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I. Writings by Portuguese descendants about the Portuguese experience in Trinidad & Tobago
(For other writings, see
Bibliographies compiled by Jo-Anne Ferreira)

 Ferreira, Jo-Anne Sharon

"The Portuguese Language in Trinidad and Tobago: A Study of Language Shift and Language Death." Ph.D. diss., University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, 1999.


The Portuguese of Trinidad and Tobago: Portrait of an Ethnic Minority. St. Augustine: Institute of Social and Economic Research, University of the West Indies, 1994.


"Some Aspects of Portuguese Immigration into Trinidad and Tobago: An Investigation Based on Oral History",
in OPReP Newsletter 8 (December 1989): 3-5

The Portuguese of Trinidad, in The Book of Trinidad, edited by Gérard Besson and Bridget Brereton, 263-269. Port-of-Spain: Paria Publishing Co. Ltd., 1991.

Do Atlântico às Antilhas: O Caso da Trinidad, in Islenha 19 (June to December 1996): 95-107

A Trinidadiana in Portugal, Newsday, and also Sunday Guardian (25th Anniversary European Union supplement), 21 June, 2001


Portuguese of the West Indies, with Dean de Freitas (co-ordinator of TriniGenWeb and Dean’s Family History)

 Gomes, Albert Maria

"I am an Immigrant." In Caribbean Essays: An Anthology, edited by Andrew Salkey, 53-59. London: Evans Brothers Ltd., 1973.


Autobiography: Through a Maze of Colour. Port-of-Spain: Key Caribbean Publications, 1974.

Novel: All Papa's Children. Surrey: Cairi Publishing House, 1978.

Mendes, Alfred Hubert

Novel: Pitch Lake. London: Duckworth, 1934. Reprint. London: New Beacon Books Ltd., 1980.

Mendes, Alex

"On the Flyleaf of an Old Bible Much History Is Recorded," Sunday Guardian Magazine, 11 August 1968.

Milne, Anthony

"De Bossière: The Lion in Winter", Gowanus, Summer 1997.

"My Kind of Christmas: Remembering Things Gone By", Trinidad Express, 21 November 1989: 21.

"The Third Eye: On Behalf of the Portuguese", Trinidad Express, 23 November 1989: 24-25

"Note for the Quincentenary: From Madeira to Trinidad - the Portuguese in the West Indies", Sunday Express, 24 May 1992: 4, 22.

"White Like Me", Gowanus, Spring 1998.

"Winter Wonderland: Letter Home from JB de Callao", Gowanus, Winter 2000

Quintal, J. Wayne

"A Preliminary Review of the Portuguese Presence in the San Fernando Area." MS. San Fernando: n.p., 1993.

Reis, Charles

Brief History of the Associação Portuguesa Primeiro de Dezembro. Port-of-Spain: Franklin's Electric Printery, 1926. Reprint. Port-of-Spain: Board of Management of the Associação Portuguesa Primeiro de Dezembro, 1992 (pp.95-101 missing from reprint).

Associação Portugueza Primeiro de Dezembro. Port-of-Spain: Yuille's Printery, 1945.

Ries (sic), Monica M[aria] P[estana]

Travelling Memories with Jokes and Tips from 1910-1984. Port-of-Spain: Monica M.P. Reis, 1988.

"Antigas Canções de Namorados." Mt. Lambert, Trinidad. Unpublished. 1992.

II. Writings about famous (and infamous) descendants of Portuguese in Trinidad and Tobago

George Cabral

James, Aubrey E. A Biographical Sketch of George Cabral, C.B.E., Former Mayor of Port-of-Spain. Port-of-Spain: Guardian, [1963].

J.B. Fernandes

Barty-King, Hugh and Anton Massel. Rum: Yesterday and Today. London: W. Heinemann Ltd., 1983.

Michael de Freitas (Abdul Malik)

Humphry, Derek. False Messiah - The Story of Michael X. London: Hart-Davis, MacGibbon Ltd., 1977.

Malik, Michael Abdul. From Michael de Freitas to Michael X. London: André Deutsch, 1968.

Sharp, James. The Life and Death of Michael X. Waterford: Uni Books, 1981.

Albert Maria Gomes

Samaroo, Brinsley. Foreword to Through a Maze of Colour by Albert Gomes, ix-xvi. Port-of-Spain: Key Caribbean Publications, 1974.

Anthony, Michael. Heroes of the People of Trinidad and Tobago. Port-of-Spain: Circle Press, 1986.

