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The Golden Falcon

Chapter II/4 - Bow

The genealogy of the Hesketh family gives the following:

 

Fig. 29 - Strange of Knockin - Arms: "gules, 2 lions passant, in pale argent, within a bordure engrailed or" (Roll of Henry III).

 

Ebulo, lord Strange of Knockin > his half-brother John's son Robert, lord Strange & Basset by right of his wife, eldest d. and one of the heiresses of Ralph, lord Basset of Blore > Roger, lord Strange & Bassett = Maud, d. of Hugh, Lord Burnell > John, lord Strange = Maud, d. of John Mohun > Richard, lord Strange of Knockin = Eleanor, d. of Sir Reginald Cobham, lord Cobham of Scarborough > John, lord Strange of Knockin = Jocelyn (Jacquetta), eldest d. and heiress of Richard, lord Woodville, earl Rivers.

 

Westbury in Buckingham Hundred of Buckinghamshire half of which was held in 1275 by Simon St. Lis.  In 1276 it went to Joan de Somery, lady of Westbury and in 1330 to Ebulo le Strange (d. 1335), Ralph St. Lys conveyed the other half to Ebulo whose widow Alice (de Lacy) married secondly Hugh le Fresne.  It then passed to Roger Strange of Knockin and was held in 1373 by Roger, son of Roger Strange, who granted it to John, son of John Strange of Walton, Co. Warwick and Mabel his wife.  In 1396 John alienated it to Alan Strange (d. 1417) and Margaret his wife, d. of John Wyard.  It passed to Michael, Thomas John and Baldwin Strange (Alan's brothers) and Philippa and Ida his sisters who held it of the Honour of Wallingford.  In 1485 Thomas Strange held it at his death and it was inherited by his sisters Margaret & Anne.  Anne (d. 1518) married John Strange of Little Massingham, Norfolk and (2) Edward Knyvett.

 

There are brasses in Hunstanton, Norfolk of Sir Hamo le Strange (1654), Henry le Strange (1485) and wife Katherine Drury and of Sir Roger le Strange, bodyguard to Henry VIII, son & heir of Henry le Strange (1506) and 7 of his ancestors - Sir Hamond, Hamond, Sir John, John, Roger, John > Herri > Sir Roger from Hamon Strange of the 14th century. ("Monumental brasses in the British Isles" - Mills Stephenson).

 

Joan de Somery (wife of John Strange) was descended from Isabella, widow of Simon de St. Lis, earl of Northampton who married Gervase Paynell so perhaps Westbury formed part of Isabella's dower.

 

Clarenceux Cooke gives the following:

 

Robert, lord Strange of Knockin = Matilda, d. of Baldwin, Lord Wake >:

(a) Richard, lord Strange = Isabel, d. of Marcus St. Philbert > John Strange of Knockin

(b) Margaret Strange = Edward Burnell > Margaret Burnell = Edmund Hungerford 2nd son >

     Thomas Hungerford =- Christina d. of John (Hall) of Salisbury > John Hungerford

     = Magaret Blount of Glos > Elizabeth Hungerford = Roger Winter of Huddington.

 

Fig. 30 - Wake of Liddell: Arms: "or, 2 bars gules, in chief 3 torteaux". (Roll of Henry III).

 

Baldwin Wake = d. of William Humet.  Baldwin, baron of Bourne, Cottingham & Liddell and his brother Hugh Wake were tenants of the de Clares.  The Wakes and Liddells claimed descent from Hereward the Wake.

 

Baldwin Wake, a Montfortian, was contemporary of Hamo le Strange, friend of Edward I, Roger le Strange (1282), castellan of Builth and then Montgomery during Edward I's Welsh wars and Hawise le Strange who married in 1241 Gruffyd ap Gwenwynwyn (d. 1291), Prince of Wales.  Baldwin Wake and his brother Hugh were vassals of the de Clares, earls of Hertford, Pembroke & Gloucester.  Thomas, lord Wake of Liddell was son-in-law of Henry Plantagent, earl of Lancaster.  The title passed to the Hollands.

