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Cherokee Chief
Cherokee Chief
Oklahoma Tribes Index


Alabama tribe. - This was one of the tribes of the Creek Confederacy, 
part of which accompanied the Creeks to Oklahoma early in the nineteenth 
century and settled near Weleetka, where a small station on the Frisco 
Railway bears their name. (See Alabama.)

Apache tribe. - The name was given to a tribe or rather a group 
of tribes. (See Jicarilla under Colorado; Kiowa Apache, under
Kansas; Lipan under Texas; also Apache under New Mexico.)

Apalachee tribe. - A few individuals of this tribe removed to Oklahoma 
from Alabama or Louisiana. Dr. Gatschet learned the names of two or 
three individuals about 1884. (See Florida.)

Arapaho tribe. - In early times the Arapaho ranged to some extent 
over the western sections of Oklahoma, and part of them (the Southern 
Arapaho) were finally given a reservation and later allotted land 
in severalty in the west central part along with the Southern Cheyenne. 
(See Wyoming.)

Biloxi tribe. - A few Biloxi reached Oklahoma and settled with the 
Choctaw and Creeks. (See Mississippi.)

Caddo tribe. - The Caddo moved to Oklahoma in 1859 and were given 
a reservation in the southwestern part about Anadarko, where they 
were allotted land in severalty. (See Texas.)

Cherokee tribe. - The Cherokee were moved to a large reservation 
in the northeastern part of Oklahoma in the winter of 1838-39. After 
nearly 70 years of existence under their own tribal government they 
were allotted land in severalty and became citizens of the United 
States. (See Tennessee.)

Cheyenne tribe. - The history of the Southern Cheyenne parallels 
that of the Southern Arapaho as given above. (See South Dakota.)

Chickasaw tribe. - The Chickasaw moved to the present Oklahoma between 
1822 and 1840. They had their own government for many years but are 
now citizens. (See Mississippi.)

Click on Thumbnail for larger Photo! Choctaw tribe. - (West Nation)
Click on Thumbnail for larger Photo!
This tribe moved to Oklahoma about the same time as the Chickasaw though several thousand remained in their old country. Like the Chickasaw they had their own national government for a long time but are now citizens at large of Oklahoma. (See Mississippi; )
Click on Thumbnail for larger Photo! The Choctaws divided their land west of Arkansas into three Political Districts:
1. Okla-Falaya, east of the Kiamichi and extending North from the Red River nearly 75 miles along the Arkansas boundary;
2. Pushmataha, west of the Kianichi to a line running North from the source of Iland Bayou;
3. Moshulatubbee, the territory along the Arkansas and Canadian rivers, extending nearly 120 miles west of the Arkansas boundary.
The name of Okia Malaya District was changed to Apukshunnuhhee, and a fourth district on the west, assigned to the Chickasaws by the Treaty of Doaksville in 1837 was to become the Chickasaw Nation by the terms of a new treaty of separation in 1855. [REF:#003]
The Choctaw Nation made many changes in its basic law between 1834 and 1860. The constitution written at Skullyville in 1857, which abolished the office of district chief and established a National Governor, was opposed by a group which wrote a new constitution at Doaksville and set up a rival goverument. The compromise constitution of 1860 made use of the older organization with district chiefs and courts and established a new national government with a two-house General Council, a principal chief and Supreme Court. As in the other governments of the Five Civilized Tribes, the Choctaw basic law was democratic with wide suffrage and extensive eligibility of citizens to hold office. Sharp separation of legislative executive, and judicial functions was provided in the constitution. The bill of rights included guarantees of trial by jury, religious liberty, and freedom of assembly. Moshulatubbee District had 5 Choctaw Counties: 1. Gaines, 2. San Bois, 3. Skullyville, 4. Sugar Loaf, 5. Tobucksy, Apukshunnubbee District had 7 Choctaw Counties: 1. Boktucklo, 2. Cedar, 3. Eagle, 4. Nashoba 5. Red River, 6. Towson, 7. Wade, Pushmataha District there were 5 original Counties: 1. Atoka, 2. Blue, 3. Jack's Fork. 4. Kiamisci, The General Council had authority to alter County boundaries, and in 1886 a new County was created from land organized under Blue and Kiamichi Counties and was named Jackson. The elective officers of the counties were