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The Golden Falcon

Chapter XIII/2 - Neptune

In 1690 the residue of Clapton manor, with the advowson of the rectory, was sold for £4,350 to Thomas Edwards of Bristol from whom it passed to his daughter Mrs Colston of Broughton, Oxfordshire.

 

According to Charles Dickens, Sir John Winter helped to shelter Charles II when he was ecaping the Rondheads:

 

“The escape of Charles after this battle of Worcester did him good service long afterwards, for it induced many of the generous English people to take a romantic interest in him, and to think much better of him than he ever deserved.  He fled in the night, with not more than sixty followers, to the house of a Catholic lady in Staffordshire.  There, for his greater safety, the whole sixty left him.  He cropped his hair, stained his face and hands brown as if they were sunburnt, put on the clothes of a labouring countryman, and went out in the morning with his axe in his hand, accompanied by four wood-cutters who were brothers, and another man who was their brother-in-law.  These good fellows made a bed for him under a tree, as the weather was very bad; and the wife of one of them brought him food to eat; and the old mother of the four brothers came and fell down on her knees before him in the wood, and thanked God that her sons were engaged in saving his life.

 

At night, he came out of the forest and went on to another house which was near the river Severn, with the intention of passing into Wales; but the place swarmed with soldiers, and the bridges were guarded, and all the boats were made fast.  So, after lying in a hayloft covered over with hay, for some time, he came out of his place, attended by Colonel Careless, a Catholic gentleman who had met him there, and with whom he lay hid, all next day, up in the shady branches of a fine old oak.  It was lucky for the King that it was September-time, and that the leaves had not begun to fall, since he and the Colonel, perched up in this tree, could catch glimpses of the soldiers riding about below, and could hear the crash in the wood as they went about beating the boughs.  After this, he walked and walked until his feet were all blistered; and, having been concealed all one day in a house which was searched by the troopers while he was there, went with Lord Wilmot, another of his good friends, to a place called Bentley, where one Miss Lane, a Protestant lady, had obtained a pass to be allowed to ride through the guards to see a relation of hers near Bristol.

 

Disguised as a servant, he rode in the saddle before this young lady to the house of Sir John Winter [said to be of Dyrham: Georgette Heyer - “Royal Escape”], while Lord Wilmot rode there boldly, like a plain country gentleman, with dogs at his heels.  It happened that Sir John Winter's butler had been servant in Richmond Palace, and knew Charles the moment he set eyes upon him; but, the butler was faithful and kept the secret.  As no ship could be found to carry him abroad, it was planned that he should go - still travelling with Miss Lane as her servant - to another house, at Trent near Sherborne in Dorsetshire; and then Miss Lane and her cousin, Mr. Lascelles, who had gone on horseback beside her all the way, went home.  I hope Miss Lane was going to marry that cousin, for I am sure she must have been a brave, kind girl.  If I had been that cousin, I should certainly have loved Miss Lane.  When Charles, lonely for the loss of Miss Lane, was safe at Trent, a ship was hired at Lyme, the master of which engaged to take two gentlemen to France.

 

In the evening of the same day, the King - now riding as servant before another young lady - set off for a public-house at a place called Charmouth, where the captain of the vessel was to take him on board.  But, the captain's wife, being afraid of her husband getting into trouble, locked him up and would not let him sail.  Then they went away to Bridport; and, coming to the inn there, found the stable-yard full of soldiers who were on the look-out for Charles, and who talked about him while they drank.  He had such presence of mind, that he led the horses of his party through the yard as any other servant might have done, and said, “Come out of the way, you soldiers; let us have room to pass here!”  As he went along, he met a half-tipsy ostler, who rubbed his eyes and said to him, “Why, I was formerly servant to Mr.  Potter at Exeter, and surely I have sometimes seen you there, young man?”  He certainly had, for Charles had lodged there.  His ready answer was, “Ah, I did live with him once; but I have no time to talk now.  We'll have a pot of beer together when I come back.”  From this dangerous place he returned to Trent, and lay there concealed several days.

 

Then he escaped to Heale, near Salisbury; where, in the house of a widow lady, he was hidden five days, until the master of a collier lying off Shoreham in Sussex, undertook to convey a “gentleman” to France.