 

After the Baron’s War against Henry III, followers of Simon de Montfort, earl of Leicester were disinherited by the king after the earl's death at the battle of Evesham.  On 15th May, Henry of Almain, John de Warenne and others surprised Robert de Ferrers, earl of Derby, John d'Eyvill, Henry of Hastings, Baldwin Wake and others gathered together at Chesterfield.  The earl was captured and taken to Windsor, the rest escaped to the Isle of Ely which became the refuge of the Disinherited, some of whom had submitted at Axholme but had either escaped or refused to abide by the terms imposed on them.

 

Baldwin Wake [Hundred R. (Rec Com). ii 348] held mesne rights in one half of Eakley, Bucks in the later 13th century [Feud Aids i, 73].

 

William Wake was one of Edward I’s agents in Brabant & Holland.

 

Several English hostages were sent in return into Scotland including the heirs of Percy and Wake [B.L: Stowe MS 552 f. 27] after the execution of Andrew Harclay by Edward II.  Thomas Wake was son-in-law of Henry Plantagenet of Lancaster, earl of Leicester and agitated for deposition of Edward II, was rewarded by Queen Isabella as a loyal supporter and fled abroad during reign of Edward III.

 

Queen Isabella was joined at Gloucester by the northern barons led by Leicester’s (Thomas of Lancaster) son-in-law Thomas Wake, Henry de Beaumont and Henry Percy. [Murimuth p. 47].

 

The “articles” presented against Edward II on 13th January stated that he should not have rule over the kingdom of his ancestors because he was insufficient, a destroyer of the church and of the peers of the realm, an infractor of his Coronation Oath and a follower of evil counsel [Twysden “Historiae Anglicanum Scriptores Decem, coll. 2765-6].  A public proposal was made to replace him by his eldest son, Edward.  Thomas Wake, Leicester’s son-in-law, broke in to say “as far as he was concerned the old king should never again rule.”  Bishop Stratford later preached a sermon to say the peers had assented unanimously that the king’s eldest son should rule in his place if the people would agree.  Thomas Wake again interrupted, raised his arms and shook his hands asking whether the people would consent to the ordinance.  He was acclaimed. [An account of the deposition of Edward II taken from a chronicle, probably from Canterbury, now Trinity College, Cambridge Ms R. 5-41, fs. 125r, 125v, 126r].

 

Queen Isabella’s supporters Trussell, Beaumont and Wake received various manors.

 

Robert Bruce demanded the renunciation of all English claims to land in Scotland.  He detestated and distrusted the northern English barons especially lord Percy, Beaumont and Wake.

 

Lancaster was fined £30,000, his important followers were also heavily fined [CPR 1327-30, pp- 472, 484, 547] though the fines were later cancelled.  The 4 nobles not mentioned in the proclamation were forced to flee abroad, so did Lancaster’s son-in-law; Lord Thomas Wake, who agitated Edward II’s removal.

 

“Or, 2 bars gemelles gules in chief 3 torteaux” were the arms of Thomas, Lord Wake of Liddell whose daughter and sole heiress married Edmund Plantagenet, youngest son of *Edward I. (executed 1329). Edmund’s 2 sons died without issue and his only daughter became sole heiress of both her father and mother.  She was Princess Joan “The Fair Maid of Kent” who married (1) Sir Thomas Holland (2) Edward the Black Prince.  Sir Thomas Holland was created Lord Wake of Liddell jure uxoris”. [“A Manual of Heraldry”. Charles Boutell pp.173 & 994].

 

Thomas, Lord Wake of Liddell's sister & heiress Margaret = Edmund Plantagenet of Woodstock, earl of Kent (youngest son of Edward I by Margaret of France), executed in 1329-30 aged 28 > 2 sons (obsp) only daughter Joan became sole heiress = (1) Sir Thomas Holland (2) William Montagu, earl of Salisbury = (3) the Black Prince.  Sir Thomas Holland was created lord Wake of Liddle "jure uxoris".  His eldest son Thomas Holland bore the same title and the second daughter of his eldest son John Holland after the year 1349 married Edward of Langley, duke of York.  Thomas Holland styled himself, earl of Kent and lord Wake.

