so many of my ancestors fought in Americas "Revolutionary
I wanted to include a section dealing with some of the important things
that happened during that period of time, as well as a look at some
of the major battles that were fought.
is a list of my G*** Grandfathers who fought in that war. There
may have been - and probably were - others who served,
but these are the ones I know of...
may cry, Peace, Peace--but there is no peace. The war is
actually begun! The next gale that sweeps from the north
will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms! Our
brethren are already in that field! Why stand we here idle?
What is it that gentlemen wish? What would they have? Is
life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the
price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know
not what course others may take; but as for me give me liberty
or give me death!"
American Revolutionary War was the outgrowth of the colonists'
to be taxed without the right to representation in the Parliament
of England. Following the French and Indian War, England needed
to recoup some of the cost of the war from the colonists. To
the British it only seemed fair that the Colonies pay a share
for their own defense.
resorted to the Stamp Act of 1765 as a means to raise money
from the Colonies. This
act resulted in outrage from the Colonies and led to rioting,
rhetoric, and the formation of the Stamp Act Congress. These
actions quickly led to the repeal of the Stamp Act; however,
there were many new taxes levied to take its place. The Americans
continued to object strongly to these new measures and formed
organized political groups such as the Committee of Correspondence
and the Sons of Liberty. "Taxation without representation is
tyranny," quickly became the battle cry of the Colonies.
the Americans became quite outspoken and even resorted to violent
acts against the British customs officials as they attempted
to collect the unpopular taxes. Britain was forced to send
troops to protect the customs officials. In the year of 1770
the first blood was drawn by the British as the troops opened
fire into a group protesting the "unfair" taxes. Five members
of the group were killed in what later became known as the
a group of citizens from the Boston area dressed as Mohawk
Indians, boarded a ship, and dumped over 300 chests of tea
into the Boston Harbor to protest the monopoly
of the East India Company. Britain responded with the "Intolerable
Acts." This document required that Colonists accused of
this act would be tried in England and that the homes of Americans
would be used to quarter the British troops. As a direct result
of this act, the First Continental Congress was formed in 1774,
and held its first meeting in Philadelphia's Carpenter's Hall.
All twelve of the colonies sent representatives to seek a means
to restore harmonious relations with England. Revolution was
not the purpose of this meeting; however, radical thinking
proved the victor as the acts of Parliament were declared unconstitutional.
Taxes were not to be paid and the Colonies were warned to arm
Pre War Years
USA--This site has
many interesting link to the founding of the nation, and
American Crisis by Thomas Paine --THESE
are the times that try men's souls. The summer soldier and
the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the
service of their country; but he that stands it now, deserves
the love and thanks of man and woman.
Revolution --Timeline of
events leading to the Revolution.
Birth of A Nation
the times that try men's souls"
a More Perfect Union--The Work of the Continental Congress
and the Constitutional Convention--Between
1774and 1789, thirteen colonies became a nation--the United
States of America. In1774, Great Britain's North American colonies
first came together to defend themselves against wrongs committed
by their "mother country." By1789, these colonies had become
independent states, joined by a new federal constitution into
a single nation.
The Continental Congress and Constitutional Convention 1774--1789 --The
Continental Congress Broadside Collection (253 titles) and
the Constitutional Convention Broadside Collection (21 titles)
contain 274 documents relating to the work of Congress and
the drafting and ratification of the Constitution. Items include
extracts of the journals of Congress, resolutions, proclamations,
committee reports, treaties, and early printed versions of
the United States Constitution and the Declaration of Independence.
Most Broadsides are one page in length, others range from 1
to 28 pages.
that can give up essential liberty to obtain a little temporary
deserve neither liberty nor safety."
the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms --In
their Declaration they hold out the hope of reconciliation
with England, but at the same time approve the use of armed
resistance to obtain recognition of their rights. While it
disavows all claims of independence, it insists Americans
will die rather than yield to enslavement.
Massacre--In the few years
preceding the American Revolution, the city of Boston was
a powder keg just waiting to explode.
Account of the Boston Massacre --THE
HORRID MASSACRE IN BOSTON, PERPETRATED IN THE EVENING OF
THE FIFTH DAY OF MARCH,1770, BY SOLDIERS OF THE TWENTY-NINTH
REGIMENT WHICH WITH THE FOURTEENTH REGIMENT WERE THEN QUARTERED
THERE; WITH SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE STATE OF THINGS PRIOR
TO THAT CATASTROPHE ...
Lexington and Concord--On
the 15th of April 1775, when General Thomas Gage, British
Military Governor of Massachusetts, was ordered to destroy
the rebel's military stores at Concord. To accomplish this
he assembled the "Flanking units," including Light Infantry
and Grenadiers, from his Boston Garrison. In charge he put
Lieutenant Colonel Francis Smith and Marine Major John Pitcairn.
