SQUATTERS' SOVEREIGN ASSOCIATION.We are indebted to Benj. Harding, one of the oldest residents in the county, for the following sketch of the "Squatters' Sovereign Association," an organization that was formed at an early date for purposes hereafter described. In the article our readers will find the names of many of the old settlers who were prominent in the early history of the county. It is hardly necessary to state that the article is published only as a matter of history:
“Immediately after the treaty with the Kickapoos, in 1854, a meeting of the squatters was called, and held at J. R. Whitehead's, June 24, and organized a Squatters' Sovereign Association. A. M. Mitchell, of St. Joe, was Chairman, and J. R. Whitehead, Secretary. An executive committee was appointed, consisting of John H. Whitehead, H. Smallwood, J. B. O'Toole, J. W. Smith, Sr., Sam. Montgomery, B. Harding, J. W. Smith, Jr., J. J. Keaton, T. W. Waterson, C. B. Whitehead, Anderson Cox and Joseph Siciliff.
"A committee on resolutions, consisting of W. Broadus Thompson, C. B. Whitehead, B. Wharton, J. R. Custine, reported the following, which was adopted as the basis of the organization:
"Whereas, we, citizens of Kansas Territory, intending to fix our homes on its fertile soil, have this day met at Whitehead for the purpose of taking measures to secure safety, certainty and fairness in the location and preservation of our claims.
"Therefore be it Resolved: 1. That we are in favor of bona fide Squatter Sovereignty, and acknowledge the right of any citizen of the United States to make a claim in Kansas Territory, with the ultimate view of occupying it.
THE PEOPLE OF DONIPHAN COUNTY.It has been said that the people of Kansas are more thoroughly cosmopolitan in their make-up than those of any other country in the world. Doniphan County does not constitute an exception to this rule. The preponderating element in her population were born in the Eastern and Southern States. They left, it may be, better social and educational advantages for the rich soil, the splendid native pasturage, cheaper lands and the superior climate, of Kansas. They were mainly from Western Pennsylvania, Southern Ohio and Indiana, with a few from nearly all the Western States, from Kentucky and Tennessee, and some from New England and New York. Next is the German element, then natives of the British Isles, followed by people from almost every power and principality on the continent. The British American provinces are also represented.
GROWTH IN POPULATION.In 1860, the population of Doniphan County was 8,083. In 1870, the United States census gave Doniphan County 13,969.
In 1875, the population was 13,943; in 1876, it was 12,831; in 1878, it was 15,122, and in 1880, 14,258.
The increase in population between the years 1860 and 1870 was 5,836; between 1870 and 1875, the decrease was 26; between 1875 and 1876, the decrease was 1,112; between 1876 and 1878, the increase was 2,291, and between 1878 and 1880, the decrease was 864.
POPULATION OF DONIPHAN COUNTY BY TOWNSHIPS, INCLUDING CITIES AND VILLAGES, IN 1878.The following are the names of the town sites located in Doniphan County, from its earliest settlement to the present time:
NEWSPAPER HISTORY.Doniphan County can probably boast of having published a greater number of newspapers than any other county in the State of Kansas, although at the present time there are but five published within the county - namely, the Kansas Chief of Troy; the White Cloud Review, of White Cloud; the Central States, of Highland; the Bible Investigator, and Doniphan News, of Doniphan.
The history of the different newspapers started in the county - given in order - is gleaned from the columns of the Kansas Chief, of June 13, 1878. The first newspaper published in the county was the Doniphan Constitutionalist, started in 1856 by Thomas J. Key, as editor.
In politics it was violently Pro-slavery Democratic. This paper suspended in the summer of 1858.
The Kansas Chief was the second paper published in the county, its first number appearing June 4, 1857, since which time it has missed but five regular issues - one in May, 1858, one in July, 1858, and two in October, 1859 (at which dates half sheets were issued), and the last time Dec. 8, 1859. July 4, 1872, the Chief was removed from White Cloud to Troy, where it remains to the present time. In politics it began as Free State, and it has continued to be a stanch (sic) Republican paper. It has among its regular subscribers a number who commenced with Vol. I, No. 1.
Sol. Miller, who established the paper, and has continued to publish it for the past twenty-five years, says he expects to publish it for twenty-five years to come.
The Era was started at Geary City about June, 1857, and claimed to be neutral in politics, but it was really a strong Free State paper. It was edited by E. H. Grant, Joseph Thompson and Earl Marble. The Era suspended publication the fall of 1858.
