In the South
MILITARY CHRONOLOGY 1775-1782
Paul R. Sarrett, Jr., 1991
|10 Apr. 1775;|| Skirmish at Lexington and Concord, Mass.|
Paul REVERE and William DAWES on night of 18 Apr. 1775, rode to alert Samuel ADAMS and John HANCOCK at Lexington, Mass. and others that 700 British were on the way to Concard, Mass. to destroy arms.
|19 Apr. 1775|| to 17 Mar. 1776; Siege of Boaston, Mass.|
Minutemen lost 8 killed, 10 wounded. On the return from Concord, Mass. British loss 273
|10 May 1775;|| Col. Benedict ARNOLD and Col. Ethan ALLEN|
take Fort Ticonderga, New York, from British.
|17 Jun. 1775;||Bunker Hill, Battle of|
Colonials headed for "Bunker Hill" fortified "Breed's Hill", Charlestown, Mass., repulsed British under General William HOWE twice before retreating. British casualties 1,000.
|28 Aug. 1775||to 08 Jun. 1776; American attempt on Canada.|
|30-31 Dec. 1775;|| American assault on Quebec's Lower Town fails.|
Col. Benedict ARNOLD marched via Maine wilderness attacked Quebec, Cananda.
|27 Feb. 1776;|| Moore;s Creek Bridge, Battle of |
(near Wilmington, NC.)
|08 Jun. 1776;|| Trois Rivieres, Battle of|
|04 Jul. 1776;|| Signing of Declaration of Independence.|
|27 Aug. 1776;|| Long Island, Battle of|
American General George Washington, with 10,000 men lost Battle of Long Island, NY., to British General William (Lord) HOWE and General Sir Henry CLINTON, with 15,000 troops.
|16 Sep. 1776;|| Harlem Heights, Battle of|
General WASHINGTON repusled HOWE retreated to White Plains, NY.
|11-12 Oct 1776;|| Valcour Island, Battle of|
Brig. Gen. Benedict ARNOLD's Lake Champlain fleet was defeated.
|28-29 Oct. 1776;|| White Plains, Battle of|
HOWE failed to defeat General WASHINGTON's Army at White Plains, NY.
|25-26 Dec. 1776;|| Trenton, Battle of|
General WASHINGTON in PA. recrossed Delaware River and defeated 1,400 Hessians at Trenton, New Jersey
|03 Jan. 1777;|| Princeton, Battle of|
General WASHINGTON defeted Lord CORNWALLIS at Princeton, NJ.
|13 Jun. 1777|| to 08 Nov. 1777; Saratoga Campaign|
|07 Jul. 1777;||Hubbardton, VT., Battle of|
|03-23 Aug. 1777;|| Siege of Fort Stanwix,|
near Oriskany, NY. Brig.-Gen. Nicholas HERKIMER, to raise St. Leger's siege of Fort Stanwix, NY.
|06 Aug. 1777;|| Oriskany, Battle of|
Brig.-Gen. Nicholas HERKIMER, route Indians at Oriskany, NY.
|16 Aug. 1777;|| Bennington, Battle of|
BURGOYNE's Hessians defeated by Brig.-Gen. John STARK and the "Green Mountain Boys" near Bennington, VT.
|11 Sep. 1777;|| Brandywine Creek, Battle of|
The Battle of the Brandywine Creek, near Philadelpha, PA. was a victory for the British during the AMERICAN REVOLUTION. Intending to capture Philadelphia, Gen. WILLIAM HOWE landed on Chesapeake Bay with 15,000 men and moved north toward the city. GEORGE WASHINGTON met him at Brandywine Creek, near Chadds Ford, Pa., with an army of 11,000. Howe successfully used a flanking movement to drive the Americans from the field, but WASHINGTON managed to withdraw most of his troops safely. (See Source & Bibliography: Canby, H. S., The Brandywine, 2d ed. (1977); Smith, S. S., The Battle of Brandywine (1976).
|19 Sep. 1777;|| Freeman's Farm, First Battle of|
near Saratoga, NY.
|04 Oct. 1777;|| Germantown, PA. Battle of|
|17 Oct. 1777;|| Burgoyne surrenders to GATES at Saratoga|
|19 Dec. 1777|| to 19 Jun. 1778; Valley Forge, Battle of|
Valley Forge, 40 km (25 mi) west of Philadelphia, was the campground of 11,000 troops of GEORGE WASHINGTON's Continental Army from Dec. 19, 1777, to June 19, 1778. Because of the suffering endured there by the hungry, poorly clothed, and badly housed troops, 2,500 of whom died during the harsh winter, Valley Forge came to symbolize the heroism of the American revolutionaries. Despite adverse circumstances, BARON FRIEDRICH von STEUBEN drilled the soldiers regularly and improved their discipline. Today the historic landmarks and monuments are preserved within Valley Forge National Historical Park (established 1976).