 

Wakes Manor, Clifton Reynes, Newport Hundred, Buckinghamshire (arms: "or, two bars gules, with 3 roundels gules in chief"): Hugh Wake and his wife Isabel held in 1281 and made a life grant of land held in her right to Roger de Stowmarket [Feet of Fees Div. Co. Mich. 9 & 10 Edw. I, No. 25] > Hugh Wake (d. bf. 1313), lord of manor (1302) and wife Anderina [Ibid. Case 17, File 58, No. 14] and acquired additional land in Clifton [Feet of Fees Case 17, File 58, No. 13] > in 1315 his widow Anderina held alone [Chan. Inq. p.m. 6 Edw. II No. 56] > Hugh Wake [Feud, Aids i 104] held in 1318 with his wife Isabel [Feet of Fees Case 18, File 70, No. 2] he was still alive in 1359 [Harl. Chart. 57, D 29.  See also Feud Aids, I, 130; Chan. Inq. p.m. 22, Edw. III (1st Nos.) No. 47] > succeeded in 1375 by Ralph Basset "le Riche" of Drayton whose widow Joan in 1395 claimed a third of Wakes Manor in dower [Chan. Inq. pm 49 Edw.III 1st Nos. No. 70, Cal. Close R. 1377-81, p.126, de Banco R. 538, n. 285 d].  There is reference to John Wake of Clifton in 1378 [Cal. Close, 1377-881, p. 126], whose widow Joan in 1395 claimed a third of Wakes Manor, first so called, in dower [De Banco R. 538, m. 285 d].

 

Cardington with Eastcotts, Beds: Wake Manor became the property of Ida, another daughter of Ela de Beauchamp who married John de Steyngreve.  It follows the same descent as Wake Manor in Bromham, passing from the Steyngreves and the Patishulls and the Wakes, but after the death of Sir Thomas Wake in 1458 no further mention has been found of the property, which may have become absorbed in the larger manor of Cardington. [Placito Quo Warranto (Rec. Comm), 2, 58, 59; Feudal Aids I, 18, 42; Chan. Inq. p.m. 17 Henry VI, 189.  Wakes Manor in Bronham follows a different descent, reappearing in the Vaux of Harrowden].  Their ams were “or, 2 bars gules with 2 roundels (torteaux) gules in chief”.

 

The exact relationship of Sir Hugh Wake (d. 1315) of Blisworth, Northamptonshire, ancestor of the existing Wakes of Courteenhall to the old line of Wake of Liddell was discovered through a chance reference to him in a roll of arms as Sire Huge Wake, “le oncle” which makes it clear that he was uncle to the then head of the family.

 

The Leon Levy Expedition (directed by Prof. Lawrence Stager of Harvard University), excavated the site of ancient Ashkelon (Ascalon), 40 miles south of Tel Aviv on the Mediterranean littoral.  A specialist in medieval Palestine, Prof. Moshe Sharon of the Hebrew University, identified the Crusader, whose shield was carved above an Arabic inscription, as Sir Hugh Wake of Lincolnshire.  The arms are: “2 bars (barrulets or bars gemelles and 3 roundels in chief".  In 1994 the marble lintel of a doorway, with 8 carved coats of arms were found in the moat, these were Hugh Wake’s.

 

Ascalon fell to Saladin after the Battle of Hittin on 4.7.1187.  When Richard I went on the Third Crusade in 1191, Saladin had Ascalon (which guarded the way into Egypt) destroyed to prevent it falling into Christian hands.  Richard rebuilt the fortress in 1192. [“The Oriental Institute News and Notes”, No. 145, Spring 1995 - Ashkelon excavations - the Leon Levy expedition - recent discoveries -  David Schloen, Assistant Professor of Syro-Palestinian Archaeology, the Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilisations, The Oriental Institute, the University of Chicago].

 

The Wake arms found were probably those of Hugh Wake (1212-1241) who married Joan, daughter & co-heiress of Nicholas de Stuteville.  He went to the Holy Land with Simon de Montfort in 1240 and died there some time before 18.12.1241. [Matthew Paris - Chron Majora].

 

According to Robert Cooke, Clarenceaux King of Arms, the Huddingtons (ancestors of the Winters) took the surname Huddington de Somery but there seems to be no connection of with the family of Somery of the Honour of Dudley.  However there was another family of the same name, perhaps distant relatives.  Neither the Winters nor the Russells evere had the Somery arms on their tombs.  The reason for Cooke believing the Winters and Russells to be descended from the Somerys of Dudley was probably because of the coat of arms of 2 lions passant which appears above the mantlepiece of Huddington manor house.