The Elwood Advertiser was first issued July, 1857, by Fairman & Newman. It claimed to be neutral in politics, although Fairman was a Free State man from Pennsylvania, while Newman was a Pro-slavery man from Alabama. After a few months, the Advertiser passed into the hands of a company, under the management of which the leading editorials were written by Ed. Russell, Thomas A. Osborn often contributing articles. Its publication was suspended several times, and 1858 Jack Merrick had the management of it for a short time. In the winter of 1858-59, it passed into other hands, and was called the Free Press.
The Crusader of Freedom was started early in 1858 at Doniphan, by James Redpath. In politics it was Abolitionist. Gen. Lane was interested in this paper, but, as he and Redpath could not agree, it was suspended in May, 1858. John A. Martin, of the Atchison Champion, was a compositor on this paper.
The Enquirer was first published in July, 1858, at Iowa Point, by Thomas J. Key, who removed the material of the Doniphan Constitutionalist to that place. In polities it was Pro-slavery Democratic, and was published but a short time when it suspended. The following winter, a few copies were issued by Thomas J. Vanderslice.
The Palermo Leader was started in the fall of 1858 by F. W. Emery and Charles Perham. It was Republican in politics and continued its publication for about two years, when the material was purchased by P. H. Peters and removed to Marysville, Kan.
In the winter of 1858-59, the Elwood Advertiser was changed into the Elwood Free Press by Frank and Robert Tracy, and was edited by D. W. Wilder and A. L. Lee. It was Republican in politics. In 1859, the Tracys sold to H. D. Hunt, who continued its publication until October, 1861, when he gave it up and went into the army. John T. Snoddy purchased the material of the office in the spring of 1864, and removed it to Linn County, Kan.
In the fall of 1858, Joseph Thompson removed the material of the Geary City Era to Troy, and began the publication of the Troy Democrat. In politics it was claimed to be Free State Democrat, and was published but a few weeks, when the material was removed to St. Joseph, Mo.
About January 1, 1859, the Highlander was started at Highland. It was published by Faulkner & Seaver, anti edited by T. P. Herrick, afterward Colonel in the Kansas Seventh. The publishers were Democratic and the editor Republican, while the politics of the paper were neutral, a second incidence in the newspaper history of the county where the Opposite elements in politics are so perfectly balanced as to produce neutrality. The paper was published but a few months when the material was purchased by Charles H. Whitaker and taken to Savannah, Mo.
In the fall of 1859, the Iowa Point paper, the Enquirer, was revived under the name of the Dispatch, by Ansel Watrous, Jr., and J. W. Biggers. It was intensely Democratic. Its editorials were mostly written by Dr. Jabez Robinson. This paper suspended in the spring of 1860.
In the fall of 1860, J. W. Biggers removed the material of the Dispatch to Troy, where he started the Doniphan County Dispatch, Democratic in politics. The disastrous defeat of the Democratic party in this county, in the fall elections of 1860, made it unprofitable to continue the publication of the Dispatch. Its material was removed to Hiawatha in the summer of 1861, by P. G. Parker, who published the Brown County Union upon it until January, 1862, when the office and most of the material were burned. Thus departed the old Doniphan County Constitutionalist, the first paper published in the county, and all that remains of it is in the shape of two brass "galleys” and two iron, “side sticks,” which are said now to be in the office of the Kansas Chief.
The Doniphan Post was started at Doniphan by George and William Reese in the fall of 1860. It was Democratic in politics, and continued its publication a little more than one year.
In April, 1862, Dr. E. H. Grant purchased the material of the Doniphan Post, removed it to Troy and began the publication of the Doniphan County Patriot, in the interest of the Republican party and Jim Lane in particular. In 1863, Frank Tracy purchased an interest in the Patriot. In the spring of 1864, it was absorbed by the Investigator.
In February, 1864, a company of gentlemen purchased the material of the defunct Holt County News, at Oregon, Mo., removed it to Troy and began the publication of the Troy Investigator. It was Republican in politics, but opposed to Lane. During the spring, it absorbed the Patriot and continued as the Investigator until after the November elections. H. C. Hawkins was the editor. The material of this paper was purchased by H. P. Stebbins, removed to Hiawatha and used in publishing the Sentinel. Here a coincidence will be noticed, two printing offices at Doniphan, after fighting their way to Troy, were finally taken to Hiawatha, where they disappear.
