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Cherokee Chief
NAI-SFA
Cherokee Chief
SARRETT/SARRATT/SURRATT Families of America (SFA)©
Texas Tribes Index



 
                           TEXAS 

Akokisa. The name Akokisa, spelled in various ways, was given by
the Spaniards to those Atakapa living in southeastern Texas,
between Trinity Bay and Trinity River and Sabine River. (See
Atakapa under Louisiana.)

Alabama. Alabama Indians came to Texas early in the nineteenth
century, and the largest single body of Alabama still lives there
on a State reservation in Polk County. (See Alabama.)

Anadarko. The name of a tribe or band belonging to the Hasinai
Confederacy (q. v.).

Apache. The Jicarilla and other Apache tribes raided across the
boundaries of this State on the northwest and west in early
times, but the only one of them which may be said to have had its
headquarters inside for any considerable period was the Lipan
(q. v.).

Aranama. The Aranama were associated sometimes with the Karankawa
in the Franciscan missions but were said to be distinct from
them. Although a small tribe during all of their known history,
they held together until comparatively recent times, and Morse
(1822) gives them a population of 125. They were remembered by
the Tonkawa, when Dr. A. S. Gatschet visited the latter, and he
obtained two words of their language, but they are said to have
been extinct as a tribe by 1843. While their affiliations are not
certainly known, they were undoubtedly with one of thc three
stocks, Karankawan, Tonkawan, or Coahuiltecan, probably the last
mentioned, and will be enumerated provisionally with them. (See
Coahuiltecan Tribes.)

Atakapa, see Akokisa above and under Louisiana.

Bidai. Perhaps from a Caddo word signifying "brushwood," and
having reference to the Big Thicket near the lower Trinity River
about which they lived. Also called:

     Quasmigdo, given as their own name by Ker (1816).
     Spring Creeks, the name given hy Foote (1841).

Connections.- From the mission records it appears that the Bidai
were of the Atakapan linguistic stock.

Location.- On the middle course of Trinity River about Bidai
Creek and to the westward and southwestward.

History.- The Bidai were living in the region above given when
first known to the Europeans and claimed to be aborigines of that
territory. The Franciscan mission of San Ildefonso was founded
for them and the Akokisa, Deadose, and Patiri. In the latter part
of the eighteenth century they are said to have been chief
intermediaries between the Spaniards and Apache in the sale of
firearms. The attempt to missionize them was soon abandoned. In
1776-77 an epidemic carried away nearly half their number, but
they maintained separate existence down to the middle of the
nineteenth century, when they were in a village 12 miles from
Montgomery. They have now entirely disappeared.

Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates for them a population of 500
in 1690. In 1805 there were reported to be about 100.

Connection in which they have become noted.- The name is
perpetuated in that of a small creek flowing into Trinity River
from the west and in a village known as Bedias or Bedais in
Grimes County, Tex.

Biloxi. Some Biloxi entered Texas before 1825. In 1846 a band was
camped on Little River, a tributary of the Brazos. Afterward they
occupied a village on Biloxi Bayou in the present Angelina
County, but later either returned to Louisiana or passed north to
the present Oklahoma. (See Mississippi.)

Caddo Tribes. Under this head are included the Adai and the
Natchitoches Confederacy (see Louisiana); and the Eyeish, the
Hasinai Confederacy, and the Kadohadacho Confederacy in Texas.

Cherokee. A band of Cherokee under a chief named Bowl settled in
Texas early in the nineteenth century, but they were driven out
by the Texans in 1839 and their chief killed. 
(See Tennessee.) [REF:#001]

In 1818 to 1820 several hundred Cherokees led by DUWALI, a Chief
from Tennessee - settled along the Sabine, Neches, and Angelina
rivers in East Texas. Welcomed by Mexico as a buffer to U.S.
settlement, DUWALI's people had separated from other Western
Cherokees in an effort to retain the tribe's traditional lifeways. 
[REF:#003]


Choctaw. Morse (1822) reported 1,200 Choctaw on the Sabine and
Neches Rivers, and some bands continued to live for a while in
eastern Texas. One band in particular, the Yowani Choctaw, was
admitted among the Caddo there. All the Choctaw finally removed
to Oklahoma. (See Mississippi.)

Coahuiltecan Tribes. The name was derived from that of the
Mexican State of Coahuila, the tribes of this group having
extended over the eastern part of that province as well as a
portion of Texas. Also called:

     Tejano, an alternative name for the group.

Connections.- As Coahuiltecan are included all of the tribes
known to have belonged to the Coahuiltecan linguistic family and
some supposed on circumstantial evidence to be a part of it. It
is probable that most of the so-called Tamaulipecan family of
Mexico were really related to this, and that the Karankawan and
Tonkawan groups were connected as well, though more remotely.

Location.- The Coahuiltecan tribes were spread over the eastern
part of Coahuila, Mexico, and almost all of Texas west of San
Antonio River and Cibolo Creek. The tribes of the lower Rio
Grande may have belonged to a distinct family, that called by
Orozco y Berra (1864) Tamaulipecan, but the Coahuiltecans reached
the Gulf coast at the mouth of the Nueces. Northeast of that
point they were succeeded by Karankawan tribes. Toward the north
it is probable that the Coahuiltecans originally extended for a
long distance before they were displaced by the Apache and
Comanche. (See also Mexico.)