Fig. 31 - Somery, Paynell & fitzAnsculf - Honour of Dudley.  Arms: Somery - "or, 2 lioncels passant azure"; Paganel, Paynel, Paynell - "argent, 2 bars sable between 7 martlets gules,4,2,1."  Ralph Paynel, sheriff of York, held 7 manors in Devon and the Honour of Dudley which possessed lands in Surrey.  Alan Basset held half a knight's fee in Wokingham, Surrey from this honour.  Paganel also held extensive lands in Lincolnshire, Yorkshire, Devon, Somerset and Gloucester which had belonged to Merleswin, thane and sheriff under Edward the Confessor and during the early days of the Conquest.  Paynel held East Quantockshead, Somerset in 1086 which passed to Geoffrey Lutterell who bought Dunster circa 1200 on his marriage to Frethesant Paynell. ("Early Yorkshire Charters" - C.T. Clay quoted A.R. Wagner, "English Heraldry") > Ralph Paynel during the reign of WIlliam Rufus (1087-1100)  = a de Lacy, d. of Ilbert de Lacy or his sister > Fulk Paynel, custos of Alençon & Rochemabille, fermor of Avranchin temp Henry II, inherited Newport Paganell, Buckinghamshire and founded Tickford Priory & Holy Trinity, York = Beatrice, d. of WiIliam fitzAnsculf > Ralph Paynel temp King Stephen was follower of Queen Maud and held Ludlow.  He was made governor of Nottingham Castle (5th Stephen) in place of William Peverell.  His had 3 brothers Hugh, Adam and William > Gervase Paynel = Isabel d. of Robert "le Bossu", earl of Leicester, widow of Simon St. Lis, earl of Northampton temp Richard I.  Gervase was also a follower of Queen Maud and on 20 Henry II helped Prince Henry in his rebellion against the king so his castle of Dudley was demolished.  He purchased a pardon with a fine of 500 marks to the king on 22nd Henry II [Rot. Pipe 22 Henry II Stafford].  He founded the priory of Dudley in 1189 (1 Rich. I) and attended Richard's first coronation as a baron >:

(a) Gervase or Robert predeceased his father.

(b) Hawise, d. of Gervase Paynel senior = (1) John de Somery (temp King John) who held

     Little Crawley, Bucks under Gervase Paynell = (2) Roger de Berkeley of Berkeley, Glos.

     [Pipe Roll 9 Rich I. p. 142].  In 1196-7 Roger de Berkeley offered 60 marks to marry her

     [Pipe Roll 8 Rich I, p. 208].  300 marks were paid for assignment of her dower [Pipe Rot.

     12 John] in Berkshire.  She made a grant of lands to the monks of Tickford, Bucks [Mons.

     Ang. II 912 , Dugdale BI 432 & 612].  She was dead by 1208-9 when Ralph de Somery

     offered £100 and 2 palfreys to have seisin of Newport Pagnell [Pipe Roll 10 John, p 132]

     Ralph de Somery = Margaret (d. 12 John), sister of William Marshall, earl of Pembroke,

     d. of John fitzGilbert Marshall by his 2nd wife, Sibyl, sister of Patrick de Salisbury, 1st earl

     of Wiltshire = (2) Maurice Gant or Paganell (d. 1230).  His seat was at Boothby Paganell,

     Lincs and he also held Hooton Paganell, Bucks. >:

     (1) Ralph de Somery = Ida or Idonea, d. of William Longespee, earl of Salisbury.  Ida =

          (2) William Beauchamp

     (2) William Perceval de Somery “le Waleis” (d. 1222, 6th Henry III) > Nicholas

           de Somery (dsp 1229 - Henry III)

     (3) his uncle Roger de Somery = (1) Nichola, sister & coheiress (d. 1273 -1 Edw. I), of

          Hugh & William, earls of Arundel.  Roger = (2) Amabilia, d. & heiress of Robert de

          Chaucomb >:

         (a) By (2) John de Somery d. 1321 (15 Edw II), gave manor to priory of Kilburn 9

              Edw. III [Harl. 6081], held Middleton, Surrey & Bradfield, Berks

         (b) By (1) Joan de Somery = John, lord Strange of Knockin > Alice?