 

On the night of the fifteenth of October, accompanied by two colonels and a merchant, the King rode to Brighton, then a little fishing village, to give the captain of the ship a supper before going on board; but, so many people knew him, that this captain knew him too, and not only he, but the landlord and landlady also.  Before he went away, the landlord came behind his chair, kissed his hand, and said he hoped to live to be a lord and to see his wife a lady; at which Charles laughed.  They had had a good supper by this time, and plenty of smoking and drinking, at which the King was a first-rate hand; so, the captain assured him that he would stand by him, and he did.

 

It was agreed that the captain should pretend to sail to Deal, and that Charles should address the sailors and say he was a gentleman in debt who was running away from his creditors, and that he hoped they would join him in persuading the captain to put him ashore in France.  As the King acted his part very well indeed, and gave the sailors twenty shillings to drink, they begged the captain to do what such a worthy gentleman asked.  He pretended to yield to their entreaties, and the King got safe to Normandy. [England under Oliver Cromwell Page 234 - A Child's History of England - by Charles Dickens]

 

Dyrham remained in possession of the Winters until 1686 when it was inherited by Mary, only daughter and sole heiress of George Winter II of Dyrham, who married William Blathwayt.

 

There are portraits of George Winter I, Sir John Winter, the last heiress Mary Winter and her husband William Blathwayt at Dyrham House, now a National Trust property.  Blathwayt's and Mary's portraits painted by Kneller, show Mary as serious, somewhat scholarly-looking woman (she was patroness of a Puritan preacher called "Increase Mather"), not unattractive but no great beauty and William Blathwayt as a dark, extremely handsome man.

 

The Prince Society has copies of the portraits at Dyrham, Goodrick Edward Randolph has one of Blathwayt (Prince Society VI) and both portraits are reproduced in Chadwyck Healy's "History of the Part of West Somerset comprising the parish of - Porlock". (pp.292, 294-6).  There is also a portrait of Blathwayt at Westover, the Bird estate in Virginia as young Byrd junior was sent to England to be educated by Sir Robert Southwell.

 

William Blathwayt was born about 1649, his family were Protestants and came from Cumberland or Yorkshire.  His maternal grandfather, John Povey, came from a merchant family and belonged to the Guild of Embroiderers.  His paternal grandfather, Thomas Blathwayt, was a cutler with a thriving business in London, whose son William Blathwayt senior, matriculated at Brasenose College, Oxford in 1609 and was admitted to the Middle Temple.  William Blathwayt senior married three times and had a large family.  When he was in his fifties, he married Anne, sister of Thomas Povey, (another lawyer) and daughter of Justinian Povey of the Priory, Hounslow, Accountant-General to Queen Anne of Denmark.

 

Justinian’s brother Thomas Povey and Martin Noel were London merchants who advised Cromwell on colonial administration until complaints were made about them.  Noel came from Stafford and was member of the East India Company with West Indian connections - he traded with Montserrat and Nevis and became marshall of Barbados.  His brother Thomas Noel traded with Surinam and Barbados.  He also owned land in Wexford, Ireland.  There were 2 other brothers, Richard and William Povey, a Provost.

 

William Blathewayt junior knew Sir Josiah Childs.   The Winters, the Noels and the Childs married into the family of the earls of Worcester.  Henry Somerset (1684-1714), 2nd Duke of Beaufort (son of Rebecca, daughter of Sir Josiah Child and Charles Somerset, Marquess of Worcester [1660-1698]) married at the Royal Chapel in early 1706, Rachel Noel (d. September 1709), daughter of Wriothesley Noel, 2nd earl of Gainsborough and co-heiress to her sister the Duchess of Portland.  Charles Somerset, Marquess of Worcester was son of Edward Somerset, 4th earl of Worcester (1553-1628) and Elizabeth Hastings, daughter of the earl of Huntingdon.  Charles was brother of Lady Anne Somerset, wife of SirEdward Wynter of Lydney.  Rachel Noel’s son Charles Noel Somerset, 14th Duke of Beaufort (1709-1756) was a Jacobite.

 

William Blathwayt senior probably settled in the parish of St. Mary Savoy and was impoverished.  When Anne was left a widow aged 32 in 1654, she was looked after by her brother Thomas Povey until she married Thomas Vivian in 1655 as her second husband.  William Blathwayt junior's cousin, John Povey, married Blathwayt's step-sister Mary Vivian in November 1693.

