FIRST AFRICAN/AMERICAN - AUSTRALIAN FAMILIES
1788 - FIRST FLEETERS TO AUSTRALIA
creating a legacy for future generations . . . . .
OR Any African/American families named either Randall or Reynolds that may have been connected to Connecticut families c1740/50s OR JOHN MARTIN c1740s/50s CONNECTIONS IN JAMACIA, MAYBE BARBADOS, CARIBBEAN - Information needed.
American History:JOHN SMITH (1580?-1631), was an English soldier and adventurer. He helped establish the first permanent English colony in America, at JAMESTOWN, VIRGINIA. SMITH was BORN in WILLOUGHBY, near Louth, ENGLAND. In 1607, Smith and a group that sailed from England landed in Virginia. They founded a settlement, which they named Jamestown in honour of King James I. Smith served as president of the colony from 1608 to 1609 then returned to England.
Smith returned to America in 1614 and spent several months exploring the coast in the Massachusetts Bay area. He later named this region "New England."
Another important event of 1619 was the arrival of a Dutch ship at Jamestown Virginia, with 20 blacks for sale. These Africans, and the thousands who followed them, would in time become slaves. Their labour helped to make the colony prosperous.
History of Connecticut: Algonquian Indian tribes lived in the Connecticut region before the Europeans arrived. Dutch explorers sailed up the Connecticut River in 1614. The first permanent European settlers in the area were English colonists. The English Pilgrim Fathers reached Plymouth, Massachusetts, in 1620 (Some of these brought their "black" servants with them from England. mk). They formed the Connecticut Colony in 1636 and adopted the Fundamental Orders in 1639. The Orders, sometimes referred to as the first written constitution, gave voters the right to elect government officials. In 1637, the colonists defeated the Pequot Indians, the most powerful tribe in the region. The colony received a charter from England in 1662
At the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787, Connecticut delegates helped work out the Connecticut Compromise, or Great Compromise. It helped determine how states should be represented in the nation's congress. Connecticut became a state of the U.S.A. in 1788.[World Book Encyclopedia 1999]
Boston Tea Party was a raid by American colonists on three British ships in Boston Harbor, Massachusetts, on Dec. 16, 1773.The Boston Tea Party was a protest against a tax the British government placed on imported tea. Some colonists dressed as Indians boarded three ships and emptied chests of tea into Boston Harbour.
In 1767, the British Parliament had placed duties (import taxes) on several items imported intoAmerica. Many colonists considered such taxes to be illegal and were determined not to pay them. In 1770, the British government repealed all the duties except for one on imported tea. Colonists disguised as Indians emptied 342 chests of tea into the harbour to avoid payment of a British tax on tea. The British harsh response helped unify the colonists and brought them closer to movement for independence.
The Treaty of Paris was signed on Sept. 3, 1783. It recognized the independence of the United States and established the new country's borders. U.S. territory extended west to the Mississippi River, north to Canada, east to the Atlantic Ocean, and south to Florida. Britain gave Florida to Spain. The treaty also granted the Americans fishing rights off the coast of Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. The last British soldiers were withdrawn from New York City in November 1783.
Due to the American Independence War, Britain had to look for new colonies for transportation of convicts.
TRANSPORT SHIPS TRAVELLED FROM PORTS IN ENGLAND TO AUSTRALIA.
The first recorded European to see Australia was Willem Jansz, a Dutch captain who explored the Gulf of Carpentaria in 1606. Other Dutch sailors explored both the western and southern coasts of Australia. In 1770, the English captain James Cook (1728-1779), was a British navigator and one of the world's greatest explorers who became the first European to make a recorded voyage along the east coast of Australia during his historic voyage in HMS Endeavour . He named it New South Wales and claimed it for Britain (now also known as the United Kingdom). James Cook commanded three voyages to the Pacific Ocean and sailed around the world twice. His voyages led to the establishment of colonies throughout the Pacific region by several European nations.
In 1787, the First Fleet left England with convicts and their guards to establish a penal settlement at Botany Bay. The fleet reached the bay in January 1788. Arthur Phillip, of the Royal Navy, was the fleet's commander and the first governor of New South Wales. Phillip shifted the settlement to Sydney Cove on Jan. 26, 1788.
The early colony of New South Wales came close to starvation. But by 1792, it was out of danger. The New South Wales Corps established a trading monopoly in the colony and was powerful enough to depose Governor William Bligh in the Rum Rebellion in 1808. The new military governor, Lachlan Macquarie, proved to be the colony's most able administrator.[World Book Encyclopedia. 1999 World Book, Inc; All rights reserved.]
Two of the first convicts to be transported to Australia from England was an African/American named John Randall or possibly named John Reynolds born in Connecticut USA and John Martin a negro -possibly born in the West Indies -onboard the ship "Alexander". [Govt.records]
JOHN RANDALL : born c1764 New Haven, Connecticut, America (Afro-American). Could read and write and had musical talents, such as playing the flute and tambourine. WHERE WOULD HE HAVE LEARNED THESE TALENTS?. He was also a "crackshot" with a gun ! Was John a son of a servant in New Haven possibly a descendant from the Pilgrim Fathers servants ? or from an escaped Slave?
Tried at Manchester (England) Quarter Sessions on 14th April,1785. CRIME AND SENTENCE: "stole one steel watch chain property of Joseph Wardle". 7 years transportation. Recorded in Lancashire Record Office.Quarter Sessions Records,England.
FINAL JUDGEMENT FOR JOHN RANDALL WAS TO BE TRANSPORTED TO THE NEW COLONY AT BOTANY BAY 1787 ON THE SHIP "ALEXANDER". ARRIVED 26TH JANUARY, 1788 Sydney,Australia.