       Subdivisions
        Aguastayas.                   Asan.
        Alasapas.                     Atajah
        Andacaminos.                  Atastagonies.
        Annas.                        Borrados.
        Apayxam.                      Cabia.
        Aranama (see above).          Cacafes.
        Caohopostales.                Mazapes.
        Camai.                        Menenquen.
        Cantunas.                     Mescales.
        Casas Chiquitas.              Mesquites.
        Casastles.                    Milijaes.
        Chaguantapam.                 Morbanas.
        Chagustapa.                   Mulatos.
        Chapamaco.                    Murusm (perhaps Tonkawan).
        Chemoco.                      Narices.
        Choyapin (perhaps Tonkawan).  Natao.
        Chuapas.                      Nazas.
        Cimataguo.                    Necpacha.
        Cluetau.                      Nigco (probably meant for Sinicu).
        Cocomeioje.                   Nonapho (perhaps Tonkswan).
        Comecrudo.                    Obozi
        Cotonam.                      Ocana.
        Cupdan.                       Odoesmades.
        Escaba.                       Ohaguames.
        Espopolames.                  Orejones.
        Gabilan.                      Oydican.
        Geies.                        Paac.
        Guanipas.                     Paachiqui.
        Gueiquesales.                 Pabor.
        Guerjuatida.                  Pacaruja (given by Uhde, 1861).
        Guisoles.                     Pachal.
        Hueser.                       Pachalaque.
        Hapes.                        Pachaloco.
        Harames.                      Pachaquen.
        Heniocane.                    Pachaug.
        Hiabu.                        Pacpul.
        Hihames.                      Pacuaches.
        Huacacasa.                    Pacuachiam.
        Huanes.                       Paguan.
        Hume.                         Paguanan.
        Juamaca.                      Pajalat.
        Jueinzum.                     Pajarito.
        Juncatas.                     Pakawa.
        Junced.                       Pamaque.
        Macapao.                      Pamaya.
        Macocoma.                     Pamoranos.
        Mallopeme.                    Pampopas.
        Mamuqui.                      Papanac.
        Manam.                        Paquuche.
        Manico.                       Parantones.
        Manos Colorados.              Parchaque.
        Manos de Perro.               Parchinas.
        Manos Prietas.                Pasalves.
        Maquems.                      Pasnacanes.
        Maraquites.                   Pasqual.
        Matucar.                      Pastaloca.
        Matuime.                      Pastancoyas.
        Maubedan.                     Pasteal.
        Mauyga.                       Patague.

        Patan.                            Suanas.
        Patanium.                         Sulujame.
        Pataquilla (perhaps Karankawan).  Taeame.
        Patou.                            Taimamares.
        Patzau.                           Tamoan (?).
        Pauganes.                         Tamfque (?).
        Pausaqui.                         Tanpacuazes.
        Pausay.                           Tarequano.
        Payaya.                           Teana.
        Payuguan.                         Tecahuistes.
        Peana.                            Tejones.
        Pelones.                          Teneinamar.
        Pescado (?).                      Tenicapeme.
        Piedras Blancas.                  Tepachuaches.
        Piquique.                         Tepemaca.
        Pinanaca.                         Terocodame.
        Piniquu.                          Tet.
        Pintos.                           Tctanauoica.
        Pita.                             Tetecores.
        Pitahay.                          Tetzino (perhaps Tonkawan).
        Pomuluma.                         Tilijaes.
        Prietos.                          Tinapihuayas.
        Psaupsau.                         Tiopane (perhaps Karankawan).
        Pulacuam (perhaps Tonkawan).      Tiopines.
        Putaay.                           Tishim. (perhaps Tonkawan).
        Quanataguo.                       Tocas.
        Quems.                            Tonzaumacagua.
        Quepanos.                         Tripas Blancas.
        Quesal.                           Tuancas.
        Quide (?).                        Tumamar.
        Quioborique (?).                  Tumpzi.
        Quisabas (?).                     Tusanes.
        Quitacas.                         Tusonid.
        Quivi (?).                        Tuteneiboica.
        Salapaque (?).                    Unojita (?).
        Salinas (?).                      Uracha.
        Samampac.                         Utaca (?).
        Sampanal.                         Venados.
        Sanipao.                          Vande Flechas.
        Saracuam (?).                     Viayam.
        Secmoco.                          Viddaquimamar.
        Semonan (?).                      Xarame.
        Senisos.                          Xiabu.
        Siaguan.                          Yacdossa.
        Siansi.                           Ybdacas.
        Siiame (perhaps Tonkawan).        Yeme.
        Silianguayas.                     Yman.
        Simaomo (perhaps Tonkawan).       Ymic.
        Sinicu.                           Yoricas.
        Siupam.                           Ysbupue.
        Sonaque.                          Yue.
        Sonayan.                          Yurguimes.
        Suahuaches (?).                   Zorquan.


In considering the Coahuiltecan stock it has been found necessary
to change the original plan of giving separate consideration to
rich tribe because we are here confronted by an enormous number
of small tribal or band names, of many of which we do not know
even the location. In lieu of subdivisions, therefore, we shall
give as complete a list as possible of these small tribes or
bands, as far as they are known. They are as follows:


As indicated, some of there were perhaps Tonkawan, Karankawan, or
of other affiliations. Some were represented by single
individuails and no doubt many of the names are synonyms or have
become distorted in the process of recording. The exact nature of
these groups can now never be known. The above list does not
include a great many names given only by Cabeza de Vaca or La
Salle and his companions in the same region. The multiplicity of
tribes and confusion in names is not so serious in any other
region north of Mexico.

History.- The Coahuiltecan tribes were first encountered by
Cabeza de Vaca and his companions who passed through the heart of
their country, nnd by the Spaniards when they invaded Coahuila
and founded Parral. From the early part of the seventcenth
century onward, their country was traversed repeatedly. In 1675
the Coahuiltecan country on both sides of the Rio Grande was
invaded by Fernando del Bosque, and in 1689 and 1690 the Texas
portion was again traversed by De Leon and Manzanet. In 1677 a
Franciscan mission for Coahuiltecan tribes was established at
Nadadores and before the end of the century others were started
along the Rio Grande and near San Antonio. Great numbers of
Indians were gathered into these missions during the first part
of the eighteenth century but the change of life entailed upon
roving people, disease, and the attacks of hostile tribes from
the north reduced their numbers rapidly. Today none of these
Indians are known to survive in Texas. In 1886 Dr. A. S. Gatschet
found remnants of two or three tribes on the south side of the
Rio Grande and some of their descendants, survive, but they are
no longer able to speak their ancient language.

Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1690 the
Coahuiltecan peoples totaled 15,000; no figures embracing all of
them occur in the various narratives.

