John, became the next two kings of England.

REF: "Falls the Shadow" Sharon Kay Penman: William the Conqueror requested a large number o f Jews to move to England after his conquest. They spoke Norman & did well under his reign . They continued to thrive under William's grandson Henry II.

REF: British Monarchy Official Website: Henry II (reigned 1154-89) ruled over an empire whic h stretched from the Scottish border to the Pyrenees. Married to Eleanor, the heiress of Aqui taine, the king spent only 13 years of his reign in England; the other 21 years were spent o n the continent in his territories in what is now France. By 1158, Henry had restored to th e crown some of the lands and royal power lost by Stephen. For example, locally chosen sherif fs were changed into royally appointed agents charged with enforcing the law and collecting t axes in the counties. Personally interested in government and law, Henry strengthened royal j ustice, making use of juries and re-introduced the sending of justices (judges) on regular to urs of the country to try cases for the Crown. His legal reforms have led him to be seen as t he founder of English Common Law. Henry's disagreements with his Archbishop of Canterbury, Th omas Becket, over Church/State relations ended in Becket's murder in 1170. Family disputes al most wrecked the king's achievements and he died in 1189 at war with his sons.

Reigned 1154-1189. He ruled an empire that stretched from the Tweed to the Pyrenees. In spit e of frequent hostitilties with the French King his own family and rebellious Barons (culmina ting in the great revolt of 1173-74) and his quarrel with Thomas Becket, Henry maintained con trol over his possessions until shortly before his death. His judicial and administrative ref orms which increased Royal control and influence at the expense of the Barons were of great c onstitutional importance. Introduced trial by Jury. Duke of Normandy.
Henry II, first of the Angevin kings, was one of the most effective of all England's monarchs . He came to the throne amid the anarchy of Stephen's reign and promptly collared his erran t barons. He refined Norman government and created a capable, self-standing bureaucracy. Hi s energy was equaled only by his ambition and intelligence. Henry survived wars, rebellion, a nd controversy to successfully rule one of the Middle Ages' most powerful kingdoms.

Henry was raised in the French province of Anjou and first visited England in 1142 to defen d his mother's claim to the disputed throne of Stephen. His continental possessions were alre ady vast before his coronation: He acquired Normandy and Anjou upon the death of his father i n September 1151, and his French holdings more than doubled with his marriage to Eleanor of A quitane (ex-wife of King Louis VII of France). In accordance with the Treaty of Wallingford , a succession agreement signed by Stephen and Matilda in 1153, Henry was crowned in Octobe r 1154. The continental empire ruled by Henry and his sons included the French counties of Br ittany, Maine, Poitou, Touraine, Gascony, Anjou, Aquitane, and Normandy. Henry was technicall y a feudal vassal of the king of France but, in reality, owned more territory and was more po werful than his French lord. Although King John (Henry's son) lost most of the English holdin gs in France, English kings laid claim to the French throne until the fifteenth century. Henr y also extended his territory in the British Isles in two significant ways. First, he retriev ed Cumbria and Northumbria form Malcom IV of Scotland and settled the Anglo-Scot border in th e North.
Secondly, although his success with Welsh campaigns was limited, Henry invaded Ireland and se cured an English presence on the island.

English and Norman barons in Stephen's reign manipulated feudal law to undermine royal author ity; Henry instituted many reforms to weaken traditional feudal ties and strengthen his posit ion. Unauthorized castles built during the previous reign were razed. Monetary payments repla ced military service as the primary duty of vassals. The Exchequer was revitalized to enforc e accurate record keeping and tax collection.

Incompetent sheriffs were replaced and the authority of royal courts was expanded. Henry empo wered a new social class of government clerks that stabilized procedure - the government coul d operate effectively in the king's absence and would subsequently prove sufficiently tenacio us to survive the reign of incompetent kings. Henry's reforms allowed the emergence of a bod y of common law to replace the disparate customs of feudal and county courts. Jury trials wer e initiated to end the old Germanic trials by ordeal or battle. Henry's systematic approach t o law provided a common basis for development of royal institutions throughout the entire rea lm.