John Randall was found in possession of a steel chain on the docks at Liverpool. Did he find same? Possibly it had come free from Mr.Wardles watch?. Why couldnt he have given it back and set free? Possibly because he was black? How did John Randall come to be in Liverpool? was he working onboard one of the ships in port? A John Randall of the English Randall family in Connecticut disappeared on a seafaring trip maybe John Randall was with this man onboard his ship taking his name. Were John Randalls parents servants of this family arriving with the "Mayflower" because many black servants onboard this ship settled in Connecticut. HOWEVER when mustered onboard the "Alexander" by Major Robert Ross in March 1787 Randall was called REYNOLDS. RANDALL/REYNOLDS, John (c1764-) p298 "The Founders" book by Molly Gillen (Australian). So John Randall may have been John Reynolds? A Charles Reynolds married Bridget Ingoldsby (Englishby) in 1843 St.Patricks.R.C.church Parramatta - described as a black American J.J.Galloway Table of Reference any connections I wonder?
FIRST MARRIAGE: John RANDAL (sic)(spelling on 1788 Port Jackson, New South Wales records - Witnesses: Jn.Owles & Sam Barnes. sighted by M.Kennedy) First Fleeter, was given permission to marry on the 21st February 1788 to marry ESTER HOWARD; First Fleeter (Harwood,qv) who had been transported on the LADY PENRYN for stealing money (which had been owed to her, from a customer, for the sale of oysters). Ester used to sell seafood particularly oysters and cockles in the taverns in London. Ester was 30 years of age and this was the FIRST MARRIAGE IN THE COLONY in St.Phillips church Sydney, New South Wales. Both shared a hut with a John Moseley who had been onboard the Supply ship. Mosley was also Black - a carpenter working under Robinson Reid of the ship Supply.
RANDALL was a talented musician who played the flute and the tambourine, was also a crack shot with a gun so was appointed Official Game Killer for the community by Governor Phillip. John shot the first emu seen in the colony.
Wife Ester died 11th October, 1789 (recorded in 1789 Port Jackson New South Wales - government records) and "it is believed she died of child birth". [Record of a Frances Randall born c1789 [registered 1792] had been recorded in family history info. by Dorothy Martin maybe a connection to Frances Randall/Randel who married John Aiken? One of their children was named Esther ?).
Recorded in Gwen Millhouse book was an Aiken family: Chapter 2: page 33: THE AIKEN STORY. 'John Aiken arrived in Australia in 1796 on the "Marquis Cornwallis", a carpenter and a free man. Although he did not own land for some time, he rented a farm at the Northern Boundary, and, as early as 1803, advertised in the Sydney Gazette that no timber was to be cut on the Aicken (sic) Farm. A loyal subject, he served in the Parramatta Loyal Association as a Private from 1803 to 1805... page.34.para.2...the date of John's birth is not known but it is known that c1810 he married Frances Randal, who was born in the Colony c1792 and three children were baptised at St.Phillips' Sydney - Maria (b.c1811) Mary Ann (b:c1812) who died in 1817 and John (b:c1813). In the 1822 Muster the following children were listed - James b1814, William b.1816 and Esther b.1818. Another two daughters were born to John and Frances - Frances in 1824 and Mary Ann in 1835, taking the name of her sister who had died as a childn "... page 35.para.2 Documentation to prove John Aiken's country of origin has never been found and it is the following facts that gives substance to the name of Dixieland. Old timers of the early 1900's, who knew and lived near the settlement, all acknowledge the lean, dark skinned, curly hair characteristics of the AIKENS and it was accepted that they had originated from America and were thought to be negroes"...it seems certain the Aikens originated from JAMAICA, WEST INDIES...
FRANCES RANDAL (sic)(could she be connected to John Randall First Fleeter?)(35) married JOHN AIKEN (negro descent) in 1810 - Settled in the Field of Mars, County of Cumberland - present day Taylor Street on the west and Aiken Road on the south and across Hill Road to the west of the William Bellamy grant, the he area was called "DIXIELAND". When John Aiken Senior died only three children benefited from the grant. Maria AIKEN who married Samuel PATEMAN in 1855 sold her land to Richard WEBB, John Junior Aiken also William Aiken who married at St.Pauls church, Carlingford, a Mary Ann DOYLE who was born 1829 at Windsor and (9) nine children were born. Frances Aiken had absconded earlier from her home with a William BROWN. Seven children born of this relationship according to death certificate. Frances BROWN died 26.10.1870 aged 78 written on headstone, buried in Balmain a suburb of Sydney.
Aikens Hut ' (Old Bill's hut - descendant of John Aiken Senior) was transported to Australiana Village, Wilberforce New South Wales, Australia in the 1980s. [ref."The Settlers of West Pennant Hills Valley 1799 Onwards" by Gwen Millhouse]
JOHN RANDALL - SECOND MARRIAGE: MARY BUTLER who had an Irish accent, had been convicted at the Old Bailey sessions 9th September 1789 and was in the 90 Middlesex goal delivery for stealing a basket of beans at Convent Gardens and transported to New South Wales, Australia onboard the NEPTUNE 1790 . Permission granted to marry JOHN RANDALL and this marriage was the FIRST RECORDED FOR ST.JOHNS CHURCH, PARRAMATTA . REV. RICHARD JOHNSON conducted the marriage service for John Randall and Mary Butler on the 5th September, 1790.
John Randall was one of the first convicts to be granted land by Governor Phillip on the 29th November, 1792. No. 92, 50 acres adjoining a JOHN MARTINs grant of 50 acres. No.93 Field of Mars on the Northern Boundary farms received about September, 1792. On the 17th November, 1800 John Randall enlisted in the New South Wales Army Corp with the help of Joseph Holt (an Irish convict) who he had promised his sixty acres of land for sale in exchange for a placement in the Corp. In the Corps 1808 report he is recorded as being 5ft 9ind tall with black complexion,with black hair and black eyes, and a round visage (face), 44 years of age and had served 7.2 years. His birth place was given as New Haven, Connecticut, America. He took his discharge from the Corps on 24th April, 1810 and was listed in the 1811 muster. On 5th January,1811 John Randall appointed Constable in Sydney Town but resigned this position 24th August 1811. CLAIMS & DEMANDS advertised 28th August 1811 and 31st August 1811 stated The following persons being about to depart the Colony requests all Claims and Demands against them to be presented for payment immediately. In the Dispensable John Delaforce. In the Schooner Brothers John Randall... [SYDNEY GAZETTE & NEW SOUTH WALES ADVERTISER - Goverment newspaper] The Brothers schooner travelled between Port Dalrymple, Tasmania and Sydney, New South Wales Australia. WHO IS THIS JOHN RANDALL?