Judge, Sheriff, and Ranger, with two-year terms. The Sheriff could appoint deputies, and the county Judge selected a citizen to serve as Clerk and Treasurer. The counties were units of local government and election districts for members of the Council. The Principal Chiefs of the Choctaw Nation (West) 1864 - 1907 1864-1866 Peter P. PITCHLYNN 1866-1870 Allen WRIGHT 1870-1874 William BRYANT 1874-1878 Coleman COLE 1878-1880 Isaac GARVIN 1880-1884 Jackson McCURTAIN 1884-1886 Edmund McCURTAIN 1886-1888 Thompson McKINNEY 1888-1890 Ben F. SMALLWOOD 1890-1894 Wilson N. JONES 1894-1896 Jefferson GARDNER 1896-1900 Green McCURTAIN 1900-1902 Gilbert DUKES 1902-1907 Green McCURTAIN
Click on Thumbnail for larger Photo! CHOCTAW NATION (West) - IMPORTANT PLACES
Beginning with the Treaty of Doak's Stand in 1820, the Choctaw Nation held land in the West that was recognized by the United States as their own; and after 1825 the Choctaw Nation was separate from Arkansas Territory. As western agent. Major William McCLELLAN took steps in 1827 toward the construction of agency buildings at Skullyville, and within two years about 160 Choctaw Indians had moved to the district on the Arkansas River. With the general removal from Mississippi after the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek in 1830, towns in the new Choctaw Nation developed rapidly.
Near Tuskahoma, which became the capital in 1834, a new council house was built, which was called Nanih Waiya, the name Of the Choctaw sacred mound in Mississippi. Boggy Depot, on te Clear Boggy River near the western border of Pushmataha District, became a trade center of some importance. At various times Boggy Depot served as the national capital and, in addition to SkullyviLle and Tuskahoma, other towns were used as the seat of the government. Before the Civil War the Council had designated Fort Towson and Doaksville as the capital for brief periods; and in 1862 a constitutional amendment moved the capital to Armstrong Academy, which received the name Cliahta Tamaha. Doaksville hecame the largest town in the Choctaw Nation (West) and, before the ctnd of its prosperous, era, the principal trade center of the entire Indian Territory. The United States had established a Post Office at Miller's Court House, which had been designated as a County Seat in Arkansas Territory about a year before the boundary line of 1825 revealed that it was West ot the territorial border. A Post Office was established at Doaksville in 1832, Skullyville, 1834, Perryville, 1841, and Boggy Depot in 1849. Atoka, Where the Missouri, Kansas and Texas Railway line crossed the old Butterfield Stage route, becam,e one of he imortant trade centers of the Pushmataha District. Wheelock Mission, its stone church dating back to 1846, the oldest church building in Okiahoina, is one of the many places of historiral significance in the Chociaw Naiton (West) Little River, with its principal tributarv, Mountain Fork, is notable for its scenic beauty. The Kiamichi and Poteau rivers with their branches are also attractive examples of mountain streams surrounded by timbered hills. University of Oklahoma Press, 1976c, Pg39 Comanche tribe. - The western part of Oklahoma was occupied by the Comanche during their later history, and they were finally given a reservation in the southwestern part of it, where they were allotted land in severalty and given the privileges of citizenship. (See Texas) Creeks tribe. - The tribes constituting the Creek Confederacy came to Oklahoma between 1836 and 1841 and were given a reservation in the northeastern part, where they maintained a national government until early in the present century when their lands were allotted in severalty, and they became citizens. (See Alabama, Florida, and Georgia.) Delaware tribe. - In 1867 a part of the Delaware were removed from Kansas to the northeastern part of what is now Oklahoma and incorporated with the Cherokee Nation. Another band of Delaware is with the Caddo and Wichita in southwestern Oklahoma. (See New Jersey.) Foxes tribe. - A few Fox Indians accompanied the Sauk (q. v.) to Oklahoma in 1867. (See Wisconsin.) Hitchiti tribe. - This is a subtribe of the Creek Confederacy. (See Georgia; also Creeks and Creek Confederacy above and under Alabama, Florida, and Georgia.) Illinois tribe. - In 1868 the surviving Illinois Indians, principally Peoria and Kaskaskia, previously united with the Miami bands, Wea and Piankashaw, moved to