         (c) By (1) Margaret de Somery = (1) Ralph Bassett = (2) Ralph Cromwell

         (d) By (1) Elizabeth de Somery = Walter Sully

         (e) By (1) Maud de Somery = Henry de Erdington

         (f) By (2) Roger de Somery (d. 1291) = Agnes ( 12 Edw. I) >:

            (A) Roger de Somery

            (B) John de Somery = Lucy (d. 7.7.1322).  She gifted £500 to Edward II [E.101/624/24

                      17.11.1323].

            (C) Margaret de Somery = John de Sutton > Edmund Sutton de Dudley > Dudley

                 earls of Warwick.  The Despencers imprisoned John until he surendered

                 12 properties including Dudley Castle [C.Cl.R. 1323-30, CIM ii 965 p,240 & 1000,

                     pp. 248-9 E142/33, mm. 7 & 9, E.142/62/3].

            (D) Joan de Somery = Thomas de Botetourt > John Paynell (castellan of Goodrich

                  1306-1320, a knight of Aymer de Valence and John Hastings, earls of

                   Pembroke) was at the seige of Carlaverock in 1300.

 

The lands of Adam de Painell in York & Lincoln were forfeited and give to Henry Tiptoft in 1216 (1 Henry III).

 

William Paynell married Juliana, d. of Robert de Bahantune, Co. Devon and gave the church of Bingley to Drax Priory, Yorkshire.  Sir William Paganell (d. 14.10 Edw. III) of Westcote Borough, Surrey was summoned to Parliament amongst the barons [32 Edw I - 8 Edw III] may have been a descendant.  William was in Scotland during 24-35 Edw I and after the death of Margaret his first wife (d. of Sir John de Gatesden, sheriff of Surrey from 11-15 Henry III, by his wife Hawise) in 4 Edw II, he married Eve who marriedly secondly Edmund St. John.  Margaret (d. 4 Edw II).  She was first married to Sir John de Camois (d.c. 28 Edw I) – [Fine R., 4 Edw III m.13 & Dugdale Baronage].

 

There seems to have been two families surnamed Sully - one English and the other French.  William de Sully, formerly Queen Isabella of Angoulême’s household knight and a follower of Thomas Plantagenet, duke of Lancaster, was put to death with other Lancastrians at York when Lancaster was ececuted at Pontefract on 16.3.1322.  Henry de Sully, a French noble, who fought in Edward II’s Scottish campaign in 1322, was captured by the Scots and later given rich gifts in recompense after he mediated a truce.  He was Philip V’s pro-English butler but fell from favour after the king’s death in January 1322.  He was sent to France as Edward’s special envoy.

 

Fig. 32 -Paynell & Lutterell

 

Ralph Paganel = Matilda de Surdeval >:

(a) Jordan Paganel, obsp = Gertrude, d. of Robert Frossard, widow of Robert de Mainill.

(b) Elias Paganel, prior of Holy Trinity, York.

(c) Alexander Pagane l= Agnes Frossard >:

     (i) Jordan Paganel = Agnes >:

          (1) Adam Paganel

          (2.) Richard Paganel

     (ii) William Pagane l = d. of Robert de Busci > William (d. 1203) = d. of Agnes

          Mountchesney >:

          (1) Frethesant Paganel= (1) Geoffrey Lutterell = (2) Henry de Newmarch

          (2) Isabel -Paganel = William Bastard

(d) William Paganel = Avice de Rumilly, d. of Hugh Meschyn, son of Ranulf, earl of Chester.

     Avice de Rumilly = (2) Robert de Gournay > Richard de Gournay = (+) Alice > Avice de

     Gournay = (-) Robert fitzHarding = (2) Avice, d. of Robert de Gournay > Eva de Gourney

     = Thomas, son of William fitz John. Eva = (2) Roger de Peaunton > By (1) Robert de

     Gournay.

 

(+) Alice = (2) Robert de Gaunt > Maurice called Gaunt or Paganel (d. 1230) = (1) Matilda, d. of Henry d'Oylly = (2) Margaret, widow of Ralph de Somery.

 

Robert de Gaunt = (2) Gunnora, d. of Ralph de Aubigne.

 

(-) Robert FitzHarding was reeve of Bristol when Dermot MacMurrough fled Ireland to seek Henry II's aid.

 

In 1153-4 Henry II gave Berkeley Castle to Robert fitzHarding (d. 1170-1), a rich merchant of Bristol, son of Harding son of Eadnoth who held Merriott, Somerset in 1986, ancestor through his elder son Nicholas fitzHarding, of the family surnamed Meriet.  Eadnoth may have been a staller or houshold officer of Edward the Confessor, given a command by the William I who was killed in 1068 leading the men of Somerset during a raid King Harold's sons.