On the 1814 Muster John Randall is listed as a land owner at Code S which includes Kissing Point..[Sydney Gazette & New South Wales Advertiser - Government newspaper] Who is this John Randall? In the Sydney Gazette on 19th February, 1814 a notice for sale. To be sold on next Friday 25th at 12 noon at the house inhabited by a John Randall at Kissing Point, sundry household items, furniture, utensils and four or five acres of growing cane, to the highest bidder. Reported in the HOBART TOWN GAZETTE Saturday July 26th 1817 Sitting Magistrate - A.F. KIMP, Esq. HORRID MURDER AT GEORGE TOWN,-- On Friday the 4th inst; the body of John Randall, acting as chief constable at George Town, Port Dalrymple, was found by Corporal Mitchell and some privates if the 46th regt. who were out in a boat fishing, lying on the rocks at Point Macquarie, with his head nearly severed from the body... and Supplement to the Hobart Town Gazette on Saturday July 26th 1817.JAMES states, that he was in the boats crew hut, at George Town, on Thursday the 3rd inst: just at dusk he saw John Randall enter the boats crew hut, and saw either Samuel Smith or Thomas Smith strike him with his fists;they knocked him down in the house and Samuel Smith called to him (JAMES) to assist in dragging out RANDALL; that he did do so and Samuel and himself dragged Randall out of the house into the brush in front of it; that during this time Thomas Smith was inside the hut, to which Samuel Smith and himself returned, leaving Randall in the brush; that Smauel Smith then asked for an axe, which he (James) gave to him. and Samuel Smith went out, that he heard a blow, and ..after Samuel Smith returned, saying he had finished him;....James further states that about 12 oclock he accompanied Samuel Smith and Thomas Smith to where the deceased lay; that Samuel Smith put a large sugar bag over the face of the deceased; and Thomas Smith then took up the bodym which appeared to be very stiff and carried it towrds the flag staff........Samuel Smith took away the body for the purpose of concealing it, but he (James) did not know what was done with it... [Orders of the day were that all boats were to be brought in from the shoreline to prevent the stealing of same - some prisoners had escaped using the boats. John Randall went to the boat house to have these orders carried out and was met with contention].
The Jury upon the Inquest held on the body of Randall to ascertain how he came by his death, find that between the hours of 5 and 8 on the evening of Thursday the 3rd July, SAMUEL SMITH, a convict, did feloniously kill and murder the said JOHN RANDALL; and that PRIVATE THOMAS JAMES, of the 46th Regiment, and THOMAS SMITH and EDWARD HARWOOD, convicts, did aid assist and abet the said SAMUEL SMITH in committing the said murder....The whole are now in close confinement and will be sent to Sydney for trial by the first safe conveyance. . Any verification on this John Randall being First Fleeter JOHN RANDALL ? Would love to know!
ISSUE OF JOHN RANDALL & MARY nee BUTLER: On the 31st July, 1791 a daughter was born to John and Mary Randall - named and christened in St.Johns Church, Parramatta LYDIA RANDALL however she died 13th February 1793 and was buried in St.Johns church cemetery. Second child was MARY RANDALL born 4th December, 1793 later married First Fleeter JOHN MARTIN ..see Martin. First son born was JOHN RANDALL Junior 28th May 1797 and baptised in St.Phillips, Sydney 25th June, 1797. (no records researched re.this John)
MARTIN John: John Martin was tried by the Middlesex Jury before Mr.Justice Buller at the sessions of the 3rd July,1782. Aged about 27 years Protestant. Possibly born c1754 West Indies. CRIME AND SENTENCE: "John Martin (Negro) was indicted for stealing two cloth coats,value 20s and stuff waist coat,value 1s and a pair of stuff bretches,value 2s - the property of Stephen Turnbull. two cloth coats,value 10s. Two cloth waist coats value 5s, and two pair of cloth bretches value 5s,one cotton waist coat value 1s and a linen waistcoat,value at 1s and a cotton petticoat value 1s and cotton gown value 2s - the property of John Turnbull in his dwelling house, May 18th " 1782.[Ref.Old Bailey Sessions Papers 5th December 1791-16th October 1782,Roll 2 FM4].
VERDICT: GUILTY of stealing to the value of 39s. TRANSPORTED to the coast of Africa 7 years .
Cannot find any records of birth of John Martin Senior - may have been born in Jamacia of Slaves and taken on the Spanish name of Martin. A Captain Martin (Irish ancestry) owned plantations in the CARIBBEAN where it is assumed John Martin was born. possibly ANTIGUA, JAMACIA, BARBADOS ? JOHN MARTIN WAS LITERATE - HOW COULD THIS BE? WHERE WAS HE EDUCATED? POSSIBLY CHRISTENED AT ST.THOMAS, BARBADOS - ANY INFO.GRATEFULLY RECEIVED!
FINAL JUDGEMENT TO BE TRANSPORTED TO NEW COLONY AT BOTANY BAY ON THE SHIP "ALEXANDER" 1787. ARRIVED 26TH JANUARY,1788 Sydney Australia.
On Friday 29th August, 1788, John MARTIN with William Davis and John Parker were secured by a guard for lighting a fire in their hut. Orders had been given in respect of no fire lighting in the huts. All prisoners were given twenty five lashes each for disobedience.
On the 26th August, 1792 permission was granted for the marriage of John Martin and ANN TOY at St.John Church, Parramatta. Ann had been transported on the Neptune in 1790 as a convict. John Martin was granted 50 acres. No.93, Field of Mars, on the Boundary Farms by Governor Phillip. The rental of one shilling (1/-) per year was to commence after ten years. Ann Martin nee Toy died 11th February, 1806 and does not appear to have had any children.
John Martin fathered a son John MARTIN JUNIOR 17th November, 1807 to MARY RANDALL daughter of First Fleeter JOHN RANDALL, followed by daughters SOPHIA MARTIN on the 30th December, 1809 and FRANCES MARTIN on the 21st February, 1811. Sophia and Frances were baptised 20th July, 1812 on their parents wedding day.