Comanche. Significance unknown. Also called:

     Allebome, given by Lewis and Clark as the French name.
     Bald Heads, so called by Long (1823).
     Bo'dalk' inago, Kiowa name, meaning "reptile people," "snake men."
     Ca'-tha, Arapaho name, meaning "having many horses."
     Cintu-aluka, Teton Dakota name.
     Datse-an, Kiowa Apache name (Gatschet, MS, BAE).
     Gyai'-ko, Kiowa name, meaning "enemies."
     Idahi, Kiowa Apache name (Mooney, 1896).
     Inda, Jicarilla name.
     La Plais, French traders' name, perhaps corrupted from Tete
     Pelee.
     La'-ri'hta, Pawnee name.
     Los Mecos, Mexican name.
     Mahan, Isleta name.
     Mahana, Taos name.
     Na'`lani, Navaho name, meaning "many aliens," or "many
     emamies" (collective for Plains tribe).
     Na'nita, Kichai name.
     Nar-a-tah, Waco name.
     Na'taa, Wichita name, meaning "snakes," i. e., "enemies."
     Ne'me ne, or Nimenim, own name, or Numa, meaning "people."
     Padouca, common early name, evidently from the name of the
     Penateka band.
     Sanko, obsolete Kiowa name.
     Sau'hto, Caddo name.
     Selakampom, Comecrudo name for all warlike tribes but
     especially for the Comanche.
     Shishinowutz-hita'neo, Cbeyenne name meaning "snake people."
     Snake Indians, common name.
     Tete Pelee, French traders' name, identification somewhat doubtful.
     Yampah or Ya'mpaini, Shoshoni name, meaning "Yampa people,"
     or "Yampa eaters."

Connections.- The Comanche belonged to the Shoshonean linguistic
family, a branch of Uto-Aztecan, its tongue being almost
identical with that of the Shoshoni.

Location.- In northwestern Texas and the region beyond as far as
Arkansas River. (See also Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico,
Oklahoma, and Wyoming.)

  Subdivisions

The following are the names of Comanche bands so far as these are
known:
        Detsanayuka or Nokoni.           Pagatsu.
        Ditsakana, Widyu, Yapa           Penateka or Penande.
           or Yamparika.
        Kewatsana.                       Pohoi (adopted Shoshoni).
        Kotsai.                          Tanima, Tenawa or Tenahwit.
        Kotsoteka, Kwahari               Waaih.
           or Kwahadi.
        Motsai.

        Various writers also mention the following:

        Guage-johe.                      Muvinabore.
        Ketahto.                         Nauniem.
        Kwashi.                          Parkeenaum.


History.- Although differing today in physical type, on account
of their close linguistic relationship it is supposed that the
original Comanche must have separated from the Shoshoni in the
neighborhood of eastern Wyoming. The North Platte was known as
Padouca Fork as late as 1805. In 1719, however, the Comanche are
placed by early writers in southwestern Kansas. For a long time
the Arkansas River was their southern boundary, but finally they
moved below it attracted by opportunities to obtain horses from
the Mexicans and pushed on by other peoplcs. The Apache, who were
in the country invaded, attacked them but were defeated. In this
movement the Penateka Comanche were in advance and from the name
of this band comes Padouca, one of the old terms applied to the
entire people. For a long time the Comanche were at war with the
Spaniards and the Apache, and later with the Americans. Texas
suffered so much from their depredations that the famous Texas
Rangers were organized as a protection against them and proved
extremely effective. In 1854, by permission of the State of
Texas, the Federal Government established two reservations upon
Brazos River and some of the Comanche and Kiowa were placed upon
the upper reserve. Friction with the settlers, however, continued
and compelled the abandonment of these reserves in 1859 and the
removal of the Indians to the territory embraced in the present
State of Oklahoma. By a treaty concluded October 18, 1865, a
reservation was set apart for the Comanche and Kiowa consisting
of the Panhandle of Texas and all of Oklahoma west of Cimarron
River and the 98th meridian of west longitude. By a treaty
concluded October 21, 1867, they surrendered all of this except a
tract of land in southwestern Oklahoma between the 98th meridian,
Red River, the North Fork of Red River, and Washita River. They
did not settle finally upon this land, however, until after the
last outbreak of the southern prairie tribes in 1874-75. Their
descendants continue to live in the same territory.

Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that there must have been
7,000 Comanche about 1690. The census of 1904 gives 1,400; the
census of 1910, 1,171; and the United States Indian Office Report
for 1923 shows a total of 1,697. The census of 1930 returned
1,423. In 1937 the figure given is 2,213.

Connection in which they have become noted.- The Comanche were
one of the most famous tribes of the Plains, particularly the
southern Plains. They were remarkable (1) for their numbers,
horsemanship, and warlike character; (2) for the frequent clashes
between them and the White expeditions or bodies of emigrants;
(3) as largely instrumental in introducing horses to the Indians
of the northern Plains. They gave place names to counties in
Kansas and Texas; a mountain in Texas; and places in Yellowstone
County, Mont.; Comanche County, Tex.; and Stephens County, Okla.

There is a Comanche River in Colorado.

Creeks, see Muskogee, under Alabama.

Deadose. An Atakapa tribe or subtribe in south central Texas.
(See Louisiana.)

Eyeish, or Haish. Meaning unknown. Also called Aays, Aix, Aliche,
Yayecha, etc.

Connections.- The Eyeish belonged to the Caddoan linguistic
stock, their closest relatives probably being the Adai, and next
to them the peoples of the Kadohadacho and Hasinai Confederacies,
with which, in fact, Lesser and Weltfish (1932) classify them.

Location.- On Ayish Creek, northeastern Texas, between the Sabine
and Neches Rivers.

History- In 1542 the Eyeish were visited by the Spaniards under
Moscoso, De Soto's successor. They are next noted in 1686-87 by
the companions of La Salle. In 1716 the mission of Nuestra Senora
de los Dolores was established among them by the Franciscans,
abandoned in 1719, reestablished in 1721, and finally given up in
1773, the success of thc mission having been very small. Their
proximity to the road between the French post at Natchitoches and
the Spanish post at Nacogdoches seems to have contributed to
their general demoralization. Sibley (1832) reported only 20
individuals in the tribe in 1805 but in 1828 there were said to
be 160 families. Soon afterward they joined the other Caddo
tribes and followed their fortunes, and they must have declined
very rapidly for only a bare memory of them is preserved.

Population.- In 1779, 20 families were reported; in 1785, a total
population of 300; in 1805, 20 individuals; in 1828, 160
families. (See Caddo Confederacy, under Louisiana.)