 

After the Great Fire of London a Fire Court was held and details recorded in the "Calendar of the Judgements and Decrees of the Court of Judicature appointed to determine differences between landlords and tenants as to the rebuilding after the Great Fire".

 

The case of Thomas Vivian Esq., and Ann his wife, late wife of William Blathwaite Esq., versus William Blathwaite, gent, son of Ann, an infant was heard on 3.7.1668 before Lord Chief Justice Vaughan, Justice Tyrril and Justice Archer.

 

The petition stated that the petitioners and the defendant had previously exhibited a petition against the tenants of 17 messuages in Bow Lane and Lugges Yard, in the parishes of Holy Trinity the Less and St. Mary Aldermary viz Mathers Scot, John Leaves, William Cheese, John Hollins, Rowland Smith, Robert Record, William Mossley, Bartholomew Hill, John Woolrich, Thomas Armstrong, John Langford, Henry Miles, George Farmer, John Baker, Elizabeth Hassell, Thomas Reeve and John Pope, when some had surrendered and the interest of others was determined by the Court, that the petitioner Ann had a life interest in the premises and William the infant had the reversion and that Vivian and his wife were willing to rebuild or to surrender on reasonable satisfaction.  William aged about 18, attended the Court before the day for which he was summoned and said that he was going beyond the sea and chose Thomas Povey his uncle to be his guardian, who asked for time to inform himself of the premises.  The parties appeared this day and informed the Court that at the time of the Fire the premises were producing a rental of £157.10s. per annum and that they had treated  together and had come to agreement, the terms which they asked the Court to decree.  The Court being satisfied that the agreement was for the benefit of the infant ordered that the petitioner should rebuild and have a term of 40 years after the death of his wife, paying a rent of £50 per annum. to William, that William when of age might execute a lease for the term with covenants usual in lease of houses in London and that Ann should she survive her husband should continue to enjoy a life interest. (G.D-113, B M 5076-9)

 

Another case was heard on 9.6.1668 by Justice Tyrrill, Baron Turner, Justice Archer and Justice Wylde being that of Giles Aleyn DD and Thomas Aleyn DD versus Samuell Walwyn and John Winter (amongst others).

 

"The petition recited the devolution of title to houses in Aldermanbury as in the previous petition and stated that the defendants or one of them held two of the messuages at the time of the Fire with about 40 years to come at £15 per annum and that the petitioners were ready to encourage rebuilding.

 

Upon summons Walwyn appeared with Mr Jenner his counsel, Winter with Mr Bowes and the petitioner with Mr Sturgess.  It appeared that Giles Coys made a lease to Martha Walden, who assigned to John Glyn, who assigned to Walwyn, who let to Winter for the whole term less a few days, and that Winter had a lease in reversion made to him by Coys on 10.4.1657 for 41 years at the same rent.  Also that Walwyn had a lease in reversion from the petitioner made after other reversionary lease.  As Winter was tenant in possession he was to be preferred as rebuilder.  He offered to keep up the old rent if the petitioners contributed £80 or to bear the whole cost and pay a reduced rent of £8 per annum.  After some contest the parties came to agreement and it was ordered that Winter rebuild with all convenient speed that Winter pay Walwyn 2 months rent for Michaelmas quarter 1666 and that Walwyn pay 2 months rent to the petitioner and his interest be then discharged, in default the petitioners might take their legal course, that 40 years be added to Winter's term at the old rent, but the rent to be discharged until Lady Day 1669 that the petitioners contribute £30 to Winter's costs of rebuilding and execute a new lease for the extended term of 81 years. (G. D-46 BM 5074-20)

 

Winter applied on 22.7.1668 for the foundations to be set out and Oliver made the survey next day (M & O I, p2, IV 69v).

 

Michaelmas was the Festival of St. Michael on 29th September, a quarterly rent day in England.  Lady Day, 25th March was the Feast of the Annunciation of the Virgin Mary.

 

This John Winter is unidentified.  There were three house listed in 1638 ("Inhabitants of London - 1638") connected with Winters.

 

Mr Winter's house at St. Mary Mounthaw (Queenhithe Ward) - £3.10s rent (MS p.208A).