JOHN MARTIN First Fleeter married MARY RANDALL at St.Johns church, Parramatta on the 20th July, 1812. Service conducted by REV.SAMUEL MARSDEN and witnessed by RICHARD PARTRIDGE a Scarborough First Fleeter. John Martin was literate and signed his name.p298/1
Son HENRY MARTIN was born 5th April, 1813 and christened the 9th at St.Johns, Parramatta. Daughter HANNAH MARTIN was born 30th November, 1815. John Martin was appointed Constable of Northern Boundary on three pence (3d) a day wages and resigned from this position on 25th January, 1826 at 71 years of age as noted in the Sydney Gazette 28th January, 1826. (If his birthdate is January born c1755 if not c1754).
JOHN MARTIN died at the Field of Mars and was buried at St.Johns cemetery, Parramatta on the 22nd December, 1837 at the age of 88. [ref.St.Johns cemetery book by J.Dunn) John Martin possibly born West Indies. In his will he left ten acres and house to HENRY MARTIN his son, and his daughter SOPHIA was to occupy two rooms in the house. The remaining land was divided into four allotments and the children JOHN, FRANCES, SOPHIA AND HANNAH were to draw lots for them. Wife Mary Randall was left (1/-) one shilling. Three horses, twenty sheep, land consisting of forty acres of cleared land and fifteen acres cultivated - Equally divided between 5 children.
OTHER CHILDREN BORN TO MARY (Randall) MARTIN: RICHARD MARTIN 10th July, 1818 - FREDERICK MARTIN 1st July 1821. MARY ANN MARTIN 12th November, 1822 - AMELIA MARTIN 15th March,1824 father on certiciate for this child was Frederick Pearce - HARRIET MARTIN 5th November, 1830 baptised the same day as Nicholas 3rd February 1850 AND NICHOLAS MARTIN 21st June, 1832 baptised 3rd February 1850 at 18 years of age.
Mary Randall was buried on the 27th September, 1857 aged 64 years. (Inscription says 67 years) One leg had been amputated and she had been bedridden for many years. Buried in St.Johns cemetery, Parramatta. A Plaque commerating First Fleeter - husband John Martin was placed on Grave in 1998.[ ref. St.Johns Cemetery book by Judy Dunn]
Martin Street, in Carlingford and other names of Streets relating to this family perpetuate the MARTIN family name.
Branches of John Martin........ including Bellamy connections
Henry Martin stories by Dorothy Martin,Grafton NSW. Australia - One of the original researchers of Martin/Randall Families
Ingram Family Branch research by Denise Ingram, Mt.Warrigal NSW
THE BOWERMAN - CORNTHWAITE - INGRAM - NAYLOR - WEST - HARVEY - HAGGMAN - BUCKMAN - STRAUGHTON - TREASURE - WILLIAMS (contact : firstname.lastname@example.org for Williams connections) WOODLY - HAMLIN - COUPS/COUPES - STAPLES - EDWARDS - EVANS - MUNT - HAZELL(see familytree below) - BELLAMY ARE SOME CONNECTING FAMILIES TO RANDALL/MARTIN FAMILIES .
OTHER FIRST FLEETERS CONNECTED TO J.RANDALL & J.MARTIN:
PARTRIDGE : Richard Partridge was tried by the second Middlesex Jury before Mr.Deputy Recorder at the Justice Hall in the Old Bailey at the sessions on the Wednesday, 10th September, 1783. Previously tried by the first Middlesex Jury on Wednsday 30th April,1783.
CRIME AND SENTENCE: Richard Partridge was indicted for feloniously stealing on the 19th March 1783 , one linen shift ,value 3s one linen apron,value 6d - the goods of Ann Camp the Younger.
GUILTY: Transportation for 7 years to America. Mutinous behaviour onboard the Swift ship bound for America resulted in further trial on the 1st of September,1783 due to returning from transportion and being at large.
FINAL JUDGEMENT TRANSPORTED TO NEW COLONY, BOTANY BAY, 1787 ONBOARD THE SHIP SCARBOROUGH. ARRIVED 26TH JANUARY, 1788, Sydney,Australia. FINAL DESTINATION.
GREENWOOD Mary: (No record of a trial of Mary Greenwood on any of the dates given in the records) Details of the charge accepted coincides with the crime records in Bowes journal under "Street Robbery".
TRIAL: by the first Middlesex Jury before Mr.Baron Peeryn at Justice Hall in the Old Bailey at the Sessions on Wednesday,11th May, 1785.
CRIME AND SENTENCE: George Partridge and Mary Greenwood had been living together in London. "George Partridge and Mary Greenwood were indicted for feloniously assaulting Adam Mills on the Kings Highway on the 9th April, last, and putting him in corporal fear of danger of his life. Feloniously taking from his person and against his will one cotton gown value 10s,pair cotton stockings value 1s and a linen handkerchief value 1s - the property of the said Adam".
GUILTY: Both Partidge and Greenwood Sentenced to Death. Sentence recorded at the end of the same session . George Partridge was not transported, served his time onboard the Fortunee hulk.
Respited at the end of the sessions, begin on the 11th January, 1786 - transportation to Africa for 7 years. Mary Partridge sent to Newgate prison then to be transported on the Lady Penrhyn on 6th January, 1787 aged 23.
FINAL JUDGEMENT GIVEN FOR MARY GREENWOOD TO BE TRANSPORTED TO NEW COLONY AT BOTANY BAY 1787. ARRIVED 26TH JANUARY, 1788 ON "LADY PENRYN". All were transported with the First Fleeter Ships and arrived in Australia on the 26th January, 1788 with Captain Phillips ship the Sirius heading the fleet.
Mary Greenwood met Richard Partridge and had son on 3rd November, 1793, baptised Richard Partridge Junior on the 10th February, 1794 and a daughter born 15th February, 1797 named Mary Partridge and Richard received an absolute pardon in September, 1797 from Governor Hunter who described him as Constable, Goaler and overseer of ironed prisoners.[see The Identity of Richard Rice, the Left Handed Flogger by E.M.Sheehan JRAHS.Vol.70.part 2.pp124 - 1984. Member of Newcastle Family History Society, NSW Australia].