Connection in which they have become noted.- Ayish Bayou, a
tributary of the Angelina River on which they formerly lived,
perpetuates the name of the Eyeish.

Guasco. A tribe or band which attained some prominence from the
importance attached to it in the narratives of the De Soto
expedition. (See Hasinai Confederacy.)

Hinai. An important band of the Hasinai Confederacy (q. v.).

Hasinni Confederacy. Hasinai signifies "our own folk." The name
often occurs in the forms Assinay or Cenis.

Connections.- The Hasinai Confederacy constituted one of the
major divisions of the Caddo, the others being the Kadohadacho
Confederacy, the Natehitoches Confederacy, and the Adai and
Eyeish, the two last probably connected but not confederated. All
belonged to the Caddoan linguistic stock.

Location.- In northeastern Texas between the headwaters of the
Neches and Trinity Rivers.

Subdivisions

The following tribes or bands were included:

Anadarko, northwest of Nacogdoches in the present Rusk County.

Guasco, position unknown.

Hainai, 3 leagues west of Nacogdoches.

Nabedache, 3 to 4 leagues west of Neches River and near Arroyo
San Pedro, at a site close to the old San Antonio road, which
became known as San Pedro.

Nacachau, just north of the Neches tribe and on the east side of
Neches River.

Nacanish, north of the Hainai.

Naco, probably part of the Nacanish.

Nacogdoche, at the present Nacogdoches.

Nacano, southeast of the Neches and Nabedache and 5 leagues from
the former.

Namidish or Nabiti, on Angelina River north of the Hainai.

Nasoni, two towns: bout 27 miles north of Nacogdoches near the
Anadarko (2) in the Kadohadacho Confederacy.

Nechaui, southeast of the Nabednche, half a league from the
Nacono, and 5 leagues from the crossing of the Neches at the
Neches village.

Neches, the main village 1 league or more east of Neches River,
nearly west of the present Nacogdoches and near the mounds
southwest of Alto, Cherokee County.

The following names may belong to other allied tribes but next to
nothing is known of them:

Naansi.     Nadamin.       Neihshat.
Nabeyeyxa.  Natsshostanno. Tadiva.

Lesser and Weltfish (1932) speak of a tribe called Knyamaici, but
this was probably a local group on Kiamichi River.

Villages
As recorded by our authorities, these almost always bore the
names of the tribes occupying them.

History.- On their way west in 1542 after the death of De Soto,
in an endeavor to reach Mexico overland, the Spaniards who had
followed him passed through the Caddo country, and the names of
the Nabedache, Nasoni, Anadarko, and Nacanish seem to be
recognizable. In 1686-87 La Salle and his companions spent some
time in their villages, and it was near one of them that La Salle
was murdered by his own people. In 1690 the Spaniards entered
their country and opened the first mission among them at the
Nabedache village in May of that year. A number of missions were
established in the other villages. All were abandoned in 1719 in
expectation of a French attack, but they were reestablished in
1721. They did not prove successful, however, and were gradually
removed to the neighborhood of San Antonio. Early in the
nineteenth century the Hasinai were joined by the Louisiana
Caddo, and all were placed upon a reservation on the Brazos River
in 1855. Threatened with massacre by some of their White
neighbors, they fled to Oklahoma 4 years later, were granted new
lands near the present Anadarko, and finally allotted land in
severalty.

Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that in 1690 the entire
Caddo population, including the Hasinai, the Kadohndacho and
Natchitoches Confederacies, and the Adai and Eyeish tribes,
amount to 8,500, 700 more than the number I arrived at. He does
not give figures for the Hasinai by themselves, but it is
probable that he would have allowed between 4,000 and 5,000. The
former figure is the one I suggested (see Swanton, 1942).

Referring to earlier estimates, we are told that a Canadian who
had lived for several years among the Hasinai stated in 1699 that
they had between 600 and 700 warriors, which would indicate a
population of 2,500-3,000. In 1716 Don Diego Ramon, under whom
the missions were established, gave it as his opinion that they
were serving a population of 4,000-6,000. When Aguayo
reestablished them in 1721 he distributed presents to the
inhabitants of the principal towns. His figures are evidently
incomplete, but even so they suggest some falling off in the 5
years that had elapsed. At any rate it is evident that these
Indians lost very heavily during the eighteenth century and that
their numbers did not exceed 1,000 at the opening of the
nineteenth century. A rather careful estimate by Jesse Stem in
1851 would indicate a population of about 350. In 1864 the United
States Indian Office reported 150, and in 1876 and subsequent
years still smaller figures appear which are evidently
incomplete. The first seemingly accurate census taken by the
Indian Office was in 1880, when the figure for the united Caddo
people was given as 538. It varied little from this until after
1910 when it showed steady gains. In 1937, 967 Caddo were
reported.

Connection in which they haue become noted.- The Hasinai are
noted as the Indians among whom La Salle came to his untimely
end, and along with the Kadohadacho and Natchitoches as makers of
the beautiful Caddo pottery. (See Kadohadacho Confederacy.)

Texas, a common name applied to them, was adopted as the
designation of a Republic and later State of the American Union.
It has been given to places in Washington County, Ky., and
Baltimore County, Md.; to Tcxas City, Galveston County, Tex.;
Texas Creek, Fremont County, Colo.; and in the combined form
Texarkana to a city on the boundary line between Texas and
Arkansas, entering also into Texhoma, Texas County, Okla., and
Sherman County, Tex.

Isleta del Sur, see Pueblos under New Mexico.

Jicarills. The Jicarilla ranged into this State (Texas) at times.
(See Colorado.)

Kadohadacho Confederacy. The word Kadohadacho signifies in the
native language "real chiefs," kadi being the word for "chief,"
and it is from an abbreviation of this term that we get the word
Caddo. They were also called:

     At'-ta-wits, by the Comanche, according to Ten Kate (1907).
     Da'sha-i, or Tashash, by the Wichita.
     Erawika, by the Pawnee.
     'H'-doum-dei-kih, by the Riowa.
     Ka-lox-la'-tce, by the Choctaw.
     Kalu-xnadshu or Kasseye'i, by the Tonkawa.
     Kul-hul-atsl, by the Creeks.
     Ma'-seip'-kin, by the Kiowa, signifying "pierced noses."
     Ni'ris-hari's-ki'riki, another Wichita name.
     Ota's-ita'niuw', Cheyenne name, signifying "pierced nose
     people" for Utaseta).
     Su'-dee, hy the Quapaw.
     Tani'banen, by the Arapaho, signifying "pierced nose people."
     Witune, by the Comanche, according to Gatschet (M.S., B.A.E.).

