THE WAKARUSA WAR.In the fall of 1855, Franklin Coleman, a Pro-slavery settler, and Charles W. Dow, a Free-Soiler, had a dispute in regard to a claim at Hickory Point. Coleman killed Dow November 21. The Free-State men held a meeting the next day at the scene of the murder, and appointed a committee to procure the punishment of the murderer. That night, Sheriff Jones, attended by a posse of fourteen men, arrested Jacob Branson, with whom Dow had lived, for taking part in the meeting. On their way to Lecompton, the Sheriff's party were confronted by fifteen Free-State men, who demanded the release of Branson; he was released at once.
Sheriff Jones sent a dispatch to Gov. Shannon, giving a colored version of the rescue, and asking for 8,000 men. The Shawnee Legislature had appointed three officers of the militia. To these, Maj. Gen. Richardson, Gen. Strickler and Brig. Gen. Eastin, Gov. Shannon sent orders to prepare to meet an armed military force in Lawrence or its vicinity, which would not allow the Sheriff to serve any process. The militia from Westport and Independence, Mo., arrived November 29, and, camped at Franklin, four miles from Franklin, at the mouth of the Wakarusa. Within three days, 1,500 men were in camp, all except eighty being from Missouri. Dr. Robinson was placed in command of the forces in Lawrence, with Col. Lane as his second. Free-State companies from Bloomington, Wakarusa, Palmyra and other places, swelled the number of the defenders of the town to nearly eighteen hundred. Gov. Shannon, at the request of Gen. Eastin, telegraphed to President Pierce to obtain the assistance of the troops in Fort Leavenworth. The President answered favorably; but, owing to delays in the War Department at Washington, the troops did not leave the fort.
On December 5, Messrs. Lowery and Babcock succeeded in eluding the besiegers, and obtained an interview with the Governor. When he was informed of the true state of the affair, Gov. Shannon perceived that the Sheriff had greatly exaggerated the facts. He immediately proceeded to the Wakarusa camp to prevent bloodshed, if possible. Through his efforts, a treaty was made, and the Pro-slavery militia disbanded December 9. The troops of the Free-Soil party disbanded two days later.
December 6, Thomas W. Barber, a Free-State man, was shot by George W. Clarke, while on his way from Lawrence to his farm; this was the only blood shed during the war.
The Topeka Constitution was adopted December 15, 1855, by a vote of 1,781 in favor of it, and 46 against it. On the 15th of January, 1856, an election for State officers, who should take their offices when Kansas should be admitted as a State, under the Topeka Constitution, was held.
The Legislature elected in January, assembled at Topeka March 4, organized both Houses, and elected two United States Senators - James H. Lane and Andrew H. Reeder. The State officers were sworn in. A memorial to Congress was prepared, asking admission into the Union. On March 15, the Legislature adjourned to re-assemble in the same place on the 4th of July, 1856.
Companies of armed men from the Southern States were now gathering on the border of Kansas. April 19, Sheriff Jones attempted to arrest those who had rescued Branson; they refused to recognize his authority, and he called upon the United States troops to assist him; when he appeared with the troops on the 23rd, no resistance was offered, and he made the arrests. About 10 oUclock that night, Jones was shot and wounded. The citizens of Lawrence denounced the deed and offered $500 reward for the conviction of the offender, but he was never discovered.
The armed forces gathered at the Missouri River, began to advance upon Lawrence. The United States Marshal, J. B. Donaldson, issued a proclamation, calling upon the "law-abiding citizens of the Territory" to muster at Lecompton in sufficient numbers to enforce the laws; this was circulated chiefly in Western Missouri, and was promptly answered by those who were waiting for it. The fact that United States troops were with the invaders, deterred the citizens of Lawrence from making any resistance. May 21, 1856, Sheriff Jones entered Lawrence with a body of armed men. The Free State Hotel and the offices of the Herald of Freedom and the Kansas Free State were destroyed. Stores were broken open and pillaged, and the dwelling-house of Charles Robinson was burned. The wanton destruction of property in Lawrence led to retaliation by bands of Free-State men in different parts of the Territory. The most conspicuous leader of these forces was Capt. John Brown. Bands of armed men of both parties rode over the country, killing and plundering each other. The Free-State Legislature met in Topeka July 4, 1856. Col. Sumner appeared at the head of the United States troops, and, in obedience to the President's proclamation, dispersed the Legislature.