Richard Partridge received a grant of 60 acres at the Northern Boundary Farms on the 15th September, 1796. A successful farm was established and by 1802 Richard owned a horse, many sheep,goats and hogs and had 5 servants.Another grant of 80 acres in August, 1804 was given. In 1804 Richard Partirdge Senior as a Corp soldier fought in the Battle of Vinegar Hill near Castle Hill against Irish rebels who wanted to return home to Ireland.
THE IRISH REBELLION: 1798 - IRELAND AND 1804 - AUSTRALIA.
Unrest in Ireland had been raging for years, the wars between Protestants and Catholics were never ending. Enactment Acts of 1665-1699 passed by English Parliament forbidding Irish Exports brought more unrest! Exiled activists were transported to the antipodes and on the 26th November, 1791, the ship Queen arrived in Australia with the first Irish prisoners who allegedly committed crimes under the Insurrection Act. Two ships = Boddingtons and Sugar Cane arrived in 1793 carrying 303 Irish political prisoners. Between 1791-1798 repeated attempts were made by the prisoners to escape.On the 11th January, 1800 the ship Minerva arrived in the new colony with some more of the Irish transportees.
The early American War of Independence and the bloody revolution in France at the end of the Eighteenth Century was proof to the people of Ireland that the will of the people, IF UNITED! could bring about change.
A group of Presbyterian radicals formed the Society of United Irishmen whose aim was to introduce Parliamentary Reform by uniting Protestants and Catholics for a unified Ireland. However another group called The Defenders formed - members were discontented Irish Catholic peasants.
After a victory over the military at Oulant Hill, thousands congregated on Vinegar Hill outside Emmiscorthy, near Wexford. On the 20th-21st June, 1798 the Battle of Vinegar Hill took place. although the rebels out numbered the Government troops their weaponry was primitive and no match against the well armed military. The rebels lost and all the leaders of the revolt were either hanged, gaoled or exiled to a place called Botany Bay.
Disillusioned by the impossibility of returning to Ireland, dissidents created a state of constant unrest in the new communities of the colony. Hoping to gain power for their return home to Ireland -233 Irishmen Patriots led by William Johnston fought the English Government supporters in a bloody battle on the 5th March, 1804 at a place approximately 7 miles North of Parramatta NSW Australia., close to Castle Hill and Rous Hill. This place was to become known as Vinegar Hill. The rebels were caught and hanged!
Present day location of site is a memorial wall in the Castlebrook Lawn Cemetery, Windsor Road entrance, commissioned by Blacktown Municipal Council NSW Australia- artists Tom Sitta and Ivan Polak.
Mary Greenwood and Richard Partridge received permission to marry on the 5th November, 1810. in St.Johns church, Parramatta. In 1815 Partridge had a contract for the carriage of bricks and materials for government buildings in Parramatta and supplied provisions for the working party under William Cox who was then constructing the new road across the Blue Mountains a contract which was extended in 1816 to conveying prpvisions to the 46th Regiment and workers stationed at Parramatta and Coxs River.p278/1 ["The Founders" by Molly Gillen]. In the 1828 census Richard was aged 69 years owning 60 acres and operating as a carrier and Mary still lived with Richard aged 66 years. Richard PARTRIDGE died 22nd May 1831 aged 72 years and was buried in St.Johns cemetery - no headstone is visible.Mary nee Greenwood PARTRIDGE died 16th September, 1837 and is buried in St.Johns cemetery, Parramatta.
PARTRIDGE DESCENDANTS: RICHARD PARTRIDGE JUNIOR married MARGARET PERRY 29th January, 1821. no issue found.
MARY PARTRIDGE 11 [1797-1877] married GEORGE BOWERMAN,20th June, 1814 in St.Johns church, Parramatta. George Bowerman had arrived onboard the Indian in 1810 as a convict from Charlbury, Oxfordshire, England, born 29th April, 1791 parents Jonathon & Martha nee Alder and 11 siblings. Brothers James and Solomon Bowerman also transported as convicts and were hanged for highway robbery in Australia with George their brother on 23rd December, 1820. Authorities later reported the wrongful hanging of George Bowerman and seconded a prisoner William THOMAS who had arrived 5.4.1818 onboard the Batavia, possibly from Lancashire, to help Mary nee Partidge Bowerman with two sons Solomon and George Bowerman junior, work on her farm.
SOLOMON BOWERMAN born 1816 married 8th January 1838 Elizabeth LEWIS in St.Johns church, Parramatta.
GEORGE BOWERMAN JUNIOR B:13.6.1818 married 18.3.1850 MARY ANN MARTIN B:12.11.1822 parents JOHN MARTIN (First Fleeter) and Mary nee Randall (parent - First Fleeter John Randall) .
A relationship developed between William Thomas and Mary Bowerman but no permission was granted to marry and many children were born.
CHILDREN OF RELATIONSHIP : AKA THOMAS registered BOWERMAN : MARY A BOWERMAN born:22.12.1825, ROBERT JOHN BOWERMAN born:30.1.1830 - MARTHA born:24.7.1834 married 1860 ROBERT SONTER an emigrant from Sussex, England - SUSANNAH BOWERMAN born: 7.8.1842 - RICHARD BOWERMAN born:.15.3.1824 and married on the 8.12.1845 AMELIA MARTIN born:9.9.1826 (daughter of Mary Randall and Frederick Pearce). Amelia died 12.6.1886. Richard Partridge Died 28.5.1891.
RANDALL/MARTIN connection - 6x MATERNAL GRANDPARENTS to Margaret Sonter: *JAMES BOWERMAN [1831-1900] born:25.12.1831.Died:8.8.1900. Married Mary Ann Cornguit/Cornthwaite [1832-1909] Died:18.2.1909 - daughter of Frances Martin (who was daughter of First Fleeter John Martin - RANDALL/MARTIN CONNECTIONS) and Thomas Cornthwaite/Cornquade who had arrived c1819 as a convict. JAMES & MARY ANN BOWERMAN buried in St.Pauls Cemetery, Carlingford, NSW Australia.
MARY BOWERMAN SENIOR nee PARTRIDGE died 2nd August 1877.