Oklahoma and occupied a reserve in the northeastern part of the State under the name Peoria. (See Illinois.) Iowa tribe. Part of the Iowa were moved from Kansas to a reserve in central Oklahoma set apart in 1883; they were allotted land in severalty in 1890. (See Iowa.) Iroquois tribe. - Some Iroquois Indians, together with the Tuscarora, some Wyandot, and probably Indians of the former Erie Nation, all under the name of Seneca Indians, were given a reservation in northeastern Oklahoma, where their descendants still live, now as citizens of the United States. (See New York and Ohio.) Jicarilla tribe. - This was one of those Athapascan tribes known as Apache. In early times they ranged over parts of western Oklahoma. (See Colorado.) Kansa tribe. - In 1873 the Kansa were moved to Oklahoma and given a reservation in the northeastern part of the State. (See Kansas.) Kichai tribe. - In very early times this tribe lived on, or perhaps north of, Red River, but later they worked their war south to tke headwaters of the Trinity. In 1859 they returned to the north side of the river in haste in fear of attack by the Texans and have since lived with the Wichita in the neighborhood of Anadarko. (See Texas.) Kickapoo tribe - In 1873 some Kickapoo were brought back from Mexico and settled in the central part of Oklahoma, where all but a certain portion of the Mexican band were afterward gathered. (See Wisconsin.) Kiowa and Kiowa Apache tribe. - These tribes formerly ranged over much of the western part of this State. (See Kansas.) Koasati tribe. - The Koasati were one of the tribes of the Creek Confederacy. They removed to northeastern Oklahoma with the rest of the Creeks and settled in the western part of the Creek territory. (See Alabama and Louisiana.) Lipan tribe. - The Lipan were the easternmost band of Apache; some of them are with the Tonkawa. (See Texas.) Miami tribe. - Part of the Miami were brought from Indiana and given a reservation in the extreme northeastern part of Oklahoma along with the Illinois (q. v.). (See Indiana.) Mikasuki tribe. - Some of these Indians accompanied the Seminole to Oklahoma and as late as 1914 had a Square Ground of their own. (See Florida.) Missouri tribe. - The remnant of the Missouri came to Oklahoma with the Oto in 1882 and shared their reservation. (See Missouri.) Modoc tribe. In 1873, at the end of the Modoc War, a part of the defeated tribe was sent to Oklahoma and placed on the Quapaw Reservation where a few yet remain. (See Oregon.) Muklasa tribe. - A small Creek division said to have kept its identity in Oklahoma. (See Alabama.) Munsee tribe. - A few Munsee accompanied the Delaware proper to Oklahoma and 21 were reported there in 1910. (See New Jersey.) Muskogee. - This was the name of the principal tribe or group of tribes of the Creeks (q. v.). Natchez tribe. - A small band of Natcez accompanied the Creeks to Oklahoma and settled near Eufaula, where they later became merged in the rest of the Creck population. Another band of Natchez settled in the Cherokee Nation, near Illinois River, and a very few still preserve something of their identity. (See Mississippi.) Nez Perce tribe. - Chief Joseph's band of Nez Perce were sent to Oklahoma in 1878, but they suffered so much from the change of climate that they were transferred to Colville Reservation in 1885. (See Idaho.) Okmulgee tribe. - A Creek tribe and town belonging to the Hitchiti division of the Nation. Its name is perpetuated in the city of Okmulgee, former capital of thc Creek Nation in Oklahoma. (See Georgia.) Osage tribe. - The Osage formerly owned most of northern Oklahoma and after they had sold the greater part of it still retained a large reservation in the northeast, which they continue to occupy, though they have now been allotted land in severalty. (See Missouri.) Oto tribe. - In 1880 a part of the Oto moved to the lands of the Sauk and Fox Indians in Oklahoma and in 1882 the rest followed. (See Nebraska.) Ottawa tribe. - When they surrendered their lands in Michigan and Ohio, some Ottawa bands including those of Blanchard's Fork and Roche de Boeuf migrated to Kansas, and about 1868, to Oklahoma, settling in the northeastern part of the State. (See Michigan.) Pawnee tribe. - The Pawnee moved to Oklahoma in 1876 and were given a reservation in the north central part of the State, where they have now been allotted land in severalty. (See Nebraska.) Peoria tribe. - (See Illinois tribe.) Piankashaw