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Dictionary of Genealogy & Archaic Terms

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Last Edited: January 17, 2012

This file contains many of the common "buzzwords", terminology and legal words found in genealogy work. If you think of any words that should be added to this list, please notify Randy Jones.

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CADARN
[Welsh strong] See also gadarn.
CADASTRAL
a public record, survey or map for tax purposes showing the ownership and value of land
CADENCY
[Heraldry] royal license by a sovereign that allows the father to grant to all the sons and their (normally) male issue the right to bear the same arms, i.e., coats of arms. Except for the eldest son, the arms are differentiated by marks of cadency.
CADET
descended from a family line other than the eldest son
CÆSAR
Roman title originated the cognomen of the Julian family.  It came to signify the deputy augustus (emperor) and heir apparent to the throne.  Emperors commonly named their sons, even as infants to this office.  The office was considered provisional, and the emperor could raise the cæsar to full regency at any time.  Upon the death of the emperor, the cæsar would still need to be confirmed by vote of the Senate or the army for full acceptance.
CAFICIUM
[Spanish] a unit of measure 
CALENDS
see KALENDS
CALIPH,CALIF
[Arabic, successor] the title taken by the rulers of the Islamic world as the "successors to Muhammad"
CALS
Certified American Lineage Specialist - a certification of competence in genealogy
CAM
[Welsh bandy, squinting]
CAMBELLITES
a religious group named for its founders, Thomas and Alexander Campbell
CAMERARIUS
[Latin] chamberlain, keeper of accounts
CANKER
see BLACK CANKER
CANON
a member of the staff of a cathedral
CANON LAW
a law of the church
CANTON
[Heraldry] a square division the same depth as a chief, in one of the upper corners of the shield, usually in dexter chief and often charged and used as an augmentation.
CANTREF
[Welsh] a political and administrative division equivalent of the English Hundred
CAPIAS
[Latin] A legal writ, the most common of which is the the writ of capias ad respondendum, ordering the sheriff to arrest a defendant in a civil case for appearance in court to answer the plaintiff’s declaration. The writ states the name of defendant, the court term when he was required to appear; the name of the plaintiff, the form of action (in non-bailable cases this was a fictitious trespass); and the names of the justice, clerk, and plaintiff's attorney. The writ does not contain a statement of the plaintiffs claim. The Alias Capias is the second issuance of a capias after the original had gone without answer.
CAPITAL MANOR
The principal residence, or caput manierii
CAPITATION TAX
tax on people, also called a head tax or poll tax
CAPUT
[Latin, head] the primary seat or manor of a lord
CARMELITES
an order of friars originally founded in Palestine.  They emphasized study and meditation, and are sometimes called Whitefriars for the color of their habit. 
CAROLINGIAN
[medieval] referring to the Frankish dynasty of European rulers beginning with Pepin III (d.768) and ending with Louis IV Outrmer (d.954). Most notable in this dynasty was Charlemagne (d.814) who ended up ruling most of Europe. The Carolingians succeeded the Merovingians.
CARTHUSIAN
a late medieval order of clergy with an emphasis on learning, contemplation and solitude
CARTULARY
a copy, often in abbreviated form by the monks of a monastery of those documents that granted property to the institution. A cartulary is usually the closest that can be gotten to the monastic charters, which, in England, usually did not survive the Reformation.
CARUCATE
[Latin carucata plough] a measure of land which was could be tilled with a team of eight oxen in one year, equivalent to a hide.  Also know as a ploughgate, equaled 8 oxgangs or bovates. A uniform (clerks) carucuate appeared to be around 104 acres, but it could range from 60 to 120 acres.
CASATUS
[Latin] landed proprietor
CASCADING PEDIGREE CHART
a series of pedigree charts that span multiple generations for an individual and then for each person in the last generation of the first chart.
CASTELLAN
the governor of a castle
CASTLE
during medieval times, a fortified dwelling.  See also ADULTERINE CASTLE.
CASTLEGUARD
the feudal obligation to man a castle
CASTELERY
a castle with demesne land and jurisdiction
CATHEDRALIS
[Latin] Cathedral
CAVAGIUM
a head tax
CEAP
cheap
CEAPGELG
sale price
CELLARER
a religious official in charge of the church's property, rent and revenue
CENEDL
[Welsh] kindred
CENSE
a tax or tribute
CENSITAIRE
one paying a fixed quit-rent
CENOTAPH