Many descendants connecting to the Bowerman families - King/Hockley,Beater/Sonter
Ephraim Hockley was born 26th July,1812, son of Thomas Hockley and Susannah nee Collis who married in 1803 in Grantchester. A small village 3 miles South of Cambridge in Essex England. Ephraim was sentenced to life for house breaking and transported to Australia on the Andromedea II on the 11th March,1833, he was 29 years old. Indentured to Thomas Thompson , Dundas, NSW, Australia. He gained knowledge and skills relating to horticulture. Permission granted to marry in 1842 at St.Annes church,Hunters Hill to ISABELLA LAWSON who arrived on the 13th July, 1840 on the ship Surrey I (10).On a bond aged 25 years. Hunters Hill was a parish in the Field of Mars and part of this area in 1840 was changed to Eastwood when a William Rutledge built Eastwood House. Other parts of Field of Mars were also changed to Ryde,Pennant Hills Carlingford and also Dundas in 1890.
In the Field of Mars area later called Eastwood is where Ephraim and Isabella farmed and had an orchard. Hockley Road, Eastwood is named after the family.
Children born: William K:1843,Eleanor:1845,Susannah born 1849,Ephraim: 20.2.1851, Thomas Oliver : 1853.
Ephraim and Thomas Oliver bought their own land in the Field of Mars area of Dundas and grew fruit .
EPHRAIM HOCKLEY Jnr. married an ELIZABETH A BOWERMAN 26th May,1891,daughter of Richard Bowerman who also had a farm in the Field of Mars area which was later named Carlingford. Children born: Isabella A: 23.5.1892,Rupert R:1894-1916 Killed in France WWI, Charles Ephraim:4.2.1897. Ephraim died 7th July, 1929, at Dundas.
A site for all Hockley Connections -Australia & England http://.freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~hockley/homepage.htm
ELEANOR HOCKLEY born 1845 married a WILLIAM KING ( B:1829,London,England) in 1863 at Pennant Hills (the name Oatley and Oatly is on certificates-this is incorrect) and their son Ephraim King was born 10.11.1863. William went in search of work so Ephraim was reared by his grandma Isabella Hockley . Ephraim married *Matilda Bowerman sister of Susannah Hockley 6.5.1888.
THOMAS OLIVER HOCKLEY married *Susannah Bowerman ,13th February, 1873, daughter of *James Bowerman brother of Richard Bowerman sons of * Mary Bowerman nee Partridge daughter of First Fleeters Richard and Mary nee Greenwood Partridge.
CHILDREN: Alice Lily:1874,Emily A:1.1.1876,Thomas J:1878,Ethel Gertrude:7.10.1880, Horace Silas:30.5.1883, Ernest Arthur:1.11.1885,Eva Maud:9.8.1888,Herbert C:28.3.1891, James P:c1894,Robert c1897. Thomas Oliver died 28th November, 1920.
PHILLIP HOCKLEY married Maria Carter 1868,Parramatta. Phillip had a vineyard bisected by a lane (now called Dunrossil Avenue), in the Carlingford area.
The families grew their own vegetables and had milk from their cows. Horse and carts were kept to take the fruit down to ERMINGTON WHARF transferred across the harbour and sold at the SYDNEY FRUIT MARKETS. Later the carts were superceded by horse drawn lorries.
Matilda Bowerman, sister of Susannah HOCKLEY nee Bowerman, (James Bowerman and Mary nee Cornguit - Cornthwaite?- descendants of John Martin First Fleeter) had a terrible experience when she was younger. Matilda (11yrs) and her sister Mary (8yrs)(who married Joseph Benjamin Williams 1890 - for further info email@example.com ) used to go every morning and night to Grandma Bowermans house with breakfast and to assist her with her needs. The girls then aged 8 and 11 years , found Mary burned to death outside her cottage on the Thursday morning 2nd August, 1877. ...After a careful summing up by the Coronor, the jury returned a verdict - 'the deceased was burnt to death at her residence, Pennant Hills on 2nd August,1877 through her clothing, having become accidently kindled'.[Sydney Morning Herald newspaper report 7th August, 1877]
MATILDA BOWERMAN, married EPHRAIM KING on 6th May, 1888 at St.Judes Church, Dural. Ephraim King was the son of Eleanor Hockley and William King born 1863. HOCKLEY CONNECTIONS TO BOWERMAN - Ephraim Hockley [1812-1869] - http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~hockley/homepage.htm
Settled in Dural (later called Glenorie)as a Citrus Orchardist . Matilda was a domestic worker for a Mr.Smith. Cnr. North Rocks Road,Northmead area.
Children born: STANLEY HERBERT KING: 6.4.1895 married ETHEL ELIZABETH SCOTT - Settled on Old Northern Road, Glenorie. ELEANOR KING:1887 married JOHN GAREMYN 1908 St.Judes,Dural. Farmer/orchardist at Glenorie. John born in Australia of Belgium emigrant Peter Garemyn who had emigrated from Belgium to England to Australia as a glazier/cabinet maker to work on the French Exhibition Building in Sydney near where Central Railway Station was built.
CLARA EVELYN KING: 1.8.1890 married ALBERT ERNEST BEATER 1919.St.Judes,Dural. CLAUDE KING B: 1902 married AMY L HEATON 1935,Granville.
LEONARD NOEL KING: 1904 married DULCIE JEAN HOFFMAN, 1936,Marrickville. WILFRED EPHRAIM: 1905 married EILEEN WARD PICKETT 1939, Ryde.
Ephraim was an astute business man and helped form the School of Arts and was President for many years. He also helped build a school putting Eleanor his eldest daughters age up so the school would have enough pupils to warrant a teacher.
In 1902 a railway line was extended to Carlingford from Sydney thus making it easier for the delivery of Fruit to the Market. Matilda had a chicken hatchery and sold eggs and chickens for breeding and eating., this supplemented the poor earnings from the orchard as fruit prices were very low .
Ephraim and Matilda won many prizes in the Royal Agriculture Society of NSW exhibiting in the Sydney Royal Easter Show . Matilda Bowerman won several First Prizes for her cooking - Speciality - Swiss Rolls. When they visited Sydney for the show each year they stayed at the Peoples Palace Hotel in Sydney.
