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SARRETT/SARRATT/SURRATT Families of America (SFA)©
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Korean War 1950-1953

MCRD Boot Camp, MCRD, San Diego, Calif. - Click on Thumbnail for Larger Photo! My Cousin: USMC Staff-Sgt Kenny E. CHRISTENSEN, (1929~1996 66yrs, Coin, Iowa) - Click on Thumbnail for Larger Photo!  These pages were created and designed with cooperation of my late Cousin, Kenny E. CHRISTENSEN, dec'd (1929~1996, 66yrs) Coin, Page Co., Iowa. He was a USMC, Staff-Sgt. with the 1st Bat., 1st Division and was at Click on Redball for More Info.<--- The Battle of Inchon (Sep 15th to 19th, 1950) and at Click on Redball for More Info.<--- The Battle of Chosin Reservoir (Nov 27th to Dec 13, 1950)....Paul R. sarrett, Jr. [USMC 1959-1964]

Korea Territory changing hands 1950 to 1953      The Korean War (25 June 1950 Armistice signed 27 July 1953) was a military conflict between South Korea, supported by the United Nations, and North Korea, supported by the People's Republic of China (PRC), with military material aid from the Soviet Union. The war was a result of the physical division of Korea by an agreement of the victorious Allies at the conclusion of the Pacific War at the end of World War II.
     The Korean peninsula was ruled by Japan from 1910 until the end of World War II. Following the surrender of Japan in 1945, American administrators divided the peninsula along the 38th Parallel, with United States troops occupying the southern part and Soviet troops occupying the northern part.
     The failure to hold free elections throughout the Korean Peninsula in 1948 deepened the division between the two sides, and the North established a Communist government. The 38th Parallel increasingly became a political border between the two Koreas. Although reunification negotiations continued in the months preceding the war, tension intensified. Cross-border skirmishes and raids at the 38th Parallel persisted. The situation escalated into open warfare when North Korean forces invaded South Korea on 25 June 1950. It was the first significant armed conflict of the Cold War.

     The United Nations, particularly the United States, came to the aid of South Korea in repelling the invasion. A rapid UN counter-offensive drove the North Koreans past the 38th Parallel and almost to the Yalu River, and the People's Republic of China (PRC) entered the war on the side of the North. The Chinese launched a counter-offensive that pushed the United Nations forces back across the 38th Parallel. The Soviet Union materially aided the North Korean and Chinese armies. In 1953, the war ceased with an armistice that restored the border between the Koreas near the 38th Parallel and created the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), a 2.5-mile (4.0 km) wide buffer zone between the two Koreas. Minor outbreaks of fighting continue to the present day.

     With both North and South Korea sponsored by external powers, the Korean War was a proxy war. From a military science perspective, it combined strategies and tactics of World War I and World War II: it began with a mobile campaign of swift infantry attacks followed by air bombing raids, but became a static trench war by July 1951.

USMC 1st Marine Division - Click on Thumbnail for Larger Photo!      The 1st Marine Division is a marine infantry division of the United States Marine Corps headquartered at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California. It is a subordinate unit of the "I Marine Expeditionary Force" (I MEF). It is the oldest and largest active duty division in the United States Marine Corps, representing a combat-ready force of more than 19,000 men and women. It is one of three active duty divisions in the Marine Corps today and is a multi-role, expeditionary ground combat force. It was nicknamed "The Old Breed".
 1950, Jun 25th  North Korean forces invade South Korea.
 1950, Aug 02nd  1st Marine Provisional Brigade lands at "Pusan", South Korea.
 1950, Sep 15th  1st Marine Division makes assault landing at "Inchon" on the West coast of Korea, retakes "Seoul".
 1950, Nov 02nd  Marines engage Chinese Communists in North Korea near the "Chosin Reservoir".
 1950, Nov 23rd,  Thanksgiving Day, 7th Marines take "Yudam-ni."
 1950, Nov 28th  After repulsing8 Chinese Divisions, 1st Marines begin epic "Breakout" on December 1st.
 1951, Apr 09th  President TRUMAN relieves Gen. MacARTHUR.
 1951, Jun 20th  1st Marine Division reaches "The Punchbowl" in Korea.
 1952, Jun 28th  Congress sets US Marines Corps' strength and gives USMC Commandant equal status on the Joint Chiefs of Staff in matters of curnsern in the USMC.
 1953, Jul 27th  Armistice signed at "Punmunjon" Korea.