Connections.- The Kadohadacho belonged to the Caddo division of
the Caddoan linguistic stock, thc other members being the closely
related Hasinai (q. v.) and Natchitoches (see under Louisiana),
and the more remotely connected Adai of Louisiana and Eyeish of
Texas.

Location.- The Kadohadacho lived in northeastern Texas and
southwestern Arkansas at the Great Bend of Red River, though they
are usually associated with the region around Caddo Lake which
they occupied at a later period. (See also Arkansas and
Louisiana.)

Subdivisions

Cahinnio, near Ouachita River, Ark.

Kadohadacho, on the north side of Red River near the point where
the present Arkansas-Texas boundary line reaches it.

Nanatsoho, on the south side of Red River not far from the point
reached by the present Arkansas-Oklahoma State line.

Upper Nasoni, on the south side of Red River nearly opposite the
present Ogden.

Upper Natchitoches, on the south side of Red River between the
Nanatsoho and Nasoni.

Upper Yatasi, a part of the Yatasi which joined them in very late
times.

History.- In October 1541, De Soto and his army entered a
province called Tula believed to be the country of the Indians
later known as Cahinnio, a tribe for whose bravery the Spaniards
came to have a wholesome respect. The next encounter between
these people and white men was in the summer of 1687 when, after
the murder of the Sieur de la Salle, six survivors of his
expedition, including Joutel and Father Anastasius Donay, passed
through the Kadohadacho towns on their way to the Mississippi,
visiting the Nasoni, Kadohadacho, and Cahinnio. Tonti visited
them also 4 years later. In November and December 1691, Domingo
Teran (Castaneda, 1936) spent a miserable week in this country
exploring it and taking soundings of Red River, and we owe to him
the first map of the region. In 1700 Bienville undertook to reach
them but got no farther than the Yatasi village halfway between
thc Natchitoches and Kadohadacho. In 1719 the French officer
Bernard de la Harpe (1831) spent some time among them and
established a trading post which endured for a considerable
period. French traders quickly monopolized the Kadohadacho trade,
the principal trading point being Natchitoches, but no missions
were established. This group of tribes proved to be a strong
bulwark against the warlike northern Indians, particularly the
Osage, but they suffered much in consequence, and late in the
eighteenth century the Kadohadacho or a part of them moved to
another location some miles below their ancient village. The town
established in the new location, however, was also attacked by
the Osages, who inflicted such losses upon its inhabitants that
they removed again about 1800 and established themselves on Sodo
Creek northwest of the present Shreveport. In 1824 a treaty was
signed between the United States Government and the Quapaw
Indians by which the latter agreed to give up their lands on the
Arkansas and remove to the country of the Caddo Indians. The
Quapaw removed the year following but suffered such losses on
account of floods in Red River that in 1833 they surrendered
these lands and removed to Oklahoma. Two years later the
Kadohadacho and their allies also subscribed to a treaty by which
they surrendered all of their lands within the territory of the
United States. In consequence, they removed to Texas and settled
near their Hasinai kindred, whose fortunes they afterward
followed although the two parties remained distinct for a
considerable period. Some united themselves for a time with the
Cherokee under Chief Bowl. Some also took up their residence with
the Chickasaw in the Indian Territory. Those who remained in
Texas were fellow victims with the Hasinai of the increasing
friction with their white neighbors embittered by Comanche and
Apache depredations for which they were in no way responsible. We
may now call these united peoples by the simple term "Caddo." In
an endeavor to end these difficulties a reservation was set apart
for the Caddo on Brazos River in 1852 but trouble arose again of
such a violent character that in 1859 the Caddo abandoned Texas
and were assigned a new reservation in the southwestern part of
the present State of Oklahoma, where their descendants still
live, most of the scattered bands having been gathered into one
section. Most of the Caddo sided with the Federal Government
during the Civil War and went to Kansas, where they remained
until it was over, though experiencing many hardships in
consequence and losing many of their people in epidemics. They
took considerable interest in the Ghost Dance Religion and still
more in the Peyote Cult, John Wilson, a mixed-blood Caddo and
Delaware, being one of the prominent leaders. The fact that they
had always cultivated the ground has made their adjustment to the
new economic system fairly easy. In 1902 they were allotted land
in severalty.

Population.- My estimate for the Kadohadacho division of the
Caddo before White contact is 2,000. Bienville and La Harpe place
it in 1700-1709 between 2,000 and 2,500. In 1718, however,
Bienville asserts that it had fallen to 200 warriors, which would
mean about 800 people, and Sibley (1832) indicates the same
figures as late as 1805. In 1829 Porter (in Schoolcraft, vol. 3)
gives an estimate of 450, and in 1851 Stem (1851) who is likely
to be reliable, places it at 476. In 1857 Neighbors returns a
partial enumeration of 235, and in 1876, the last time they were
returned separately from the Hasinai, the Indian Office reported
467. It is evident, however, that this also includes part of the
Hasinai and all of the Adai and Eyeish besides the remnants of
the Natchitoches group. After this date the population of the
united Caddo group remained around 500, but during the present
century it has been steadily increasing and in 1937, 967 were
reported.

Connection in which they have become noted.- The Kadohadacho
group is noted as containing the tribe which ultimately gave the
name Caddo to the linguistic family of which it is a part. The
name Caddo has been applied to a parish and lake in Louisiana; a
county in Oklahoma; a creek and gap in Arkansas; to the village
of Caddo Gap, Montgomery County, Ark.; and to villages in Bryan
County, Okla., and Stephens County, Tex.; and in Hunt County,
Tex., is Caddo Mills.

Karankawan Tribes. The name Karankawa is derived from one of the
constituent tribes, but the significance is unknown.

Nda kun-dadehe, Lipan name, meaning "people walking in the
water."

Quelancouchis, Clamcoets, names given by the French.