Ephraim retired as President of the School of Arts,Glenorie 1924 and a beautiful handpainted illuminated address by T.F. CAMPBELL was presented to him and Matilda on Australia Day, 26th January, 1924. The address was a thank you tribute from the Glenorie community for his services providing the establishment with a sound financial position for the future during a critical period in the history of the Institution. It was signed by the new president H.WALKER, JOHN HUTCHINSON (Hon.Secretary),J.GAREMYN ( Treasurer) G.W.HITCHCOCK ( Vice President) and W. HOGARTY (the local Grocery Store Owner).
However during the depession of the 1930s it was difficult to make a living on the land and the boys, Stanley Herbert, Claude, Wilfred and Leonard were not interested in being orchardists so Ephraim due to his failing health sold out and moved . He purchased land in Thomas Street,Parramatta but only rented a house at 6 Ethel St,Harris Park from the Mahoney family. Wilfred King built a house on Thomas Street land and wife Eileen nee Pickett lived there until the death of Wilfred about in the 1960s . The balance of land owned by Ephraim King had to be given to the Council for unpaid back taxes due to the hard economics of the day.
Ephraim King died 1934 and Matilda King nee Bowerman died 1947 at 6 Ethel St Harris Park. The house was demolished and Street renamed Park Street.(Site of Anglican Elderly Care Centre, Park St.Parramatta. c1980s ?).
CLARA EVELYN KING born 1.8.1890, daughter of Ephraim and Matilda nee *Bowerman, in 1919 St.Judes church, Dural married ALBERT ERNEST BEATER born at Parramatta about 1879 son of English/Irish Emigrants Peter and Ann Beater nee Farrell. Peter Beater emigrated 1875 from Plymouth aged 35 years,(christened 1822 in Kingsteignton,Devon - Parents were Peter and Mary Beater) The family settled in the Mays Hill area. 1903 Electoral Roll had Peter as a dairy farmer, Great Western Road, Mays Hill and the family home was in Franklin Street, Parramatta.Children born to Peter and Ann: John F: 1868, Parramatta, married Catherine Messer 1919 Petersham, N.S.W.,Died 1925,Petersham. Mary A:1872,Parramatta, William Edward:1875,Parramatta;Died 1939,Parramatta, Elizabeth S:1877,Parramatta, Albert Ernest:1879,Parramatta;Died 1941 Liverpool; Marth J:1884,CentralCumberland, Arthur L.P.Central Cumberland;Died 1938,Parramatta.
Clara and Albert Beaters Children born:Ronald Albert Beater, Died:1923, at Annandale. Vera:Died 1924 (3yrs Old), Evelyn Beater: 26.1.1924 Baulkham Hills, Died 2.8.1997, Ernest Roy Beater: 22.5.1925 BaulkhamHills, Died: 1982, Blacktown, Cecil Beater :29.9.1929 Baulkham Hills,died c1980s - Parramatta. ALBERT ERNEST BEATER was a Tram conductor on the Castle Hill to Parramatta line and Clara was a domestic worker. Lived at Baulkham Hills, New South Wales, Australia On the 27th January, 1923 the trams stopped running and a Railway Train Service was introduced. Clara and Albert seperated about 1932. Albert died 1941 at Liverpool NSW Australia. Probate of his will was not given until 1950 as it was to stay in trust until Cecil turned 21 years then each of the children received a small inheritance. Clara Beater died 11th July, 1966 and was cremated at Northern Suburbs Cremetorium and her ashes placed in a memorial vase on son-in-law KILNER SONTERs Grave No:4654 who had died 25th February,1966 and buried in Rookwood Cemetery - Church of England Section.
During the 1830's, the immigration of free settlers to the Australian colonies was encouraged. As the numbers of free settlers grew, the society of the colonies changed. In 1840, the transportation of convicts to central New South Wales ceased. It was resumed on a limited scale to the Port Phillip district of the colony during the 1840's. Transportation of convicts to Tasmania was abolished in 1851 and to Western Australia in 1870. The Aborigines suffered badly at the hands of the European settlers, and by the 1850's, most Europeans believed them to be a dying race.
*SARAH BOWERMAN born :23.9.1838.Died:23.9.1901. Married WILLIAM SONTER [1836-1921] an ENGLISH FREE SETTLER - EMIGRANT from Sussex, England born in Kent. Parents David & Emma nee Chandler. William Sonter Died.16.12.1921 and buried in St.Pauls, Carlingford cemetery NSW.
Ancestry of William Sonter: DAVID I (Senior) SAUNTER/SONTER with wife Emma nee Chandler and children settled in the Field of Mars area as an orchardist in the 1840s. Property is where the Epping Bowling Club was built and the park nearby. Cnr.Midson & Ray Street. HORNSBY SHIRE PIONEER FAMILY.[ ref."Hornsby Shire Pioneers 1788-1906 " book by members of the Hornsby Historical Society] www.ancestors.ballina.net/CONNECTIONS
Son: WILLIAM SAUNTER/SONTER April, 1836 in KENT, ENGLAND emigrated from Gravesend with brothers, David, Edward, Robert, sister Emma and parents David & Emma (Chandler) Sonter an agricultural labourer from Sussex and diary maid from Kent arriving at Watsons Bay 6th November, 1838 without Emma who had contracted Typhoid en route and was buried at sea. The ship Maitland was quarantined when it berthed at Spring Cove (Now Manly).
The family later moved on to Parramatta where they found work.
WILLIAM SONTER learned the timber trade and became a sawyer in the Field of Mars (area now Epping) with his father and brothers. He married 31st Dec.1855, a SARAH BOWERMAN who was born in 1838, Field of Mars, area now Carlingford - parents were Mary nee Partridge Bowerman and William Thomas , an assigned Government servant to work the property as compensation for the wrongful hanging of husband George Bowerman in 1820. William THOMAS had arrived in 1818 as a convict possibly from Lancashire,England.