The process of strengthening the royal courts, however, yielded an unexpected controversy. Th e church courts instituted by William the Conqueror became a safe haven for criminals of vary ing degree and ability, for one in fifty of the English population qualified as clerics. Henr y wished to transfer sentencing in such cases to the royal courts, as church courts merely de moted clerics to laymen. Thomas Beckett, Henry's close friend and chancellor since 1155, wa s named Archbishop of Canterbury in June 1162 but distanced himself from Henry and vehementl y opposed the weakening

*******


General Notes: Wife - Rosamunde "The Fair" de Clifford, Concubine

DEATH: Possibly the one love of Henry's life, she lived in the royal palce of Woodstock,Oxfo rdshire, which the king refurbished specially for her, during the two or three year before sh e died in 1176. The sorrowing Henry had her buried in an unusally magnificent tomb beofre th e high altar at Godstow nunnery. Later, both he and her father made generous gifts to the ho use in her memory. But in 1191, after Henry's death, St Hugh, bishop of Linoln, was horrifie d to find an adulteress's tomb inside the church and to see its lavish decorations. To pu t a stop to such profamity he ordered the removal of the shrine, and Rosamund was reinterre d outside the church.See The House of Clifford for more details of Rosamund's liason with Hen ry.

Weir attributes the mother of these children to "Ikenai", which is also
discussed by Clifford.

*********Rosamond; mistress of Henry II, known as "Fair Rosamond" and quite possibly mother o f William Longespee, Earl of Salisbury. [Burke's Peerage]

***********
picture

Thomas de Clifford, Baron and Elizabeth de Ros




Husband Thomas de Clifford, Baron 93 94 95

           Born: 1363 - Brough Castle, Brough, , Westmoreland, England 5 93 94
     Christened: 
           Died: 18 Aug 1391 - Clifford Castle, Clifford, , Herefordshire, England 93 94
         Buried: 
            AFN: 9G51-F5


         Father: Roger de Clifford, Lord/Baron (1333-1389) 93 94 95
         Mother: Lady Maud de Beauchamp, Baroness Clifford (Abt 1335-1402/1403) 93 94 95


       Marriage: 




Wife Elizabeth de Ros

           Born: 
     Christened: 
           Died: 26 Mar 1424
         Buried: 


         Father: Thomas de Ros, Sir Knight/4Th Lord Helms (1336/1337-1384)
         Mother: Beatrice de Stafford (Abt 1342-      )





Children

General Notes: Husband - Thomas de Clifford, Baron

OCCUPATION: Lord Clifford, Sheriff of Westmoreland, Governor of Carlisle Castle.Thomas de Cl ifford d. abroad 15th Richard II [1392], leaving by Elizabeth his wife, dau. of Thomas, Lor d Ros of Hamlake, an only son and heir, John de Clifford, Lord Clifford and Westmoreland. [Si r Bernard Burke, Dormant, Abeyant, Forfeited and Extinct Peerages, Burke's Peerage, Ltd., Lon don, England, 1883, p. 123, Clifford, Earls of Cumberland and Barons Clifford]

*****

picture

Sources


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2 Magna Charta Sureties 1215, Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Sheppard Jr, 5th Edition, 1999, 153-2.

3 Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, by G. E Cokayne, Sutton Publishing Ltd, 2000, III:243.

4 CHART=Through The Loins Of Joseph.

5 Weis, Frederick Lewis, Ancestral Roots of Sixty Colonists Who Came to New England between 1623 and 1650, Sixth Edition (Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., Baltimore, 1988).

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7 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, FamilySearch/Ancestral File v4.19 (Created by FamilySearch Internet Genealogy Service, 50 Eas t North Temple Street, Salt La k e City, UT 84150, April 1.

8 Larson, Kirk, Genealogical Research of Kirk Larson (Personal Research Works including Bethune & Hohenlohe Descendants, 1981-2001, Kirk Larson, P rivate Library).

9 Adams, Arthur, 1881-1960, ed. (Main) Weis, Frederick Lewis, 1895-1966, joint author. (Added) Sheppard, Walter Lee, 1911-, The Magna Charta Sureties 1215, the barons named in the Magna Charta, 1215, and some of their descendants who settled (12 Feb 2001), 33-4.

10 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, FamilySearch/Ancestral File v4.19 (Created by FamilySearch Internet Genealogy Service, 50 Eas t North Temple Street, Salt La k e City, UT 84150, April 1, 33-4.

11 Larson, Kirk, Genealogical Research of Kirk Larson (Personal Research Works including Bethune & Hohenlohe Descendants, 1981-2001, Kirk Larson, P rivate Library), 33-4.

12 Waters, Henry Fitz-Gilbert, Genealogical Gleanings in England, Vol I, II (Boston:MA, NEHGS, 1892), NEHGS #P3-00015, 1:121.

13 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, FamilySearch/Ancestral File v4.19 (Created by FamilySearch Internet Genealogy Service, 50 Eas t North Temple Street, Salt La k e City, UT 84150, April 1, 1:121.