In the winter of 1864-65, the Troy Investigator was superseded by the Doniphan County Soldier, published by S. H. Dodge. This was near the close of the war, when to bear the title of Union soldier was honorable, and it was supposed that this name would make a newspaper popular. This paper was published but a few months, when it changed name and management.
The Troy Reporter succeeded upon the remains of the Soldier, during the year 1865. In politics it was Republican,. It was edited by Joseph H. Hunt, who died in the spring of 1866. Soon after this time, Robert Tracy purchased the establishment and continued the Reporter until April, 1867, when it was removed to Wathena.
The Wathena Reporter, a continuation of the Troy Reporter, was sold soon afterward to E. H. Snow and G. W. Larzelere. After a few months, Mr. Snow withdrew, leaving the paper in the hands of Mr. Larzelere, who sold it to his father, Hon. A. Larzelere. In 1870, F. H. Drenning and Joel Holt purchased the office. In 1871, Mr. Holt withdrew, leaving Drenning sole proprietor. He continued its publication until the spring of 1873, when the paper was sold to W. T. Stewart. The latter gentleman published the paper until April, 1877, when the office was removed to Troy. This paper was Republican under all of its proprietors.
The Doniphan County Republican was started November, 1868, by C. G. Bridges, who published it until January, 1871, when he sold it to Beale & Sanborn. In 1874, Sanborn retired from the firm. Mr. Beale continued its publication until June, 1875, when the office was purchased by the proprietor of the Chief, and the Republican was discontinued.
The Doniphan Democrat was started in Doniphan May, 1871, by J. J. Ricketts, and was published about one year. It was edited by Thomas Stivers, the outside of the paper being printed in the Atchison Patriot office.
In the summer of 1872, the Doniphan Herald (Democratic) succeeded the Democrat, being published by Drs. J. J. & W. W. Crook. After a few weeks, it was removed to Leavenworth.
The White Cloud Leader was started in August, 1873, by Yard & Overholt, in the interest of the Grange, but it was published only about two months, when the material was removed to Hiawatha.
The Troy Bulletin was started May, 1877, by C. G. Bridges, using the material of the Wathena Reporter. It was commenced as a Hayes Republican, but, on December 1, changed its politics to Democratic. It was published until January, 1879, when the material was sold and removed to Nebraska.
The Highland Sentinel (Independent) was started in January, 1878, by George F. Hammar, who sold it to E. A. Davis, the publication of which continued but a few months.
In February, 1878, the Sabetha Advance was removed to Wathena by E. A. Davis, and the publication of the Wathena Advance was commenced. It was patent Greenback outside, and its publication was suspended June 7, 1878.
The White Cloud Review was established November 1, 1880, by G. H. and S. I. Holton. The paper was run one year under their management, when it passed into the hands of its present owner, J. M. Beickleman. The Review is a five-column folio, Republican in politics, and has a circulation of about 600 copies.
CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORY FROM THE YEAR 1837, UP TO THE PRESENT TIME.1837 -- Iowa and, Sac Indians cross the Missouri River at Roubideaux Trading Post, now St. Joseph, Mo., and take possession of the northern part of what is now Doniphan County. Missionaries came with them. S. M. Irvin, A. Ballard and their wives. William Hamilton joined them later, the same year.
1838 -- Government issues rations to the Iowas and Sacs, on the banks of the Missouri River, a little above where Iowa Point now stands. Indian wars between the Iowas, Omahas and Sioux.
1839 -- Indian wars between the Iowas and Pawnees. Nine Pawnees slain near where Arago, or St. Stevens, now stands, in Richardson County, Neb.
1840 -- Wars with the Sioux and Omahas and the Iowas. Severe encounter near where Bellevue now stands, in Nebraska.
1841 -- Permanent peace made with the Omahas near the mouth of the Platte River. Government agents and missionaries take part in the peace negotiations.
1842 -- First emigrant train of whites cross the plains for Oregon, on the Pacific coast, led by Peter Burnett; about twenty-five wagons with families pass through what is now Doniphan County.
1843 -- First printing press sent from New York to Iowa and Sac Mission. Perhaps the first printing press sent West of the Missouri River. First Presbyterian Church organized at the Iowa and Sac Mission, consisting of seven members. Two elementary books printed on the Mission press, both English and Indian.
1844 -- Second train of white emigrants of about twenty-five families, led by Capt. Neal Gillkaus, cross the plains to Oregon. First convert to Christianity from the Indians, attended with a revival among the whites that were in the county. Great floods in the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers. Three chiefs and two braves make a trip to Europe under the care of George H. H. Melody, of St. Louis.