He also composed a relief column under the command of Lord
Hugh Percy to leave 6 hours after the main column. In an
attempt at secrecy he did not tell his officers his plan
until the last minute. The problem with his security measures
were that Boston had become a glass fishbowl. All rebel eyes
were watching to see the British's next action, and when
the garrison committed to an action, the Americans knew their
and Concord - The Shot Heard 'round the World --By
the end of that day, the fortunes of war had changed. The
crown had lost 273 men, three times as many as the colonies'
loss of 95. Now that a significant number of men had died
in battle, reconciliation was impossible. It was only a matter
of time before most other colonies would also become independent
representative democracies -- in Canada, India, South America,
and Africa -- and that all the kings of the world would be
deposed in favor of government by the people -- in France,
England, Germany, Spain, Russia, and China.
Battle of Lexington & Concord --The
first engagement between the British and the Americans happened
on April 19,1775, on the grassy fields of Massachusetts.
General Thomas Gage ordered his men to take or destroy the
American's supply of arms and ammunition stored in Concord.
He also wanted John Hancock and Sam Adams, who were staying
in Lexington, arrested.
The Commander In Chief --As
the Commander in Chief of the Continental Army, the services
and achievements of George Washington are unique in the world's
history. He was much more than the Commander in Chief. He
was the one necessary person, whose calm, unswerving, determined
sense of patriotic duty to country, and ability put real
backbone into the Revolution and kept it from collapsing
or merging into a civil conflict, under the hardships and
unexpected privations encountered during the eight years
Guardian - George Washington--Washington's
first great feat was leading the rag-tag Continental army
to victory over the powerful British expeditionary forces
in the American colonies. To achieve such a stunning success,
he had to hold his tiny army of volunteers together for eight
desperate years, always under unbelievably harsh conditions.
Battle of Bunker Hill--Many
people call this the battle of Bunker Hill, but the fighting
really took place on Breeds Hill, which is an adjoining hill.
People may call it the Battle of Bunker Hill because it is
the bigger of the two hills. Bunker Hill did playa roll in
the battle though, the Americans retreated and regrouped
at Bunker Hill.
of Bunker Hill--The Battle
of Bunker Hill was an important and decisive battle in the
Revolutionary War. Several important events contributed to
this battle. Quite a few famous people were involved with
this battle. The most important part is what affect it had
on the outcome of the war and our history.
June 17,1775--On the morning
of June 17, 1775, Major General Mark Howe ferried 1,500 British
soldiers across Boston Harbor on barges.
of Bunker Hill--The sun rose
slowly over the city of Charlestown on June 17, 1775, waking
the British soldiers from their sleep. The British were totally
unaware of the fact that American troops were positioned
on Breed's Hill and that there were cannons stationed on
both Breed's and Bunker Hill. The Americans had spent all
night marching from Cambridge to Charlestown, under the command
of Colonel William Prescott. Their order was to capture Bunker
and Breed's Hill and force British redcoats out of Charlestown.
III, Proclaims the Colonies to be in Open Rebellion --Whereas
many of our subjects in divers parts of our Colonies and
Plantations in North America, misled by dangerous and ill
designing men, and forgetting the allegiance which they owe
to the power that has protected and supported them; after
various disorderly acts committed in disturbance of the publick
peace, to the obstruction of lawful commerce, and to the
oppression of our loyal subjects carrying on the same; have
at length proceeded to open and avowed rebellion, by arraying
themselves in a hostile manner, to withstand the execution
of the law, and traitorously preparing, ordering and levying
war against us.
Quebec--It was early fall
of1775. General George Washington had taken command of the
rag-tag, bobtail state's militia camped around Boston, and
was endeavoring to turn the "rabble" into an army.
He and the Continental Congress made the decision to wrest
Quebec and the St. Lawrence River from the British.
Birth of the Navy of the United States --Friday,13
October 1775. The British North American colonies, from Maine
to Georgia, were in open rebellion. In colonial capitals,
Royal governments had been thrust out and revolutionary governments
put in their places. A British army occupied Boston, besieged
by an American army under George Washington. Another American
army, under Richard Montgomery, was besieging Fort St. John's
on its way to attempt to capture Quebec and Montreal, while
Benedict Arnold led a force through the wilderness farther
east against the same target.
early November, Dunmore raised the
King's Standard and called for all loyal subjects to help
suppress the rebellion. He established martial law, freeing
slaves, and enlisting everybody capable of bearing arms.