14 Larson, Kirk, Genealogical Research of Kirk Larson (Personal Research Works including Bethune & Hohenlohe Descendants, 1981-2001, Kirk Larson, P rivate Library), 1:121.

15 Burke's Peerage & Baronetage, 106th Edition, Charles Mosley Editor-in-Chief, 1999, 1679.

16 Magna Charta Sureties 1215, Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Sheppard Jr, 5th E d ition, 1999, 8-6.

17 Adams, Arthur, 1881-1960, ed. (Main) Weis, Frederick Lewis, 1895-1966, joint author. (Added) Sheppard, Walter Lee, 1911-, The Magna Charta Sureties 1215, the barons named in the Magna Charta, 1215, and some of their descendants who settled (12 Feb 2001), 8-6.

18 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, FamilySearch/Ancestral File v4.19 (Created by FamilySearch Internet Genealogy Service, 50 Eas t North Temple Street, Salt La k e City, UT 84150, April 1, 8-6.

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20 Burke's Peerage & Baronetage, 106th Edition, Charles Mosley Editor-in-Chief, 1999, 784.

21 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, FamilySearch/Ancestral File v4.19 (Created by FamilySearch Internet Genealogy Service, 50 Eas t North Temple Street, Salt La k e City, UT 84150, April 1, 784.

22 Larson, Kirk, Genealogical Research of Kirk Larson (Personal Research Works including Bethune & Hohenlohe Descendants, 1981-2001, Kirk Larson, P rivate Library), 784.

23 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Pedigree Resource File - CD-Rom (Salt Lake City, UT: Intellectual Reserve, Inc., 2001), Compact Disk #25.

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25 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Ancestral File (TM) (June 1998 (c), data as of 5 JAN 1998).

26 Schmuhl, Albert F, Royal Lines & Adamic Genealogy: Genealogical Research of Albert F. Schmuhl (e-mail documentation, March 1997, Albert F. Schmuhl, America Online Posting: Genealogy Forum).

27 Martin, John Stanwood. (Main) Weis, Frederick Lewis, 1895-1966. Ancestral rootsof sixty colonists who came to New Englan, European ancestors of American colonists, an index : a combined every-name index to Ancestral roots of sixty colonists (Malvern, Pa. : J.S. Martin, c1994); LC CALL NO.: CS55.W419 69Index; FORMAT: Book ; LCCN: 94- 218214 //r952 (Baltimore:M, p. 119 #187-5.

28 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, FamilySearch/Ancestral File v4.19 (Created by FamilySearch Internet Genealogy Service, 50 Eas t North Temple Street, Salt La k e City, UT 84150, April 1, p. 119 #187-5.

29 Larson, Kirk, Genealogical Research of Kirk Larson (Personal Research Works including Bethune & Hohenlohe Descendants, 1981-2001, Kirk Larson, P rivate Library), p. 119 #187-5.

30 Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999, 144-25.

31 Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, by G. E Cokayne, Sutton Publishing Ltd, 2000, III:165-166.

32 The Plantagenet Ancestry, by William Henry Turton, 1968, 210.

33 Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999, 246-23.

34 Burke's Peerage & Baronetage, 106th Edition, Charles Mosley Editor-in-Chief, 1999, 227.

35 Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999, 111-25, 149-22a.

36 The Plantagenet Ancestry, by William Henry Turton, 1968, 18, 184.

37 Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, by G. E Cokayne, Sutton Publishing Ltd, 2000, XII/2:357-60.

38 Leo's Genealogics Website (Leo van de Pas), www.genealogics.org, Hildouin IV de Montdidier, Count of Roucy.

39 Newsgroup: soc.genealogy.medieval, at groups - google.com, John Ravilious (Therav3), 10 Sep 2002.

40 Leo's Genealogics Website (Leo van de Pas), www.genealogics.org, Adele (Alice) de Roucy.

41 Magna Charta Sureties 1215, Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Sheppard Jr, 5th Edition, 1999, 153-1, 154-1.

42 Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999, 246b-24.

43 Newsgroup: soc.genealogy.medieval, at groups - google.com, Adrian Channing, 4 Nov 1999.

44 Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, by G. E Cokayne, Sutton Publishing Ltd, 2000, III:242-3.

45 Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, by G. E Cokayne, Sutton Publishing Ltd, 2000, XI:D:117.

46 Newsgroup: soc.genealogy.medieval, at groups - google.com, Adrian Channing, 17 Apr 1997.

47 Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999, 66-25.

48 Burke's Peerage & Baronetage, 106th Edition, Charles Mosley Editor-in-Chief, 1999, 2903.

49 Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999, 50-23.