Yakokon kapai, Tonkawa, meaning "without moccasin," but this name
includes the coast Coahuiltecan tribes.

Connections.- The Karankawan tribes are placed in an independent
linguistic stock, which was connected most closely, it would
seem, with the Coahuiltecan group.

Location.- On the coast of the Gulf of Mexico between Trinity and
Arkansas Bays.

Subdivisions

Five principal tribes constituted the Karankawan stock. They were
as follows.
     Coapite.
     Coaque or Coco, on Galveston Island and at the mouth of Brazos River.
     Karankawa, on Matagorda Bay.
     Kohani, near the mouth of Colorado River.
     Kopano, on Copano Bay.

To these should perhaps be added the Tiopane and Tups, and
perhaps also the Pataquilla, and the Quilotes mentioned by Cabeza
de Vaca (1851).

History.- The Karankawan coast was skirted by a number of early
voyagers but the first contact with its inhabitants worth noting
was by Cabeza de Vaca and other shipwrecked members of Pamphilo
de Narvaez's expedition. There is little doubt that the people
among whom Cabeza de Vaca was cast away in 1528 were the Coaque
or Coco. In 1685 La Salle landed in their country supposing that
he was near the mouth of the Mississippi, and he built a fort
(Fort St. Louis) in which the French maintained themselves for 2
years. In 1689 the region was visited by a Spanish expedition
under De Leon intent upon driving the Frenchmen out of the
country. Shortly afterward the Spaniards began to colonize Texas
and, though few settlements were made near the coast, missions
were established from time to time to gather in the Karankawan
Indians. The neophytes could never be induced to remain long at
these missions, however, and continued during the Spanish period
in about the same condition of savagery in which they had been
found, though they decreased steadily in numbers. After the
American settlements and begun, the coast tribes annoyed them by
constant pilfering, and the reprisals which the Karankawans
suffered finally destroyed them entirely. The last are said to
have perished shortly before the Civil War. The only Karankawan
vocabulary of undoubted purity was recorded in 1720 by the French
Captain Beranger. In 1891 Dr. A. S. Gatschet published two
others, one obtained from Tonkawa Indians and the other, much
longer, from a white woman named Oliver who had lived near the
last band of Karankawa in her girlhood and had learned a
considerable number of words. But this band is said to have been
much mixed with Coahuiltecan, a contention which an examination
of the material seems to confirm.

Population.- Mooney's (1928) estimate of 2,800 for the Karankawan
tribes in 1690 appears to me decidedly too high, but there are
practically no data upon which to make a satisfactory
determination.

Connection in which they have become noted.- The Karankawan
tribes will be longest remembered as those among which Cabeza de
Vaca and his companions were cast away in 1528, and where La
Salle's colony was established in 1685. The name of one
Karankawan tribe (Kopano) is preserved by Copano Bay.

Kichai or (more phonetically) Kitsei. Their own name and said to
mean "going in wet sand," but the Pawnee translate their
rendering of it as "water turtle." Also called:
     Gits'aji, Kansa name.
     Ki-ci'-tcac, Omaha name
     Kietsash, Wichita name.
     Ki-tchesh, Caddo name.
     Quiehais, Spanish variant.
     Quidehais, from French sources (La Harpe, 1831).

Connections.- The Kichai were a tribe of the Caddoan stock whose
language lay midway between Wichita and Pawnee.

Location.- On the upper waters of Trinity River, and between that
stream and Red River. (See also Oklahoma.)

History.- It is probable that in the prehistoric period the
Kichai lived north of Red River but they had gotten south of it
by 1701 when the French penetrated that country and they
continued in the same general region until 1855. They were then
assigned to a small reservation on Brazos River, along with
several other small tribes.

     In 1858, however, alarmed at threats of extermination on the
part of the neighboring Whites, they fled to the present
Oklahoma, where they joined the Wichita. They have remained with
them ever since.

Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates a total Kichai population of
500 in 1690. In 1772 the main Kichai village contained 30 houses
and there were estimated in it 80 warriors, most of whom were
young. In 1778 the number of Kichai fighting men was estimated at
100. The census of 1910 returned a total population of only 10,
and that of 1930 included them with the Wichita, the figure for
the two tribes, nearly all Wichita however, being 300.

Connection in which they have become noted.- Their name Kichai is
perpetuated in the Keeche Hills, Okla.; Keechi Creek, Tex.; a
branch of the Trinity, Keechi; a post hamlet of Leon County,
Tex.; and perhaps Kechi, a post township of Sedgwick County,
Kans.

Kiowa. This tribe hunted in and raided across northern Texas.
(See Kansas.)

Koasati. Early in thc nineteenth century bands of Koasati had
worked over from Louisiana into Texas, settling first on the
Sabine and later on the Neches and the Trinity. In 1850 the bulk
of the entire tribe was in Texas but later, partly it is said on
account of a pestilence, they suffered heavy losses and most of
the survivors returned to Louisiana, where the largest single
body of Koasati is living. Among the Alabama in Polk County,
Tex., there were in 1912 about 10 of this tribe. (See Alabama
and Louisiana.)

Lipan. Adapted from Ipa-n'de, apparently a personal name; n'de
meaning "people." Also called:
     A-tagui, Kiowa name, meaning "timber Apache"; used also for Mescalero.
     Cances, Caddo name, meaning "deceivers."
     Hu-ta'-ci, Comanche name, meaning "forest Apache" 
     (Ten Ka,te, 1884, in  Hodge, 1907.
     Huxul, Tonkawa name. (See Uxul)
     Na-izha'n, own name, meaning "ours," "our kind."
     Navone, Comanche name (Gatschet, MS., B.A.E.).
     Shi'lni, former Mescalero name, meaning "summer people"(?).
     Tu-tssn-nde, Mescalero name, meaning "great water people."
     Uxul, Tonkawa name, meaning a spiral shell and applied to
     this tribe because of their coiled hair.
     Yabipai Lipan, so called by Garces in 1776.

Connections.- This is one of the tribes of the Athapascan
linguistic stock to which the general name Apache was applied.
Their closest relations politically were with the Jicarilla, with
whom their formed one linguistic group.