a tomb or monuument erected in memory of a person or group of persons, whose remains are buried elsewhere.  It can also be the initial marker of someone who is then buried elsewhere.  
CENSOR
a magistrate of high rank in the ancient Rome. This position (called censura) was responsible for maintaining the census, supervising public morality, and overseeing certain aspects of the government's finances.  The censors' regulation of public morality is the origin of the modern meaning of the words "censor" and "censorship."  This was a very senior position usually relegated to someone only late in life who had fulfilled consular duties.
CENSUS
periodic official tally of the population with details as to ages, sexes, occupation, etc. U.S. Federal censuses have been taken every 10 years starting in 1790
CENSUS INDEX
alphabetical listing of names enumerated in a census
CENTENUM
[Latin] 100
CEORL
[Anglo-Saxon, peasant]  a peasant who was a free tenant
CERTIFIED COPY
a copy of a document attested as a true copy by an official who is responsible for the document
CHAMBER
one of the departments of the royal household, and which managed his household
CHAMBERLAIN
the official in charge of a lord's chamber 
CHANCELLOR
head of the chancery, and secretary to a lord.  The king's chancellor presided over the Chancery Court
CHANCERY
originally part of the household, its responsibility was to issue charters, writs, and letters of the king, as well as to store and preserve those items.  The head of the chancery was the chancellor.
CHAPTER
(1) the daily meeting of a Benedictine monastery to read a Bible's chapter
(2) the body of clerics of a cathedral 
CHAPTER HOUSE
the building where a cathedral's chapter met  
CHARGES
[Heraldry] any figure on the shield, e.g., lions, birds, balls, etc.
CHARTER
a letter issued providing the donation of property, services or honors
CHARNEL HOUSE
a vault or house under or near a church where bones of the dead are kept
CHATTEL
personal property, both animate and inanimate. Slaves were considered to be chattels
CHAUSSES
[French] chain mail hose worn by medieval knights from the 11th C.
CHECKY
[Heraldic] checkered
CHERISET
an offering, originally corn, at Martinmas
CHEVAGE
[Norman] the annual poll tax by a lord on his workers for their right to live on his land and work his property. 
CHEVALIER
[heraldry] a horseman armed at all points
CHEVAUCHEE
the feudal duty to accompany one's lord  
CHEVRON
[heraldry, fr.Old French rafter] one of the primary ordinaries on a shield, occupying one-fifth of the field with two bars forming an up-pointing arrow. The Old French derivation is fully descriptive of the shape.
CHEWITH
[Welsh left-handed, awkward]
CHIEF
[Heraldry] The upper third part of the shield. It is supposed to be composed of the dexter, sinister, and middle chiefs.
CHILD OF TENDER YEARS
a child under 14 years of age  
CHIRURGEON
a physician or surgeon trained through apprenticeship   
CHIVALRY
the code of conduct for nobility during the middle ages
CHRISTENING
baptism of an infant
CHURCH OF JESUS CHRIST OF LATTER DAY SAINTS
a major Christian denomination founded in 1830 by Joseph Smith.  The denomination is headquartered in Salt Lake City, Utah.  One of the tenets of the church is that a member is obligated to trace one's ancestor, so consequently, the church has the foremost collection of genealogical information in the world.  Members are also called Mormons.
CHURCH WARDEN
The warden is an unpaid elected member of the vestry whose function is to help the priest in any way he heeds during the warden's term, usually one year. Now there are senior wardens and junior wardens, with various responsibilities split. Wardens oversee repairs, organize functions and do general over seeing of church needs through the help of the vestry.
CINQUEFOIL
[Heraldry] a five-leaved clover
CINQUE PORTS
five English boroughs on the Channel which had special privileges from the time of Edward the Confessor, in return for providing ships in time of war
CIRCA
[Latin, about] usually used in conjunction with a date
CIRCESET
Amount due in crops or product by a household as ecclesiastical property
CIRCITER
about
CIRCUMFLEX
(Fr.) an accent mark (^) which shows the place mark of a missing letter, such as impôt which was formerly impost. This mark should not be confused for a diaeresis which uses the same symbol, but denotes a chang in pronunciation, such as vôtre versus votre.
CISTA
chest
CISTERCIANS
a reform order of Benedictine monks, sometime called the "white monks" or "white friars"
CITATION
page or section reference of a source.
CIVIS
[Latin, citizen]
CIVITATE
[Latin of the City of .....]
CLAN