John Winter at St. Gabriel, Fenchurch (Langbourne Ward) - £3 (MS p.117).

John Winter at Angel Alley (Aldgate) (MS p.346).

 

Justinian Povey (Ann's father or brother) leased a messuage in St Paul's Churchyard, parish of St. Faith's and also a room and lodgings the north side of the St. Paul's.

 

Ann Vivian's daughter lived with her but William was taken care of by his uncle, Thomas Povey, who was very fond of him.  Thomas Povey and Sir Martin Noel were in Charles II's the Colonial Administration.  Noel was a merchant, MP for Bossiney (1658), Trevena and Tintagel; (a rotten borough) and married a rich widow.  Thomas Povey, (Samuel Pepy's friend, often mentioned by him and John Evelyn) became one of the Masters of Requests, was made Commissioner and Treasurer for Tangier but later resigned.  He had an elegant house in Lincoln's Inn Fields with a good wine cellar as well as an apartment at Whitehall.

 

William Blathwayt learned several languages as he was destined for the diplomatic service and enrolled in the Middle Temple in 1665.  His uncle found him a post in Sir William Temple's embassy at the Hague.  Blathwayt knew Randolph and Daniel Finch, earl of Nottingham, Secretary of State.

 

William Blathwayt lived at St. Martin's-in-the-Fields and met Sir Robert Southwell who had house at Spring Gardens, St. Martins-in-the-Fields near Charing Cross (where a group of Winters held land from 1710-1713) and Sir Joseph Williamson, both members of the Royal Society as was Sir William Petty, was Sir Robert Southwell's cousin and a friend of Blathwayt.  According to John Evelyn, Williamson, Secretary to the Secretary of State and Clerk of the Papers (2.4.1669), was chosen president of the Royal Society (30.11.1677), the Secretary of State, Sir Henry Bennett, Lord Arlington being too lazy.  Williamson was let into state secrets and became Principal Secretary (22.7.1674).

 

Southwell also had a house at Kings Weston about 7 miles from Bristol and about 7 from Dyrham.  Blathwayt was ill in 1686 and resting at King's Weston when Mary Winter, the last surviving child of Sir John Winter, was 36 years old.  Sir Robert Southwell was involved in the marriage settlement and carried on a correspondence about it with Blathwayt.


"Now as I am turning this matter in my thoughts to be the more perfect when we come to travel, I will here sett down what I am to instill on you and what to allow by what is proper only and as you may approve.

 

1. That the estate to be now settled may give to both or the survivor during life, the remainder to heir general and with power to give portion to his younger children in --- (tail) for heirs male.

 

2. If he died having only daughters and she marry again and have a son, then to charge his estate with portions for such daughters and how much.

 

3. If she have daughters only by the second husband, then that the first have two thirds of his estate.

 

And because she now marries with her father's consent ---- she is taken with a smaller portion in respect of present expenses only by having jointure of what is probably his portion of her estate.  She may marry to such advantage as her rich husband may well provide for his children.

 

4. That if she died before her father and have no children, shall Mr Blathwayt rather choose to attend his life in his estate after his father or insist to make the state chargeable with a certain sum of money and how much..

 

On the other side when a jointure is descended from Mr Blathwayt are we not rather to ------  no future expectancy.

 

1. I suppose £500 pounds per annum will be ---[adequate] with London rates £150 for the first £1,000 and £100 for every £1,000 after.

 

2. If there be a son of this marriage though his wife £500 must be settled on him but if a daughter only the moderate portion of how much.

 

3. For he may after take another wife and have sons who ought to be heirs to the half of his estate but if he have daughters only, then the portion of the former only may be so increased for as to make an equal dividend among all.  Suppose Mr Wynter should offer to settle all on Mr Blathwayt so he would settle his on his wife whether any issue or not and so the survivor to take all.

 

To this I answer that £100 pounds per annum settled on immediately may be equal to £1,000 pounds per annum not settled but after another ---.

 

That this possibility Mr Blathwayt may without obligation of this alternative get the estate from his wife after her father's death in last settlement does not disable her and lastly Mr Blathwayt should he die issueless, is under greater ties of nature to consider his poor relations who ought to be the better for him than Mr Wynter who had none but as were very remote.  This you have my thoughts which may serve to exercise your own so as to direct me the better in this important affair.