1845 -- Mission boarding school building commenced. The structure was 37 x 1O7, and three stories high, built of brick and stone. Lumber shipped from Pittsburgh, Penn. Industrial farm opened and enlarged for the benefit of the Indians under Government agents.
1846 -- Mission building completed, and school opened with over forty scholars; force at the Agency Farm increased, and improvements enlarged. Benjamin Harding located, as an Indian trader, near present site of Highland. Peter Cadue, interpreter for the Kickapoo Indians.
1847 -- This was the year of the great gold excitement in California. Emigrants cross the plains, in spite of the remonstrances of the Government and Indians. Peter Cadue moves from Wathena to Petersburg.
1848 -- Emigration continues, with greatly increased force; not less than 4,000 wagons and teams, with, perhaps, 20,000 men, traveled through what is now Doniphan County. Attempts were made on foot and with wheelbarrows. James F. Forman located.
1849 -- Emigration continues, but with less numbers. A grammar of the Iowa language was published at the Iowa and Sac Mission, compiled by S. M. Irvin; a copy is preserved by the State Historical Society.
1850 -- Small-pox breaks out among the Indians; eleven cases in the Mission School, with but one death. Cholera makes its appearance.
1851 -- Cholera rages along the river and among the Indians, with considerable mortality, and causes great alarm.
1852 -- T. J. Sutherland makes an effort to establish a colony and settlement west of the Indian reserve on the Big Blue and Sandy Rivers, contrary to the rules of the Department at Washington and laws of Congress, but died at the mission during the summer. Trading posts established at Bellemont, Wathena and Elwood.
1853 -- Chiefs of the Iowa and Sac tribes go to Washington, to make a treaty with the Government in regard to their lands. Trading post established at Doniphan. The fortieth parallel between Kansas and Nebraska was established by Capt. Thomas J. Lee, of the Topographical Engineer Corps, United States Army. J. P. Johnson established the initial point on the west bank of the Missouri, and ran the line one hundred miles west. Daniel Vanderslice established the boundary lines of the Iowa and the Sac and Fox Reservations.
May 10, 1854 -- A treaty was signed by the President, by which the Indians relinquished their right to the lands in Doniphan County. June 24 -- First meeting of Squatters' Association, at Whitehead; Kansas Territory organized. November 24 -- First election for Delegate to Congress held at residence of B. Harding, Wathena.
1855 -- immigration of whites into the Territory, and aboriginal history ends. March 30, 1855 -- Election of members to the Territorial Legislature: Messrs. Richardson, Blair and Dunning. September 17, 1855 -- Organization of county; county divided into five municipal townships. Troy was made county seat.First meeting of the County Commissioners at Whitehead, October, 1855. Election held for Delegates to United States Congress. People voted for Liquor License, October 17, 1855. County Commissioners met and began the location of a territorial road from St. Joseph to Marysville, on the Blue River, December 17, 1855. Specifications for court house and jail at Troy adopted, and sealed proposals asked for bids to be opened
January 21, 1856. Court house to be finished by third Monday in April, and jail, third Monday in June.January 21, 1856. -- Plans modified for court house. April 22, 1856. -- Contract modified to $1,650, to be completed September, 1856, B. O. Driscol, contractor. May 17, 1856, School Districts No. 1, 2, 3 and 4 legally organized in Township 3, Range 22. July 22, 1856, specifications for jail approved and adopted by County Commissioners. October 1, 1856, first election held at Troy for election of members to Legislative Assembly of the Territory. October 20, 1856, first meeting of County Commissioners, at Troy.
January 3, 1857. -- Election for delegates to form a constitution for the State of Kansas. United States land office located at Doniphan. January 18, thermometer 25° below zero. June 15, election of delegates to the Lecompton Constitutional Convention. July 21, County Board order a well dug in front of court house. July 4, land sales held at White Cloud. November, the Highland Presbytery appointed nine trustees to take charge of the University. 1857-58, the Highland University received a charter from the Territorial Legislature.
1858. -Iowa Point at the height of its prosperity. A steam ferry built. Post office established at Highland fall of 1858. First sorghum manufactured in the county. December 29, an Order of Free Masons established at Doniphan. Winter of 1858-59, Elwood Advertiser changed its name to the Elwood Free Press.