Location.- The Lipan formerly ranged from the Rio Grande in New
Mexico over the eastern part of the latter State and western
Texas southeastward as far as the Gulf of Mexico. (See also New
Mexico and Oklahoma.)

       Subdivisions

The Lipan were reported during the early part of the nineteenth
century to consist of three bands, probably the same which Orozco
y Berra (1864) calls Lipanjenne, Lipanes de Arriba, and Lipanes
Abajo.

History.- The position of the Lipan prior to the eighteenth
century is somewhat obscure, but during that century and the
early part of the nineteenth they ranged over the region just
indicated. In 1757 the San Saba mission was established for them,
but it was broken up by their enemies, the Comanche and Wichita.
In 1761-62 the missions of San Lorenzo and Candelaria were
organized for the same purpose but met a similar fate in 1767. In
1839 the Lipan sided with the Texans against the Comanche but
suffered severely from the Whites between 1845, and 1856, when
most of them were driven into Coahuila, Mexico. They remained in
Coahuila until October 1903, when the 19 survivors were taken to
northwest Chihauhua, and remained there until 1905. In that year
they were brought to the United States and placed on the
Mescalero Reservation, N. Mex., where they now live. A few Lipan
were also incorporated with the Tonkawa and the Kiowa Apache.

Population.- Mooney (1928) estimates that the Lipan numbered 500
in 1690. In 1805 the three bands were reported to number 300,
350, and 100 men respectively, which would seem to be a too
liberal allowance. The census of 1910 returned 28.

Connection in which they have become noted.- The Lipan were noted
as persistent raiders into Texas, New Mexico, and Mexico. Their
name has been given to a post village in Hood County, Tex.

Muskogee. A few Muskogee came to Texas in the nineteenth century,
most belonging to the Pakana division. Two or three individuals
lived until recently near Livingston, Tex. (See Alabama.)

Nabedache, Nacschau, Nacanish, Nacogdoche, Nadaco, Namidish,
Nechaui, Neches, and one section of the Nasoni. Small tribes or
bands belonging to the Hnsinai Confederacy (q. v.).

Nanatsoho, Nasoni (Upper). Small tribes or bands connected with
the Kadohadacho Confederacy (q. v.).

Pakana. A Muskogee division. (See Muskogee above and also under
Alabama.)

Pascagoula. Bands belonging to the Pascagoula, entered Texas from
Louisiana early in the nineteenth century, and one band lived on
Biloxi Bayou, a branch of the Neches, for a considerable period,
together with some Biloxi Indians. All had disappeared in 1912
except two Indinns, only half Pascagoula, living with the Alabama
in Polk County. (See Mississippi).

Patiri. A tribe associated with the Akokisa, Bidai, and Deadose
in the mission of San Ildefonso west of Trinity River. Since
related tribes are said to have been put in the same mission in
that period (1748-49), it is believed that the Patiri spoke an
Atakapan language. Their former home is thought to have been
along Caney Creek.

Pueblos. There were two late settlements of Pueblo Indians,
Isleta del Sur and Senecu del Sur, near El Paso, Tex., composed
principally of Indians brought back by Governor Otermin in 1681
after an unsuccessful attempt to subdue the Pueblo Indinns of the
Rio Grande. Senecu del Sur was, however, actually in Chihuahua,
Mexico. The people of these pueblos are now almost completely
Mexicanized. (See New Mexico.)

Quapaw. Between 1823 and 1833 the Quapaw lived with the Caddo
Indians in northwestern Louisiana and northeastern Texas, and one
band of them known as Imaha were reckoned as a constituent
element of the Caddo Confederacy. (See Arkansas.)

Senecu del Sur. (See Pueblos above.)

Shawnee. A band of Shawnee entered eastern Texas for a brief
period during the middle of the nineteenth century. They were
afterward moved to Oklahoma. (See Tennessee.)

Shuman. More often known as Jumano or Humano, significance
unknown. Also called:

     Borrados, from Spanish sources, "striped" (?).
     Chouman, French form of name.
     Humanas, Jumanas, Xumanas, Spanish forms of name.
     Ipataraguites, from Mota-Padilla, probably intended for this tribe.
     Patarabueyes, given by Espejo in 1582.
     Sumn, sometimes regarded as a separate tribe but considered
     by Sauermerely as a synonym.

Connections.- The eastern division of the Shuman, that to which
the name Jumano is oftentimes applied, was once thought to have
belonged to the Caddoan stock but Sauer (1934) appears to have
shown that in all probability it was Uto-Aztecan. The western
section, often called Suma, has been classed, erroneously of
course, as Tanoan.

Location.- In early times most of thc Shuman lived along the Rio
Grande between the mouth of the Concho and the present El Paso
but extending westward as far as the Casas Grandes in Chihunhua.
Later a part of them entered the Plains in western Texas and
eastern New Mexico. (See also New Mexico.)

  Subdivisions and Villages

Besides the two main divisions to which the names Shuman or
Jumano and Suma have been applied respectively, the Suma later
became separated into two groups, one about El Paso and the other
in the region of the Casas Grandes. The only villages named are:

     Atripuy, Genobey, Quelotetrey, and Pataotrey.

History.- The Shuman were first met by Cabeza de Vaca and his
companions about the beginning of the year 1536 although De Vaca
does not mention them by name. In 1582 they were visited by
Antonio de Espejo and in 1598 by Juan de Oriate. At the latter
date a part of them at least were near the Salinas, east of the
Rio Grande in what is now New Mexico. About 1622 they were
visited by the Franciscan missionary of the Pueblo of Isleta, and
in 1829 an independent mission was established for them. By this
time, the eastem section of the tribe had gotten as far east as
the Conchos, a headstream of the Nueces. About 1670 there were
Shuman not far from Pecos River, and from that lime through the
eighteenth century they seem to have resided principally in the
region indicated. As late as the middle of the nineteenth century
they are mentioned in connection with the Kiowa, and again as
living near Lampazas, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Possibly they were the
tribe later known as Waco. The name of the western Shuman appears
in the form Suma as early as 1630 when it was used by Benavides,
and in 1659 some of the northern Suma were at San Lorenzo. During
the Pueblo revolt of 1680 they became hostile and united with the
Manso and Jano in an outbreak in 1684, but they were reduced 2
years later and formed into several settlements about El Paso,
San Lorenzo being the only one to endure. They declined steadily
in numbers until in 1897 only one was known to be living, at
Senecu. The mission of Casas Grandes was established among the
southern branch of the Suma in 1664. Then and for some years
afterward they were allied with the Apache and Jocome in raids
against the Piman tribes west of them, particularly the Opata,
but are supposed to have been destroyed ultimately by the Apache.