 

R (obert) S(outhwell).

 

Whitehall, 6th July, 1686

 

Hon.

 

You have been often pleased to put me in mind of that 'tis time for me to think of (marriage) and I must confess to the fullness of employment as well as of nature of my fortune that occasions my indifference but being now called upon a relation of mine and neighbour of yours I presume to consult you in this matter.  My cousin Clarke, whose good intentions do sometimes outrun his judgement, tells me that there is a gentleman in Gloucestershire named Mr Wynter who has an only daughter he says of about 30 years of whose person and qualities he commends.  He says he has gone so far as to name me to her father.

 

That he had all the reason in the world to believe I should succeed in case of pretension.  That the father had £1,000 per annum and £10,000 in money although he will give to or settle upon his daughter.  I have given my cousin, who has been with me here, no answer as well because my fortune does not square with this proposal and that if the lady is not of a very inviting age as this I mistrust.

 

At my arrival Mr Edwards and I took up the cudgels again and after long discourses between us chiefly about the joincture and the lady at Dirham, had my leave to do what might best suit with my convenience.  I gave Mr Edwards this morning the enclosed paper -- though it do not come fully up to his first desires by reserving £2,000 of my own to my own disposal yet he undertakes to make it pass muster at Dirham and of truth is I have done more in it than would be required from my circumstances.  I speak of what concerns joinctures, if rest bearing no debates.  The next thing Mr Edwards desires is to see my title to my estate when at the same time he tells me Mr Wynter cannot be brought easily to show his and that although I would morally undertake to make good my title (if it were bad) by an equivalent which ---------------- .

 

------- , you know Mr Wynter cannot do nor secure me from the consequences of any law suit, yet to please Mr Edwards, I will produce my original evidence which if they were not good or should not be thought so good as Mr Edwards would have them, what would anybody be the better for this scrutiny for it there be no design on my side, there is no fair pretence can be taken to break off what is so publick to all the world and so near to a conclusion the King and all the Court having already bid me joy, so that now I might say to Mr Edwards "thesis primis justus" [the first equitable proposal] or inquisitive to no purpose.  You will please to return me the paper again.  Concerning point of knighthood, I will think of it when I am next at Dirham but there as yet I have not heard anything of all tending towards it.  I now heartily congratulate with my Lady Dearing, Lady Percivale and all your family for this new soldier of the King's and hope Gloucestershire as will be prospering.  Tomorrow the Justices of the Peace will be settled and Friday the Sheriff's pocket.  I am ever, with the utmost respect, your most obedient servant.

 

William Blathwayt.

 

Whitehall 12.2.1686 - I must confess I would rather have it appear a proposal or wish of my friends than a pursuit of my own for as really I am not very covetous of a fortune so a person unknown cannot have extraordinary charms.  But if I were to raise hope from what the father said last to Mr Edwards, I could construe all to my own advantage and humour Clarke.  I would marry his daughter to one that can presently maintain her for which he cannot expect more than £3,000 as long as my employment last and that he would never marry her but where she herself should like which is a condition absolutely necessary on both sides for I never make myself or another unhappy upon the one or the other's account.  As for the good Protestant I suppose that needs no answer.

 

September 1696 - I will presume to put you in mind that you have given me leave to entrust my whole concern in your hands and commit the entire management of the treaty on my part to your conducts.

 

23.9.1686, Whitehall - What remains chiefly in the quantum of the portion in case of death which I desire to leave to Mr Winter's nomination which is more advantageous or perhaps from him that he intends.

 

25.9.1686, Whitehall - But two points are never to be receded from the one of my enjoying the estate during my own life for Mr Winter's in all cases and events whatsoever except where the portion is to take place, which is the second point to be insisted on, for I can never expose myself to see a gap left open by which any hardships may happen to me after I have played m best cards in the world.

 

2.1.1688 - A watch I have bought on purpose with a diamond ring the Queen of Spain gave me, will suffice with a compliment that I leave it to herself to buy what she pleases.

 

9.10.1686 - Miss W. herself should like me the better for it and a man has reason to suspect a woman that allows him the last favour before marriage lest she should be apt to give the same liberty to others afterward so on the contrary whatever affections I show to my relations before marriage she may reasonably hope will be doubly made good to her afterwards".