a Celtic social unit, especially  in the Scottish Highlands, consisting of a number of families claiming a common ancestor and following the same hereditary leader
CLARISSIMUS
[Latin] the third of three ranks of the high officials of Imperial Roman service, all of whom were senators. It was attached ex officio to the governors of provinces and to other lesser posts, including a number of sub-altern civil servants and those in retirement. The other two ranks were the illustres and the spectibiles. {H}
CLOFF
[Welsh lame]
CLOTHIER
one who makes or sells clothing or cloth
COAT OF ARMS
shield with certain distinctive symbols or emblems painted on it in definite fixed colors identifying one person and his direct descendants. See also cadency, chief, colors, metal, fur
COCH
[Welsh red-haired] See also goch.
CODEX
a medieval book consisting of parchment leaves sewn together
CODICIL
a supplement to a will
COEMETERIUM
[Latin, cemetery]
COGNATUS, COGNATA
[Latin, known] blood kinsman   
COGNOMEN
[Roman] the end Roman name (prænomen, gentilicum, cognomen) indicating a characteristic or honor to a person.  If the individual was notable, the cognomen might be passed to descendants, and eventually might constitute the equivalent of what we consider a surname today.   Example: In Gaius Julius Cæsar, the famous dictator.  The name cæsar essential became a surname for his family, and it became a title as well..
COLEE
the dubbing administered to a new knight See also BUFFET  
COLLATERAL ANCESTOR
an ancestor not in the direct line of ascent, but of the same ancestral family (a brother or a sister)
COLLATERAL DESCENDENT
an descendent of an ancestor's brother or sister
COLLIER
a coal miner or a coal ship
COLONUS
a free tenant bound to the land  
COLORED
a non-caucasian person. In colonial America, the term was used for blacks, Hispanics, Creoles, Indians, melungeons, and others.
COLORS
[Heraldry] The colors allowed are gules, azure, sable, vert, tenne, or, argent, and purpure.  In addition, several patterns are allowed called furs
COMES
[Latin] count.  The Prætorian præfect of the eastern part of the Roman empire, residing in Constantinople, was known as Comes Orientis
COMITAL
[Latin comes] pertaining to a count or earl 
COMITATUS
(Latin] a company of attendents
COMMON ANCESTOR
the nearest ancestor shared by two individuals
COMMON LAW MARRIAGE
a man and a woman living together in a marital status without legal action. In some states living together a specified period of time constitutes a legal marriage, even without benefit of legal action
COMMOTE
A secular division of land in Wales larger than a township and smaller than a lordship.  
COMMUTATION
the conversion of the value of labor services to monetary payment
COMPLINE
part of the monastic timetable for liturgy, called horarium.  This worship service typically occurred between 6:15pm-6:30pm in winter and 8:15pm-8:30pm in summer
COMPONY
[Heraldric] divided into squares of alternate tinctures in a single row; -- said of any bearing; or, in the case of a bearing having curved lines, divided into patches of alternate colors following the curve. If there are two rows it is called counter-compony. {W} 
COMPOS MENTIS
[Latin, of sound mind]
COMPTOR
premier baron
CONFILIUS
[Latin, godson]
CONFIRMATIO
[Latin, confirmed]
CONIUNX
[Latin, married person, spouse]
CONJUGATUS
[Latin, married]
CONJUGATA
[Latin, wife]
CONJUGI
[Latin, husband, wife, spouse
CONNUBIAL
[Latin connubium, marriage] pertaining to marriage 
CONSANGUINITY
[Latin consanguineus] the relationship or connection of persons descended from a common ancestor; a blood relationship See also "Degrees of Consanguinity".
CONSCIENCE MARRIAGE
on the continent there was 'gewissensehe', or 'conscience marriage' where a couple for the world maintained they were married, but 'the world knew better' and children were regarded as bastards. And then there was the 'marriage with the left hand'. This was usually when a married ruler wanted to make their mistresses respectable but children lived in a vague condition. Their father usually gave them a title different, and lower, than their legitimate children. See also contract marriage.
CONSENT
papers file by a parent or guardian of a legally underage child providing permission to marry or some other legal action
CONSIDERATION
exchange of items of value to legalize a transaction
CONSORT
technically a companion, but in most cases, was used as synonymous with "wife" or "husband". Frequently seen on headstones, it denoted a spouse who died first. For some royal couples, if a woman was titled in her own right, such as a queen, and her husband had a less important title, then the husband was referred to as her "consort".  The best example of this was Prince Albert, consort of Queen Victoria.
CONSTABLE