Gov. Shannon was removed August 21, 1856, and Secretary Woodson was again the Acting Governor.
Col. Lane was returning from the East with a large number of immigrants. As the Missouri River was blockaded against Free-State immigrants, he was leading them through Iowa and Nebraska. When Secretary Woodson heard of the approach of "Lane's army," he declared the Territory in a state of insurrection, and called out the militia August 25. On that day, 150 Missourians camped near Ossawatomie, and were attacked and routed by a party of Free State men. Another force of Missourians demolished Ossawatomie, having murdered Frederick Brown, a son of John Brown, the day before. These acts only increased the zeal of the Free State men, and the guerrilla warfare became fiercer than ever.
John W. Geary, the new Governor, arrived in Leavenworth, having, on his way to Kansas, procured a promise from the Governor of Missouri that the blockade of the river should be raised. Immediately on his arrival, he issued a proclamation ordering the militia to disband. He initiated a system of special agents, to supply him with complete reports as to the public feeling and the several dangers of which he had beard. He found nearly three thousand men at the old camp in the Wakarusa bottom, imploring to be led on to the destruction of Lawrence. In the city, he found only 300 men, under Col. Harvey. Gov. Geary ordered the invaders to disperse and return to their homes. They obeyed, but not without inflicting all the injury of which they were capable upon the settlers. This ended the guerrilla warfare, though many depredations were committed afterward by both parties.
The Territorial Legislature assembled at Lecompton January 12, 1857. The members were enraged at Gov. Geary for sending their Missouri friends home, and used every means in their power to show their malignant hate. It now became apparent to the Governor that he was surrounded by deadly enemies. Gen. Smith, who had succeeded Col. Sumner at Fort Leavenworth, refused to send troops for his protection. The moneys due to him from Washington were withheld, and his dispatches unnoticed. On the 5th of March, he resigned, his resignation to take effect March 20; but he was obliged to fly for his life before the morning of the 5th.
Secretary Woodson was, for a third time, Acting Governor. April 15, be was superseded by Fred P. Stanton, who had been appointed Secretary, and who acted as Governor until the arrival of Gov. Walker, May 27, 1857.
The Free State Legislature met at Topeka June 9. They ordered a new census, provided for an election of State officers in August and located the capital at Topeka. October 5, at the election for Delegate to Congress and for the Territorial Legislature, the Free State party was successful, electing M. J. Parrott as Delegate, and electing over two thirds of the members of the Council and nearly two-thirds of the Representatives.
The Pro-Slavery Constitutional Convention was organized at Lecompton. After working four days, it adjourned to October 19. After two weeks more of work, the instrument known as the Lecompton Constitution was framed and signed. In November, Gov. Walker visited Washington, and, while there, resigned. Secretary Stanton became Acting Governor; he called the extra session of the Legislature. It convened on December 7, at Lecompton, and repealed the law under which the Lecompton Constitution was made possible. Congress was memorialized, and preparations made for a new and fair election in regard to the Constitution.
Before the adjournment of the Legislature, Secretary Stanton was removed and Gen. Denver appointed to succeed him as Secretary and Acting Governor.
At the election on January 4, 1857, to elect officers under the Lecompton Constitution, the Free State party elected all their candidates and two-thirds of the Legislature.
There were now three governments in Kansas - two provisional State and one Territorial Government - all controlled by the Free State party.
The Territorial Legislature met in Lecompton January 4, 1858, and adjourned to Lawrence; there it repealed and amended the laws which had been enacted by the Shawnee Legislature. -
May 12, Secretary Denver took the oath of office as Governor, and Hugh S. Walsh as Secretary.
The Leavenworth Constitution was framed at Leavenworth, and signed April 3, 1858, and adopted by the people May 18; State officers and a Legislature under the Constitution were also elected May 18. Gov. Denver resigned September 5, 1858, and Secretary Walsh became Acting Governor. December 17, Samuel Medary, who had been appointed Governor, arrived in Lecompton, and assumed the duties of his office.