 

No date. - Mr Clarke is here and would make me believe the father agreed at first to settle all his estate upon me forever in case his daughter die without issue, esteeming his estate but as a portion.  You may think this too unreasonable to be insisted on to Mr Edwards as indeed I never asked it.

 

They married during Christmas 1686 at Dyrham and the register of the church states: "William Blathwayt of the parish of St. Martins in the City of London Esq., & Mistress Mary Winter, daughter and sole heiress of John Winter of Dyrham Esq., were married in the parish church of Dyrham, December 23rd, 1686 by a licence from the Archbishop".

 

Southwell was a guest and wrote to Pepy's:

 

15.1.1687:  "I was Mr. Blathwayt's wedding when your letter came to hand and I shewed him your kind thoughts of his case which I assure you added not a little to his comfortable importance." - ("The Diary of Samuel Pepys", Vol. ii, 76-66 Braybrooke edition).

 

A copy of the marriage settlement was discovered by a bookseller of Colchester, Essex in 1883 and offered to the Blathwayt family who could not secure possession.  The settlement of estates in Dyrham and Hinton are in the Solicitors Collections (Osborne, Ward, Vassale & Co).

 

William Blathwayt and his wife moved to London and took a house about 2 miles from Hampton, Middlesex. where John Evelyn visited him and wrote in his Diary:

 

16.6.1687: "I dined this day at Mr Blathwayt's.  The gentleman is Secretary of War, Clerk of the Council and having raised himself by his industry from very moderate circumstances.  He is a very proper handsome person and very dextrous in business and has besides all this, married a very great fortune, his income alone by the Army and his being Clerk of the Council and secretary for the Committee of Foreign Plantations brings him in above £2,000 pounds per annum."

 

They had 5 children, 4 sons and a daughter.  Two of his sons, Winter Blathwayt and John Blathwayt died in infancy, William (b.1688) and a second John (b. March 1690) survived their father by many years.  The youngest, their daughter Anne married Edward Southwell, son of Sir Robert.

 

Mary died in 1691, her father John Winter in November 1688, his wife in November 1691 less than a week before her daughter and Vivian, Blathwayt's step-father.

 

After Mary's death (five years after her marriage) William Blathwayt demolished the old Elizabethan manor house of the Winters to build the present Dyrham House in 1693 but it was not finished till 1698.  He used Bristol for shipping wood and other material from the colonies for rebuilding.  The second Dyrham House lies in a hollow.  There is  a fountain of Neptune on a hillock above it and the water used to run through the house.  Blathwayt filled his house with Dutch furniture and blue and white Delft porcelain, he or his descendants must have also collected paintings as there is a copy of Murillo's "Gypsy Boy" and a portrait of Charles I and several of the Winters.

 

William III granted the lease of Wallingford House in Whitehall in 1689 to Blathwayt when he was Secretary of State.

 

Elizabeth Blathwayt, his sister, took care of the children and he never remarried.

 

Between 20.5.1703 and 5.7.1703 his sons William (b.1688) and John (b.1690) made a journey through the north of England with their tutor P. de Blainville about whom not much is known but he kept a diary of their progress (Blathwayt papers, Glos. Records Office).

 

In an unpublished letter written in Augsburg on 22.6.1705 he signed himself P. de Blainville; his first name is not known and in another letter dated 8.9.1705 from Geneva he wrote "I have been well known in my travels and in the embassy of which I was Secretary in Spain by the name of de Blainville which I held in France and which was a territory which I had there formerly. I beg you, Sir, if it please you, to write to me always under this name by which I was already known at Geneva".

 

The Duke of Shrewsbury, in his journal dated 1700-1706 (HMC Buccleuch II pt.2 (1903) 791), wrote on July 17th "Was visited by the two sons of Mr Blathwayt; their governor an English gentleman that lies of the same house and is of Bristol."

 

Perhaps de Blainville (which he says was a name taken from his French property) was the "nom de plume" or "non du guerre" for a Jacobite who had gone to France with the exiled Stuarts.  If he were English, of the same house as Blathwayt’s sons and came from Bristol, perhaps he was a Winter as there were no Blathwayt relations in Bristol or France.