50 Newsgroup: soc.genealogy.medieval, at groups - google.com, Mike Talbot (MTaHT), 19 Oct 1999.

51 Roberts, Gary Boyd. "Ancestors of American Presidents" pub 1989 by CarlBoyer, 3rd in Boston, Massachusetts p. 148.

52 Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, by G. E Cokayne, Sutton Publishing Ltd, 2000, XII/1:496.

53 Leo's Genealogics Website (Leo van de Pas), www.genealogics.org, Adelaide Comtesse de Vermandois et de Valois.

54 CHART=Kinship Of Families.

55 Edmundson, Isaac & Cokayne, George Edward, Complete Baronetage: Microprinted. (12 Feb 2001), 3:270.

56 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, FamilySearch/Ancestral File v4.19 (Created by FamilySearch Internet Genealogy Service, 50 Eas t North Temple Street, Salt La k e City, UT 84150, April 1, 3:270.

57 Larson, Kirk, Genealogical Research of Kirk Larson (Personal Research Works including Bethune & Hohenlohe Descendants, 1981-2001, Kirk Larson, P rivate Library), 3:270.

58 Huganir, Gail R., editor and publisher, Percy's of Alnwick Castle (13 Feb 2001), p. 22-27.

59 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, FamilySearch/Ancestral File v4.19 (Created by FamilySearch Internet Genealogy Service, 50 Eas t North Temple Street, Salt La k e City, UT 84150, April 1, p. 22-27.

60 Larson, Kirk, Genealogical Research of Kirk Larson (Personal Research Works including Bethune & Hohenlohe Descendants, 1981-2001, Kirk Larson, P rivate Library), p. 22-27.

61 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Ancestral File (TM) (June 1998 (c), data as of 5 JAN 1998).

62 Mark Willis Ballard, GEDCOM File : mwballard.ged.

63 David William Weaver, GEDCOM File : !!June-2004-Sanders-Weaver-Lay.ged.

64 GEDCOM File : 8-08-04-Weaver-Sanders-Lay-Ancstry Tree.ged.

65 GEDCOM File : ALL-AN~1.ged.

66 GEDCOM File : !!~!The One To Use-Weaver And Sanders.ged.

67 jasmith.FTW.

68 SmithTucker.FTW.

69 jasmith.FTW, 3:270.

70 SmithTucker.FTW, 3:270.

71 Microsoft Encarta 1994 ed.

72 Freeman, Marsha Colleen (Scully). "Buell Genealogy" pub. 1 Dec 1978.

73 Magna Charta Sureties 1215, Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Sheppard Jr, 5th Edition, 1999, 142-1, 161-11.

74 Encyclopedia Britannica, Treatise on, Henry II.

75 Magna Charta Sureties 1215, Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Sheppard Jr, 5th E d ition, 1999, line 161.

76 Magna Charta Sureties 1215, Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Sheppard Jr, 5th Edition, 1999, 161-11.

77 Encyclopedia Britannica, Treatise on, Henry II.

78 jasmith.FTW, Henry II.

79 SmithTucker.FTW, Henry II.

80 Europe xc.

81 Tauté, Anne. "The Kings and Queens of Great Britain" pub by Elm TreeBooks/Hamish Hamilton Ltd. Great Britain.//.

82 Magna Charta Sureties 1215, Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Sheppard Jr, 5th Edition, 1999, 151-1, 161-10.

83 Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999, 118-25, 123-25.

84 Complete Peerage of England Scotland Ireland Great Britain and the United Kingdom, by G. E Cokayne, Sutton Publishing Ltd, 2000, XII/1:499.

85 Encyclopedia Britannica, Treatise on, Henry V HRE, Henry I of England.

86 Magna Charta Sureties 1215, Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Sheppard Jr, 5th Edition, 1999, 161-10.

87 Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999, 1-24.

88 Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr, 1-25.

89 Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists, 7th Edition, by Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Shippard Jr., 1999, 1-25.

90 jasmith.FTW, 1-25.

91 SmithTucker.FTW, 1-25.

92 Magna Charta Sureties 1215, Frederick Lewis Weis, additions by Walter Lee Sheppard Jr, 5th E d ition, 1999, line 142.

93 The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, FamilySearch/Ancestral File v4.19 (Created by FamilySearch Internet Genealogy Service, 50 East North Temple Street, Salt Lake City, UT 84150, April 1, 199.

94 Larson, Kirk, Genealogical Research of Kirk Larson (Personal Research Works including Bethune & Hohenlohe Descendants, 1981-2001, Kirk Larson, Private Library).

95 GEDCOM File : ~AT3345.ged.


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