an English term for a policeman which was also used in the colonial America. A constable was originally also a master of the horse and a high officer of state under the later Roman emperors and among the Franks. In addition to his regular police duties he was obliged to collect any taxes levied by the General Assembly. All these duties made the job undesirable. Penalties of heavy fines were imposed upon persons who chose not to accept the post. Colonial records show, however, that many men paid fines rather than serve as constable. The lord high constable of England was judge of the court of chivalry with the earl marshal and had wide jurisdiction. The office of the High Constable, though carrying with it what may be called the Commander-in-chief of the army, was hereditary, being attached to certain manors. It was therefore held successively by the Bohuns, Earls of Hereford and Essex, with their heirs, the Staffords, and the Dukes of Buckingham. The office was forfeited by Edward Stafford, 3rd duke of Buckingham in 1521, and is only revived temporarily for coronations. The office of high constable in England was abolished in 1869, and the duties of petty or parish constables now mainly fall to the police, also known as constables.
CONSUL
[Latin] a Roman magistrate equivalent to a present-day prime minister or president.  The office was held for only one year to discourage corruption, then rotated to another Roman nobles.  Generally two were appointed by the Comitia Centuriata for each term.  The consuls served as the chairmen of the Senate, commanded the armies, and were the ultimate judicial authority.  Under the empire, the office was prestigious, but largely ceremonial, and during this period consuls were frequently appointed for shorter terms, to offer the title to a wider group.  Based on the Lex Villia Annalis (181 BC) and Lex Cornelia Annalis (81 BC), a consul had to be at least 42 years of age entering the office.
CONSUMPTION
tuberculosis. Got its names because there is a "wasting away' of flesh on the body, hence the body seemed to be "consumed".
CONTRACT MARRIAGE
an agreement, usually reached by the parents of usually young prospective spouses, and that the real marriage would take place later. The real marriage, sometimes was simply that the couple went to live together and 'consummated' their marriage. See also conscience marriage and handfasting.
CONVERSO
[Spanish] a Muslim or Jewish individual forced to convert to Catholicism during their persecution in Spain after 1391
CONVEY
transfer property or title to property
CONVEYANCE
a written instrument that transfers title to property from one party to another, containing a consideration .  See also mesne conveyance.
CO-PARCENARY
An estate held in common by joint heirs
COPYHOLD
"a Tenure for which the Tenant hath nothing to shew but the Copies of the Rolles made by the Steward of his Lord's Court" (Termes de la Ley). Copholders were originally villeins or slaves, permitted by the lord, as an act of grace or favour, to enjoy the lands at his (the lord's) pleasure; being, in general, bound to the performance of certain services. By the time of Edwad III, the will of the lord came to be conrolled by the custom of the manor. Originally, it was property held in exchange for service, although generally the service was commuted in favour of a small annual payment. The copyholder held a written title to his lands and a copy of his admission was kept on the manorial Court Rolls. Copyholders were denied the protection of the king's court--copyholders could only fall back on the lord's court, within the limits of common law. The freehold mineral and timber rights remained with the lord but he could not enjoy them if he disturbed the copyholder's occupation. Property of a copyholder dying intestate and without issue reverted to the lord of the manor.
CONVEYOR
grantor or seller
CORBEIL
a rock outcropping built into a castle wall  
CORONER
one of the oldest judicial officers in England, dating back to the 12th century. The early function of the king's coroner, or "crowner", were much wider than at present, the chief being to collect and guard certain revenues of the king. He had to seek out criminals, extort confessions, and confiscate their goods for the crown. He seized treasure-trove in the king's name and took possession of wrecks, stranded whales, and royal sturgeons. He also tried "appeals" or accusations of felony, and investigated deaths from violence, the primary object being to find whether, as outlaw, felon or suicide, the deceased person had left property seizable by the coroner. -- Renia Simmons  
CORONER'S INQUEST
a legal inquiry by a coroner to determine the cause of death   
CORRODY