tribe. - (See Miami tribe.) Ponca tribe. - In 1877 the Ponca were moved by force to Oklahoma and, though some individuals were finally allotted land in severalty in their old country, the greater part settled permanently near the Osage in northeastern Oklahoma. Potawatomi tribe. - The Potawatomi of the Woods were moved from Kansas to Oklahoma in 1867-81 and given a reservation in the central part of the State. (See Michigan.) Quapaw tribe. - Lands were granted to the Quapaw in the extreme southeastern part of Kansas and the extreme northeastern part of Oklahoma in 1833. In 1867, they ceded all their lands in Kansas and have since confined themselves within the limits of Oklahoma, though a large part have removed to the reservation of the Osage. (See Arkansas.) Sauk tribe. - In 1867 the Sauk ceded their lands in Kansas in exchange for a tract in the central part of Oklahoma, where they have continued to live down to the present time. (See Wisconsin.) Seminole tribe. - The greater part of the Seminole were removed to Oklahoma after the Seminole War in Florida. (See Florida.) Sheneca tribe. - (See Iroquois tribe.) Shawnee tribe. - The Absentee Shawnee moved from Kansas to what is now central Oklahoma about 1845; in 1867 a second bands which had been living with the Seneca in Eansas, also moved to Oklahoma but settled in the extreme northeastern part of the State; and in 1869 the third and largest section removed to the lands of the Cherokee by agreement with that tribe. (See Tennessee.) Tawakoni tribe. - Said to refer to "a river bend among red hills," or "neck of land in the water." The synonyms should not be confounded with those of the Tonkawa. Also called: Three Canes, an English form resulting from a mistaken attempt to translate the French spelling of their name, Troiscannes. Tawakoni Connections.- The Tawakoni belonged to the Caddoan linguistic stock and were most closely connected with the Wichita, the two languages differing but slightly. Tawakoni Loction.- They were on the Canadian River about north of the upper Washita. (See also Texas.) Tawakoni Villages; Flechazos, on the west side of Brazos River near the present Waco. Tawakoni History.- The Tawakoni were first met in the above location in company with the Wichita and other related tribes. Within the next 50 years, probably as a result of pressure on the part of more northerly peoples, they moved south and in 1772 they were settled in two groups on Brazos and Trinity Rivers, about Waco and above Palestine. By 1779 the group on the Trinity had rejoined those on the Brazos. In 1824 part of the Tawakoni were again back on Trinity River. In 1855 they were established on a reservation near Fort Belknap on the Brazos, but in 1859 were forced, by the hostility of the Texans, to move north into southwestern Oklahoma, where they were officially incorporated with the Wichita. Tawakoni Population.- Mooney (1928) includes the Tawakoni among the Wichita (q. v.). In 1772 Mezieres reported 36 houses and 120 warriors in the Trinity village and 30 families in the Brazos village, perhaps 220 warriors in all. In 1778-79 he reported that these two towns, then on the Brazos, contained more than 300 warriors. Sibley (1832) reported that in 1805 the Tanakoni, probably including the Waco, numbered 200 men. In 1859 they were said to number 204 exclusive of the Waco. The census of 1910 records only a single survivor of this tribe. Tawehash tribe. - Meaning unknown. Lesser and Weltfish (1932) suggest that this group was identical with a Wichita band reported to them as Tiwa. They have been given some of the same synonyms as the Wichita (q. v.). Tawehash Connections.- The Tawehash belonged to the Caddoan linguistic stock and were related closely to the Wichita, Tawakoni, Waco, and Yscani. Tawehash Location.- Their earliest known home was on Canadian River north of the headwaters of the Washita. Tawehash Villages. - In 1778 Mezieres found two native villages to which he gave the names San Teodoro and San Bernardo. Tawehash History.- The Tawehash were encountered in the above situation by La Harpe in 1719. They moved south about the same time as the Tawakoni and other tribes of the group and were found on Red River in 1759, when they defeated a strong Spanish force sent against them. They remained in this same region until in course of time they united with the Wichita and disappeared from history. Their descendants are among the Wichita in Oklahoma. Tawehash Population.