 

Roger de Berkeley was a follower of Stephen so Henry II gave Robert fitzHarding, son of the Provost of Bristol, the lands and manor of Berkeley which contained 30 parishes on condition that he build a castle at Berkeley which he did in 1154.

 

Fitzharding's son Maurice and his sister were married to Berkeley's daughter and son in the presence of Henry II and Stephen.  The family of Berkeley of Coberley died out in the male line and the fitzHardings took their name, lands, honour and lordship.  It was his descendant Thomas, Lord Berkeley (married to the earl of March's sister) who was gaoler of Edward II on 15.4.1327 and whose retainers Thomas de Gournay and John Maltravers (husband of Agnes Berkeley) allegedly arranged the king's murder on 21.9.1327.

 

In 1142 fitzHarding founded the Minister of the Augustinian Canons in Bristol (now Bristol Cathedral), and Chapter House of the Cathedral and gave Berkeley manor in Almondsbury to Augustinian Friars.

 

FitzHarding's great grandson Maurice de Gaunt, built a convent for the Blackfrairs in 1228 in Bristol and Gaunt's Hospital for the Prior of St. Augustine.  His nephew Robert de Gournay added to the Hospital but took it out of the Prior's hands and made one of his uncles, Henry Gaunt, Master who also enlarged the foundation, making it a clerical college and charity.  Henry died in. 1268 and was buried with Maurice in the chapel of St. Mark known as Gaunt's Chapel or the Mayor's Chapel.  According to other sources Maurice was buried at Blackfrairs.  The Hospital has 13th century effigies of Sir Maurice de Gaunt, Sir Robert de Gournay and Henry Gaunt, Master of the Hospital.

 

Over Court in Almondsbury was given by Robert fitzHarding to his 3rd son Robert de Were which came to his son Maurice de Gaunt.  The manor of Gaunt's Erdcote north east of Almondsbury belonged in 1086 to the bishop of Coutances and came later to the Gaunts who gave it to St. Marks Hospital.

 

William fitzAnsculf de Pinchengi or Pinkeney (Piciquigny), lord of Dudley in 1066 was a Fleming who had the duty of castleguard at Windsor.  William was son of Ansculf de Picquigny (in Flanders) and held lands at the Domesday Survey (1086) in Stafford, Warwick, Worcester, Surrey, Berkshire, Northamptonshire, Buckinghamshire, Rutland, Oxford, Middlesex and Huntingdon.

 

His castle was at Dudley and he held Battersea and Wandsworth where Walter "Uinitarius" held a hide of land in 1086 and the manor of Milton Borough, Surrey which passed by marriage to Gervase Paynel [Dugdale Baronage I 4341].

 

In 1323, when the Dudley barony was divided, the knights fees and manors held by John de Somery, one of the heirs, could be found in nine counties.  The manors of Belne or Brians Bell and Bell Hill, Churchill, Clent, Warley Wigorn called Werwelie, Wervelegh, Wervesley or Wervelegh, Old Swinford, Amblecote called Elmcote, Elmecot or Amelcot, Weoley Castle, Frankley, Hagley, Selly Oak and Northfield in the Halfshire Hundred of Worcestershire were held by the Paynells and Somerys.

 

In 1166 Gervase Paynel was overlord of 50 fees.  His lands passed to Fulk Paynell who married Beatrice, daughter of William fitzAnsculf [Dugdale Mons. Angl., v.203, Coll. for a Hist. of Staffs., Will. Salt Arch. Soc Coll. ix (2) 6].

 

From Fulk it passed to Ralph Paynell who held Dudley in 1138 for Queen Maud.  Dudley then passed to Gervase Paynell before 1160 when he founded a priory there.  He aided Prince Henry in the rising of 1173-4 and the castle of Dudley was demolished by Henry II.

 

Gervase was restored to the king's favour in 1176.  Robert, his only child, having predeceased him, Gervase's sister Hawise, wife of John de Somery inherited.

 

The family of de Somery appear early in England.  They held a barony in Cambridgeshire and land in Essex (Roger de Sumeri held Elmdon Castle, Essex), Kent, Hertfordshire, Cambridge, Sussex, Somerset, Dorset and Surrey but there is no known link between them.