(See Source & Bibliography: Bill, Alfred Hoyt, Valley Forge (1952); Reed, John F., Valley Forge, Crucible of Victory (1969); Stout, John J., Ordeal at Valley Forge (1963).
|May 1778 to Feb.|| 1779; George Rogers CLARK,|
Campaigns in the Old North-West.
|28 Jun. 1778;|| Monmouth Court House, Battle of|
|29 Aug. 1778;|| Rhode Island, Battle of|
|Jun. to Oct. 1779;|| American expedition against the Six-Nations.|
|Dec. 1778;|| Savannah, GA. 1st Battle of |
The British decent in the South occured when Lt. Col. Archabald CAMPBELL took Savannah, Ga. from General Robert HOWE.
|08 Sep. 1779|| to 09 Oct. 1779; Savannah, GA. 2nd Battle of|
|29 Mar. 1780||to 12 May 1780; Charleston, SC Battle of|
|16 Aug. 1780;|| Camden, SC. (Kershaw Dist.) Battle of|
British Lord Charles CORNWALLIS and American General Horatio GATES; JUNE to AUGUST - 1780
|07 Oct. 1780;|| King's Mountain, SC. (Spartanburg Dist.) Battle of|
|17 Jan. 1781;|| Cowpens, SC. (Spartanburg Dist.) Battle of|
Lord CHARLES CORNWALLIS, who was at Winnsborough, detached Col. BANASTRE TARLETON, with about a thousand troops, cavalry and light-infantry, to cut off Brig. Gen. DANIEL MORGAN's division, which was in the region between the Broad and Catawba rivers. When Brig. Gen. DANIEL MORGAN heard of Col. BANASTRE TARLETON's approach, he retired toward the Broad River, intending to cross it. Col. BANASTRE TARLETON pursued with his usual rapidity. Brig. Gen. DANIEL MORGAN saw that he must be overtaken; he halted, refreshed his men, and prepared for the conflict. He chose his ground at a place known as "The Cowpens," about thirty miles west of King's Mountain, and thus named because herds of cattle were pastured in that portion of the Thickety mountains. The armies were about equal in numbers. More than half of Brig. Gen. DANIEL MORGAN's were North and South Carolina militia, under Colonel PICKENS. Brig. Gen. DANIEL MORGAN disposed his men to the best advantage; the Continentals on a, woody hill, and the militia in a line by themselves. He was deficient in cavalry, but placed what he had under Colonel GEORGE WASHINGTON, as a reserve. The British and Tories, though fatigued by their last night's march, were confident of victory; they rushed on with shouts. The militia stood their ground, delivered their fire, but quailing before the bayonet, they broke and fled. In pursuing the fugitives, the enemy almost passed by the Continentals, who, to avoid being taken in flank, fell back in order. This movement the British mistook for a retreat, and they commenced a vigorous pursuit, but when they approached within thirty yards, the Continentals suddenly wheeled, poured in a deadly volley, then charged bayonet, completely routed them, and captured their colors and cannon. Meantime the British cavalry, under Col. BANASTRE TARLETON himself, continued the pursuit of the militia. While thus rushing on in confusion, the American cavalry attacked them in flank, and routed them also. These two repulses occurred almost at the same time, but in different parts of the field. The enemy were routed beyond recovery, and the Americans pursued them vigorously. The fiery Col. BANASTRE TARLETON, accompanied by a few followers, barely escaped capture. Of his eleven hundred men he lost six hundred, while Brig. Gen. DANIEL MORGAN's loss was less than eighty.
(History of the American Nation, Vol.2, Pg.612 - Pg.613)
|15 Mar. 1781;|| Guilford Court House, NC. (Guilford Dist.) Battle of|
|25 Apr. 1781;|| Hobkirk's Hill, SC. Battle of|
|22 May 1781||to 19 Jun. 1781; Ninety-Six, SC. Battle of|
|08 Sep. 1781;|| Eutaw Springs, SC. (Orangeburge Dist.) Battle of|
|28 Sep. 1781|| to 19 Oct. 1781; Yorktown, VA. Battle of|
The Yorktown Campaign, in Virginia, was the final major military episode of the AMERICAN REVOLUTION. The campaign involved a remarkable degree of cooperation and coordination between French and American forces over a vast region of North America and the West Indies: a French army in Rhode Island under the comte de ROCHAMBEAU, an American army outside New York City under Gen. GEORGE WASHINGTON, an assortment of American regulars and militia in Virginia under the marquis de LAFAYETTE, a small French naval squadron at Newport under the comte de Barras, and a formidable French fleet in the West Indies under the comte de GRASSE.
The objective of the French-American allies was to trap CHARLES CORNWALLIS, the British commander in the south, who had established himself at Yorktown on the Virginia peninsula after having failed to destroy the American army of Gen. NATHANAEL GREENE in the Carolinas. The various contingents all converged on Chesapeake Bay at virtually the same time. Siege operations against Yorktown opened on Oct. 6, 1781, as French and American artillery began a nearly incessant bombardment of Cornwallis's positions. Sir Henry CLINTON in New York City hastened a naval expedition to the relief of the Yorktown garrison, but it was beaten back by de Grasse. On October 17, Cornwallis asked for an armistice and proposed terms unacceptable to General WASHINGTON. With no hope remaining, CORNWALLIS surrendered his nearly 8,000- man force to the 17,000-man Franco-American army on Oct. 19. For all practical purposes, the American War of Independence was over.
(See Source & Bibliography: Davis, Burke, The Campaign that Won America: The Story of Yorktown (1970); Fleming, Thomas J., Beat the Last Drum: The Siege of Yorktown, 1781 (1963); Selby, John, The Road to Yorktown (1976); Thayer, Theodore G., Yorktown, Campaign of Strategic Options (1975).
|03 Sep. 1783;|| Treaty of Paris signed.|
The Revolutionary War in America rapidly ground to a halt after Yorktown, a war in which neither side had seemingly the energy or the resources to obtain a total victory. Certainly British leaders had lost all enthusiasm for subduing America, although Britain and its European enemies, France and Spain, continued to duel on far-flung battlefronts until the conclusion of peace in 1783.
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