On the 15th of June, 1859, a Convention met in Wyandotte, and framed the Constitution which became the basis of the admission of Kansas into the Union. This was the first Constitutional Convention in which both political parties were represented. The Constitution framed by this Convention prohibited slavery in the State, and located the State capital, temporarily, at Topeka. The election of State officers under this Constitution, December 6, 1859, resulted in the choice of Dr. Charles Robinson for Governor; Joseph P. Root, Lieutenant Governor; J. W. Robinson, Secretary of State; William Tholen, Treasurer; G. S. Hillyer, Auditor; William R. Griffith, Superintendent of Public Instruction; Thomas Ewing, Jr., Chief Justice; S. A. Kingman and L. D. Bailey, Associate Justices; B. F. Simpson, Attorney General, and M. P. Conway, Representative.
May 7, 1860, Hugh S. Walsh was removed, and George M. Beebe was appointed Secretary. In January, 1861, Gov. Medary resigned, and Secretary Beebe acted as Governor until he was superseded by Gov. Robinson.
STATE HISTORY.While the people were fighting over the question of slavery in the Territory, the four Constitutions which they had framed were being considered by Congress. A majority of the House of Representatives were in favor of admitting Kansas as a free State, while a majority of the Senate wished it to become a slave State. In April, 1858, Congress passed the compromise bill, known as the REnglish bill," which provided for the admission of Kansas under the Lecompton Constitution, upon certain conditions, which the people of the Territory rejected.
Other bills were introduced in the House and Senate, but nothing was effected until after the withdrawal of the rebel Senators, in January, 1861. Congress then passed the bill for the admission of Kansas into the Union, under the Wyandotte Constitution. President Buchanan signed the bill January 29, 1861, and Kansas became a State.
The last Territorial Legislature was then in session at Lawrence; it adjourned February 2. Gov. Robinson was sworn into office February 9, and called a session of the Legislature.
The first State Legislature assembled at Topeka March 26, 1861. November 5, 1861, the State capital was permanently located at Topeka, by a vote of the people.
In June, 1862, John W. Robinson, Secretary of State, and George S. Hillyer, Auditor, were impeached for defrauding the State in the sale of the State bonds.
KANSAS WAR RECORD.No other State in the Union sent so large a proportion of its population to the front as did Kansas, the youngest State of the Union. There were 9,000 soldiers from Kansas in the field in February, 1862. In October, 1863, Kansas had furnished 4,440 troops in excess of all calls. The first draft began in February, 1865, because full credit had not been given; it continued for only a month. Kansas furnished, in all, 21,806 men, besides three regiments of Indians, which were recruited in Kansas, and officered, originally, almost exclusively by citizens of Kansas.
Kansas towns suffered severely, at different times, from raids of the rebels.
September 7, 1862, the rebel guerrilla, Quantrell, entered Olathe, killed several men, robbed the stores and destroyed the newspaper offices. A month later, he again entered Johnson County on, a similar raid.
Early in the summer of 1863, Quantrell, at the head of a large band, entered Olathe about midnight. They took most of the citizens prisoners, and kept them till their work was done. They then plundered the town, carried off what they wanted, destroyed other property, killed some seven men and left before daylight. Some time after, they sacked the town of Shawnee twice, and burned most of the town.
About daylight on the morning of August 21, 1863, Quantrell, with 800 men, dashed into the streets of Lawrence with a yell, shooting at everybody they saw. Some of the citizens escaped into the fields and woods, but the larger portion could not escape at all; numbers of these were shot down, and often brutally mangled. The rebels entered the place about 5 o'clock, and left between 9 and 10. One hundred and forty-three were left dead in the streets, and about thirty desperately wounded. The main street was all burned but two stores. They destroyed something near two millions of property, and left eighty widows and two hundred and fifty orphans as the result of their four hours' work. Scenes of brutality were enacted which have never been surpassed in savage warfare.
October 6, 1868, Gen. Blunt, with a small cavalry escort, was attacked, near Baxter's Springs, by Quantrell, with 600 guerrillas, and most of his small escort killed or disabled.
When Gen. Price was defeated by the Union army, on the Big Blue River, in Missouri, he retreated into Kansas, crossing the State line in Linn County, October 28, 1864. The next day, there was a skirmish at Coldwater Grove. On the 26th, three battles were fought - one near Mound City, one on the Little Osage and another on the Marmoton - the rebels retreating each time, and leaving the State south-east of Fort Scott.