 

The prefix Summerset in the name of the church of St. Mary Summerset, London and Summershithe on the Thames may derive from Ralph de Sumery who lived there [Ancient Deeds, A. 2364 & 2406].

 

The original surname may have been Sausmarez (pronounced Sommeries) deriving from the fief of Saumareys (saltmarsh) in the parish of St. Clement, Jersey (the Channel Islands were fiefs of Normandy).  Saumarys was given to Ralph de St. Hilaire du Harcouet (whose crest was a falcon) by William Rufus in 1096.

 

Variations of this surname were Dumaresq, Marsh, Maurice, de Marisco, de la Mare, de Salso Marisco, Saltmarsh, Samersq, Salinelles and Sausmarais deriving from the French "saumure" meaning brine.

 

Mitcham, Surrey belonged to Roger de Somery during the reign of Henry III.  William de Mara or de la Mare was lord in 1250.  In 1315 John and Petronilla de la Mare held it - they also held the lordship of Castlecombe.  Mitcham was held in 7 Edward II by the heirs of William de Marisco and in 1361 by William de Mare of Mitcham - all variations of the same surname.

 

The Sausmarez family settled in Guernsey, Jersey, Lundy, Somerset and Ireland.  The ruins of their castle of Chateau des Marais or d'Orgeuil (Pride Castle) also called Ivy Castle, can be still be seen on a small hill facing the sea on the boundary between St. Sampson's and St. Peter's Port.  Guillaume is mentioned in 1180, his son in 1220 and his grandson in 1221 and 1254.  They held lands Guernsey; in 1254 William was seigneur of Saumareys in Jersey, Justice of the Assize to Henry III and Edward I and held the fief and manor of St. Martins.

 

The Sausmarez family of the Channel Isles were involved in the knitting trade (hence the name "jersey" for a knitted jacket), had agents at St. Malo, Coutances, Rouen and Bordeaux and were privateers.  The last member, a knight, resumed the name of Samereis and had two brothers Nicholas (from whom the present family descends) and Ralph.  The family disappeared from Jersey in 1333 on forfeiture of their lands.

 

Daniel Dumaresq, seigneur de Sausmarez was Sir Walter Raleigh's page and married his illegitimate daughter by his mistress Alice Goold, an Irishwoman.  Raleigh stayed at Mont Orgueil castle and his daughter died in Kingston or London of the plague ("Sark Chronicle" - Elie Brevint).

 

The de Mariscos traced their ancestry back 700 years and Henry IV of France described them as the first family of Europe after the Bourbons.  They were a highborn and influential family who had connections with Wales and held estates and ports in Somerset.

 

They may have descended from Geoffrey de Marisco who came with William I or William de Marisco, an illegitimate son of Henry I.

Fig. 34 - de Marisco.

 

William de Marisco, illegitimate son of Henry I (1068-1100) > Jordan de Marisco (1130-40) = Agnes (1220), sister of John Comyn (1212), archbishop of Durham >:

(a) Richard de Marisco, Bishop of Durham, Lord Chancellor (1225)

(b) William de Marisco (1225) = Lucy de Alneto > Jordan (1234-76) > William = Bertha

     (1283-4) >:

(1) Stephen de Marisco = (1) Alice = (2) Lucy

(2) Joan de Marisco

(3) John de Marisco = (1) ? = (2) Oliva > Herbert de Marisco (1276-1327) = (1) Sybilla de la Haye = (2)

     Isabella de Tracy

(c) Geoffrey de Marisco, Justiciar of Ireland = Eva de Bermingham >

(1) Walter, Thomas, Henry & John de Marisco

(2) Robert de Marisco = Christiana de Riddlesford

(3) Christiana de Marisco in 1281 surrendered S. Kildare, Connacht, & Dublin to King John.

     She held Wraysbury, Bucks.

(4) William de Marisco = Matilda.  He escaped of murder of Henry Clement exec. 1242 for

     conspiracy > Hugh

 

("The Marisco Family of Lundy & Ireland" - E. St. John Brooks, Journal; of Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland Vol. 61. pp. 22-38 & 89-112 (1931) quoted in "Islands - Lundy").