The Battle of Inchon, Korea ~ Sep 15th to 19th 1950
Map of Incheon, South Korea, in pink coloring - Click on Thumbnail for Larger Photo! Map of the The beach of Pohang, where U.N. forces landed unopposed in 1950 - Click on Thumbnail for Larger Photo! Four tank landing ships unload men and equipment on Red Beach one day after the amphibious landings on Inchon. - Click on Thumbnail for Larger Photo! U.S. Marines engaged in urban warfare during the battle for Seoul in late September 1950. The Marines are armed with an M1 rifle and an M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle. On the street are Korean civilians who died in the battle. In the distance are M4 Sherman tanks.; . Marine Corps Photograph, NHHC Collection. - Click on Thumbnail for Larger Photo! Photo # 80-G-420024 Inchon Invasion, September 1950.; U.S. Marine Corps Photograph, NHHC Collection. - Click on Thumbnail for Larger Photo! Photo # 80-G-420044 Pre-Invasion, Bombardment at Inchon, September 1950; U.S. Marine Corps Photograph, NHHC Collection. - Click on Thumbnail for Larger Photo! Photo # NH 42351 Landing craft approach Red Beach, Inchon, 15 Sep 1950; U.S. Marine Corps Photograph, NHHC Collection. - Click on Thumbnail for Larger Photo!
Marines in the Korean War 002.jpg; U.S. Marine Corps Photograph, NHHC Collection. - Click on Thumbnail for Larger Photo! Marines enroute to Inchon 001.jpg; U.S. Marine Corps Photograph, NHHC Collection. - Click on Thumbnail for Larger Photo! Marines at Inchon, 1950.jpg; U.S. Marine Corps Photograph, NHHC Collection. - Click on Thumbnail for Larger Photo! Photo #: NH 96876 Inchon Invasion, September 1950; First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez, USMC, leads the 3rd Platoon, Company A, 1st Battalion, 5th Marines over the seawall on the northern side of Red Beach, as the second assault wave lands, 15 September 1950. Wooden scaling ladders are in use to facilitate disembarkation from the LCVP that brought these men to the shore.  Lt. Lopez was killed in action within a few minutes, while assaulting a North Korean bunker. Note M-1 Carbine carried by Lt. Lopez, M-1 Rifles of other Marines and details of the Marines' field gear.; U.S. Marine Corps Photograph, NHHC Collection. - Click on Thumbnail for Larger Photo! Marines go up scaling ladders over the stone seawall that edged Inchon harbor. MacARTHUR's master stroke, the amphibious assault at Inchon on 15th September 1950, by its deep envelopment turned the war around. The landing was made under almost insurmountable hydrogtaphic conditions by the 1st Marine Divison, reconstituted on the scene by Marine units arriving from all over the world. (Photo by: SSgt Walter Frank, USMC) Photo from The MARINES, 1998 Marine Corps Heritage Foundation (MCHF) page 076 for Larger Photo! U.S. Marines tank during the Korean War.jpgl U.S. Marine Corps Photograph, NHHC Collection. - Click on Thumbnail for Larger Photo! Bloody street fighting and distraught civilians caught in maelstrom characterized the liberation of Seoul, South Korea's capital, in the last week of September 1950. (Photo by: David Douglas Duncan) Photo from The MARINES, 1998 Marine Corps Heritage Foundation (MCHF) page 076 for Larger Photo!
     The " Battle of Inchon" code name: "Operation Chromite" was an amphibious invasion and battle of the Korean War that resulted in a decisive victory and strategic reversal in favor of the United Nations (UN). The operation involved some 75,000 troops and 261 naval vessels, and led to the recapture of the South Korean capital Seoul two weeks later.
     The battle began on September 15, 1950, and ended September 19. Through a surprise amphibious assault far from the Pusan Perimeter that UN and South Korean forces were desperately defending, the largely undefended city of Incheon was secured after being bombed by UN forces. The battle ended a string of victories by the invading North Korean People's Army (NKPA). The subsequent UN recapture of Seoul partially severed NKPA's supply lines in South Korea.
     The majority of United Nations ground forces involved were U.S. Marines, commanded by General of the Army Douglas MacARTHUR. MacARTHUR was the driving force behind the operation, overcoming the strong misgivings of more cautious generals to a risky assault over extremely unfavorable terrain.