Kansas has suffered comparatively little from Indian depredations. The most serious troubles were in 1864 and 1867. In the former year, the Indians made a raid upon the settlers on the Little Blue, west of Marysville.
In June, 1867, the Indians killed some of the employes of the Kansas Pacific Railroad, and committed other depredations. Gov. Crawford called out a volunteer battalion of four regiments, who soon restored peace on the frontier.
Since that time, the history of Kansas has been a peaceful one, and what was once the scene of almost daily bloodshed and warfare, is now a great, prosperous and peaceful State.
Below is given a list of the Governors of Kansas Territory:
The State of Kansas:
HISTORY OF DONIPHAN COUNTY, KANSASThe object of this history is to preserve from the oblivion to which it is so rapidly tending some account of the experiences of that race of intrepid men and women who paved the way for that remarkable development which this country has so recently experienced, to give some dates and statistics of its importance, and to record other matters of interest, too valuable to be lost. Many of the actors in the drama of colonization have already passed from the stage, and with them has vanished all record of some of the exciting scenes in which they were participants.
The history of the native Indian tribes is somewhat meager. That powerful nation of the Indians, called the Pawnees, which, in all probability, had once held almost undisputable sway over this country, had, long before the arrival of the white man, given place to a race of Indians known as Iowas. This people, too, soon vanished before the "onward march of civilization."
ABORIGINAL OWNERS OF THE LANDS OF DONIPHAN COUNTY, KAN.The land of Doniphan County was part of the public domain, or of the "Great American Desert," as it was called until the year 1837, when it was ceded, by the General Government, to the Kick-a-poo, Sac and Iowa Indians. The Kick-a-poos possessed that part lying south of a line running west from a point on the Missouri River, near whore Belmont was laid out. North of this line, the Sacs held a reserve of fifty sections. Their northern boundary run (sic) through the section north of Highland, and extended west for quantity. North of this, the Iowas owned all of what is now Doniphan County.
These respective tribes possessed and controlled this land until the year 1854, when, by treaty, all the lands belonging to these tribes, in Doniphan County, were relinquished to the Government, and became a part of the State of Kansas. The Kickapoos moved south. The Iowas and Sacs moved to that part of their own reserves which lies near the mouth of the Nemaha River, where they still remain (1882).
The Iowas, at the time of their taking possession of this land, in 1837, numbered over 800 souls. On leaving this part of their lands, in 1854, they numbered about 300.
The Sacs, on coming in, numbered 300; on removal, in 1854, numbered only about 125.
The Iowas, in 1837, were led and governed by four chiefs, respectively White Cloud, No-Heart, Walking-in-the-rain and Walking Cloud. These chiefs all passed away during their sojourn in this part of the land.
The Sac band was under the lead of a brave called Hesoquat or Bear-in-the-fork-of-a-tree, assisted by two so-called chiefs, all of whom have since disappeared.
EARLY EXPLORERS.Thirty years ago, there was scarcely a vestige of civilization in that part of Kansas now known as Doniphan County. For untold ages it had been covered with a waving sea of wild grasses; vast herds of buffaloes had, for numberless years, wandered almost unmolested across it. Its solitude had been broken only by occasional bands of nomadic savages in search of prey or plunder. It was a part of that section of country which old geographers had christened the "Great American Desert," "a barren waste, incapable of agricultural production, and uninhabitable." But it could not always remain a terra incognita. The advancing wave of that great tide of civilization which had crossed the Atlantic, and transferred a wilderness into an empire, must at length reach this part of the American continent. That part of Kansas now known as Doniphan County was crossed by Maj. Stephen H. Long in 1819 or 1820. We extract the following from a book entitled, "Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, performed in the years 1819 and 1820, by order of John C. Calhoun, Secretary of War, under the command of Maj. Stephen H. Long:"
"The country southwest of the Missouri, between the Konzas and the Platte, is drained principally by Wolf River and the great Nemahaw. These rivers, like the Nodoway and Nishnebottona, which enter the Missouri nearly opposite them, from the northeast, rise in the prairies at an elevation of probably forty or fifty feet above the level of the Missouri. As they descend, their valleys become gradually wider, embosom a few trees, and at length, near their entrance into the Missouri Valley, are forests of considerable extent. The surface of these prairies presents a constant succession of small rounded hills, becoming larger and more abrupt as you approach the beds of the rivers. The soil is deep, reposing usually on horizontal beds of argillaceous sandstone and secondary limestone. * * * * The soil superimposed upon these strata of limestone is a calcareous loam. Near the rivers it is intermixed with sand; this is also the case with the soil of the high prairies about the Konzas village. * * * * The prairies, for many miles on each side, produce abundance of good pasturage; but as far as our observation has extended, the best soil is a margin from ten to twelve miles in breadth along the western bank of the river. In the summer, very little water is to be found in the prairies, all the smaller streams failing. Even though the season be not unusually dry, on account of the want of wood and water, the settlements will be for a long time confined to the immediate valleys of the Missouri, the Konzas and the larger rivers; but it is probable forests will hereafter be cultivated in these vast woodless regions, which now form so great a proportion of the country; and wells may be made to supply the deficiency of running water."