 

The de Mariscos were first recorded in Lundy during the reign of Stephen (1135-54).  The Orkneyinga Saga mentions a freeman of Wales who founded an impregnable fortress there in 1148 which probably belonged to the de Mariscos.  In 1163 Prince Madoc or another messenger from North Wales sought their help against Henry I but they were loyal.

 

They held the island from 1154-1166 for the 5th part of a knight's fee from Bernard Newmarch and from Henry de Newmarch in 1154-66.  Bernard Newmarch became lord of Brecon and a de Marisco, Sausmarez or Somery may have followed him to Wales (probably Robert de Sumeri who was in Glamorgan).  The surname Dumaresq survives in Brecon.

 

Their stronghold was in the area west of the High Street rickyards in Bull's Paradise.

 

Their coat of arms were "gules, a lion rampant, argent" and that of William de Marisco "gules, a lion rampant sable, langued gules" which may mean they were royal bastards (or alternatively descended from Charlemagne).  The potential assassin of King Henry was described "he bore the royal mark on his shoulder."

 

In 1155 Henry II demanded the return of royal lands granted away by Stephen to the Mariscos.  In 1160 he tried to grant the land to the Templars but the de Mariscos would not allow it and were fined in 1194-5.

 

In 1199 King John confirmed the Templars' grant and they had to pay rent for the de Marisco lands in Somerset "as long as William de Marisco shall holde the island of Lunde against the king's will and theirs".  In 1202 the Templars still owed rent and William de Marisco was using Lundy as a pirate base for raids on North Devon.

 

He was given charge of the king's galleys, becoming Admiral of the Fleet to during the quarrel with the church and the Templars were forced to relinquish their lands.  In 1216 William sided with the Scots and the French against the kung and was captured by the English whilst serving with the French fleet.  In 1271 Henry III declared an amnesty and restored Lundy to William who died in 1225.  He was succeeded by his son Jordan.

 

William's brother Geoffrey was Hugh de Lacy's brother-in-law and justiciar of Ireland at the time of his death and had a son, also named William.

 

Geoffrey was loyal to Henry III when earl Richard Marshal of Ireland rebelled.  This occurred because Gilbert Basset, lord of Wycombe, Buckinghamshire and castellan of Devizes castle was disseised by the king of a Wiltshire manor in favour of Peter de Mauley, former castellan of Corfe Castle.  Richard Marshall upheld Gilbert's claim and went to Ireland to defend his lordship and castle of Leinster where he was attacked and died of his wounds.

 

Geoffrey de Marisco was accused of luring his friend the marshall to his death and his son William began a feud which lasted for many years.  Geoffrey and his son came under suspicion of complicity after the rising was put down.  He was fined 3,000 marks and his relatives were fined as well and imprisoned but released in 1234 after the king had seized 3 of their castles as pledges for future fidelity.  Geoffrey and William went to London to vindicate themselves and met an enemy Henry Clement who was murdered.  William was suspected and fled to Lundy; Geoffrey took refuge in Clerkenwell., the site of a holy well.  He was outlawed, disinherited and expelled from England, Ireland and Scotland in 1238 after having plotted to kill the king at Woodstock and died in France in 1245.

 

William, son of Jordan de Marisco, inherited Lundy in 1234 and disassociated himself from his cousin.  Jordan also incurred the king's displeasure in 1281.

 

Geoffrey's son William then turned pirate and allied himself with Alexander, king of Scots against Henry.  An attempt was made on the Henry's life allegedly by William's agents.  He was captured in 1242 by William Bardolf, a Norfolk baron, taken to Bristol, then to the Fleet and Newgate in London.  He was hanged, drawn and quartered on 25.6.1242, a punishment "invented for the express benefit of a William Maurice, the son of a nobleman who was convicted not of treason but of piracy" ("A history of capital punishment" - John Lawrence).  He was the first traitor to meet his death in such a manner.

 

The de Mariscos got the king to recognise their right to Lundy.  Stephen, son of Robert de Marisco died in 1374 without heirs and Lundy passed to William Montacute, earl of Salisbury after Stephen had waived his claim.

 

Robert de Sumeri, Robert de St. Quintin and Payne de Turberville, second generation Advenae Normans in South Glamorgan in 1136, appear as witnesses to charters or as benefactors of monasteries.  Robert de Sumeri was probably the ancestor of the Somerys of Dinas Powis who were connected with the Honour of Dudley, Worcestershire.

 

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