 Planning:
 In order to accomplish such a large amphibious operation, MacARTHUR requested the use of United States Marine Corps expeditionary forces, having become familiar with their ability to integrate amphibious operations in the Pacific during World War II. However, the Marines at that point were still recovering from a series of severe program cutbacks instituted by the Truman administration and Secretary of Defense Louis A. Johnson. Indeed, Johnson had tried to eliminate the Marines entirely and slashed Marine expeditionary forces from a World War II peak of 300,000 men to just over 27,000. Much of the Marines' landing craft and amphibious carriers had been sold off, scrapped, or transferred to the exclusive use of the U.S. Army.  After hastily re-equipping Marine forces with aging World War II landing craft, withdrawing Marine units from the Pusan perimeter, and stripping recruitment depots bare of men, Marine commanders were just able to mount a force capable of undertaking offensive operations against the small North Korean forces

 Green Beach:
 At 06:30 on September 15, 1950, the lead elements of X Corps hit "Green Beach" on the northern side of Wolmi-do island. The landing force consisted of the 3rd Battalion 5th Marines and nine M26 Pershing tanks from the 1st Tank Battalion.[citation needed] One tank was equipped with a flamethrower (flame tank) and two others had bulldozer blades. The battle group landed in LSTs designed and built during World War II. The entire island was captured by noon at the cost of just 14 casualties.  The North Korean forces were outnumbered by more than six to one by the U.N. troops. North Korean casualties included over 200 killed and 136 captured, primarily from the 918th Artillery Regiment and the 226th Independent Marine Regiment. The forces on Green Beach had to wait until 19:50 for the tide to rise, allowing another group to land. During this time, extensive shelling and bombing, along with anti-tank mines placed on the only bridge, kept the small North Korean force from launching a significant counterattack.[citation needed] The second wave came ashore at "Red Beach" and "Blue Beach."

 Blue Beach:
 Under the command of then-Colonel Lewis Burwell "Chesty" PULLER, the 1st Marine Regiment landing at Blue Beach was significantly south of the other two beaches and reached shore last. The mission of Colonel PULLER's 1st Marines in this landing was to take the beachhead, and the road to Yongdungpo and Seoul. The 2nd Battalion would land on the left at Blue Beach One (see Map) and 3rd Battalion would land on Blue Beach Two. A little cove around the corner south of Blue Beach Two was called Blue Beach Three.[30] As they approached the coast, the combined fire from several NKPA gun emplacements sank one LST. Destroyer fire and bombing runs silenced the North Korean defenses. When they finally arrived, the North Korean forces at Incheon had already surrendered, so the Blue Beach forces suffered few casualties and met little opposition. The 1st Marine Regiment spent much of its time strengthening the beachhead and preparing for the inland invasion

The Battle of Chosin Reservoir, Korea ~ Nov 27 to Dec 13, 1950
Map of the Battle of the Changjin (Chosin) Reservoir - Click on Thumbnail for Larger Photo! Map of the Retreat from the Changjin (Chosin) Reservoir - Click on Thumbnail for Larger Photo! A column of the 1st Marine Division during their breakout from the Changjin (Chosin) Reservoir - Click on Thumbnail for Larger Photo! Marines on 6 December 1950, begore breaking out to the south from Hagaru-ri, watch a Marine
     The "Battle of Chosin Reservoir", from 27 November to 13 December 1950, also known as the "Chosin Reservoir Campaign" or the "Changjin Lake Campaign". was a decisive battle in the Korean War. Shortly after the People's Republic of China entered the conflict, the People's Volunteer Army 9th Army infiltrated the northeastern part of North Korea and surprised the US X Corps at the Chosin Reservoir area. A brutal 17 day battle in freezing weather soon followed. In the period between 27 November and 13 December 1950, some 30,000 United Nations (UN) troops (nicknamed "The Chosin Few") under the command of Major General Edward Almond were encircled by approximately 60,000 Chinese troops under the command of Song Shi-Lun. Although Chinese troops managed to surround and outnumber the UN forces, the UN forces broke out of the encirclement while inflicting crippling losses on the Chinese. The evacuation of the X Corps from the port of Hungnam marked the complete withdrawal of UN troops from North Korea.

End of File!


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Paul R. Sarrett, USMC 1959-1963 - Click on Thumbnail for Larger Photo!  These records are part of the "Genealogy Computer Package" *** PC-PROFILE *** Volume - II. Sarratt/Sarrett/Surratt Family Profile© Compiled and self Published in Oct. 31, 1989 by Paul R. Sarrett, Jr. with the assistance of my late mother Click on Redball for More Info. Mrs. M. Lucille (WILSON) SARRETT (1917-1987) These 1989 "Work-Books" were compiled by listing the various families, born, married, died, and a history of that family branch. In 1996 I started "Up-Loading" this material on the now called SFA© Series...prs
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Text - Copyright © 1996-2011 Paul R. Sarrett, Jr.
Created: Dec. 01, 1996; Jan 05, 2003;  Sep 23, 2008;  Sep 10, 2009;  Dec 13, 2010;  Jan 05, 2011;  Jul 06, 2011;