GEOGRAPHICAL AND TOPOGRAPHICAL.Doniphan is in the first tier of counties south of Nebraska, and west of the Missouri River. It is bounded on the north and east by the Missouri River, on the south by Atchison County, and on the west by Brown County. The Missouri River, bounding the county on the north and east, gives the county 92 miles of river front. The greatest length of the county north and south is 27 miles, and its greatest width is 25 miles.
The county contains 379 square miles, or 242,569 acres of land. About 110,000 acres are under cultivation. The bottom lands are about 25 per cent; the uplands about 75 per cent; forest (Government survey), 16 per cent; prairie, 84 per cent; average width of bottoms, one mile.
The general surface of the County is undulating. A writer in the North American Review gives the following admirable description of the matchless topography of Kansas in general, but applicable in every sense to this county:
"The most perfect display of the prairies is found in the Eastern parts of Kansas and Nebraska. It is no exaggeration to pronounce this region, as left by the hand of Nature, the most beautiful country in its landscape upon the face of the earth. Here the forest is restricted to narrow fringes along the rivers and streams, the courses of which are thus defined as far as the eye can reach, whilst all between is a broad expanse of meadow lands, carpeted with the richest verdure and wearing the appearance of artistically graded lawns. They are familiarly called the rolling prairies, because the land rises and falls in gentle swells, which attain an elevation of thirty feet, more or less, and descends again to within the original level within a distance of one or more miles. The crest-lines of these motionless waves of land intersect each other at every conceivable angle, the effect of which is to bring into view the most extended landscape, and to show the dark green foliage of the forest trees skirting streams in pleasing contrast with the light green of the prairie grasses. In their spring covering of vegetation, these prairies wear the semblance of an old and once highly cultivated country, from the soil of which every inequality of surface, every stone and every bush has been carefully removed, and the surface rolled down to absolute uniformity. The marvel is suggested how Nature could have kept these verdant fields in such luxuriance after man had apparently abandoned them to waste."
The principal streams are as follows: Wolf River runs north, entering through the north and west portions of the county. Independence Creek and its tributaries drain the southern portion of the county, and Peter's Creek is the largest in the eastern part. Other small creeks flow into the Missouri River.
The county is well supplied with springs, and good well-water can be reached at from ten to sixty feet.
The timber supply of Doniphan is better, perhaps, than that of any county in the State. All the streams have borders or belts of timber, varying from forty rods to three miles in width. These streams are so well distributed over the county that the distribution of timber could hardly be better equalized. The native varieties are cottonwood white, black, red, swamp and burr oak; white and water elm, linden, sycamore, willow, maple, black walnut, box-elder, hickory and numerous smaller varieties.
ORGANIZATION.Doniphan County was organized on Monday, September 15, 1855. The County Court consisted at that time of J. P. Blair, A. Dunning, E. V. B. Rogers, County Commissioners; C. B. Whitehead, Sheriff; and J. A. Van Arsdale, Clerk pro tem.
The first order made by the board, dated September 15, 1855, was that J. A. Van Arsdale be appointed Clerk pro tem., to serve as such until a Clerk be duly appointed and qualified.
The following is the oath of office of one of the first Sheriffs:
UNITED STATES of AMERICA,
C. B. Whitehead. Sworn to and subscribed before the undersigned, this 29th day of September, A. D. 1855. [L. S.] Joel P. Blair, Judge Probate Court. C. C. K. T.
On Monday, September 17, 1855, the county of Doniphan was divided into five municipial (sic) townships, called Iowa, Wolf River, Burr Oak, Washington and Wayne.