an allowance of lodging, food and clothing given to a lay person at a monastery
CORVÉ
see PRECARIUM
COTISE
[Heraldic] two small stripes, usually bordering a larger stripe such as a bend or a fesse
COTTAR, COTTAGER
a peasant of the lowest class, having a cottage, but little or no land  
COUNT
[Latin comitas] a noble rank. Counts were appointed dignitaries who gradually became hereditary landholders. Counts never outranked Dukes. Dukes were Under-Kings and Magnates. The count was equivalent in rank of peerage to the English earl and the Scandinavian jarl.
COUNT PALATINE
Originally a Carolingian title signifying the highest judicial officer of the royal court. This official was appointed by the King rather than a hereditary magnate. In the course of a couple of centuries, most of them were appointed from very high-ranking families anyway, and either succeeded to the hereditary duchies or died out. In Scotland, the Earls of March were the Dunbar family, whose "March" stretched from near Edinburgh itself down to the actual English border. By 1200, the only one left was the Count Palatine (Pfalzgraf) of the Rhine, whose descendants, now the Dukes of and in Bavaria, survive to this day. "Palatine" refers to extraordinary powers granted to a noble. The English word "palatine" means a region under the authority of a noble where the king's writ was suspended. Thus the Earl or Count of Chester was in charge of the Welsh border, with powers of what we would nowadays call "Rapid Response" to respond to raids from across the Welsh border, "Hot Pursuit" which allowed the response to follow the raiders into their own territory, and "Summary Jurisdiction" to hang the culprits as soon as they were caught. While the noble owed allegience to the king (or Holy Roman Emperor), the holder of a palatine had absolute authority, including the right to grant titles of nobility, create knights, raise armies, coin money -- i.e., powers normally reserved to a sovereign. There were palatinates in British history, in both England and in Ireland, and could be given to either lords temporal or spiritual. There was even a case of a "bishop-palatine"; Louis Epstein reports "the English Lords Bishop of Durham used to rule a 'county palatine'". See also PALATINATE.
COURT
There were a variety of courts in medieval times:
(1) Admiralty Court -- begun in the 14th century, these courts had jurisdiction over naval and maritime issues, but also heard disputes involving foreign merchants in England
(2) Borough Court -- similar to the shire court, many boroughs had the own courts
(3) County (Shire) Court -- This court dated back to Anglo-Saxon times, and usually met twice a year at Easter and Michaelmas.  The court was generally presided over by the county's earl, bishop or abbott.  Later the county sheriff assumed this function.  The court only heard non-criminal matters.  
(4) Chancery Court -- the medieval court set up to hear cases against the king's officers, or for which no standard remedy or precedence existed. This court also heard appeals from decisions of the Ecclesiastical Court.  The court was presided over by the King's chancellor, and tended to follow a very informal procedure.
(5) Chivalry Court -- the court set up to hear heraldric disputes
(6) Common Pleas Court -- the central British Court set up to hear disputes between individuals, and not involving the King
(7) Ecclesiastical (Church) Court -- the system of courts set up to enforce Canon (Church) Law.  Deacons were trained to serve as judges, with advocates pleading cases, and proctors preparing the cases. Summoners served process serveers.  The church had jurisdiction over family matters, sexual offenses, marriage, divorce, bastardy, and breach of faith.  In case of conflict, the king's law prevailed. 
(8) Exchequer Court -- the central British court hearing disputes centering around debts or revenue owed to the King  
(9) Hundred Court -- dating from Anglo-Saxon times, this court hears minor offenses in a Hundred, and was presided over by the hundred's bailiff
(10) Hustings Court -- an infrequent court in boroughs to hear trade disputes
(11) King's Bench -- the central British court which hears disputes between individuals and the King.  All criminal offenses are heard in this court.
(12) Manorial (Baron's) Court -- each manor had its own court to regulate agricultural affairs, labor disputes, and other petty offenses on the manor.  The court was presided over by the lord's steward.  The judgment of the manorial court was called dooms.
(13) Pie Poudre Court -- a court held at a fair to resolve disputes between merchants 
(14) View of Frankpledge Court -- court held twice yearly at Easter and Michaelmas by the sheriff of a hundred to hear issues about tithing, bread/beer assizes, frankpledge, and other breaches of local custom 