 

George Turnbull, translator of Blainville's "Travels through Holland, Germany, Switzerland and other parts of Europe but especially Italy - 1742-1745" (5 vols. printed W. Strahan) said he died in 1733 and was certain Blainville was a Frenchman born in Picardy which he left in 1686 after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes and went to Holland.

 

There is was certainly a family of Blainville in France (whatever their antecedents), one of whom, Ducrolay de Blainville (1777-1850) born at Arques, was a naturalist more famous than Cuvier and a writer of erudite works.

 

P. de Blainville was sent to Madrid in 1693 as Secretary to the States General embassy when Mynheer van Citters was ambassador.  After the ambassador's death, Blainville came to London when he was invited by Blathwayt to accompany his 2 sons. on a Grand Tour.

 

De Blainville also published "Rome, Paris et Madrid Ridicule" in 1712 and "Oeuvres Diverses" in 1714.

 

The Blathwayt boys were aged 13 and 15 years at the time of the tour to the North and the Grand Tour of 1705-8.  The journey north was from London to Kendal via Newcastle and Carlisle and took 47 days being over 500 miles.  They dined at Audley End, built in 1603 (completed 1616) by Thomas Howard, 1st earl of Suffolk, 1st baron Howard de Walden (1561-1626) and in 1666 was sold to the Crown but returned in 1701 by William III to the 5th earl of Suffolk.  They also visited Castle Howard, Yorkshire (built in 1700 by Talman but replaced by Vanbrugh) and visited Newby Hall which had been held in 1687 by William Robertson, knight, nephew and heir of Sir Metcalfe Robinson.

 

Newby may have some connection with the family of Sir Robert Vyner, banker to Charles II and Mayor of London who erected in 1672 a statue of Charles II near Mansion House (residence of the mayors of London) which faces the Bank of England and situated at the corner of Lombard Street and Wallbrook.

 

When the old Mansion House was demolished in 1728 the statue was given to the Vyner family and is now at Newby Hall.  Sir Robert's town mansion in Lombard Street became the first Post Office, known as the Mail Coach Office.  The Vyners were goldsmiths who petitioned the king to trade with the East India Company and Winters of Clapham may been connected by marriage according to Letters of Administration.

 

According to information sent by John H. Winter of North Carolina, there was a Winter-Vyner marriage:

 

Fig. 133 - Winter & Vyner

 

John Winter of Dyrham = Mary Brunkard > Elizabeth Winter = (1) Anthony Vyner = (2) Robert Hodges (mentioned in Inq. pm).

 

Another referred to a family of Clapham where Mary, widow of a Winter married a Viner.

 

Blathwayt's son John visited the Elector of Hanover in 1710 and in 1712 his father purchased a commission for him as a major.  He became a Colonel and settled in Amersham, Buckinghamshire.

 

Blathwayt was Clerk in Sir William Temple's embassy at the Hague (1668-1672), Clerk in the Plantation Office (1675-1679), Secretary to the Lords of Trade (Americas and West Indies 1679-1696), Surveyor and Auditor-General of Plantation Revenues (1680-1688), Secretary to the earl of Conway (1681-1683), at the War Office (1683-1688), Secretary of State and Secretary at War to William III in Flanders (1692-1701), Member of the Board of Trade (1696-1707), Surveyor and Auditor of Plantation Revenues (1689-1717), Secretary of State to Queen Anne, Clerk of the Privy Council to Charles I, James II and William II and Commissioner of Trades and Plantations.

 

The West Indies in English hands at the time were Jamaica (captured 1665, British by 1670), St. Kitts and the Leeward Islands.  In Blathwayt's lifetime Henry Morgan of Llanrhymny (b. 1635, d. 25.8.1688), the pirate, was Lieutenant Governor of Jamaica from 1674 when he was knighted at Whitehall (after Modyford was dismissed in 1670 and imprisoned in the Tower of London for a short time) until 1682.

 

Evelyn wrote:

 

29.6.1671: "To Council where were letters from Sir Thomas Modyford of the expedition and exploit of Coll. Morgan and others of Jamaica on the Spanish continent at Panama."

 

26.3.1671: "A letter was read from Sir Tho. Modiford, Governor of Jamaica".