- Most writers give estimates of the Tawehash along with the Wichita and other related tribes. In 1778 they occupied two villages aggregating 160 lodges and numbered 800 fighting men and youths. Tonkswa tribe. - In 1884 the remnant of the Tonkawa were removed to Oklahoma and the next year settled on a reservation near Ponca, where they were finally allotted land in severalty. (See Texas.) Tuskegee tribe. - A Creek division believed to be connected linguistically with the Alabama Indians. It removed to Oklahoma with the other Creeks and established itself in the northwestern part of the allotted territory. (See Alabama.) Waco tribe. - According to Lesser and Weltfish (1932), from Wehiko, a corruption of Mexico, and given the name because they were always fighting with the Mexicans. The same authorities report that the Waco are thought to have been a part of the Tawakoni without an independent village but separated later. Also called: Gentlemen Indians, by Bollaert (1850); Houechas, Huanchane, by French writers, possibly intended for this tribe. Waco Connections.- The Waco were most closely related to the Tawakoni of the Wichita group of tribes belonging to the Caddoan Stock. Waco Location.- They appear first in connection with their village on the site of the present Waco, Tex., though their original home was in Oklahoma with the Wichita. Waco Villages. - Quiscat, named from its chief, on the west side of the Brazos on a bluff or plateau above some springs and not far from the present Waco. Waco History.- According to native informants as reported by Lesser and Weltfish (1932), the Waco are formerly supposed to have constituted a part of the Tawakoni without an independent village. It has also been suggested that they may have been identical with the Yscani, but Lesser and Weltfish identify the Yscani with another band. Another possibility is that the Waco are descendants of the Shuman tribe. (See Texas.) In later times the Waco merged with the Tawakoni and Wichita. Waco Population.- In 1824 the Waco had a village of 33 grass houses and about 100 men, and a second village of 15 houses and an unnamed number of men. In 1859, just before their removal from Texas, they numbered 171. They are usually enumerated with the Wichita (q. v.), but the census of 1910 returned 5 survivors. Waco Connection in which they have become noted.- Almost the sole claim to special remembrance enjoyed by the Waco is the fact that its name was adopted by the important city of Waco, Tex. It also appears as the name of places in Sedgwick County, Kans.; Madison County, Ky.; Jasper County, Mo.; Smith County, Miss.; Haralson County, Ga.; York County, Nebr.; Cleveland County, N. C.; Stark County, Ohio; and in Tennessee; but it is uncertain whether the designations of all these came originally from the Waco tribe. Wea tribe. - (See Miami tribe.) Wichita tribe. - From wits, "man." Also known as: Black Pawnee, common early name; Do'gu'at, Kiown name, meaning "tattooed people." Do'kana, Comanche name, meaning "tattooed people."; Freckled Panis, from above; Guichita, Spanish form of the name; Hinasso, Arapaho name; Hoxsuwitan, Cheyenne name; Ki'-ci-ku'-cuc, Omaha name; Kirikiris, Kirikurus, or Kitikitish, reported as own name but properly the name of one of their bands; Mitsita, Kansa name; Paein wassabe, Ponca and Omaha name, meaning "Black bear Pawnee."; Paneassa, various early writers; Panis noirs, early French name; Panis piques, early French name; Panyi Wacewe, Iowa, Oto, and Missouri name; Picks, from Panis piques; Pitchinavo, Comanche name, meaning "painted breasta"; Prickled Panis, referring to their tattooing; Quirasquiris, French form of native name; Quivira, from chronicles of Coronado expedition; Sonik'ni, Comanche name, meaning "grass lodges."; Speckled Pawnee, referring to their tattooing. Tuxquet, see Do'gu'at. Wichita Connections.- The Wichita were one of the principal tribes of the Caddoan linguistic family. Wichita Location.- Their earliest certain location was on Canadian River north of the headwaters of the Washita. (See also Texas). Wichita Subdivisions. - Most of the so-called subdivisions of the Wichita were independent tribes, some of which, including the Tawakoni, Waco, Tawehash, and Yscani, have been treated separately. The others Akwith or Akwesh, Kirikiris, Isis (see Yscani), Tokane (see Yscani), and Itaz- were probably only temporary bands. Mooney (1928) also mentions the Kirishkitsu (perhaps a Wichita name for the Kichai) and the Asidahetsh and Kishkat, which cannot be identified. Wichita History.