WILLIAM SONTER courted a local girl living at Pennant Hills *SARAH BOWERMAN whose family lived on the original Grandfather *Richard Partridge First Fleeter - 1796 grant , Northern Boundary farms - Field of Mars (now Carlingford).*SARAH was born 25th September, 1838 of Mary Bowerman nee *PARTRIDGE ( *First Fleeters Richard & Mary nee Greenwood daughter) and W. Thomas and on the 31st December, 1855 married in the Wesleyan Church, Parramatta (recorded as William Salter). William Sonter was a sawyer/carter, specialising in making ladders, clothes line posts and props and pegs and delivering same and owned a house and lived in Isabella Street, in 1903 with wife and family.
Children born: William James:1856, David Henry:1858, Harriet Sarah:1861,Samuel Robert 1862 married Alice Maud Brien - Edwin Arthur:1865, - Josephine Emmy Sonter 1868, married George Arthur Bowerman - Mary Jane Sonter:1870, John Clifford Sonter:1874-, Ethel - Horace A Sonter:1882.Sarah(Bowerman) Sonter died 23.9. 1901- buried St.Pauls Cemetery,Carlingford . William died 16th December, 1921 and was also buried at the St.Pauls Cemetery. The Kay & Tomah Street, Cemetery or sometimes called Marsden Road Carlingford cemetery.
PARRAMATTA NSW AUSTRALIA - PIONEER FAMILIES.
ROBERT SAUNTER/SONTER became an orchardist in the Epping area and married 22nd October, 1860 at Carlingford, MARTHA BOWERMAN, sister of SARAH SONTER nee Bowerman.
Children born: Martha Ada Sonter:7.2.1862, Phoebe Adeline Sonter:1.33.1864, Robert Edwin:7.6.1865, Samuel David Sonter: 20.7.1868, John Andrew:15.66.1871, Emily Ann: 16.9.1873, Amy Elizabeth Sonter:16.9.1873, Evaline Susannah Sonter:1879. Martha (Bowerman)Sonter died: 18.2.1902, Buried St.Pauls,Carlingford. Robert died:29.4.1905,buried St.Pauls,Carlingford.
PARRAMATTA AREA - PIONEER FAMILIES
DAVID JNR .SAUNTER/SONTER married - daughter of FREDERICK MARTIN (son of First Fleeter John Martin) and MARY ANN nee BOWERMAN (daughter of Mary nee Partridge Bowerman), *SUSANNAH MARTIN born Pennant Hills New South Wales, Australia 1846 (grand-daughter of *John Martin,First Fleeter), 28th December, 1869 St Pauls,Pennant Hills and moved to the PORT MACQUARIE AREA, New South Wales, Australia.
David worked as a sawyer at Camden Haven then in Hamilton near Port Macquarie in the locally new formed timber mill of Hibbard and Haines.
Children born: Mabel:1870,Silas Sydney:13.8.1871, David Arthur:1873, Ernest Havelock:1875, Frederick A:1877, Harold Hastings:13.6.1879,Florence A:24.3.1881,Hamilton Stephen:1883, Alwin B: 1885, Ethel E: 1887, Tarila Maud: 23.7.1889, Charlotte B:15.5.1892. Davids property is now known as Hastings River Drive on the north side of Hamilton House.
David Sonter died: 17.12.1919, buried Port Macquarie Cemetery, New South Wales, Australia. *Susannah died: 27.5.1929, Port Macquarie and was buried beside husband David. 2001 descendant
PORT MACQUARIE NSW AUSTRALIA - PIONEER FAMILIES
RECORDS AVAILABLE RE.THESE CONNECTIONS AT Latter Day Saints site www.familysearch.org
Many descendants from the First African/Australian family living in Australia in 2001.
FAMILY NAMES CONNECTED TO RANDALL/MARTIN: - BOWERMAN - NAYLOR - WEST - HARVEY - INGRAM - HAGGMAN - BUCKMAN - STRAUGHTON - CORNTHWAITE - TREASURE - HAMLIN - COUPS/COUPES/COOPES - CORNTHWAITE/CORNQUADE - SCOTT - STAPLES - EDWARDS - MUNT - HAZELL - WILLIAMS - McGOWAN - REYNOLDS - AXON/AXOM - EVANS - CORNS - MOXHAM and many more?.
MARY ANN MARTIN [1822-1870] daughter of John Martin and Mary nee Randall married 18.03.1850 at Hunters Hill, NSW, Australia. GEORGE BOWERMAN II [1818-1872] [son of George Bowerman and Mary nee Partridge ] Son: James Australia Bowerman born 17.12.1857 married Mary Ann MARTIN - daughter of Frederick Martin - who was son of John Martin and Mary nee Randall. Many descendants. FOR INFORMATION ON JAMES BOWERMAN CONNECTIONS TRY JADE HAZELL'S ONLINE FAMILY TREE AT: PHOTOS AVAILABLE ONLINE - http://www.familytreemaker.com/users/h/a/z/Jade-I-Hazell/index.html
Please contact my email address firstname.lastname@example.org if you have any queries or information regarding my family tree".
FELLOWSHIP OF FIRST FLEETERS 1998
ON SUNDAY 29th NOVEMBER, 1998, A FELLOWSHIP OF FIRST FLEETERS PLAQUE WAS AFFIXED ON THE GATE PILLAR AT THE ENTRANCE TO ST.JOHNS CEMETERY, PARRAMATTA AS A BICENTENNIAL PROJECT TO COMMERATE ALL FIRST FLEETERS BURIED IN ST.JOHNS PARRAMATTA. THE WORDING ON THE PLAQUE READS:-"THIS PLAQUE IS DEDICATED TO THE MEMORY OF THOSE WHO CAME TO THIS COUNTRY WITH CAPTAIN ARTHUR PHILLIP IN THE FIRST FLEET IN 1788 AND WHO WERE BURIED IN THIS PLACE" [First Fleeters Family History Society journal,1998]
Disclaimer: Whilst every care has been taken in the preparation of this material, due to the fact that it is based on various records, and in some cases vary, it may or may not be, 100% correct.Consequently, no responsibility can be taken for any errors or ommissions that may have inadvertently crept in.[M.KENNEDY]
Page created by Margaret Kennedy, Ballina Northern NSW Australia. July, 2001