In 1856, the county was re-organized into seven townships: Iowa, Wolf River, Burr Oak, Washington, Wayne, Center and Marion. Union Township was organized in 1879, making eight townships in the county at the present time.
Name. - The county, when organized, was named Doniphan in honor of Col. A. W. Doniphan, of Clay County, Mo., who commanded a regiment of Missouri cavalry during the Mexican war. Marching across the plains, he took a leading part in the conquest of New Mexico. He was a zealous partisan in the agitation which arose in the opening of Kansas Territory to settlement. The county seat was first established at a point called Whitehead, on the Missouri River, about six miles from St. Joseph. The name of the town was afterward changed to Bellemont.
Troy was selected as the county seat of justice in the fall of 1855, but the court house was not built until the summer of 1856. The first meeting of the County Commissioners at Troy was October 20, 1856. They met in the new court house, which still stands where it was built, on the north side of the public square, and is the first story of what is now known as the Higby House.
PIONEER LIFE.Pioneer life, in all time, has been characterized by incidents peculiar either to the locality or the make-up of the pioneers themselves. Western pioneer life has been subjected to conditions common to the experience of all. The primary element in the composition of those who have battled successfully with the privations and hardships incident to settlements on the frontier, without companions, save their "household gods," the inhabitants of the prairie or forest in human or animal form, away from the echoes of civilization, depending for protection from savage or border ruffian, and for the means of subsistence, upon his own right arm, inured to toil, was "pluck," backed by a deliberate purpose to succeed. Thus endowed, the pioneer, having first determined whore his home should be, proceeds to the erection of his cabin after the prescribed model. Descriptively, it was composed of round logs, with a door cut out on one side large enough to permit ingress and egress, with a small section cut from an upper and a lower of two adjacent logs for a window, on another side. Several logs were entirely cut away for a fireplace. The cabin was covered with clapboards kept down by weight-poles, kept apart by the refuse of clapboard lumber.
The furniture was all unique and peculiar. Blocks of wood or benches, instead of chairs, the table being sometimes the "family chest. " The cabin being completed and furnished, "breaking prairie" was the next thing in order; then preparing the ground for the first crop of wheat or corn. Before this first crop matured, supplies were necessarily drawn from other available sources which could be found at the trading- posts and stores along the Missouri River.
At that time, the prairies abounded with various kinds of game. Herds of buffaloes, elk, antelope and other game were frequently seen as late as 1853. Since then, Eastern hunters have made sad havoc with these animals, and very few of them can now be found in the State of Kansas.
The first settlement in Doniphan County was made in 1837, by the Rev. S. M. Irvin, at the "Mission," about two miles east of the present town site of Highland. We give below the names of the oldest or first settlers, as far as they can be ascertained:
From 1847 to 1854, J. R. Whitehead, Peter Cadue, Z. Hays, Benj. Harding, W. D. Rippy, J. F., W. H. and H. Forman, J. W. Pemberton, Joe Utt, and others. In 1854, S. Anderson, H. N. Beauchamp, W. H. H. Curtis, R. P. Curtis, G. Gerardy, W. M. Hamner, J. H. Harper, J. Harding, N. Lancaster, C. Poirier, A. F. Payne, J. Randolph, W. K. Shaw, W. G. Tate, R. M. Williams, B. S. Wharton, and others. In 1855, W. H. Bayless, W. H. Deckard, S. D., M. and W. R. Gilmore, A. H. Groniger, M. J. Larson, D. Lee, D. Landis, A. J. Minier, J. McNemee, D. Miller, G. B. Nuzum, J. R. Pierson, P. Plank, L. D. Stocking, X. K. Stout, L. Rullman, R. Tracy, J. F. Wilson, W. T. Wood. In 1856, A. Bennett, E. Collins, N. T. Collins, W. Chapple, J. H. Earhark, W. H. Forbes, P. Groh, J. F. Henpson, W. Hill, C. Jackson, P. E. Iles, A. Kent, J. Kent, J. Leigh, S. B. Marcum, R. C. Mailer, J. F. Mauck, E. Moetinger, J. H. Martin, H. Swinney, A. R. Renfro, F. Sinker, J. L. Taliman, H. C. Nykert.
During the years 1857 and 1858, the county settled up very rapidly.