- The Wichita rose to fame at an early period owing to the fact that they were visited by Coronado in 1541, the Spaniards calling the Wichita country the province of Quivira. They were then farther north than the location given above, probably near the great bend of the Arkansas and in the center of Kansas. A Franciscan missionary, Juan de Padilla, remained 3 years among them in the endeavor to convert them to Christianity, but he was finally killed by them through jealousy on account of his work for another tribe. In 1719 La Harpe found the Wichita and several allied tribes on the south Canadian River in the territory later embraced in the Chickasaw Nation. Within the next 50 years they were forced south by hostile northern and eastern tribes and by 1772 were on the upper courses of the Red and Brazos Rivers. In 1835 they made their first treaty with the United States Government. They continued to live in southwestern Oklahoma until the Civil War, when they fled to Eansas until it was over. In 1867 they returned and were placed on a reservation in Caddo County, Okla., where they have since remained. Wichita Population.- In 1772 the Wichita and the Tawehash seem to have had about 600 warriors. Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1780 the confederated Wichita tribes had a population of about 3,200. Bolton (1914), on information derived from Mezieres, estimated about 3,200 for the Wichita proper in 1778. In 1805 Sibley estimated the Wichita at 400 men. In 1868, 572 were reported in the confederated tribes. The census of 1910 gives 318, including the remnant of the Kichai. In 1937 there were 385. Wichita Connection in which they have become noted.- Although a tribe of considerable power in early days, the Wichita will be remembered in future principally from the prominence of the city of Wichita, Kans., which bears their name. It is also the name of counties in Kansas and Texas a ridge of hills in southwestern Oklahoma called the Wichita Mountains, a river in Texas, and places in Oklahoma, besides Wichita Falls in Wichita County, Tex. The identification of this tribe with the Province of Quivira gives it additional interest. Wyandot tribe. - In 1867 a part of the Wyandot who had been living in Kansas was removed to the northeastern corner of Oklahoma where they have since remained. It is probable that this body includes more of the old Tionontati than of the true Wyandot. (See Ohio.) Yecani tribe. - Meaning unknown. Also spelled Ascani, Hyscani, Ixcani. Yecani Connections.- This was one of the confederated Wichita tribes and therefore without doubt related to them in speech, and thus of the Caddoan linguistic family. Yecani Location.- The Yscani are first mentioned in connection with the Wichita and allied tribes on the South Canadian in the territory later assigned to the Chickasaw Nation. Part, however, were reported to be living 60 leagues farther toward the northwest. Yecani History.- The Yscani evidently moved south from the above- mentioned location at the same time as the other tribes. They kept particularly close to the Tawakoni, with whose history their own is almost identical. As the name Yscani disappears from the early annals shortly before the name Waco appears in them, it has been thought that the Waco were the Yscani under a new name, but Lesser and Weltfish (1932) identify the Waco with the Isis or Tokane, perhaps both. (See Waco above.) Yecani Population.- In 1772 their village was reported to contain 60 warriors, and about 1782 the entire tribe was said to have about 90 families. Yuchi tribe. - Although originally an independent tribe, the Yuchi united with the Creeks before coming west, and they settled in the Creek Nation, in the northwestern part of that territory, where their descendants still live. (See Georgia.) End of Oklahoma Indian Tribes. Source & Reference Notes! [REF:#001] "The Indian Tribes of North America" By John R. Swanton; 1944 [Retired from active membership on the staff of the Bureau of American Ethnology in 1944] [REF:#002] File: OK_PG1.TXT Refised: July 05, 1996 By: Paul R. Sarrett, Jr., [REF:#003] Historical Atlas of Oklahoma University of Oklahoma Press, 1976c, Pg38, 39
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Text - Copyright © 1996-2002 Paul R. Sarrett, Jr.
Created: Dec. 01, 1996; Mar. 25, 2002