January, 1859. -The Highlander established at Highland. The New York Tribune contains a sketch of Elwood. June 21, changes made in the boundaries of Washington, Centre, Burr Oak, Marion, Iowa, Wayne end Wolf River Townships. July, people vote on the Wayandotte Constitution. Decline of Bellemont. November 8, people vote for Territorial Delegate to Congress.
1860. -The Roseport & Palmetto Railroad, the first railroad in the State, build four miles of road, from St. Joseph to Wathena. June, population of Doniphan County, 8,083. A steam grist-mill is built at Geary City. Fall of 1860, Troy Dispatch established. December 18, an article appears in the New York Daily Times, giving a sketch of Elwood.
January 26, 1861. -- Kansas becomes a State. March 26. -- Meeting of the first State Legislature. T. A. Osborn and H. N. Seaver are elected to the Senate; F. W. Emery, T. P. Herrick, W. C. Kimber and A. Low are elected Representatives from this county. July, Company A, Seventh Kansas Cavalry, is organized at Highland. Post office is established at Normanville. Doniphan commences to decline. A company of militia is stationed at Iowa Point.
April, 1862. -- The Doniphan County Patriot is established at Troy. St. Benedict's Church is organized in Union Township. A disastrous fire occurs at Iowa Point, destroying the business portion of the place.
March 3, 1863. -- All persons subject to military duty are notified.
February, 1864. -- The Investigator is established at Troy. A grist-mill built at Palermo. October, 1865, Congregational Church at Highwood organized.
1865. -Troy Reporter established.October, 1866. -- The post office at Wathena made a money order office.
April, 1867. -- Wathena Reporter is established at Wathena. Destruction of the steam ferry at White Cloud. Spring, 1867, court house at Troy is destroyed by fire. November 5, vote of Doniphan County on the various propositions to amend the Constitution of the State: For striking out the word "white," 388 against 1,425; for striking out the word "male,” 358 against 1,390; for restricting the elective franchise, 576 against 1,120. Missouri River overflows its banks.
January 27, 1868. -- A society of' Freemasons organized at Wathena. The Roseport & Palmetto Railroad changes its name to the St. Joseph & Denver City Railroad. March -- 116 names enrolled on the register at Highland University. Present court house completed. November -- Presidential election; Doniphan County casts 1,573 Republican and 721 Democratic votes.
February 26, 1869. -- A society of Odd Fellows is organized in Wathena. East Norway laid off. Severance located.
1870. -- Post offices established at Highland Station and Fanning. June -- United States census; population of Doniphan County, 13,969. St. Joseph & Elwood Railroad built.
January 27, 1871. -- A society of Odd Fellows organized at Highland. May-The Democrat established at Doniphan. February-Work commences on the Missouri River bridge at Elwood.
January 31, 1872. -- The caisson for Pier No. 5, for the St. Joe bridge placed in position. Grist-mill built at Fanning. July 17 --Money order office established at Highland. November -- Presidential election; 1,777 Republican and 1,094 Democratic votes are cast.
January 10, 1873. -- The first span on the St. Joe and Elwood bridge is placed into position. Post office established at East Norway. May -- First locomotive crosses the bridge at Elwood. June 15 -- Town site of Leona is surveyed. August -- The Leader is established at White Cloud.
1874. -- Depot built at Severance.
1875. -Population of Doniphan County, 13,943; population of Wayne Township, 2,060. Colored Baptist Church organized at White Cloud.
1876. -- Population of county, 12,831. November -- Presidential election, Doniphan County cast 1,644 Republican and 1,032 Democratic votes.
1877. -- 5,650 school children in the county. May -- The Bulletin is established at Troy. September 17 -- A society of Odd Fellows organized at Severance. Severance, incorporated.
1878. -- Population of Doniphan County, 15,122. Iron on the St. Joseph & Topeka Railroad taken up. July 10 -- Union Township is organized.* June -- Highland Sentinal (sic) established.
October, 1879. -- School building erected at Leona. October -- Doniphan County Horticultural Society organized.
1880. -- Baptist Church organized at Leona. July 16 -- A society of Knights of Honor organized at White Cloud. November -- Presidential election; 2,067 Republican and 1,143 Democratic votes cast for Presidential electors; 2,150 votes were cast against and 821 for the Constitutional Amendment prohibiting the sale and manufacture of intoxicating liquors. United States census; population, 14,258.
July, 1881. -- A society of Knights of Honor organized in Highland. Summer Irish Land League organized at Troy.
1882. -Publication of Doniphan County Historical Plat Book.