Population.- In 1582 Espejo believed that the Shuman numbered
10,000, probably an overestimate. Mooney (1928) does not give
them separate entry in his estimates, of population. In 1744 the
northern branch of that part of the tribe called Suma had become
reduced to 50 families; in 1765 there were only 21 families; and
in 1897 only one individual was supposed to be left.

Soacatino, or Xacatin. A tribe met by the companions of De Soto
in northwestern Louisiana or northeastern Texas. It Was
undoubtedly Caddo but has not been identified satisfactorily with
any known Caddo tribe.

Tawakoni. The Tawakoni were a subdivision of the Wichita, or at
least a tribe closely affiliated with them. (See Oklahoma.)

Tonkawan Tribes. The name derived from the most important and
only surviving tribe of the family. Gatschet (1891 a) says that
Tonkawa is a Waco word, Tonkaweya, meaning "they all stay
together." The synonyms are not to be confounded with those of
the Tawakoni. Also called:

     Kadiko, Kiowa name, probably a corruption of Kuikogo, "maneating  men" 
     (Gatschet, MS., B.A.E.).
     Kariko, Comanche name, from above.
     K'inahi-piako, Kiowa name, meaning "maneaters" (Mooney, 1898).
     Konkone or Komkome, early French name.
     Maneaters, common translation of some of above synonyms.
     Miuxsen, Cheyenne name.
     Nemerexka, Comanche name (Gatschet, MS., B. A. E.).
     Titskan watitch, own name.

Connections.- The Tonkawan tribes constitute a distinct
linguistic family but with affinities for the Coahuiltecan and
probably Karankawan and Tunican groups.

Location.- In central Texas from Cibolo Creek on the southwest to
within a few miles of Trinity River on the northeast. (See also
Oklahoma.)

    Subdivisions

The tribes or bands certainly included under this head were the
Tonkawa Yojuane, Mayeye, and Ervipiame, but there should probably
be added the Sana, Emet, Cava, Toho, Tohaha, Quiutcanuaha, Tenu,
Tetzino, Tishin, Tusolivi, and Ujuiap, and perhaps also the
Nonapho, Sijame, Sirnaomo, Muruam, Pulncuam, and Choyapin, though
the last three at least were probably Coahuiltecan.

History.- Tribes of Tonkawan stock were undoubtedly encountered
by Cabeza de Vaca early in the sixteenth century; certainly so if
the Muruam were Tonkawan for they are evidently his Mariames. In
1691 the Tonkawa and Yojuane are mentioned by Francisco Casanas
de Jesus Maria as enemies of the Hasinai (Swanton, 1942, p. 251),
and in 1714 the Yojuane destroyed the main fire temple of the
Hasinai. Between 1746 and 1749 the Tonkawa were gathered into
missions on San Xavier (San Gabriel) River but these were given
up in 1756, and 2 years later the Tonkawa assisted in the
destruction of the San Saba Mission established for the Apache.
From that time until well into the nineteenth century the tribe
continued to reside in the same section, rarely settling down for
any considerable period. In 1855 they and several other Texas
tribes were gathered by the United States Government on two small
reservations on Brazos River. In 1859 however, the threatening
attitude of their white neighbors resulted in their removal to
Washita River in what is now Oklahoma. On the night of October
25, 1862, the Tonkawa camp there was fallen upon by a body of
Delaware, Shawnee, and Caddo Indians desiring to pay off old
scores but pretending that the Tonkawa and their agent were in
sympathy with the Southern Confederacy. Out of about 300 Tonkawa
137 were massacred, and the survivors, after some years of
miserable wandering, were gathered into Fort Griffin, Tex., where
they might be protected from their enemies,. In 1884 all that
were left were given a small reservation in northern Oklahoma,
near the Ponca, where their descendants still live.

Population.- Mooney (1928) estimated that in 1690 there were
about 1,600 Tonkawa. A Spanish estimate of 1778 gives 300
warriors but the following year, after an epidemic of smallpox,
this is cut in half. In 1782, 600 were said to have attended a
certain meeting and this was only a portion of the tribe. Sibley
(1832) estimated that in 1805 they had 200 men. In 1809 there
were said to be 250 families and in 1828, 80. In 1847 the
official estimate was 150 men Before the massacre of 1862 there
were supposed to be about 300 all told, but when they were placed
on their reservation in 1884 there were only 92. In 1908 there
were 48 including a few intermarried Lipan; the census of 1910
gave 42, but that of 1930 restores the figure to 48, and in 1937
there were said to be 51.

Connection in which they have become noted- The Tonkawan tribes
have the following claims to remembrance (1) On account of the
uniqueness of their language, (2) for their reputed addiction to
cannibalism, (3) on account of the massacre perpetrated upon them
partly in consequence of this reputation, as above described. The
city of Tonkawa in Kay County, Okla., perpetuates the name.

Waco. The Waco were a subtribe or tribe of the Wichita group
which lived near the present Waco for a limited period before
removal to Oklahoma (q. v.).

Wichita. The Wichita ,lived for a time along both sides of Red
River in northern Texas. (See Oklahoma.)




Source & Reference Notes!

   [REF:#001]
   "The Indian Tribes of North America"
    By John R. Swanton; 1944
    [Retired from active membership on the staff of the 
    Bureau of American Ethnology in 1944]

   [REF:#002]
   File: AL_PG1.TXT
   Refised: July 05, 1996
   By: Paul R. Sarrett, Jr., prsjr@aol.com

   [REF:#003]
   "The Texas Cherokees" - A People Between Two Fires, 1819-1840
   By: Dianna Everett, (c) 1990 by University of Oklahoma Press
   Libraty of Congress: ISBN 0-8061-2296-X



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Text - Copyright © 1996-2002 Paul R. Sarrett, Jr.
Created: Dec. 01, 1996; Mar. 25, 2002