(15) Ward-Moots Court  -- a court of a ward, usually presided over by an alderman, to settle minor offenses
COURT-LEET
see Manorial Court
COUSIN
in colonial usage it is most often meant nephew or niece. In the broadest sense, it could also mean any familial relationship, blood or otherwise (except mother, father, sister, brother), or the modern-day meaning of a child of one's aunt or uncle. Modern usage includes qualifiers such as first, second, third and once removed, twice removed, etc. First cousins are what most people commonly call their aunt's and uncle's children. Second cousins are children of the first cousins, and so forth. A (____) cousin once removed represents the relationship between cousins where they are separated by a single generation; twice removed by two generations. See simplified further explanation in cousins.html.  
COUSINS GERMAN
equivalent to first cousins once removed
COVERTURE
the inclusion of a woman in the legal person of her husband upon marriage under common law.  Typically, upon marriage, all of a woman's property became the property of the husband; however, a marriage settlement could pre-determine future ownership of a woman's property and allowing her to keep and control her personal property and wealth in her own right after becoming married.  Frequently, the property was put in the hands of trustees to ensure that the property was disposed in accordance with the terms of the settlement.
COW-COMMON
a community pasture; land common to all for grazing animals
CRACH
[Welsh scabs]
CRANNOCK
a measure equal to a Bristol barrel
CRANNOG
[Irish] a dwelling on an island
CRAS
[Welsh harsh-voiced]
CRENELLATE
To furnish a dwelling with crenelles or indentations for the garrison to fire through
CREOLE
1. a person of European descent (French or Spanish) born in Louisiana.
2. A black born in the western hemisphere, rather than Africa.
CREST
[Heraldry] a specific part of a full achievement of arms being the three-dimensional object placed on top of the helm.
CROFT
a small piece of arable land, usually an enclosed area adjacent to a house
CROSSROADS MARRIAGE
one in which the marriage was held at a crossroads after the sun had set with the bride wearing only her shift. This was done to show she had no debts to bring to the marriage.
CRUSILLY
[Heraldric] a series of small crosses
CRYG
[Welsh hoarse, stammering]
CRYING SALE
an early Colonial American name for an auction, since the seller of the goods cried out
CUBIT
a unit of length equal to approximately 18 inches
CUI
[Latin of whom, of whose, of whatever person, of what place/country]
CUL
[Welsh narrow, thin]
CULDEE
[Scottish] a hermit
CUM ONERE
[Latin] subject to a lien or obligation of which the buyer is aware of
CUM TESTAMENT ANNEXO
[Latin, with the will annexed] an administration of an estate where the will was made where either the executor was not named, did not qualify, or refused to serve.
CUPA
a large vat or pipe
CURIA
[Latin] the royal council and court
CUROPALATES
a Byzantine title introduced in the 6th century by Justinian, ranking just below cæsar and nobilissimus, used to honor a member of the imperial family
CURRENT MONEY
"Current Money" found in Colonial Virginia records is reference to a deferential between Virginia Sterling and the amount of English Sterling it would buy on the London Exchange.
CURTESY
the life tenure which by common law is held by a man over the property of his deceased wife if children with rights of inheritance were born during the marriage
CURULE ÆDILE
[Roman] an ædile who was a patrician.  Half of the ædiles appointed were patricians; half were plebians
CUVELLA
a bucket or tub
CYMRAEG
[Welsh] the name of the Welsh language
CYMRU
[Welsh] the Welsh name for Wales
CYNE
kin
CYNING
[Anglo-Saxon of the kin] king

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J
K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z


Sources:

{A}The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Third Edition copyright © 1992 by Houghton Mifflin Company.

{B} Black's Law Dictionary, 6th Edition

{D} Dictionary.com

{E} Evans, Barbara Jean. The New A to Zax

{F}The Dictionary of Genealogy by Terrick V H Fitzhugh

{H} History of the Later Roman Empire,  Vol.1, J.B. Bury, 1958.

{O}The Oxford English Dictionary

{P} Pepys' diary

{R} Random House Unabridged Dictionary (2006)

{Q} Hinshaw, William Wade, "Encyclopedia of America Quaker Genealogy," (1938, Rpt., Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1994)

{W} Webster's Collegiate Dictionary; Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, © 1996, 1998 MICRA, Inc.


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