Albert Hubert Mendes

Preddie-St. Clair, Edith. "The World of Alfred Mendes: A Critical Study of the Novels Pitch Lake and Black Fauns, and Other Short Stories." Caribbean Studies Project, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, 1994.

Public Orator. "Alfred Mendes." In Orations: Citations Made in Respect of the Grant of Honorary Degrees by the University of the West Indies, 4:73-77. Mona: University of the West Indies, [1975].

Ramchand, Kenneth. "The Alfred Mendes Story" (Parts 1-3), Tapia 7:6-7 (May-June 1977).

---. Introduction to Pitch Lake by Alfred Mendes, i-xiii. London: New Beacon Books Ltd., 1980.

Sander, Reinhard W. "Alfred Mendes." In Fifty Caribbean Writers: a Bio-Bibliographical Critical Sourcebook, edited by Daryl Cumber Dance, 318-26. New York: Greenwood Press, 1986.

Wills, Leslee, and Claire Holder. "The Caribbean Jigsaw: A Portuguese View - Review of Pitch Lake." The Race Today Review 14.1 (December 1981/January 1982): 40-41.

Antonio Mendes in Camps-Campins' card

Diego Serrao

Anthony, Michael. "Diego Serrao." In First in Trinidad. Port-of-Spain: Circle Press, 1989.

Sports Personalities in Netball and Hockey

Clarke, Anthony. Calypso Netball in Trinidad and Tobago. Port-of-Spain: A. Clarke, 1994.

Sheppard, Diana, ed. "Portuguese Magnolias Hockey Club 25th Anniversary, 1968-1993." Port-of-Spain: n.p., 1993.


Mittelholzer, Edgar. A Morning at the Office. 2nd Revised edition. London: Peepal Tree Press Ltd., 2010.

Samaroo, Brinsley. The Portuguese Community. ms. Port-of-Spain: n.p., 15 May 1983.

___. The Portuguese in Trinidad. ts. Port-of-Spain: GBU (Government Broadcasting Unit) Broadcast, c.1973.

Vale de Almeida, Miguel. "Ser Português na Trinidad: Etnicidade, Subjectividade e Poder." Etnográfica 1.1 (1997): 9-31.

___. Um Mar da Cor da Terra: Raça, Cultura, e Política da Identidade. Lisbon: Celta Editora, 2000. In English: An Earth-Colored Sea: 'Race', Culture and the Politics of Identity in the Post-Colonial Portuguese-Speaking World. Oxford, NY: Berghahn Books, 2004 (Ch.1, pages 1-25 are the same as the above article.)


Trinidad and Tobago Almanack 1866-1879

Trinidad Official and Commercial Register and Almanack 1872-1895

Mirror Almanack and General Commercial Directory of T&T 1899-1916

The Trinidad and Tobago Year Book (1900-1969).

Burkett, Algernon Albert C. Trinidad - A Jewel of the West or One Hundred Years of British Rule. London: Francis, [c.1914].

Comma, Carlton N. Who's Who in Trinidad and Tobago. Port-of-Spain: Carib Printers Ltd., 1966.

---. Who's Who in Trinidad and Tobago. 2d. ed. Port-of-Spain: Carib Printers Ltd., 1973.

Macmillan, Allister, ed. The West Indies Illustrated: Historical and Descriptive Commercial and Industrial Facts, Figures and Resources. London: W.H. and L. Collingridge, 1909.

---. The Red Book of the West Indies: Historical and Descriptive Commercial and Industrial Facts, Figures and Resources. London: W.H. and L. Collingridge, 1922.

---. The West Indies Past and Present with British Guiana and Bermuda: Historical, Descriptive, Commercial, Industrial. London: W.H. and L. Collingridge, [c.1938].

Smith, Lloyd Sydney, ed. Trinidad - Who, What, Why. Port-of-Spain: L.S. Smith, 1950.

---. The British Caribbean - Who, What, Why, 1955-1956. Port-of-Spain: L.S. Smith, 1956.

Smith, Lloyd Sydney, Jr., ed. The Caribbean - Who, What, Why: the Commonwealth Caribbean, 1968-1971. 4th. ed. Port-of-Spain: L.S. Smith Jr., 1969.

The Trinidad and Tobago Readers. Where We All Came From. Book Three. London: William Collins Sons and Co. Ltd., 1960.

Villafana, Elena. "'The Talking Lapeyrouse' - A Reconstructed History of Port-of-Spain Using Lapeyrouse Cemetery." Unpublished Caribbean Studies Project. U.W.I., St. Augustine, 1993.

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