 

19.8.1671: "To council.  The letters of Sir Tho. Modiford were read, giving relation of the exploit at Panama, which was very brave; they tooke, burnt and pillag'd the towne of vast treasures, but the best of the booty had ben shipp'd off and lay at anchor in the South Sea, so that after our men had rang'd the country 60 miles about, they went back to Nombre de Dios and embarq'd for Jamaica.  Such an action had not ben done since the famous Drake."

 

20.10.1674: "At Lord Berkeley's I discours'd with Sir Thomas Modiford, late Governor of Jamaica, and with Col. Morgan, who undertooke that gallant exploit from Nombre de Dios to Panama, on the Continent of America; he told me 10,000 men would easily conquer all the Spanish Indies, they were so secure.  The tooke great booty and much greater had ben taken, had they not been betraied and so discover'd before their approach, by which the Spaniards had time to carry their vast treasure on board ships that put off to sea in sight of our men, who had no boats to follow.  They set fire to Panama and ravaged the country 60 miles about.  The Spaniards were so supine and unexercis'd that they were afraid to fire a greate gun."

 

One of the Howards, the earl of Carlisle, was a subsequent governor of Jamaica.

 

Ingoldsby (mentioned in the John Strange Winter memoirs) was commander-in-chief at New York about the same time and was kicked out by Lord Nottingham from Virginia and New York.

 

Blathwayt had a lot to do with army contractors who were Flemish and Dutch Jews of Spanish or Portuguese origin like Pereira, Medina and Machado so he may have known (and would certainly have heard of) Antonio Lopes Suasso (d. 1685), a self-made banker of Portuguese descent and the richest Dutch Jew of his age whose ancestor came to Holland via Bordeaux and Spain.

 

Antonio and his son Francisco lived at Groenburgwal 2A, Amsterdam and Francisco was supposed to have financed William of Orange's fleet from the Hague which landed at Torbay on 5.11.1688 at the beginning of the Glorious Revolution.  He became William III's banker and lent him one and half million guilders between December 1689 and March 1690.  ("The hunt for a royal scoop" -Michael Davie's Notebook in the "Observer"),

 

Blathwayt knew Sir Josiah Child (in whose name lands was held in Spitalfields, the rents of which were sent to the exiled Stuarts); the Jacobite duke of Beaufort and the earl of Ormond were his patrons so Blathwayt himself was suspected of being a Jacobite.

 

Sir Josiah Child's tomb is at All Saints, Fulham where Thomas Winter (d. 1681) of Portsmouth, superintendent of the East India Company's factory at Fort-St. George, Masulipatam, India was buried.

 

Sir Josiah was a self-made man who was Victualler to Cromwell amnd later bought a brewery.  He was a Whig but became a follower of Charles II.  In 1673 was the largest East India Company shareholder and was Company Governor from 1681 t the 1690s.  He started a war with the Moghul Emperor Aurangazeb but was recalled his campaign failed.  He owned the oldest private bank at No. 1, Fleet Street, founded in the 17th century by a goldsmith called Wheeler and carried on by his son-in-law Francis Child (d. 1718) who was Lord Mayor in 1698 and MP for the City in the first Parliament of Queen Anne.

 

Child's Bank was built on the site of the Marigold Tavern, the sign of which was taken as the symbol of the bank.  It was immortalised in Charles Dickens's "Tale of Two Cities" as Telsons Bank.

 

Its early records were kept at Temple Bar and its clients included Charles I's wife Henrietta Maria, Charles II, James II, William III and Mary, Prince Rupert of the Rhine, John and Sarah Churchill, 1st duke and duchess of Marlborough, Nell Gwynn, Samuel Pepys, John Dryden and Horace Walpole.  It took over the Devil's Tavern next door when it expanded where Ben Jonson used to meet his friends and was later frequented by Pepys, Arbuthnot, Addison, Steele, Colly Cibber, Swift and Dr. Johnson.  The Bank amalgamated with Glyn Mills & Co., in 1924.

 

The Childs moved to Osterley House, Middlesex (near Gunnersbury) and Sir Josiah married off his children into noble families - 50 in all mourned the death of his third wife.

 

In 1628 his daughter Rebecca Childs married Charles Somerset, Marquess of Worcester (1660-1698), great great grandson of Edward Somerset, 4th earl of Worcester whose daughter Anne Somerset married Sir John Winter of Lydney.

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