By the middle of November, Dunmore's forces numbered about
three hundred men. Norfolk was fortified and cannon were
mounted on the entrenchments. Hundreds of newly emancipated
slaves were put to work on the fortifications to hold back
patriots until work could be finished. A detachment was sent
to build a stockade fort near the tiny village of Great Bridge,
almost twenty miles from Norfolk. There the British could
block the main road between Virginia and North Carolina.
of Boston 1775Siege
of Boston 1775--The
55th's first action in the American Revolution was to be
an attack on the Rebel-held fortifications overlooking Boston
on Dorchester Heights.
crossing the Delaware
only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country" (Sept
before being executed as a spy by the British)
INDEPENDENCE: DRAFTING THE DOCUMENTS --Chronology
Of Events: June 7, 1776 to January 18, 1777.
decision of the Continental Congress to sever its ties to
Great Britain came on July 2,1776, which is the date that
John Adams thought should be celebrated by future generations.
The Declaration of Independence, drafted mostly by Thomas
Jefferson, and edited by his colleagues in the Continental
Congress, was adopted2 days later.
Declaration of Independence--Church
bells rang out over Philadelphia on July 1776 ...signaling
that the Declaration of Independence was approved and officially
adopted by the Continental Congress.
decided to strike back. On New Year's Day 1776, Norfolk was
rocked by aseries of explosions. Around mid-afternoon, every
vessel in Dunmore's squadron began "a severe cannonade"
which lasted until two o'clock the next morning.
86.5 acre park commemorates the decisive February 27,1776
victory by 1,000 Patriots over1,600 Loyalists at the Battle
of Moores Creek Bridge. The battle ended Royal Governor Josiah
Martin's hopes of regaining control of the colony for the
British crown. In addition, this first decisive Patriot victory
of the Revolutionary War raised morale for Patriots throughout
Bridge--Though the battle
was a small one, the implications were large. The victory
demonstrated the surprising patriot strength in the countryside,
discouraged the growth of loyalist sentiment in the Carolinas,
and spurred revolutionary feeling throughout the colonies.
Declaration of Independence--July 4,1776 --The
American Declaration of Independence has been celebrated
and esteemed all over the world, but few people know the
history of the document's authorship.
of 1776--Washington first
faced the army of Howe in the Battle of Long Island, 27 August
1776. At this battle, Howe was able to turn the American
left flank and inflict severe casualties, nearly capturing
Washington's entire army. Troubled by these developments,
Washington nonetheless continued his efforts in New York.
He occupied Harlem Heights; and upriver he ordered the construction
of Fort Washington and Fort Lee, positioned on opposite sides of
the Hudson River.
of Brooklyn, August 1776 --When
you think of American history, the cities of Philadelphia
and Boston come to mind. Washington, D.C., and Williamsburg,
Virginia, are always known for their popular history. We've
all known how the Borough of Manhattan is saturated in American
History as well. But Brooklyn has more than her own place
in the story of America. The first major campaign between
The Continental Army and His Majesty's Royal Army happened
in Brooklyn, U.S.A. It is here where important historical
landmarks resulted from The Battle of Brooklyn in Flat bush
and Brooklyn Heights.
of Long Island--August 27,1776 --The
Battle of Long Island took place on August 27,1776. The American
outpost of Colonel Edward Hand sent word that the British
were preparing to cross Long Island from Staten Island on
August 22, at dawn. There were three frigates, the Phoenix,
Rose, and Greyhound, and two bomb ketches named Carcass and
Thunder, in Gravesend Bay. The frigates were anchored in
for Long Island--The Battle
of Long Island may well be the singular most important battle
in American history.The events that took place on and around
Long Island in late August,1776,represented a number of firsts
to our newly declared country: This was the first real battle
of the American Revolution (Lexington/Concord and Breed's
Hill were fought before independence was declared on July
4, 1776). This was also the first battle of the American
Revolution in which George Washington was in command, having
been appointed commander-in-chief by Congress on June17,
1775.Long Island was also the first battle in which the newly
formed Continental Army played a significant role, and was
the first time since the outbreak of hostilities in 1774
where the British and Continental armies met on relatively
open ground in formal lines of battle.
Battle of Trenton--Christmas Day, 1776 --George
Washington learned from the Battle of New York that the British
Army could not be fought by conventional methods. The Battle
of New York had caused great losses to Washington of both
men and equipment. The British Army led by General William
Howe was enormous and was backed up by the British Navy which
controlled the Atlantic Ocean. Washington fled into the countryside
away from the British Army and Navy. By now the army under
Washington was only about 500 men. The rest of the his troops
were in White Plains, and in Peekskill, New York. The troops
under Washington were cold, hungry, and demoralized. Their
enlistments were almost up. Washington needed a victory.
Battle of Trenton--On
Christmas night of1776, Washington and his army were huddled
together in their camp by the Delaware River. Defeated and
tired, they had retreated to Pennsylvania. The army of 6000
men dressed in rags were discouraged and weakened. Across
the river in Trenton slept a small group of Hessians who
were stationed to guard New Jersey. General Howe had sent
a large percent of soldiers to Newport and New York, sensing
the Americans were not strong enough to attack.
The Mohawk--The American
Revolution in the Mohawk Valley, NY.